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For other uses see Sniper (disambiguation).
A U.S. Army sniper team from Jalalabad Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT)

A sniper team typically consists of a sniper and a spotter as described in military doctrines of the United States, Canada and United Kingdom. Both members can perform either role and often rotate between the two. The sniper fires the shot while the spotter assists in observation of targets, atmospheric conditions and handles security of their immediate location and communication with other parties, including directing artillery fire and close air support.

The spotter detects, observes, and assigns targets and watches for the results of the shot. Using his spotting scope, he will also read the wind by using physical indicators and the mirage caused by the heat on the ground. Also, in conjunction with the shooter, he will accurately make calculations for distance, angle shooting (slant range), mil dot related calculations, correction for atmospheric conditions and leads for moving targets. It is not unusual for the spotter to be equipped with a notepad and a laptop computer specifically for performing these calculations.

He also provides the team security, therefore he is usually armed with an assault rifle. It is often the case that the sniper rifle is assigned exclusively to a single person, therefore in the case of rotation the spotter carries two weapons.

Some military doctrines describe a third member known as the flanker. His task is to have observed areas not visible to the sniper or spotter and assist with the team's rear security.

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