The Full Wiki

Soccer: Wikis

  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Association football article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Association football
Football iu 1996.jpg
The attacking team attempt to kick the ball past the opposition goalkeeper and between the goalposts to score a goal
Highest governing body FIFA
Nickname(s) Football, soccer, fùtbol, footy/footie, "the beautiful game", "the world game"
First played Mid-19th century England
Characteristics
Contact Yes
Team members 11 per side
Mixed gender Yes, separate competitions
Categorization Team sport, ball sport
Equipment Football
Venue Football pitch
Olympic 1900

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players using a spherical ball. It is widely considered to be the most popular sport in the world.[1][2][3]

The game is played on a rectangular grass or artificial turf field, with a goal in the centre of each of the short ends. The object of the game is to score by driving the ball into the opposing goal. In general play, the goalkeepers are the only players allowed to use their hands or arms to propel the ball; the rest of the team usually use their feet to kick the ball into position, occasionally using their torso or head to intercept a ball in midair. The team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is tied at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time and/or a penalty shootout, depending on the format of the competition.

The modern game was codified in England following the formation of The Football Association, whose 1863 Laws of the Game created the foundations for the way the sport is played today. Football is governed internationally by the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (International Federation of Association Football), commonly known by the acronym FIFA. The most prestigious international football competition is the FIFA World Cup, held every four years.[4]

Contents

Gameplay

A goalkeeper saving a close-range shot from inside the penalty area

Football is played in accordance with a set of rules known as the Laws of the Game. The game is played using a single spherical ball, known as the football or soccer ball. Two teams of eleven players each compete to get the ball into the other team's goal (between the posts and under the bar), thereby scoring a goal. The team that has scored more goals at the end of the game is the winner; if both teams have scored an equal number of goals then the game is a draw. Each team is led by a captain.

The primary law is that players other than goalkeepers may not deliberately handle the ball with their hands or arms during play, though they do use their hands during a throw-in restart. Although players usually use their feet to move the ball around, they may use any part of their bodies other than their hands or arms.[5] Within normal play, all players are free to play the ball in any direction and move throughout the pitch, though the ball cannot be received in an offside position.

In typical game play, players attempt to create goal scoring opportunities through individual control of the ball, such as by dribbling, passing the ball to a team-mate, and by taking shots at the goal, which is guarded by the opposing goalkeeper. Opposing players may try to regain control of the ball by intercepting a pass or through tackling the opponent in possession of the ball; however, physical contact between opponents is restricted. Football is generally a free-flowing game, with play stopping only when the ball has left the field of play or when play is stopped by the referee. After a stoppage, play recommences with a specified restart.[6]

A goalkeeper dives to stop the ball from entering his goal

At a professional level, most matches produce only a few goals. For example, the 2005–06 season of the English Premier League produced an average of 2.48 goals per match.[7] The Laws of the Game do not specify any player positions other than goalkeeper,[8] but a number of specialised roles have evolved. Broadly, these include three main categories: strikers, or forwards, whose main task is to score goals; defenders, who specialise in preventing their opponents from scoring; and midfielders, who dispossess the opposition and keep possession of the ball in order to pass it to the forwards on their team. Players in these positions are referred to as outfield players, in order to discern them from the single goalkeeper. These positions are further subdivided according to the area of the field in which the player spends most time. For example, there are central defenders, and left and right midfielders. The ten outfield players may be arranged in any combination. The number of players in each position determines the style of the team's play; more forwards and fewer defenders creates a more aggressive and offensive-minded game, while the reverse creates a slower, more defensive style of play. While players typically spend most of the game in a specific position, there are few restrictions on player movement, and players can switch positions at any time.[9] The layout of a team's players is known as a formation. Defining the team's formation and tactics is usually the prerogative of the team's manager.[10]

History

Map showing the popularity of football around the world. The various shades of green and red indicate the number of players per 1,000 inhabitants.

The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played at the public schools of England.

The Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were particularly influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Winchester and Shrewsbury schools. They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football. Some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857,[11] which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School also devised an influential set of rules.[12]

These ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association (The FA) in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London.[13] The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse. The Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which eventually produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand; the second for obstructing such a run by hacking (kicking an opponent in the shins), tripping and holding. Other English rugby football clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA, or subsequently left the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under the charge of Ebenezer Cobb Morley, went on to ratify the original thirteen laws of the game.[13] These rules included handling of the ball by "marks" and the lack of a crossbar, rules which made it remarkably similar to Victorian rules football being developed at that time in Australia. The Sheffield FA played by its own rules until the 1870s with the FA absorbing some of its rules until there was little difference between the games.

The laws of the game are currently determined by the International Football Association Board (IFAB). The Board was formed in 1886[14] after a meeting in Manchester of The Football Association, the Scottish Football Association, the Football Association of Wales, and the Irish Football Association. The world's oldest football competition is the FA Cup, which was founded by C. W. Alcock and has been contested by English teams since 1872. The first official international football match took place in 1872 between Scotland and England in Glasgow, again at the instigation of C. W. Alcock. England is home to the world's first football league, which was founded in Birmingham in 1888 by Aston Villa director William McGregor.[15] The original format contained 12 clubs from the Midlands and the North of England. The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the international football body, was formed in Paris in 1904 and declared that they would adhere to Laws of the Game of the Football Association.[16] The growing popularity of the international game led to the admittance of FIFA representatives to the International Football Association Board in 1913. The board currently consists of four representatives from FIFA and one representative from each of the four British associations.

Today, football is played at a professional level all over the world. Millions of people regularly go to football stadiums to follow their favourite teams,[17] while billions more watch the game on television.[18] A very large number of people also play football at an amateur level. According to a survey conducted by FIFA published in 2001, over 240 million people from more than 200 countries regularly play football.[19] While football has the highest global television audience in sport,[20] its simple rules and minimal equipment requirements at amateur level, have no doubt aided its growth in terms of participation.

In many parts of the world football evokes great passions and plays an important role in the life of individual fans, local communities, and even nations. The Côte d'Ivoire national football team helped secure a truce to the nation's civil war in 2005[21] and it helped further reduce tensions between government and rebel forces in 2007 by playing a match in the rebel capital of Bouaké, an occasion that brought both armies together peacefully for the first time.[22] By contrast, football is widely considered to be the final proximate cause in the Football War in June 1969 between El Salvador and Honduras.[23] The sport also exacerbated tensions at the beginning of the Yugoslav wars of the 1990s, when a match between Dinamo Zagreb and Red Star Belgrade devolved into rioting in March 1990.[24]

Laws

There are seventeen laws in the official Laws of the Game. The same laws are designed to apply to all levels of football, although certain modifications for groups such as juniors, seniors, women and the physically challenged are permitted. The laws are often framed in broad terms, which allow flexibility in their application depending on the nature of the game. In addition to the seventeen laws, numerous IFAB decisions and other directives contribute to the regulation of football. The Laws of the Game are published by FIFA, but are maintained by the International Football Association Board, not FIFA itself.[25] The most complex of the laws is offside. The offside law limits the ability of attacking players to remain forward (i.e. closer to the opponent's goal line) of the ball, the second-to-last defending player (which can include the goalkeeper), and the half-way line.[26]

Players, equipment and officials

Each team consists of a maximum of eleven players (excluding substitutes), one of whom must be the goalkeeper. Competition rules may state a minimum number of players required to constitute a team; this is usually seven. Goalkeepers are the only players allowed to play the ball with their hands or arms, provided they do so within the penalty area in front of their own goal. Though there are a variety of positions in which the outfield (non-goalkeeper) players are strategically placed by a coach, these positions are not defined or required by the Laws.[8]

The basic equipment or kit players are required to wear includes a shirt, shorts, socks, footwear and adequate shin guards. Headgear is not a required piece of basic equipment, but players today may choose to wear it to protect themselves from head injury. Players are forbidden to wear or use anything that is dangerous to themselves or another player, such as jewellery or watches. The goalkeeper must wear clothing that is easily distinguishable from that worn by the other players and the match officials.[27]

A number of players may be replaced by substitutes during the course of the game. The maximum number of substitutions permitted in most competitive international and domestic league games is three, though the permitted number may vary in other competitions or in friendly matches. Common reasons for a substitution include injury, tiredness, ineffectiveness, a tactical switch, or timewasting at the end of a finely poised game. In standard adult matches, a player who has been substituted may not take further part in a match.[28] If any team is unable to field at least seven players due to players being injured or sent-off, the referee will stop the game. The game will be declared as a loss against the team who were unable to field the required number of players.

A game is officiated by a referee, who has "full authority to enforce the Laws of the Game in connection with the match to which he has been appointed" (Law 5), and whose decisions are final. The referee is assisted by two assistant referees. In many high-level games there is also a fourth official who assists the referee and may replace another official should the need arise.[29]

Pitch

Standard pitch measurements (See Imperial version)

As the Laws were formulated in England, and were initially administered solely by the four British football associations within IFAB, the standard dimensions of a football pitch were originally expressed in imperial units. The Laws now express dimensions with approximate metric equivalents (followed by traditional units in brackets), though popular use tends to continue to use traditional units in English-speaking countries with a relatively recent history of metrication, such as Britain.[30]

The length of the pitch for international adult matches is in the range 100–110 m (110–120 yd) and the width is in the range 64–75 m (70–80 yd). Fields for non-international matches may be 91–120 m (100–130 yd) length and 45–91 m (50–101 yd) in width, provided that the pitch does not become square. In 2008, the IFAB set a fixed size of 105 m long and 68 m wide as a standard pitch dimension for A international matches.[31]

The longer boundary lines are touchlines, while the shorter boundaries (on which the goals are placed) are goal lines. A rectangular goal is positioned at the middle of each goal line.[32] The inner edges of the vertical goal posts must be 7.32 m (8 yd) apart, and the lower edge of the horizontal crossbar supported by the goal posts must be 2.44 m (8 ft) above the ground. Nets are usually placed behind the goal, but are not required by the Laws.[33]

In front of each goal is an area known as the penalty area. This area is marked by the goal line, two lines starting on the goal line 16.5 m (18 yd) from the goalposts and extending 16.5 m (18 yd) into the pitch perpendicular to the goal line, and a line joining them. This area has a number of functions, the most prominent being to mark where the goalkeeper may handle the ball and where a penalty foul by a member of the defending team becomes punishable by a penalty kick. Other markings define the position of the ball or players at kick-offs, goal kicks, penalty kicks and corner kicks.[34]

Duration and tie-breaking methods

A standard adult football match consists of two periods of 45 minutes each, known as halves. Each half runs continuously, meaning that the clock is not stopped when the ball is out of play. There is usually a 15-minute half-time break between halves. The end of the match is known as full-time.

The referee is the official timekeeper for the match, and may make an allowance for time lost through substitutions, injured players requiring attention, or other stoppages. This added time is commonly referred to as stoppage time or injury time, and is at the sole discretion of the referee. The referee alone signals the end of the match. In matches where a fourth official is appointed, toward the end of the half the referee signals how many minutes of stoppage time he intends to add. The fourth official then informs the players and spectators by holding up a board showing this number. The signalled stoppage time may be further extended by the referee.[35] Added time was introduced because of an incident which happened in 1891 during a match between Stoke and Aston Villa. Trailing 1–0 and with just two minutes remaining, Stoke were awarded a penalty. Villa's goalkeeper kicked the ball out of the ground, and by the time the ball had been recovered, the 90 minutes had elapsed and the game was over.[36] The same law also stands that the duration of either half is extended until the penalty kick to be taken or retaken is completed,[37] thus no game shall end with a penalty to be taken.

In league competitions, games may end in a draw, but in some knockout competitions if a game is tied at the end of regulation time it may go into extra time, which consists of two further 15-minute periods. If the score is still tied after extra time, some competitions allow the use of penalty shootouts (known officially in the Laws of the Game as "kicks from the penalty mark") to determine which team will progress to the next stage of the tournament. Goals scored during extra time periods count toward the final score of the game, but kicks from the penalty mark are only used to decide the team that progresses to the next part of the tournament (with goals scored in a penalty shootout not making up part of the final score).

In competitions using two-legged matches, each team competes at home once, with an aggregate score from the two matches deciding which team progresses. Where aggregates are equal, the away goals rule may be used to determine the winners, in which case the winner is the team that scored the most goals in the leg played away from home. If the result is still equal, kicks from the penalty mark are usually required, though some competitions may require a tied game to be replayed.

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the IFAB experimented with ways of creating a winner without requiring a penalty shootout, which was often seen as an undesirable way to end a match. These involved rules ending a game in extra time early, either when the first goal in extra time was scored (golden goal), or if one team held a lead at the end of the first period of extra time (silver goal). Golden goal was used at the World Cup in 1998 and 2002. The first World Cup game decided by a golden goal was France's victory over Paraguay in 1998. Germany was the first nation to score a golden goal in a major competition, beating Czech Republic in the final of Euro 1996. Silver goal was used in Euro 2004. Both these experiments have been discontinued by IFAB.[38]

Ball in and out of play

Under the Laws, the two basic states of play during a game are ball in play and ball out of play. From the beginning of each playing period with a kick-off until the end of the playing period, the ball is in play at all times, except when either the ball leaves the field of play, or play is stopped by the referee. When the ball becomes out of play, play is restarted by one of eight restart methods depending on how it went out of play:

A player takes a free kick, while the opposition form a "wall" in order to try to deflect the ball
  • Kick-off: following a goal by the opposing team, or to begin each period of play.[6]
  • Throw-in: when the ball has wholly crossed the touchline; awarded to opposing team to that which last touched the ball.[39]
  • Goal kick: when the ball has wholly crossed the goal line without a goal having been scored and having last been touched by a player of the attacking team; awarded to defending team.[40]
  • Corner kick: when the ball has wholly crossed the goal line without a goal having been scored and having last been touched by a player of the defending team; awarded to attacking team.[41]
  • Indirect free kick: awarded to the opposing team following "non-penal" fouls, certain technical infringements, or when play is stopped to caution or send-off an opponent without a specific foul having occurred. A goal may not be scored directly from an indirect free kick.[42]
  • Direct free kick: awarded to fouled team following certain listed "penal" fouls.[42]
  • Penalty kick: awarded to the fouled team following a foul usually punishable by a direct free kick but that has occurred within their opponent's penalty area.[43]
  • Dropped-ball: occurs when the referee has stopped play for any other reason, such as a serious injury to a player, interference by an external party, or a ball becoming defective. This restart is uncommon in adult games.[6]

Misconduct

Players are cautioned with a yellow card, and sent off with a red card. These colours were first introduced at the 1970 FIFA World Cup and used consistently since.
A player scores a penalty kick given after an offence is committed inside the penalty area

A foul occurs when a player commits an offence listed in the Laws of the Game while the ball is in play. The offences that constitute a foul are listed in Law 12. Handling the ball deliberately, tripping an opponent, or pushing an opponent, are examples of "penal fouls", punishable by a direct free kick or penalty kick depending on where the offence occurred. Other fouls are punishable by an indirect free kick.[5] The referee may punish a player or substitute's misconduct by a caution (yellow card) or sending-off (red card). A second yellow card at the same game leads to a red card, and therefore to a sending-off. A player given a yellow card is said to have been "booked", the referee writing the player's name in his official notebook. If a player has been sent off, no substitute can be brought on in their place. Misconduct may occur at any time, and while the offences that constitute misconduct are listed, the definitions are broad. In particular, the offence of "unsporting behaviour" may be used to deal with most events that violate the spirit of the game, even if they are not listed as specific offences. A referee can show a yellow or red card to a player, substitute or substituted player. Non-players such as managers and support staff cannot be shown the yellow or red card, but may be expelled from the technical area if they fail to conduct themselves in a responsible manner.[5]

Rather than stopping play, the referee may allow play to continue if doing so will benefit the team against which an offence has been committed. This is known as "playing an advantage". The referee may "call back" play and penalise the original offence if the anticipated advantage does not ensue within a short period, typically taken to be four to five seconds. Even if an offence is not penalised due to advantage being played, the offender may still be sanctioned for misconduct at the next stoppage of play.

Governing bodies

The recognised international governing body of football (and associated games, such as futsal and beach soccer) is the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). The FIFA headquarters are located in Zürich.

Six regional confederations are associated with FIFA; these are:

National associations oversee football within individual countries. These are generally synonymous with sovereign states, (for example: the Fédération Camerounaise de Football in Cameroon) but also include a smaller number of associations responsible for sub-national entities or autonomous regions (for example the Scottish Football Association in Scotland). 208 national associations are affiliated both with FIFA and with their respective continental confederations; an additional 13 are affiliated to continental confederations but not to FIFA.

Some of the football associations not recognised by FIFA are affiliated to the Nouvelle Fédération-Board (NF-Board).

International competitions

A minute's silence before an international match

The major international competition in football is the World Cup, organised by FIFA. This competition takes place over a four-year period. More than 190 national teams compete in qualifying tournaments within the scope of continental confederations for a place in the finals. The finals tournament, which is held every four years, involves 32 national teams competing over a four-week period.[44] The 2006 FIFA World Cup took place in Germany; in 2010 it will be held in South Africa.[45]

There has been a football tournament at every Summer Olympic Games since 1900, except at the 1932 games in Los Angeles. Before the inception of the World Cup, the Olympics (especially during the 1920s) had the same status as the World Cup. Originally, the event was for amateurs only,[16] however, since the 1984 Summer Olympics professional players have been permitted, albeit with certain restrictions which prevent countries from fielding their strongest sides. Currently, the Olympic men's tournament is played at Under-23 level. In the past the Olympics have allowed a restricted number of over-age players per team;[46] but that practice ceased in the 2008 Olympics. The Olympic competition is not generally considered to carry the same international significance and prestige as the World Cup. A women's tournament was added in 1996; in contrast to the men's event, full international sides without age restrictions play the women’s Olympic tournament. It thus carries international prestige considered comparable to that of the FIFA Women's World Cup.

After the World Cup, the most important international football competitions are the continental championships, which are organised by each continental confederation and contested between national teams. These are the European Championship (UEFA), the Copa América (CONMEBOL), African Cup of Nations (CAF), the Asian Cup (AFC), the CONCACAF Gold Cup (CONCACAF) and the OFC Nations Cup (OFC). The FIFA Confederations Cup is contested by the winners of all 6 continental championships, the current FIFA World Cup champions and the country which is hosting the Confederations Cup. This is generally regarded as a warm up tournament for the upcoming FIFA World Cup and does not carry the same prestige as the World Cup itself. The most prestigious competitions in club football are the respective continental championships, which are generally contested between national champions, for example the UEFA Champions League in Europe and the Copa Libertadores de América in South America. The winners of each continental competition contest the FIFA Club World Cup.[47]

Domestic competitions

Two players trying to win the ball

The governing bodies in each country operate league systems in a domestic season, normally comprising several divisions, in which the teams gain points throughout the season depending on results. Teams are placed into tables, placing them in order according to points accrued. Most commonly, each team plays every other team in its league at home and away in each season, in a round-robin tournament. At the end of a season, the top team is declared the champion. The top few teams may be promoted to a higher division, and one or more of the teams finishing at the bottom are relegated to a lower division. The teams finishing at the top of a country's league may be eligible also to play in international club competitions in the following season. The main exceptions to this system occur in some Latin American leagues, which divide football championships into two sections named Apertura and Clausura, awarding a champion for each.

The majority of countries supplement the league system with one or more "cup" competitions. These are organised on a knock-out basis, the winner of each match proceeding to the next round; the loser takes no further part in the competition.

Some countries' top divisions feature highly paid star players; in smaller countries and lower divisions, players may be part-timers with a second job, or amateurs. The five top European leagues – the Premier League (England), La Liga (Spain), Serie A (Italy),[48] the Bundesliga (Germany) and Ligue 1 (France) – attract most of the world's best players and each of the leagues has a total wage cost in excess of £600 million/763 million/$1.185 billion.[49]

Etymology

The rules of football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863, and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time, specifically rugby football. The term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as a slang abbreviation of the word "association",[50] often credited to former England captain Charles Wreford-Brown.[51]

Today the sport is generally known simply as football in countries where it is the most popular football code. In countries where other codes are more popular, the sport is more commonly referred to as soccer. Of the 45 national FIFA affiliates in which English is an official or primary language, 42 use football in their organizations official name (only Canada, Samoa and the United States use soccer). In 2005, Australia's association football governing body changed its name from soccer to football to align with the general international usage of the term.[52] In 2007, New Zealand followed suit citing "the international game is called football".[53] FIFA, the sport's world governing body, defines the sport as association football in its statutes,[54] but the term most commonly used by FIFA and the International Olympic Committee is football.

See also

References

  1. ^ Guttman, Allen. "The Diffusion of Sports and the Problem of Cultural Imperialism". in Eric Dunning, Joseph A. Maguire, Robert E. Pearton. The Sports Process: A Comparative and Developmental Approach. Champaign: Human Kinetics. p. 129. ISBN 0880116242. http://books.google.com/books?id=tQY5wxQDn5gC&pg=PA129&lpg=PA129&dq=world's+most+popular+team+sport&source=web&ots=6ns3wVUEGV&sig=SZPKYSDMJBrO1uV4mPxNbKyAuJY#PPA129,M1. Retrieved 2008-01-26. "the game is complex enough not to be invented independently by many preliterate cultures and yet simple enough to become the world's most popular team sport" 
  2. ^ Dunning, Eric. "The development of soccer as a world game". Sport Matters: Sociological Studies of Sport, Violence and Civilisation. London: Routledge. p. 103. ISBN 0415064139. http://books.google.com/books?id=X3lX_LVBaToC&pg=PA105&lpg=PA105&dq=world's+most+popular+team+sport&source=web&ots=ehee9Lr9o1&sig=nyvDhcrPoR8lXhYKE7k4CZYg_qU#PPA103,M1. Retrieved 2008-01-26. "During the twentieth century, soccer emerged as the world's most popular team sport" 
  3. ^ "Team Sports". Catastrophic Injuries in High School and College Sports. Champaign: Human Kinetics. p. 57. ISBN 0873226747. http://books.google.com/books?id=XG6AIHLtyaUC&pg=PA57&lpg=PA57&dq=soccer+most+popular+team+sport&source=web&ots=QzydYB5Am0&sig=w_ouIgmegjytYFfWy7k92guTNfU#PPA57,M1. Retrieved 2008-01-26. "Soccer is the most popular sport in the world and is an industry worth over US$400 billion world wide. 80% of this is generated in Europe, though its popularity is growing in the United States. It has been estimated that there were 22 million soccer players in the world in the early 1980s, and that number is increasing. In the United States soccer is now a major sport at both the high school and college levels" 
  4. ^ "2002 FIFA World Cup TV Coverage". FIFA official website. 2006-12-05. Archived from the original on 2006-12-30. http://web.archive.org/web/20061230124633/http://www.fifa.com/en/marketing/newmedia/index/0,3509,10,00.html. Retrieved 2008-01-06.  (webarchive)
  5. ^ a b c "Laws of the game (Law 12)". FIFA. http://www.fifa.com/flash/lotg/football/en/Laws12_02.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-24. 
  6. ^ a b c "Laws of the game (Law 8)". FIFA. http://www.fifa.com/flash/lotg/football/en/Laws8_01.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-24. 
  7. ^ "England Premiership (2005/2006)". Sportpress.com. http://www.sportpress.com/stats/en/738_england_premiership_2005_2006/11_league_summary.html. Retrieved 2007-06-05. 
  8. ^ a b "Laws of the game (Law 3–Number of Players)". FIFA. http://www.fifa.com/flash/lotg/football/en/Laws3_01.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-24. 
  9. ^ "Positions guide, Who is in a team?". BBC. 2005-09-01. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/rules_and_equipment/4196830.stm. Retrieved 2007-09-24. 
  10. ^ "Formations". BBC Sport. 2005-09-01. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/rules_and_equipment/4197420.stm. Retrieved 2007-09-24. 
  11. ^ Harvey, Adrian (2005). Football, the first hundred years. London: Routledge. p. 126. ISBN 0415350182. 
  12. ^ Winner, David (2005-03-28). "The hands-off approach to a man's game". The Times (London). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,27-1544006,00.html. Retrieved 2007-10-07. 
  13. ^ a b "History of the FA". Football Association website. http://www.thefa.com/TheFA/TheOrganisation/Postings/2004/03/HISTORY_OF_THE_FA.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-09. 
  14. ^ "The International FA Board". FIFA. Archived from the original on 2007-04-22. http://web.archive.org/web/20070422035010/http://access.fifa.com/en/history/history/0,3504,3,00.html. Retrieved 2007-09-02.  (webarchive)
  15. ^ "The History Of The Football League". Football League website. http://www.football-league.premiumtv.co.uk/page/History/0,,10794,00.html. Retrieved 2007-10-07. 
  16. ^ a b "Where it all began". FIFA official website. Archived from the original on 2007-06-08. http://web.archive.org/web/20070608215029/http://access.fifa.com/en/history/history/0,3504,4,00.html. Retrieved 2007-06-08.  (webarchive)
  17. ^ Ingle, Sean and Barry Glendenning (2003-10-09). "Baseball or Football: which sport gets the higher attendance?". Guardian Unlimited. http://football.guardian.co.uk/news/theknowledge/0,9204,1059366,00.html. Retrieved 2006-06-05. 
  18. ^ "TV Data". FIFA website. http://www.fifa.com/aboutfifa/marketingtv/factsfigures/tvdata.html. Retrieved 2007-09-02. 
  19. ^ "FIFA Survey: approximately 250 million footballers worldwide" (PDF). FIFA website. Archived from the original on 2006-09-15. http://web.archive.org/web/20060915133001/http://access.fifa.com/infoplus/IP-199_01E_big-count.pdf. Retrieved 2006-09-15.  (webarchive)
  20. ^ 2006 FIFA World Cup broadcast wider, longer and farther than ever before, FIFA.com. Retrieved on October 11, 2009.
  21. ^ Stormer, Neil (2006-06-20). "More than a game". Common Ground News Service. http://www.commongroundnews.org/article.php?sid=1&id=2079. Retrieved 2010-03-02. 
  22. ^ Merrill, Austin (2007-07-10). "Best Feet Forward". Vanity Fair. http://www.vanityfair.com/culture/features/2007/07/ivorycoast200707. Retrieved 2010-03-02. 
  23. ^ Dart, James and Paolo Bandini (2007-02-21). "Has football ever started a war?". The Guardian. http://football.guardian.co.uk/theknowledge/story/0,,2017161,00.html. Retrieved 2007-09-24. 
  24. ^ Daniel W. Drezner (2006-06-04). "The Soccer Wars". The Washington Post: p. B01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/06/02/AR2006060201401.html. Retrieved 2008-05-21. 
  25. ^ "Laws Of The Game". FIFA. http://www.fifa.com/worldfootball/lawsofthegame.html. Retrieved 2007-09-02. 
  26. ^ [archived link]"The History of Offside". Julian Carosi. http://web.archive.org/web/19960101-re_/http://mysite.wanadoo-members.co.uk/corshamref/sub/offhist.htm. Retrieved 2006-06-03. [archived link]
  27. ^ "Laws of the game (Law 4–Players' Equipment)". FIFA. http://www.fifa.com/flash/lotg/football/en/Laws4_01.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-24. 
  28. ^ "Laws of the game (Law 3–Substitution procedure)". FIFA. http://www.fifa.com/flash/lotg/football/en/Laws3_02.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-24. 
  29. ^ "Laws of the game (Law 5–The referee)". FIFA. http://www.fifa.com/flash/lotg/football/en/Laws5_01.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-24. 
  30. ^ Summers, Chris (2004-09-02). "Will we ever go completely metric?". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/3934353.stm. Retrieved 2007-10-07. 
  31. ^ FIFA MEDIA Release (2008-03-08) Goal-line technology put on ice
  32. ^ "Laws of the game (Law 1.1–The field of play)". FIFA. http://www.fifa.com/flash/lotg/football/en/Laws1_01.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-24. 
  33. ^ "Laws of the game (Law 1.4–The Field of play)". FIFA. http://www.fifa.com/flash/lotg/football/en/Laws1_04.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-24. 
  34. ^ "Laws of the game (Law 1.3–The field of play)". FIFA. http://www.fifa.com/flash/lotg/football/en/Laws1_03.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-24. 
  35. ^ "Laws of the game (Law 7.2–The duration of the match)". FIFA. http://www.fifa.com/flash/lotg/football/en/Laws7_02.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-24. 
  36. ^ The Sunday Times Illustrated History Of Football Reed International Books Limited 1996. p.11 ISBN 1-85613-341-9
  37. ^ "Laws of the game (Law 7.3–The duration of the match)". FIFA. http://www.fifa.com/flash/lotg/football/en/Laws7_03.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-03. 
  38. ^ Collett, Mike (2004-07-02). "Time running out for silver goal". Reuters. http://www.rediff.com/sports/2004/jul/02silver.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-07. 
  39. ^ "Laws of the game (Law 15–The Throw-in)". FIFA. http://www.fifa.com/flash/lotg/football/en/Laws15_01.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-14. 
  40. ^ "Laws of the game (Law 16–The Goal Kick)". FIFA. http://www.fifa.com/flash/lotg/football/en/Laws16_01.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-14. 
  41. ^ "Laws of the game (Law 17–The Corner Kick)". FIFA. http://www.fifa.com/flash/lotg/football/en/Laws17_01.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-14. 
  42. ^ a b "Laws of the game (Law 13–Free Kicks)". FIFA. http://www.fifa.com/flash/lotg/football/en/Laws13_01.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-14. 
  43. ^ "Laws of the game (Law 14–The Penalty Kick)". FIFA. http://www.fifa.com/flash/lotg/football/en/Laws14_01.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-14. 
  44. ^ The number of competing teams has varied over the history of the competition. The most recent changed was in 1998, from 24 to 32.
  45. ^ "2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa". FIFA World Cup website. http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/index.html. Retrieved 2007-10-07. 
  46. ^ "Football - An Olympic Sport since 1900". IOC website. http://www.olympic.org/uk/sports/programme/index_uk.asp?SportCode=FB. Retrieved 2007-10-07. 
  47. ^ "Organising Committee strengthens FIFA Club World Cup format". FIFA. 2007-08-24. http://www.fifa.com/clubworldcup/organisation/media/newsid=570740.html. Retrieved 2007-10-07. 
  48. ^ "Premier League conquering Europe". BBC News. 2008-03-31. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/football/europe/7321408.stm. Retrieved 2008-05-27. 
  49. ^ Taylor, Louise (2008-05-29). "Leading clubs losing out as players and agents cash in". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/football/2008/may/29/premierleague. Retrieved 2008-11-28. 
  50. ^ Mazumdar, Partha (2006-06-05). "The Yanks are Coming: A U.S. World Cup Preview". Embassy of the United States in London. http://www.usembassy.org.uk/rss/transcripts/worldcup2006a.html. Retrieved 2009-06-06. 
  51. ^ Blain, Rebecca. "The World's Most Beloved Sport - The History of Soccer". fussballportal.de. Archived from the original on 2009-06-06. http://web.archive.org/web/20071230053134/http://germany2006.fussballportal.de/history.php. Retrieved 2007-10-07. 
  52. ^ Soccer to become football in Australia (SMH.com.au. December 17, 2004) "ASA chairman Frank Lowy said the symbolic move would bring Australia into line with the vast majority of other countries which call the sport football".
  53. ^ NZ Football - The Local Name Of The Global Game (NZFootball.co.nz. April 27, 2006) "The international game is called football and were part of the international game so the game in New Zealand should be called football".
  54. ^ "FIFA Statutes" (PDF). FIFA. http://www.fifa.com/mm/document/affederation/federation/fifa_statutes_0719_en_14479.pdf. Retrieved 2007-10-07. 

External links

This audio file was created from a revision dated 2007-09-05, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help)
More spoken articles


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Football article)

From Wikiquote

Quotes regarding association football, called also Soccer.

Unsourced

  • Football's a difficult business and aren't they prima donnas?
  • If you're in the penalty area and don't know what to do with the ball, put it in the net and we'll discuss the options later.
  • "Someone said 'football is more important than life and death to you' and I said 'Listen, it's more important than that'."
  • Of the nine red cards this season we probably deserved half of them.
  • As long as no-one scored, it was always going to be close.
  • Football, bloody hell!
  • You can't say my team aren't winners. They've proved that by finishing fourth, third and second in the last three years.
  • That's great, tell him he's Pele and get him back on.
    • John Lambie, Partick Thistle manager, when told a concussed striker did not know who he was.
  • Tell the Kraut to get his ass up front. We don't pay a million for a guy to hang around in defence.
    • NY Cosmos executive, on Beckenbauer's positioning.
  • I'm a firm believer that if the other side scores first you have to score twice to win.
  • Playing with wingers is more effective against European sides like Brazil than English sides like Wales.
  • We're going to start the game at nil-nil and go out and try to get some goals.
  • Today's top players only want to play in London or for Manchester United. That's what happened when I tried to sign Alan Shearer and he went to Blackburn.
  • Our goalkeeper didn't have a save to make in 90 minutes, and yet he still ended up conceding four goals.
  • I've told the players we need to win so that I can have the cash to buy some new ones.
  • Eighteen months ago they (Sweden) were arguably one of the best three teams in Europe, and that would include Germany, Holland, Russia and anybody else if you like.
  • We probably got on better with the likes of Holland, Belgium, Norway and Sweden, some of whom are not even European.
  • It's a game we've got to win. It's also a game we've not got to lose.
  • We are really quite lucky this year because Christmas falls on Christmas Day.
  • The one thing I didn't expect is the way we didn't play.
  • Winning all the time is not necessarily good for the team.
  • The mere fact that he's injured stops him getting injured again, if you know what I mean
  • I dreamt of playing for a club like Manchester United, and now here I am at Liverpool.
  • I was alone up front, with Danny Murphy playing between me, myself and the midfield.
  • I couldn't settle in Italy - it was like living in a foreign country.
  • Football is a simple game; 22 men chase a ball for 90 minutes and at the end, the Germans win.
    • Gary Lineker after losing the 1990's World Cup semifinal to Germany by penalty shootout.
  • Steven Gerrard was awesome today. We were just laughing in the dressing room that at one stage we thought he was heading his own crosses in.
    • Gareth Southgate on Gerrard.
  • Football is fulfilled with surprises. There may be something inside football that make you to even wear pantyhose.
    • Ahmet Çakar, after Fenerbahçe eleminates Sevilla at Champions League last 16 match. Before he claimed "If Fenerbahçe eleminates, I will wear bikini next show."


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Football (soccer) article)

From Wikiversity

soccer

Soccer

The game of soccer was invented in the late 19th century in Great Britain. Ever since, it has spread around the world and is now officialy its most popular sport, and has evolved into a major part of daily life.
Lesson 1, learning how to play the game.
Soccer is a very simple sport. To learn soccer, you need to be predominantly fit and practice a lot.
Requirements:
  • Need good endurance and stamina for running.
  • Need good strong leg muscles.
  • Need good awareness and confidence.

Getting started

The game of soccer looks very simple. You kick a ball around. In reality, its not as simple as you think. There are two teams, each with 11 players. The positions are...
Goalkeeper
The goalkeeper stands in the goal, and is allowed to use his hands to catch the ball but only within the goalkeeper's box. The ball is shot at the goal by the other team's forward when they get the chance. If it goes past him and enters the goal, a goal is conceded. Goalkeepers can dive for the ball, grab it, or kick it. Learn how to be a goalkeeper more in this article. Goalkeeping
Defenders
Defenders are often placed near the goal, as they are on the pitch, they can move around anyway, but should stop the other teams forwards from approaching the goal by tackling them. They can then run for the goal with the ball, or pass it with their foot to another player.
Mid-fielders
Mid-fielders do not only stay midfield, but rather generally run 18yd box to 18yd box, for a mixture of attack and defense. They often shoot at the goal and score, but can defend and keep the ball in one teams hands.
Forwards
Designed to score, the forwards attempt to score into the other players net which the goalkeeper attempts to catch. If the opponent misses and the forward scores, they score a goal. Any player, though, even a goalkeeper, is allowed to score a goal.

Learning to play the game

The game is played on a large field, which has two goals equally apart and positioned. On each half is a team. There is also the sidelines, which go around the perimeter pitch. If the ball goes out of the line on the sides of the pitch, the opposing team that did not knock it out gets a throw in. If it happens on the goal-lines (the line next to the goal), it changes. If the team that defends that side got it out, the opponents get a corner kick where the kick it from a corner. If the team that was attacking that side gets it out, the defenders get a goal kick, where they can kick from the goal.

1. Getting started
To start playing soccer, you should train for a few weeks before playing. Start by getting a ball and start trying to run with it. This is called dribbling, you use your feet to move the ball as you move. To stop the ball, place your foot on the top. Use whatever foot you feel comfortable with to dribble it. A simple way to dribble it is tap it lightly and jog slowly keeping yourself aware. Keep doing this for a while to start learning, to properly kick a ball.
2. Passing
Passing is the art of kicking a ball so you give it to another player on your team. You pass a ball by tapping it lightly with the inside of your foot and it should go in the aimed direction. Keep practicing in speed and accuracy for a while. Try doing this with a partner to make it more efficient.
3. Shooting
To shoot a ball, you kick it full force. When you kick it full force, it should speed on the ground in one direction. Do this for a while. Then learn how to evaluate it with your foot. Elevate it by shoving your foot under it while you kick. To maintain a ball's height, when you elevate it, place your knee slightly downwards as you kick it, and its height will be stunted.
4. Heading a ball.
Football players can use their heads to play football. To either pass or shoot at the goal, if a ball comes at your face, you should tap it in the appropriate direction with your head, this is heading a ball. Use it only to shoot when right next to a goal. Use it to pass anywhere else on the field.
5. Tackling.
To get the ball off the opposing team you can intercept passes, but another and more difficult way, is tackling. You tackle a player when they are dribbling the ball, by kicking it out of their dribble. It is not that easy, as they can revert direction and keep the ball out of your way. Be careful when tackling as if you hit the player, it will be classed as a foul, which then may result in a yellow or red card. Yellow is a warning, red sends you off. If a foul is committed in the box around the goal of your team. It is classed as a penalty, where the other team get a free shot right up at the goal.

You can slide tackle other players, by sliding onto the ground with your foot forwards to get the ball off them.

6. Assisting

A lot of players in football don't score goals. But they, assist other players to score goals. By getting to the appropiate position, passing it, then they can shoot it in at a perfect point. This is often used when one player is obstructed by too many opposing defenders.

Playing the game

After spending a few weeks learning these basic skills, get into a game. Use a large area of land, set up some goal posts, and get 11 players on each team or 5. 11 is recommended. Use different colored strips for each team. Each team also needs one captain, which is normally the most experienced and skilled player, a player of any position can be the captain Each team has a formation, where they should be mostly positioned when playing - they are free to move around, though. When playing the 5-a-side version of the game, all players of one team except the goalkeeper should be in the other players half when a player of their team scores. The ref should kick off by a some kind of a draw, like a coin toss. He will then place the ball in the middle and let the team which has kick off get the first move. The game should go on for 90 minutes. When it gets to 45 minutes. It becomes half time, and the players can rest for 15 minutes which doesn't count onto the game time, for the second half of the game for another 45 minutes. At 90 minutes, which ever teams scored the most goals win. If it's the same number it goes into a draw.


Strategy wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From StrategyWiki, the free strategy guide and walkthrough wiki

stub

This page is a stub. Help us expand it, and you get a cookie.

Soccer
Box artwork for Soccer.
Developer(s) Nintendo
Publisher(s) Nintendo
Release date(s)
Wii Virtual Console
Genre(s) Soccer
System(s) NES, Arcade, Famicom Disk System, Wii Virtual Console
Players 1-2
Rating(s)
CERO: All ages
ESRB: Everyone
PEGI: Ages 3+
OFLC: General
For other games in the soccer genre, see Category:Soccer.

Soccer was the first American soccer/European football game that Nintendo released for the Famicom. It was the second best selling Famicom game released in 1985, selling approximately 1,530,000 copies in it's lifetime. It was released in arcades as Vs. Soccer as part of Nintendo's Vs. arcade system. Soccer was re-released for the Famicom Disk System.

Table of Contents

Soccer/Table of Contents


Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!

Football (also known as association football or soccer) is a team sport played between two teams of 11 players each. It is widely considered to be the most popular sport in the world. A ball game, it is played on a rectangular grass field, or occasionally on artificial turf, with a goal at each end of the field. The object of the game is to score by manoeuvring the ball into the opposing goal; only the goalkeepers may use their hands or arms to propel the ball in general play. The team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is tied at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extended time, depending on the format of the competition.

The modern game was codified in England following the formation of the Football Association, whose 1863 Laws of the Game created the foundations for the way the sport is played today. Football is governed internationally by the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). The most prestigious international football competition is the World Cup, held every four years. This event, the most widely viewed and famous in the world, boasts twice the audience of the Summer Olympics.[1]

Contents

History and Development

Rules of the Games

International Competitions

Teams

Players

Stub
This article is a stub. You can help by adding to it.

Stubs are articles that writers have begun work on, but are not yet complete enough to be considered finished articles.

Smallwikipedialogo.png This page uses content from Wikipedia. The original article was at Soccer. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with Wikia Gaming, the text of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 (unported) license.

This article uses material from the "Soccer" article on the Gaming wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.







Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message