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Social Democratic Party of the Free City of Danzig
Sozialdemokratische Partei der Freien Stadt Danzig
Chairperson Julius Gehl (1919-1920), Arthur Brill (1921-1936)
Secretary Johannes Mau
Parliamentary faction leader Julius Gehl
Founded 1919
Dissolved 1936
Headquarters Weißmönchenhintergasse 1/2, Danzig[1]
Newspaper Danziger Volksstimme
Youth wing Arbeiterjugend
Paramilitary wing Arbeiter-Schutzbund
Membership  (1928) 5,418
Ideology Social democracy
International affiliation Labour and Socialist International
Volkstag seats 30 (1923), 42 (1927), 19 (1930), 13 (1933), 12 (1935)
Politics of Free City of Danzig
Political parties
Elections

The Social Democratic Party of the Free City of Danzig (German: Sozialdemokratische Partei der Freien Stadt Danzig) was a political party in the Free City of Danzig. After the creation of the Free City of Danzig in 1919, the Danzig branch of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) separated itself from the party, and created the Social Democratic Party of the Free City of Danzig. The new party did however maintain close links with the SPD, and its political orientation (for example its anti-Soviet/anti-communist approach) was largely the same as that of the SPD.[2]

The party participated in coalition government together with bourgeois parties between August 1925 and October 1926, and again between January 1928 and August 1930.[2]

Contents

Organization and leadership

The party organization was modelled after that of SPD. The highest organ of the party was the Party Congress (Parteitag), which was generally held in April every year. The Party Congress elected a Party Presidium and a Control Commission. Party activists were organized in local branch units, which were member organizations of the party. As of the late 1920s, the party claimed a membership of 5,418, out of whom 950 were women.[2][1]

Julius Gehl was the chairman of the party 1919-1920, after which he became leader of the parliamentary group of the party. Arthur Brill was chairman of the party 1921-1936. Johannes Mau was the secretary of the party.[2]

The party was active in the Danzig trade union movement (which was nominally independent, but was heavily influenced by the party). Arbeiterjugendbund ('Workers Youth League'), with around 450 members, was the youth wing of the party.[2][1]

Press

The party published the daily newspaper Danziger Volksstimme ('Danzig People's Voice').[2]

International affiliation

The party was a member of the Labour and Socialist International 1923 to 1936.[2] Arthur Brill was a member of the Executive of the International between January 1929 and 1936 (he shared his seat with Johann Kowoll of the German Socialist Labour Party of Poland between July 1931 and 1934).[3]

Rise of National Socialism

In late 1930 a new right-wing government was formed in the Free City, with support from the National Socialists. As an opposition party, the Social Democrats formed the Arbeiter-Schutzbund ('Worker Defense League') as its paramilitary force.[2] Arbeiter-Schutzbund had around 4,500 members.[2] However, the capacity of the Social Democratic Party to mobilize anti-fascist resistance was hindered by nationalistic tendencies within the very ranks of the party (for example, anti-Polish prejudices were widespread within the party).[2]

The party was banned on October 14, 1936.[2]

Election Results

Year Votes % Seats % of Seats
1920 24,409 15.93% 19 15.83%
1923 39,755 24.12% 30 25.00%
1927 61,779 33.79% 42 35.00%
1930 49,965 25.25% 19 26.39%
1933 37,882 17.69% 13 18.06%
1935 37,729 16.05% 12 16.67%

[4][5]

Bibliography

References

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