Social contract: Wikis

  
  

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.Social contract describes a broad class of theories that try to explain the ways in which people form states to maintain social order.^ Re: Objections to the Social Contract theory?
  • xkcd • View topic - Objections to the Social Contract theory? 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Critique of social contract theory .
  • Phil 110: Class #6 - Social Contract Theory 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC watarts.uwaterloo.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ It can work synergistically with the classes social contract.
  • Chapter 11: Creating Social (Contract) Bonds 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.calstatela.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The notion of the social contract implies that the people give up sovereignty to a government or other authority in order to receive or maintain social order through the rule of law.^ Through this social contract, they agree to accept a rational government, a government to enforce rational laws.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The social contract between the American people and the rule of law?
  • Firedoglake » The Violated Social Contract: A Debate Worth Having 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A social contract is how we treat each other at the table, as people.
  • Social Contracts for RPG Groups - Treasure Tables 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.treasuretables.org [Source type: General]

.It can also be thought of as an agreement by the governed on a set of rules by which they are governed.^ It can also be thought of as an agreement by the governed on a set of rules by which they are governed.
  • The social contract has failed? 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.stevepavlina.com [Source type: General]

^ They will then devise certain rules of social life which a monarch or government is to make sure everyone obey by imposing strict sanctions against law-breakers.
  • DR. TIBOR R. MACHAN: On the Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC radicalacademy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The contract classroom exists as a set of rules, principles, boundaries, expectations and consequences that govern the concrete document and abstract concept.
  • Chapter 8: Creating Social (Contract) Bonds 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.calstatela.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Social contract theory formed a central pillar in the historically important notion that legitimate state authority must be derived from the consent of the governed.^ It is legitimate, because it is based on the Social Contract.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau - On The Social Contract - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Government need not derive from the state of nature .
  • 20th WCP: The Social Contract Tradition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ May 26: Social Contract Theory .
  • Phil 110: Class #6 - Social Contract Theory 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC watarts.uwaterloo.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The starting point for most of these theories is a heuristic examination of the human condition absent from any structured social order, usually termed the “state of nature”.^ In old-style Hobbesian social contract theories, we start with a state of nature.
  • ThoughtStorms: GameTheoryAndTheSocialContract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.nooranch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This condition is called "the state of nature".

^ Usually, the inconveniences of the state of nature are enough to make us enter into civil society.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In this condition, an individual’s actions are bound only by his or her personal power, constrained by conscience.^ This duty implies not only individual action to defend the community, but the duty to do so in concert with others as an organized and trained militia.
  • The Social Contract and Constitutional Republics 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Social Contract and Constitutional Republics - un knol de Jon Roland 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes thought that rational, autonomous individuals could only be constrained and controlled by a strong, dominant government, a government with absolute power.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Surely, multiculturalism is for the sake of minority groups.18 Only when that logic is carried further does it also function for the sake of the individual person and his or her rights.
  • The Jewish Social Contract by David Novak :: Reader Store 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC ebookstore.sony.com [Source type: Original source]

.From this common starting point, the various proponents of social contract theory attempt to explain, in different ways, why it is in an individual’s rational self-interest to voluntarily give up the freedom one has in the state of nature in order to obtain the benefits of political order.^ Rational individuals have the ‘natural’ right to defy the government and disrupt social order simply to protect their ‘natural’ freedom.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Does the entire social contract need to be stated up front?
  • Social Contracts for RPG Groups - Treasure Tables 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.treasuretables.org [Source type: General]

^ However, one of the arguments of social contract theory is that it's in your rational self-interest to be part of one.
  • xkcd • View topic - Objections to the Social Contract theory? 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thomas Hobbes (1651), John Locke (1689) and Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1762) are the most famous philosophers of contractarianism.^ In school, we read the great social contract theorists: Thomas Hobbes , John Locke , and Jean-Jacques Rousseau .
  • Three Great Social Contractarians: Hobbes, Locke, and … Blackbeard? A Guest Post - Freakonomics Blog - NYTimes.com 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Jean Jacques Rousseau (1762).
  • 20th WCP: The Social Contract Tradition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Hobbes (1651), John Locke (1689) and Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1762) are the most famous philosophers of contractarianism, which formed the theoretical groundwork of democracy and republicanism.
  • The social contract has failed? 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.stevepavlina.com [Source type: General]

.However, they drew quite different conclusions from this starting-point.^ Hobbes, Rawls, and Rousseau based their views on the authority of the state on the concept of a social contract, yet they all came to very different conclusions.
  • xkcd • View topic - Objections to the Social Contract theory? 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, individual subjects may have interests quite different from the common interest; may wish to enjoy citizenship without being ready to fulfil its duties.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau - On The Social Contract - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Urban residents are mainly employees of the state sector and their families, and they have a quite different motivation for reform from that of peasants.
  • China at the Crossroads: Can the Communist Regime Break the Social Contract to Carry out Reform? 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.danke4china.net [Source type: Original source]

.Hobbes advocated an authoritarian monarchy, Locke advocated a liberal monarchy, while Rousseau advocated liberal republicanism.^ Thomas Hobbes (1651), John Locke (1689) and Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1762) are the most famous philosophers of contractarianism, which formed the theoretical groundwork of democracy and republicanism.
  • The social contract has failed? 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.stevepavlina.com [Source type: General]

^ The Social Contract Tradition: Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau - The Social Contract Tradition: Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau ABSTRACT: The classical contract tradition of Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau have enjoyed such fame and acceptance as being basic to the development of liberal democratic theory and practice that it would be heretical for any scholar, especially one from the f...
  • Free The Social Contract Essays 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.123helpme.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ABSTRACT: The classical contract tradition of Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau have enjoyed such fame and acceptance as being basic to the development of liberal democratic theory and practice that it would be heretical for any scholar, especially one from the fringes, to critique.
  • 20th WCP: The Social Contract Tradition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Their work provided theoretical groundwork of constitutional monarchy, liberal democracy and republicanism.^ Thomas Hobbes (1651), John Locke (1689) and Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1762) are the most famous philosophers of contractarianism, which formed the theoretical groundwork of democracy and republicanism.
  • The social contract has failed? 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.stevepavlina.com [Source type: General]

^ That sub-group may be one person, as in the case of a monarchy or dictatorship or it may be a lot of people as in the case of a liberal democracy.
  • Phil 110: Class #6 - Social Contract Theory 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC watarts.uwaterloo.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The Social Contract was used in the Declaration of Independence as a sign of enforcing Democracy, and more recently has been revived by thinkers such as John Rawls.^ Rawls, science and a valid social contract.

^ John McCain: 'Social contract' broken .
  • John McCain: 'Social contract' broken: The Swamp 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ This idea was recently revitalized by John Rawls by way of the hypothetical social compact that is to be conceived of as having been formed behind "a veil of ignorance."
  • DR. TIBOR R. MACHAN: On the Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC radicalacademy.com [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Overview

.According to Thomas Hobbes, human life would be "nasty, brutish, and short" without political authority.^ Hobbes, for example, argued in favor of what Jean Hampton has called the "alienation contract," that is, a contract on the part of a people to alienate their rights to adjudicate their own disputes and self-defense to a sovereign, on the grounds that that was the only way to keep the peace given the nature of the alternative, which he famously characterized as life that would be "solitary, poore, nasty, brutish, and short."
  • Contractarianism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It would seem that the value of the idea of a social contract is that it is better able to justify a multicultural society than any other idea of political authority.
  • Sample Chapter for Novak, D.: The Jewish Social Contract: An Essay in Political Theology. 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Many political theorists such as Thomas Hobbes and John Locke had already developed their own interpretations of liberty, ...
  • Free The Social Contract Essays 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.123helpme.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In its absence, we would live in a state of nature, where we each have unlimited natural freedoms, including the "right to all things" and thus the freedom to harm all who threaten our own self-preservation; there would be an endless "war of all against all" (Bellum omnium contra omnes).^ In a state of nature, human beings have unlimited natural freedoms.

^ In HSCT this "state of nature" is therefore thought to be a "war of all against all" ( Bellum omnium contra omnes ).

^ In other words, peace arises out of the recognition of the futility of the antagonistic war of all against all ( omnium bellum contra omnes ).
  • 20th WCP: The Social Contract Tradition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

To avoid this, free men establish political community i.e. civil society through a social contract in which each gain civil rights in return for subjecting himself to civil law or to political authority.
.Alternatively, some have argued that we gain civil rights in return for accepting the obligation to respect and defend the rights of others, giving up some freedoms to do so; this alternative formulation of the duty arising from the social contract is often identified with arguments about military service.^ Duties under the Social Contract .
  • The Social Contract and Constitutional Republics 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Social Contract and Constitutional Republics - un knol de Jon Roland 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We can argue about those things some other time.
  • Charlie and the Broken Social Contract - Gothamist 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC gothamist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You know, the social contract that is civilization.
  • Social Contracts for RPG Groups - Treasure Tables 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.treasuretables.org [Source type: General]

Violations of the contract

.The social contract and the civil rights it gives us are neither "natural rights" nor permanently fixed.^ The social contract is what distinguishes civil society from the state of nature.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ You know, the social contract that is civilization.
  • Social Contracts for RPG Groups - Treasure Tables 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.treasuretables.org [Source type: General]

^ Usually, the inconveniences of the state of nature are enough to make us enter into civil society.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Rather, the contract itself is the means towards an end — the benefit of all — and (according to some philosophers such as Locke or Rousseau), is only legitimate to the extent that it meets the general interest ("general will" in Rousseau).^ These contracts and rights are only legitimate to the extent that they benefit the general interest.

^ It is by this reasoning that mankind is approaching the real social contract, which is not, as Rousseau thought, the origin of society, but rather the outcome of a long social experience, the fruit of its follies and disasters.
  • The Social Contract (Penguin Great Ideas) by Jean-Jacques Rousseau - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

^ General Will and Rousseau's Social Contract - There is a problem with the formatting of this essay General Will and Rousseau's Social Contract When Jean Jacques Rousseau wrote the Social Contract, the concepts of liberty and freedom were not new ideas.
  • Free The Social Contract Essays 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.123helpme.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Therefore, when failings are found in the contract, we renegotiate to change the terms, using methods such as elections and legislature.^ As per Locke/Rousseau when failings are found in the contract, we renegotiate to change the terms, using methods such as elections and legislature also Locke theorized the right of rebellion in case of the contract leading to tyranny.
  • Social Contract Theory | Reason for Liberty 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.reasonforliberty.com [Source type: Original source]

^ WHEREAS tacit or implied contracts are vague and therefore unenforceable, I am forced to submit to the following terms: .
  • The Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.dvc.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ As pointed out above, Locke argues that the social contract is a living document and its terms may be renegotiated as and when the needs arise.

.Locke theorized the right of rebellion in case of the contract leading to tyranny.^ Locke even posits the rights of rebellion in the event the social contracts lead to tyranny.

^ John Locke argues that the social contract and the civil rights are living documents in that their terms could be renegotiated to suit the needs of changing times.

.Since civil rights come from agreeing to the contract, those who choose to violate their contractual obligations, such as by committing crimes, abdicate their rights, and the rest of society can be expected to protect itself against the actions of such outlaws.^ Since no individual has any such right, neither does society.
  • The Social Contract: The Ultimate Issue Between Liberalism and Conservatism 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The fact that you are allowed to operate as a member of society does not mean that you can be construed to have agreed to pay taxes in exchange, because a) you have not in fact agreed to any such contract, b) you have the right to interact (and do business with) anyone else who is willing, and c) no one has the right to violate your rights, or make the enjoyment of your rights contingent on the payment of a fee.
  • The Social Contract: The Ultimate Issue Between Liberalism and Conservatism 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore, unless some individual member of a society has the right to coerce other members of the society to agree to conditions in exchange for membership in the society, then it cannot be that the society as a whole has any such right.
  • The Social Contract: The Ultimate Issue Between Liberalism and Conservatism 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

.To be a member of society is to accept responsibility for following its rules, along with the threat of punishment for violating them.^ Social Contract by default - if they live in a given (free) society they agree to follow the Rule of Law or leave.
  • The Social Contract (Penguin Great Ideas) by Jean-Jacques Rousseau - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

^ A justified contract must meet the full publicity condition: its complete justification must be capable of being actually accepted by members of a well-ordered society.
  • Contemporary Approaches to the Social Contract (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These rules, bill of rights, expectations, policies, or boundaries should be reduced to writing and made visible to all members of the classroom society.
  • Chapter 11: Creating Social (Contract) Bonds 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.calstatela.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chapter 8: Creating Social (Contract) Bonds 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.calstatela.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this way, society works by "mutual coercion, mutually agreed upon" (Hardin 1968).^ The learning contract is a mutually agreed upon contract and is submitted to the field liaison after both the student and the field instructor are satisfied with its contents.
  • Department of Social Work - The Learning Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.socialwork.ohiou.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Legitimate political authority, he suggests, comes only from a social contract agreed upon by all citizens for their mutual preservation.
  • SparkNotes: The Social Contract: Summary 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It has been our experience that communities are successful when they are founded on a mutually understood and agreed upon Social Contract.
  • Experiences with Civility and the Role of a Social Contract in Virtual Communities - a knol by Barry Kort 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

History

Ancient Indian thought

.But there were limits on this conception of the social contract.^ The social contract has limited the goals of reform.
  • China at the Crossroads: Can the Communist Regime Break the Social Contract to Carry out Reform? 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.danke4china.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It has been more recently recognized that there are two distinct strains of social contract thought, which now typically go by the names "contractarianism"and "contractualism."
  • Contractarianism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ General Will and Rousseau's Social Contract - There is a problem with the formatting of this essay General Will and Rousseau's Social Contract When Jean Jacques Rousseau wrote the Social Contract, the concepts of liberty and freedom were not new ideas.
  • Free The Social Contract Essays 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.123helpme.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He emphasised, for example, that ‘A person who is desirous of prosperity should worship the king as he should worship Indra himself.’[1]

Classical thought

.Many have argued that Plato's dialog Crito expresses a Greek version of social contract theory.^ May 26: Social Contract Theory .
  • Phil 110: Class #6 - Social Contract Theory 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC watarts.uwaterloo.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Re: Objections to the Social Contract theory?
  • xkcd • View topic - Objections to the Social Contract theory? 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Critique of social contract theory .
  • Phil 110: Class #6 - Social Contract Theory 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC watarts.uwaterloo.ca [Source type: Original source]

In this dialog, Socrates refuses to escape from jail to avoid being put to death. He argues that since he has willingly remained in Athens all of his life despite opportunities to go elsewhere, he has accepted the social contract i.e. the burden of the local laws, and he cannot violate these laws even when they are against his self-interest.

Renaissance developments

.Quentin Skinner has argued that several critical modern innovations in contract theory are found in the writings from French Calvinists and Huguenots, whose work in turn was invoked by writers in the Low Countries who objected to their subjection to Spain and, later still, by Catholics in England.^ Hobbes’s social contract theory became very important, but its importance was soon eclipsed by the later social contract theory of John Locke.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But it still serves to justify our The Social Contract 27 modern market government through the idea of implied consent.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I argue that social contract theory teaches us that we should consider not territorial boundaries but the relationships between people to identify legitimate political power.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

[2] .Among these, Francisco Suárez (1548–1617), from the School of Salamanca, might be considered as an early theorist of the social contract, theorizing natural law in an attempt to limit the divine right of absolute monarchy.^ The social contract has limited the goals of reform.
  • China at the Crossroads: Can the Communist Regime Break the Social Contract to Carry out Reform? 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.danke4china.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Social Contract and Government Origins of the Social Contract Breaches of the Social Contract Checks and Balances Of Rights Natural and Constitutional Duties under the Social Contract Governmental Powers and Duties References: Related works: menos más Enlace permanente a este knol: Enlace Roland, Jon.
  • The Social Contract and Constitutional Republics - un knol de Jon Roland 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We have also seen that people can form social contracts distinct to cyberspace, but these cannot ignore the mandatory laws of real-space sovereigns.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

.All of these groups were led to articulate notions of popular sovereignty by means of a social covenant or contract: all of these arguments began with proto-“state of nature” arguments, to the effect that the basis of politics is that everyone is by nature free of subjection to any government.^ I mean heck, we have underlying social contracts that govern our society.
  • Social Contracts for RPG Groups - Treasure Tables 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.treasuretables.org [Source type: General]

^ Government need not derive from the state of nature .
  • 20th WCP: The Social Contract Tradition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The social contract is what distinguishes civil society from the state of nature.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

.However, these arguments relied on a corporatist theory found in Roman Law, according to which "a populus" can exist as a distinct legal entity.^ At the same time, the article aspires to make a broader argument about the relevance of legal realism to the social contract tradition in political theory..."
  • Recent Papers and Articles: Professor James Boyle 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, one of the arguments of social contract theory is that it's in your rational self-interest to be part of one.
  • xkcd • View topic - Objections to the Social Contract theory? 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the face of these appealing arguments, the minimalists insist sternly that the constitution and the American tradition of intellectual property law forbid us such normative appeals.
  • Recent Papers and Articles: Professor James Boyle 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Therefore these arguments held that a community of people can join a government because they have the capacity to exercise a single will and make decisions with a single voice in the absence of sovereign authority — a notion rejected by Hobbes and later contract theorists.^ In a sense, the admission that this contract was never supposed to have been a real life one deflates the seriousness of the critique, but nevertheless, it is clear that after admitting that the compact was not a historical one, one still finds that contract theorists still use their postulate to warrant the sovereign and the allegiance people are supposed to owe to state authority as "constituted authority".
  • 20th WCP: The Social Contract Tradition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The real power therefore rests with the members of the state, namely, the people and the voters to elect a new government at an opportune time.

^ Distinct laws of cyberspace, deriving their authority from the consent of those they govern can remedy this uncertainty.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

Philosophers

Hugo Grotius

.In the early 17th century, Grotius (1583–1645) introduced the modern idea of natural rights of individuals.^ Rational individuals have the ‘natural’ right to defy the government and disrupt social order simply to protect their ‘natural’ freedom.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In particular, the idea of the State of Nature defines the central individualist values of freedom and equality, the values that legitimate individualism.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To: society-by-contract As soveriegn individuals humans have the natural right to contract services, including protection and production of law.
  • The Social Contract: The Ultimate Issue Between Liberalism and Conservatism 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

.Grotius says that we each have natural rights which we have in order to preserve ourselves.^ Rational individuals have the ‘natural’ right to defy the government and disrupt social order simply to protect their ‘natural’ freedom.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To this question the contract philosophers give the answer: Only the natural right of self-preservation, which is to say, only self-interest; not, as their predecessors within the Great Tradition had believed, duties.
  • The Social Contract: The Ultimate Issue Between Liberalism and Conservatism 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It does not say what are the means to actually preserve our natural resources or what would be the role of the people in this.
  • Noynoy Aquino’s “Social Contract” without the fine print | Filipino Voices 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC filipinovoices.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He uses this idea to try to establish a basis for moral consensus in the face of religious diversity and the rise of natural science and to find a minimal basis for a moral beginning for society, a kind of natural law that everyone could potentially accept.^ Because of this innate morality – a ‘natural’ morality – the market would ‘naturally’ be civil and government could always remain limited.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no technology available today to either assist a person in protecting their privacy or to assist society to establish accepted norms of behavior and constraints on the use of PII data.
  • Proceedings Template - WORD 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www2002.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Individuals could return to Nature in wilderness America, leaving class and tradition behind, and then they could emerge with freedom and equality to build a civil society.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.He goes so far as to say even if we were to concede what we cannot concede without the utmost wickedness, that there is no God, these laws would still hold.^ What do I mean when I say there is no government?
  • The Social Contract: The Ultimate Issue Between Liberalism and Conservatism 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Without it, there is no common authority.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Along with these three kinds of law goes a fourth, most important of all, which is not graven on marble or brass, but on the hearts of the citizens.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau - On The Social Contract - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

.The idea was considered incendiary, since it suggests that power can ultimately go back to the individuals if the political society that they have set up forfeits the purpose for which it was originally established, which is to preserve themselves.^ But, to date, they have not admitted that what they ultimately have in mind are limits on spending enforced with price-setting or fixed budgets, which would result in painful and arbitrary rationing of care.
  • The New Middle Class Contract > Publications > National Affairs 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.nationalaffairs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They thought legal equality with private property (equal opportunity) would create civil society because all individuals could become structurally equal.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Individuals could return to Nature in wilderness America, leaving class and tradition behind, and then they could emerge with freedom and equality to build a civil society.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

In other words, the people i.e. the individual people, are sovereign. Grotius says that the people are sui juris - under their own jurisdiction. .People have rights as human beings but there is a delineation of those rights because of what is possible for everyone to accept morally - everyone has to accept that each person is entitled to try to preserve themselves and therefore they shouldn't try to do harm to others or to interfere with them and they should punish any breach of someone else's rights that arises.^ They will also abstract themselves from the possible misbehavior.
  • Chapter 11: Creating Social (Contract) Bonds 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.calstatela.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chapter 8: Creating Social (Contract) Bonds 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.calstatela.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They may therefore be altruistic or righteous.
  • SOCIAL JUSTICE: THE SOCIAL CONTRACT MODEL 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It should not confer any other "rights".
  • The Devil's Kitchen: Immigrants and the "social contract" 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.devilskitchen.me.uk [Source type: Original source]

Thomas Hobbes's Leviathan (1651)

.The first modern philosopher to articulate a detailed contract theory was Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679).^ First published Sun Mar 3, 1996; substantive revision Fri Sep 5, 2008 The idea of the social contract goes back, in a recognizably modern form, to Thomas Hobbes; it was developed in different ways by John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Immanuel Kant.
  • Contemporary Approaches to the Social Contract (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Stats views: 686 rating: not rated reviews: 0 posted: 10/24/2008 language: English pages: 0 Public Domain 1 THE SOCIAL CONTRACT Thomas Hobbes lived from 1588 to 1679, and John Locke lived from 1632 to 1704.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes’s social contract theory became very important, but its importance was soon eclipsed by the later social contract theory of John Locke.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.According to Hobbes, the lives of individuals in the state of nature were "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short", a state where self-interest and the absence of rights and contracts prevented the 'social', or society.^ The Social Contract 25 Rationality, autonomy, and self-interest are the basic assumptions of individualism, the qualities of individuals in the State of Nature.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By agreeing to live in a society, an individual is deemed to have "consented" to this "social contract."
  • The Social Contract: The Ultimate Issue Between Liberalism and Conservatism 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The social contract may be mythical when it comes to societies of honest individuals.
  • Three Great Social Contractarians: Hobbes, Locke, and … Blackbeard? A Guest Post - Freakonomics Blog - NYTimes.com 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

Life was 'anarchic' (without leadership/ the concept of sovereignty). .Individuals in the state of nature were apolitical and asocial.^ In the State of Nature, individuals were perfectly ‘natural’ and free.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In particular, the idea of the State of Nature defines the central individualist values of freedom and equality, the values that legitimate individualism.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This was the myth of the wild frontier, a myth of ‘natural’ individuals emerging from the wilderness as the original State of Nature.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.This state of nature is followed by the social contract.^ The social contract is what distinguishes civil society from the state of nature.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Without a social contract, there is only the state of nature.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The only restraint on our ability to enter into different social contracts is that these contracts must not conflict with the mandatory laws of the state.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The social contract was an 'occurrence' during which individuals came together and ceded some of their individual rights so that others would cede theirs (e.g.^ Suppose, then, we have arrived at some social contract.
  • Contemporary Approaches to the Social Contract (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The only type of agreement that counts as a social contract is one of agreeing together mutually to enter one Community, and make one Body Politick.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ During the fall semester, first-year students are expected to identify three faculty members they would prefer as members of their contract committee.
  • Social Psychology Program KU Department of Psychology 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.psych.ku.edu [Source type: Academic]

person .A gives up his/her right to kill person B if person B does the same).^ So the right to enter into a contract is something these people give up as part of their social contract.
  • xkcd • View topic - Objections to the Social Contract theory? 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And the person he bought it from and the person he bought it from and the next person and the next person and the next person?” That is legal rights, the individual contracts that would be in the stream of commerce begin to clog things up.
  • 092407 Anti Social Contracts Metanomics Transcript 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ By the same reasoning, just because a majority votes to put those who don't "voluntarily" pay taxes in jail does not make it morally right.
  • The Social Contract: The Ultimate Issue Between Liberalism and Conservatism 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

.This resulted in the establishment of society, and by extension, the state, a sovereign entity (like the individuals, now under its rule, used to be) which was to protect these new rights which were now to regulate societal interactions.^ For the right men have by nature to protect themselves, when none else can protect them, can by no covenant be relinquished.” (21.21) What is clear is that in the United States, where the sovereign is the elected government, an elite segment of society, namely bankers and other extremely wealthy individuals, are playing by the old rules, the rules of the state of nature, and they are grabbing as much of the pie as they can.
  • Has the Government Broken the Social Contract with the American People? ~ Washington's Blog 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC georgewashington2.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The familial status of these lone individuals is at most a matter of privacy; indeed, for them the right to privacy becomes the greatest of all rights.
  • Sample Chapter for Novak, D.: The Jewish Social Contract: An Essay in Political Theology. 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Rational individuals have the ‘natural’ right to defy the government and disrupt social order simply to protect their ‘natural’ freedom.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.Society was thus no longer anarchic.^ Social security is no longer taking care of society nor is it secure; it’s been plundered and mismanaged and current and future generations are, like you describe, on their own.
  • Scholars and Rogues » Welcome to the jungle: How “gotcha capitalism” has destroyed the American social contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.scholarsandrogues.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In other popular Westerns, the frontier is closing and the cowboy hero can no longer fight to save a civil society.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When, however, a civil society no longer respects that communal priority, it inevitably attempts to replace the sacred realm by becoming a sacred realm itself.
  • Sample Chapter for Novak, D.: The Jewish Social Contract: An Essay in Political Theology. 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: Original source]

.But the state system, which grew out of the social contract, was anarchic (without leadership).^ Without a social contract, there is only the state of nature.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The only restraint on our ability to enter into different social contracts is that these contracts must not conflict with the mandatory laws of the state.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ With that social contract, Deng appeared to have found a balance between political stability and partial economic reform, but balance was achieved at a cost to the state and the public sector.
  • China at the Crossroads: Can the Communist Regime Break the Social Contract to Carry out Reform? 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.danke4china.net [Source type: Original source]

.Just as the individuals in the state of nature had been sovereigns and thus guided by self-interest and the absence of rights, so states now acted in their self-interest in competition with each other.^ In the State of Nature, individuals were perfectly ‘natural’ and free.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For the right men have by nature to protect themselves, when none else can protect them, can by no covenant be relinquished.” (21.21) What is clear is that in the United States, where the sovereign is the elected government, an elite segment of society, namely bankers and other extremely wealthy individuals, are playing by the old rules, the rules of the state of nature, and they are grabbing as much of the pie as they can.
  • Has the Government Broken the Social Contract with the American People? ~ Washington's Blog 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC georgewashington2.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If no individual or group of individuals can achieve structural privilege, then a context of trust and respect is generally best for maximizing rational self-interests.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

Just like the state of nature, states were thus bound to be in conflict because there was no sovereign over and above the state (i.e. more powerful) capable of imposing social-contract laws. Indeed, Hobbes' work helped to serve as a basis for the realism theories of international relations, advanced by E.H. Carr and Hans Morgenthau.

John Locke's Second Treatise of Government (1689)

.John Locke's conception of the social contract differed from Hobbes' in several ways, but retained the central notion that persons in a state of nature would willingly come together to form a state.^ John McCain: 'Social contract' broken .
  • John McCain: 'Social contract' broken: The Swamp 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ Hobbes and Locke agreed on the social contract story up to this point.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So this state of nature understood in the way Hobbes explains it can only exist because of a social contract; and not be the absence of it.

.Locke believed that individuals in a state of nature would have stronger moral limits on their action than accepted by Hobbes, but recognized that people would still live in fear of one another.^ Therefore, Bob and Tom would remain in the state of nature in reference to one another.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the State of Nature, individuals were perfectly ‘natural’ and free.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Though cyberspace is not a state of nature , 69 we still experience a similar uncertainty.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Locke argued that individuals would agree to form a state that would provide a "neutral judge", and that could therefore protect the lives, liberty, and property of those who lived within it.^ Therefore, unless some individual member of a society has the right to coerce other members of the society to agree to conditions in exchange for membership in the society, then it cannot be that the society as a whole has any such right.
  • The Social Contract: The Ultimate Issue Between Liberalism and Conservatism 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They thought legal equality with private property (equal opportunity) would create civil society because all individuals could become structurally equal.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As pointed out above, Locke argues that the social contract is a living document and its terms may be renegotiated as and when the needs arise.

.While Hobbes argued for near-absolute authority, Locke argued that laws could only be legitimate if they sought to achieve the common good.^ Distinct laws of cyberspace, deriving their authority from the consent of those they govern can remedy this uncertainty.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If two parties cannot appeal to a common authority, then they are in a state of nature in reference to one another.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The laws that should govern cyberspace are those that have legitimate authority to do so.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Locke also believed that people will do the right thing as a group, and that all people have natural rights.^ I believe in natural rights to person and property.
  • Charlie and the Broken Social Contract - Gothamist 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC gothamist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So long as we confine ourselves to people voluntarily exchanging things, and respecting the voluntary nature of the exchange, it would appear that we actually have no need for government.
  • The Social Contract: The Ultimate Issue Between Liberalism and Conservatism 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (Harvard, Yale, Princeton), know all the right people etc.
  • The Social Contract: The Ultimate Issue Between Liberalism and Conservatism 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Du contrat social (1762)

.Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–1778), in his influential 1762 treatise The Social Contract, outlined a different version of social contract theory, based on popular sovereignty.^ Jean-Jacques Rousseau , 1762 On The Social Contract "Man was born free, and everywhere he is in irons."
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau - On The Social Contract - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1712-1778 Rousseau's Tomb in the Panthon, Paris .
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau - On The Social Contract - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is legitimate, because it is based on the Social Contract.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau - On The Social Contract - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although Rousseau wrote that the British were perhaps at the time the freest people on earth, he did not approve of their representative government.^ The real power therefore rests with the members of the state, namely, the people and the voters to elect a new government at an opportune time.

^ Fourth, when people's dissatisfaction is ignored by the government for a long time, they may doubt the regime's capability and there will be a crisis of confidence in the regime, party and system.
  • China at the Crossroads: Can the Communist Regime Break the Social Contract to Carry out Reform? 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.danke4china.net [Source type: Original source]

.Rousseau believed that liberty was possible only where there was direct rule by the people as a whole in lawmaking, where popular sovereignty was indivisible and inalienable.^ The former may overlook the possible societal alienation from the state and the influence of popular responses on the direction of state policy, and thus overestimate the state's capacity of realizing its policy goals.
  • China at the Crossroads: Can the Communist Regime Break the Social Contract to Carry out Reform? 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.danke4china.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If an individual, says Grotius, can alienate his liberty and make himself a slave, why could not a whole people do the same and make itself subject to a king?
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau - On The Social Contract - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But self regulation is only possible where most citizens agree with the rules that govern them.
  • Three Great Social Contractarians: Hobbes, Locke, and … Blackbeard? A Guest Post - Freakonomics Blog - NYTimes.com 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

.Citizens must, in at least some circumstances, be able to choose together the fundamental rules by which they would live, and be able to revise those rules on later occasions if they choose to do so - something the English people as a whole were unable to do.^ That seems to me to be an exact parallel to the idea that Blizzard would say in filings, "Look, people are stuck in our worlds because they can't take it with them when they go."
  • 092407 Anti Social Contracts Metanomics Transcript 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The decision among those who will live under the social principles must be unanimous; those who are unwilling must stay behind ( rule 4).
  • SOCIAL JUSTICE: THE SOCIAL CONTRACT MODEL 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ By virtue of simply being human, those other persons who are not now democratic citizens could in principle become citizens of this or any democracy later .
  • Sample Chapter for Novak, D.: The Jewish Social Contract: An Essay in Political Theology. 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Rousseau's political theory has some points in common with Locke's individualism, but departs from it in his development of the "luminous conception" (which he credited to Diderot) of the general will.^ He still plays Mutt to Locke's Jeff in college courses in political theory.
  • Recent Papers and Articles: Professor James Boyle 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ideas of market individualism derive from the social contract theory of John Locke and the market theory of Adam Smith.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some say that this objection points out a central flaw in the theory.
  • xkcd • View topic - Objections to the Social Contract theory? 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

.Rousseau argues a citizen can be an egoist and decide that his personal interest should override the collective interest.^ To Rousseau it is all the citizens acting collectively, voicing the General Will State of Nature: Human life without society- each free to act as their impulses dictate.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau - On The Social Contract - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This public person, formed by the union of many, is called a city, or a Republic or Body Politic, its people citizens, the members of, and collective owners of, The Sovereign power.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau - On The Social Contract - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, as part of a collective body, the individual citizen puts aside his egoism to create a "general will", which is popular sovereignty itself.^ It is therefore essential, if the General Will is to express itself, that there should be no partial factions within the State, that each citizen should think only his own thoughts.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau - On The Social Contract - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Such an association creates a moral and collective body, called a city, or a Republic or Body Politic, its people citizens, the members of, and collective owners of, The Sovereign power.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau - On The Social Contract - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, from the very nature of the contract, every act of Sovereignty, of the General Will, binds or favours all citizens equally.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau - On The Social Contract - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

Popular sovereignty (i.e., the rule of law), thus decides what is good for society as a whole, and the individual (including the administrative head of state, who could be a monarch) must bow to it, or be forced to bow to it:
[The social contract] can be reduced to the following terms: Each of us puts his person and all his power in common under the supreme direction of the general will; and in a body we receive each member as an indivisible part of the whole.[3]
Rousseau's striking phrase that man must "be forced to be free"[4] should be understood this way: since the indivisible and inalienable popular sovereignty decides what is good for the whole, then if an individual lapses back into his ordinary egoism and breaks the law, he will be forced to listen to what they decided as a member of the collectivity (i.e. as citizens). .Thus, the law, inasmuch as it is voted by the people's representatives, is not a limitation of individual freedom, but its expression; and enforcement of law, including criminal law, is not a restriction on individual liberty, as the individual, as a citizen, explicitly agreed to be constrained if, as a private individual, he did not respect his own will as formulated in the general will.^ If no individual or group of individuals can achieve structural privilege, then a context of trust and respect is generally best for maximizing rational self-interests.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If we all respect each others' possession of certain bits of the world, and know what these are and who has them, then the people who agreed on Law System X can interact mostly with others of similar mind.
  • The Social Contract: The Ultimate Issue Between Liberalism and Conservatism 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Natural’ individual equality means an equal opportunity to own private property with no concern for class privilege.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.Because laws represent the restraints of civil freedom, they represent the leap made from humans in the state of nature into civil society.^ In a state of nature, human beings have unlimited natural freedoms.

^ Because of this innate morality – a ‘natural’ morality – the market would ‘naturally’ be civil and government could always remain limited.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To accomplish more and enhance personal security, individual humans in a state of nature (i.e., alone in the wild) choose to enter into social contracts for mutual benefit; increased safety is achieved by diminishing personal freedom.
  • Dissident Voice : Renew The Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

.In this sense, the law is a civilizing force, and therefore Rousseau believed that the laws that govern a people helped to mold their character.^ It seems strang to see people without knowledge of primitives as the civilized Greeks, and Hobbs thinking that people in a more natural state where without law.

^ Numquam wrote: It's not a contract in the literal sense; it's the series of laws that govern society (you agree to follow the laws simply by virtue of being in society--that is the Social Contract).
  • xkcd • View topic - Objections to the Social Contract theory? 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Government derives its authority from the sovereign, which is the general will of the people; and “government” is objectified by the physical and bureaucratic structures constructed to enact the laws.
  • Dissident Voice : Renew The Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon's individualist social contract (1851)

.While Rousseau's social contract is based on popular sovereignty and not on individual sovereignty, there are other theories espoused by individualists, libertarians and anarchists, which do not involve agreeing to anything more than negative rights and creates only a limited state, if any.^ By agreeing to live in a society, an individual is deemed to have "consented" to this "social contract."
  • The Social Contract: The Ultimate Issue Between Liberalism and Conservatism 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is legitimate, because it is based on the Social Contract.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau - On The Social Contract - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, if there is a social contract, there is a society.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809–1865) advocated a conception of social contract which didn't involve an individual surrendering sovereignty to others.^ That’s why discussing the concept of social contracts is so important, and making active social contracts is even moreso.
  • Social Contracts for RPG Groups - Treasure Tables 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.treasuretables.org [Source type: General]

^ Hobbes, Rawls, and Rousseau based their views on the authority of the state on the concept of a social contract, yet they all came to very different conclusions.
  • xkcd • View topic - Objections to the Social Contract theory? 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The ideas of market individualism derive from the social contract theory of John Locke and the market theory of Adam Smith.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

According to him, the social contract was not between individuals and the state, but rather between individuals themselves refraining from coercing or governing each other, each one maintaining complete sovereignty upon oneself:
.
What really is the Social Contract?^ We have also seen that people can form social contracts distinct to cyberspace, but these cannot ignore the mandatory laws of real-space sovereigns.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Yeah, if you're going to get down to challenging social contract on a functional level, then you really have to present a superior alternative.
  • xkcd • View topic - Objections to the Social Contract theory? 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One thing to consider is that there’s really very little about RPG social contract that is unique (about the only thing is character ownership).
  • Social Contracts for RPG Groups - Treasure Tables 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.treasuretables.org [Source type: General]

An agreement of the citizen with the government? .No, that would mean but the continuation of [Rousseau’s] idea.^ Locke supported the idea of laissez-faire (let it work), the idea that the market would regulate itself with no need for active government control.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.The social contract is an agreement of man with man; an agreement from which must result what we call society.^ What is this creature called the “social contract”?

^ The only type of agreement that counts as a social contract is one of agreeing together mutually to enter one Community, and make one Body Politick.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This exchange constitutes a kind of social contract, and therefore users of Ebay are in a kind of civil society.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

In this, the notion of commutative justice[5], first brought forward by the primitive fact of exchange, …is substituted for that of distributive justice … Translating these words, contract, commutative justice, which are the language of the law, into the language of business, and you have commerce, that is to say, in its highest significance, the act by which man and man declare themselves essentially producers, and abdicate all pretension to govern each other.

John Rawls' Theory of Justice (1971)

.John Rawls (1921–2002) proposed a contractarian approach that has a decidedly Kantian flavour, in A Theory of Justice (1971), whereby rational people in a hypothetical "original position," setting aside their individual preferences and capacities under a "veil of ignorance," would agree to certain general principles of justice.^ Rawls' (1971: Section 24) veil of ignorance forecloses on any historical entitlement conception of justice.
  • SOCIAL JUSTICE: THE SOCIAL CONTRACT MODEL 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Rawls tried to structure a bargaining situation, which he calls an "initial position," such that its conditions would serve as logical premises for a social contract--his two principles of justice (p.
  • SOCIAL JUSTICE: THE SOCIAL CONTRACT MODEL 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Even if we accept the notion that the original parties to the supposed contract do have an obligation to fulfill its terms, the contractarian position cannot explain why their descendants inherit the obligation.
  • The Social Contract: The Ultimate Issue Between Liberalism and Conservatism 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

.This idea is also used as a game-theoretical formalization of the notion of fairness.^ He believes that the conventions human beings use to select fair outcomes in the game of life already incorporate simple versions of the device of playing the game of morals.
  • ThoughtStorms: GameTheoryAndTheSocialContract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.nooranch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Philip Pettit's Republicanism (1997)

Philip Pettit (b. .1945) has argued, in Republicanism: A Theory of Freedom and Government (1997), that the theory of social contract, classically based on the consent of the governed (as it is assumed that the contract is valid as long as the people consent to being governed by its representatives, who exercise sovereignty), should be modified, in order to avoid dispute.^ Rawls, science and a valid social contract.

^ It is legitimate, because it is based on the Social Contract.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau - On The Social Contract - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This was a theory of the social contract, a theory of rational individuals creating a rational government, a government not based on class.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.Instead of arguing that an explicit consent, which can always be manufactured, should justify the validity of social contract, Philip Pettit argues that the absence of an effective rebellion against the contract is the only legitimacy of it.^ Rawls, science and a valid social contract.

^ The only type of agreement that counts as a social contract is one of agreeing together mutually to enter one Community, and make one Body Politick.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ One thing to consider is that there’s really very little about RPG social contract that is unique (about the only thing is character ownership).
  • Social Contracts for RPG Groups - Treasure Tables 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.treasuretables.org [Source type: General]

Criticism

David Hume

An early critic of social contract theory was Rousseau's friend, the philosopher David Hume, who in 1742 published an essay "On Civil Liberty", in whose second part, entitled, "Of the Original Contract [1]", he stressed that the concept of a "social contract" was a convenient fiction:
.AS no party, in the present age can well support itself without a philosophical or speculative system of principles annexed to its political or practical one; we accordingly find that each of the factions into which this nation is divided has reared up a fabric of the former kind, in order to protect and cover that scheme of actions which it pursues.^ To this, one might object that the civil society of the Ebay community is illusory, or that its social contract is useless without the support of the United States government.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ From the purely economic point of view, these constraints should have abandoned, but for the political reasons, the government refused to withdraw protection and to reform the welfare system.
  • China at the Crossroads: Can the Communist Regime Break the Social Contract to Carry out Reform? 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.danke4china.net [Source type: Original source]

^ One can divide the debate into two schools of thought: the exceptionalists and the unexceptionalists.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

. . . .The one party [defenders of the absolute and divine right of kings, or Tories], by tracing up government to the DEITY, endeavor to render it so sacred and inviolate that it must be little less than sacrilege, however tyrannical it may become, to touch or invade it in the smallest article.^ One the one hand, if the deliberations of the hypothetical parties are to model our problem and their conclusions are to be of relevance to us , they must be similar to us.
  • Contemporary Approaches to the Social Contract (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Government must have more power than any individual or any group of individuals; that is, it cannot be controlled by the people.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Once so established, however, a model (or theory) may develop an authority to dominate a project or domain so that it becomes a given.
  • SOCIAL JUSTICE: THE SOCIAL CONTRACT MODEL 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The other party [the Whigs, or believers in constitutional monarchy], by founding government altogether on the consent of the PEOPLE suppose that there is a kind of original contract by which the subjects have tacitly reserved the power of resisting their sovereign, whenever they find themselves aggrieved by that authority with which they have for certain purposes voluntarily entrusted him.^ People's power is exercised through their own government by their voluntary consent or they have no power.
  • Has the Government Broken the Social Contract with the American People? ~ Washington's Blog 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC georgewashington2.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (Governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ By putting consent at the center of their contracts these early modern contract theorists (1) were clearly supposing that individuals had basic normative powers over themselves before they entered into the social contract (a point that Hume [1741] stressed), and (2) brought the question of political obligation to the fore.
  • Contemporary Approaches to the Social Contract (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

--David Hume, "On Civil Liberty" [II.XII.1] [2]
.However, Hume did agree that, no matter how a government is founded, the consent of the governed is the only legitimate foundation on which a government can rest.^ However, I can agree that government has changed recently.
  • Scholars and Rogues » Welcome to the jungle: How “gotcha capitalism” has destroyed the American social contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.scholarsandrogues.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No matter how organic, negotiated or flexible your vision of your social contract, you will need some concrete pillars to anchor the broader contract.
  • Chapter 11: Creating Social (Contract) Bonds 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.calstatela.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chapter 8: Creating Social (Contract) Bonds 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.calstatela.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SLAVERY SINCE no man has natural authority over his fellow, and force creates no right, we must conclude that legitimate authority comes only from agreed conventions between men.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau - On The Social Contract - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

.My intention here is not to exclude the consent of the people from being one just foundation of government where it has place.^ (Governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Alternatively, the central government may tacitly consent to the local governments making concessions to the people by abandoning some aspect of the reform policy, so that the policy loses its efficacy.
  • China at the Crossroads: Can the Communist Regime Break the Social Contract to Carry out Reform? 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.danke4china.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1985, one of my friends accused me of being a "secular humanist".
  • Heather Gray: Privatizing the Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is surely the best and most sacred of any. I only pretend that it has very seldom had place in any degree and never almost in its full extent. .And that therefore some other foundation of government must also be admitted.^ Therefore, even the most self-centered of minds 25 must strive for a universality and benevolence of principle that would benefit others as they would want to be benefited.
  • SOCIAL JUSTICE: THE SOCIAL CONTRACT MODEL 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Rational individuals, then, must always retain some power over government for the sake of freedom and equality.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There has always been dispute concerning the best form of government, without considering that each is in some cases the best, and in others the worst.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau - On The Social Contract - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

--Ibid II.XII.20

Logic of contracting

.According to the will theory of contract, which was dominant in the 19th century and still exerts a strong influence, a contract is not presumed valid unless all parties agree to it voluntarily, either tacitly or explicitly, without coercion.^ The core idea of social contract theories, we have been stressing, is that the deliberation of the parties is supposed to model the justificatory problem of “you and me.” Now this pulls social contract theories in two opposing directions.
  • Contemporary Approaches to the Social Contract (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Voluntary Transfer is the Voluntary reassignment of full or partial Property Entitlement of Ownership and/or Possession and/or Control of the Property of one Individual to another by either a Valid Contract or Permission .
  • Self-Sovereignty Documents - Interim Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC selfsip.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, the point of contract theories is to make headway on our justificatory problem by constructing parties that are idealizations of you and me.
  • Contemporary Approaches to the Social Contract (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Lysander Spooner, a 19th century lawyer and staunch supporter of a right of contract between individuals, in his essay No Treason, argues that a supposed social contract cannot be used to justify governmental actions such as taxation, because government will initiate force against anyone who does not wish to enter into such a contract.^ It is legitimate, because it is based on the Social Contract.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau - On The Social Contract - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After all, he agreed to the penalties for such actions by entering into his real-space social contract.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The "Social Contract" is an expansion of the political treatise "Second Treatise of Government" by John Locke written in 1689.The "Social Contract" written in 1762 by Rosseau where he explored the balance between the rights of the individual and the need for a govt to keep order.

.As a result, he maintains that such an agreement is not voluntary and therefore cannot be considered a legitimate contract at all.^ Therefore, unless some individual member of a society has the right to coerce other members of the society to agree to conditions in exchange for membership in the society, then it cannot be that the society as a whole has any such right.
  • The Social Contract: The Ultimate Issue Between Liberalism and Conservatism 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All legitimate authority among men is based on an agreement.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/The Social Contract - Wikisource 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But Ronald Dworkin has raised similar concerns about a hypothetical contract: a hypothetical agreement, he objects, is no agreement at all.
  • Contractarianism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Modern Anglo-American law, like European civil law, is based on a will theory of contract, according to which all terms of a contract are binding on the parties because they chose those terms for themselves.^ It is legitimate, because it is based on the Social Contract.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau - On The Social Contract - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All those are contracts.
  • 092407 Anti Social Contracts Metanomics Transcript 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Distinct laws of cyberspace, deriving their authority from the consent of those they govern can remedy this uncertainty.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This was less true when Hobbes wrote Leviathan; then, more importance was attached to consideration, meaning a mutual exchange of benefits necessary to the formation of a valid contract, and most contracts had implicit terms that arose from the nature of the contractual relationship rather than from the choices made by the parties.^ A Valid Contract (also just Contract ) is a recorded manifest mutual understanding among Individuals who are in a Voluntary Relationship or is a Restitution Requirement or Peonage Enjoinder : a) wherein each receives Consideration, b) which does not require any Party to Breach this Agreement, c) which contains Arbitration Clauses, and d) which contains clauses specifying some method by which each Party may terminate his Involvement in the Contract.
  • Self-Sovereignty Documents - Interim Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC selfsip.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To accomplish more and enhance personal security, individual humans in a state of nature (i.e., alone in the wild) choose to enter into social contracts for mutual benefit; increased safety is achieved by diminishing personal freedom.
  • Dissident Voice : Renew The Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes’s social contract theory became very important, but its importance was soon eclipsed by the later social contract theory of John Locke.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.Accordingly, it has been argued that social contract theory is more consistent with the contract law of the time of Hobbes and Locke than with the contract law of our time, and that features in the social contract which seem anomalous to us, such as the belief that we are bound by a contract formulated by our distant ancestors, would not have seemed as strange to Hobbes' contemporaries as they do to us.^ Hobbes and Locke agreed on the social contract story up to this point.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A major divide among contemporary social contract theories is just what is our justificatory problem.
  • Contemporary Approaches to the Social Contract (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Stats views: 686 rating: not rated reviews: 0 posted: 10/24/2008 language: English pages: 0 Public Domain 1 THE SOCIAL CONTRACT Thomas Hobbes lived from 1588 to 1679, and John Locke lived from 1632 to 1704.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

[6]

Multiple contracts

.Legal scholar Randy Barnett has argued,[7] that, while presence in the territory of a society may be necessary for consent, it is not consent to any rules the society might make regardless of their content.^ Johnson and Post argue that the lack of territorial boundaries in cyberspace makes such notice impossible.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Alternatively, the central government may tacitly consent to the local governments making concessions to the people by abandoning some aspect of the reform policy, so that the policy loses its efficacy.
  • China at the Crossroads: Can the Communist Regime Break the Social Contract to Carry out Reform? 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.danke4china.net [Source type: Original source]

^ John Locke argues that the social contract is the necessary and sufficient condition for civil society.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

.A second condition of consent is that the rules be consistent with underlying principles of justice and the protection of natural and social rights, and have procedures for effective protection of those rights (or liberties).^ Rational individuals have the ‘natural’ right to defy the government and disrupt social order simply to protect their ‘natural’ freedom.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And in this law of nature, consists the fountain and original of justice.
  • SOCIAL JUSTICE: THE SOCIAL CONTRACT MODEL 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Social contract; or, Principles of political right, by Jean Jacques Rousseau.

.This has also been discussed by O.A. Brownson,[8] who argued that there are, in a sense, three "constitutions" involved: The first the constitution of nature that includes all of what the Founders called "natural law". The second would be the constitution of society, an unwritten and commonly understood set of rules for the society formed by a social contract before it establishes a government, by which it does establish the third, a constitution of government.^ This third form is the most usual, and is called monarchy, or royal government.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau - On The Social Contract - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I mean heck, we have underlying social contracts that govern our society.
  • Social Contracts for RPG Groups - Treasure Tables 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.treasuretables.org [Source type: General]

^ In other words, if there is a social contract, there is a society.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

To consent, a necessary condition is that the rules be constitutional in that sense.

Tacit consent

.The theory of an implicit social contract holds that by remaining in the territory controlled by some government, people give consent to be governed.^ Suppose, then, we have arrived at some social contract.
  • Contemporary Approaches to the Social Contract (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We have also seen that people can form social contracts distinct to cyberspace, but these cannot ignore the mandatory laws of real-space sovereigns.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes’s social contract theory became very important, but its importance was soon eclipsed by the later social contract theory of John Locke.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

This consent is what gives legitimacy to the government. Philosopher Roderick Long argues that this is a case of question begging, because the argument has to presuppose its conclusion:
.
I think that the person who makes this argument is already assuming that the government has some legitimate jurisdiction over this territory.^ The "moral debt to those in need" argument: Those who have more than they need are morally obligated to provide for those who have less--and it is a necessary and proper function of government to make sure that the "haves" contribute their "fair share" to the "have nots."
  • The Social Contract: The Ultimate Issue Between Liberalism and Conservatism 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Alternatively, the central government may tacitly consent to the local governments making concessions to the people by abandoning some aspect of the reform policy, so that the policy loses its efficacy.
  • China at the Crossroads: Can the Communist Regime Break the Social Contract to Carry out Reform? 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.danke4china.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They believe that men are material, and that men must be perfected through "re-education" by "enlightened thinking"; this "enlightened thinking" is established by those men who have already been "perfected", i.e.
  • The Social Contract: The Ultimate Issue Between Liberalism and Conservatism 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

.And then they say, well, now, anyone who is in the territory is therefore agreeing to the prevailing rules.^ They should thus agree with Goethe, who said: "What you have inherited from your fathers, acquire it in order to possess it.
  • Sample Chapter for Novak, D.: The Jewish Social Contract: An Essay in Political Theology. 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Such is the origin of what men now call justice, which is that which the agreed-upon laws command, and injustice, which is that which they forbid; and men accept the new arrangement because it is in their interest to do so.
  • The Social Contract: The Ultimate Issue Between Liberalism and Conservatism 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Examples: Players who submit a background story get 1 point extra, exactly as if they had defined a perk or roleplayed well.
  • Proposed Social Contract - Steve Jackson Games Forums 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC forums.sjgames.com [Source type: General]

.But they’re assuming the very thing they're trying to prove – namely that this jurisdiction over the territory is legitimate.^ They're sure trying.
  • Heather Gray: Privatizing the Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ States do not exist by getting everyone to agree to a contract; they exist by maintaining a monopoly on the legitimate use of violence over a certain territorial domain.
  • xkcd • View topic - Objections to the Social Contract theory? 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Edicts were issued to prevent the buying of votes, but their very number proves how useless they were.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau - On The Social Contract - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

.If it's not, then the government is just one more group of people living in this broad general geographical territory.^ I take it that a consequence of this is general prosperity; by and large, if people aren't prospering, then there is almost certainly some aspect of their governments that is to blame.
  • The Social Contract: The Ultimate Issue Between Liberalism and Conservatism 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Government must have more power than any individual or any group of individuals; that is, it cannot be controlled by the people.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Good government should be proportionately stronger as the people is more numerous.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau - On The Social Contract - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

.But I've got my property, and exactly what their arrangements are I don't know, but here I am in my property and they don't own it – at least they haven't given me any argument that they do – and so, the fact that I am living in "this country" means I am living in a certain geographical region that they have certain pretensions over – but the question is whether those pretensions are legitimate.^ Don't argue, you KNOW they will!
  • The Devil's Kitchen: Immigrants and the "social contract" 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.devilskitchen.me.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Here's my question for Josh.
  • 092407 Anti Social Contracts Metanomics Transcript 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ You don't know what they agreed.
  • 092407 Anti Social Contracts Metanomics Transcript 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

You can’t assume it as a means to proving it.[9]

Criticisms of natural rights

.Contractualism is based on the notion that rights are agreed upon in order to further our interests, which is a form of individualism: each individual subject is accorded individual rights, which may or may not be inalienable, and form the basis of civil rights, as in the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.^ Rational individuals form a government, according to the theory, to serve their rational interests.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Our perception is subjective, our interests private.
  • SOCIAL JUSTICE: THE SOCIAL CONTRACT MODEL 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore, unless some individual member of a society has the right to coerce other members of the society to agree to conditions in exchange for membership in the society, then it cannot be that the society as a whole has any such right.
  • The Social Contract: The Ultimate Issue Between Liberalism and Conservatism 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

.It must be underlined, however, as Hannah Arendt did on her book on imperialism, that the 1789 Declarations, in this agreeing with the social contract theory, bases the natural rights of the human-being on the civil rights of the citizen, instead of the reverse as the contractualist theory does.^ It is legitimate, because it is based on the Social Contract.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau - On The Social Contract - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The social contract is what distinguishes civil society from the state of nature.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However, this precontractual, natural priority does not preclude a subsequent social contract.
  • Sample Chapter for Novak, D.: The Jewish Social Contract: An Essay in Political Theology. 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: Original source]

[10] This criticism derives from a long tradition going back to St. Augustine of Hippo, who in The City of God (book) envisioned a unified Christian society presided over by a king who was responsible for the welfare of his subjects. .Political Augustinianism with its insistence on divine sovereignty and on the two separate spheres of a heavenly and an earthly community, has indeed been regarded as incompatible with social contract theories.^ The only type of agreement that counts as a social contract is one of agreeing together mutually to enter one Community, and make one Body Politick.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Devil's Kitchen: Immigrants and the "social contract" The Devil's Kitchen "Politics is the business of getting power and privilege without possessing merit" —P J O'Rourke Current .
  • The Devil's Kitchen: Immigrants and the "social contract" 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.devilskitchen.me.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes’s social contract theory became very important, but its importance was soon eclipsed by the later social contract theory of John Locke.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

.This raises the question of whether social contractarianism, as a central plank of liberal thought, is reconcilable with the Christian religion, and particularly with Catholicism and Catholic social teaching.^ Their question is whether this love triangle between social democracy, paternalism and New Labour might end up with social democracy being dumped by the wayside.
  • Social Contract or Paternalism? | newmatilda.com 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC newmatilda.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, in the Global Convention of Minds are all the basic social questions that have been at the core of thought about society and government.
  • SOCIAL JUSTICE: THE SOCIAL CONTRACT MODEL 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The question is, instead, whether a legitimate online authority can exist that 1) is unique to cyberspace and 2) derives its authority to govern its part of cyberspace from the consent, through a social contract, of the community of users in that part of cyberspace.
  • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The individualist and liberal approach has also been criticized since the 19th century by thinkers such as Marx, Nietzsche & Freud[citation needed], and afterward by structuralist and post-structuralist thinkers, such as Lacan, Althusser, Foucault, Deleuze or Derrida[citation needed].^ The individualists did not argue for economic equality – equal individual wealth – as Karl Marx would, for example, in the nineteenth century.
  • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ The Mahabharata, Book 12: Santi Parva, sec. LXVII, translation by Kisari Mohan Ganguli, published between 1883 and 1896, Online version: http://www.bharatadesam.org/Mahabharata/m12/m12a066.htm
  2. ^ Quentin Skinner, The Foundations of Modern Political Thought: Volume 2: The Age of the Reformation (Cambridge, 1978)
  3. ^ Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Oeuvres complètes, ed. B. Gagnebin and M. Raymond (Paris, 1959–95), III, 361; The Collected Writings of Rousseau, ed. C. Kelley and R. Masters (Hanover, 1990-), IV, 139.
  4. ^ Oeuvres complètes, III, 364; The Collected Writings of Rousseau, IV, 141
  5. ^ http://www.textop.org/wiki/index.php?title=Commutative_justice
  6. ^ Joseph Kary, "Contract Law and the Social Contract: What Legal History Can Teach Us About the Political Theory of Hobbes and Locke", 31 Ottawa Law Review 73 (Jan. 2000)
  7. ^ Restoring the Lost Constitution: The Presumption of Liberty, Randy Barnett (2004)
  8. ^ The American Republic: its Constitution, Tendencies, and Destiny, O. A. Brownson (1866)
  9. ^ See Long, Roderick. Libertarian Anarchism: Responses to Ten Objections, Section (1).
  10. ^ Hannah Arendt's book on Imperialism was published in 1951 in The Origins of Totalitarianism, but was written separately. This interpretation by Arendt of natural rights emerging from civil rights finds illustration with the growing number of refugees and stateless people. Giorgio Agamben would further explore it, with his concept of an Homo sacer: "the so-called sacred and inalienable rights of man prove to be completely unprotected at the very moment it is no longer possible to characterize them as rights of the citizens of a state" (Agamben, 2005)

Other references

  • Ankerl, Guy. .Toward a Social Contract on a Worldwide Scale. Geneva: ILO, 1980, ISBN 9290141654.
  • Dworkin, Ronald.^ At minimum a classroom social contract outlines how each group member will keep from infringing on the rights of the others (Curwin & Mendler, 1986; MacNeil, 1980).
    • Chapter 8: Creating Social (Contract) Bonds 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.calstatela.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ MacNeil, I.R. (1980) The new social contract : an inquiry into modern contractual relations .
    • Chapter 8: Creating Social (Contract) Bonds 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.calstatela.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ On the social contract, with Geneva manuscript and Political economy / Jean-Jacques Rousseau ; edited by Roger D. Masters ; translated by Judith R. Masters.

    .Law's Empire, Fontana Press, 1986,
  • Hobbes, Thomas.^ The Citizen , Thomas Hobbes (1641-47) — Discussion of the natural law foundations of government.
    • The Social Contract and Constitutional Republics - un knol de Jon Roland 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

    Leviathan (1651)
  • Locke, John. .Second Treatise on Government (1689)
  • Pettit, Philip.^ JOHN LOCKE, THE SECOND TREATISE OF GOVERNMENT, in TWO TREATISES OF GOVERNMENT (Peter Laslett ed., Cambridge Univ.
    • As Boundaries Fade: The Social Contract in Cyberspace 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.udel.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Second Treatise of Government in Two Treatises of Government , Peter Laslett, ed.
    • Contemporary Approaches to the Social Contract (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Republicanism: A Theory of Freedom and Government, NY: Oxford U.P., 1997, ISBN 0-19-829083-7, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997
  • Rawls, John.^ Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    • Contemporary Approaches to the Social Contract (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Scheff, T. J. (1997) Emotions, the Social Bond, and Human Reality: Part/Whole Analysis , Port Chester, NY: Cambridge University Press.
    • Chapter 8: Creating Social (Contract) Bonds 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.calstatela.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This issue of freedom, then, is the central problem for market government in Locke’s social contract theory.
    • Social Contract 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: Original source]

    .A Theory of Justice (1971)
  • Rousseau, Jean-Jacques.^ Jean-Jacques Rousseau , 1762 On The Social Contract "Man was born free, and everywhere he is in irons."
    • Jean-Jacques Rousseau - On The Social Contract - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Social contract; or, Principles of political right, by Jean Jacques Rousseau.

    ^ Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1712-1778 Rousseau's Tomb in the Panthon, Paris .
    • Jean-Jacques Rousseau - On The Social Contract - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The Social Contract, or Principles of Political Right (1762)
  • Hardin, Garrett.^ The Devil's Kitchen: Immigrants and the "social contract" The Devil's Kitchen "Politics is the business of getting power and privilege without possessing merit" —P J O'Rourke Current .
    • The Devil's Kitchen: Immigrants and the "social contract" 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.devilskitchen.me.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Jean-Jacques Rousseau , 1762 On The Social Contract "Man was born free, and everywhere he is in irons."
    • Jean-Jacques Rousseau - On The Social Contract - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Political Value of the Social Contract .
    • Sample Chapter for Novak, D.: The Jewish Social Contract: An Essay in Political Theology. 30 January 2010 3:27 UTC press.princeton.edu [Source type: Original source]

    The Tragedy of the Commons (1968)

External links


Simple English

A social contract is an agreement between the people of a state and the government of a state. The people agree to follow certain rules made by the government. These rules are usually called laws. Laws help to make sure people have rights and that their rights are taken care of. One kind of social contract is a constitution. A constitution sets limits on the powers of government leaders, police, and other people who have authority.

The first social contracts were written by philosophers such as John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. They saw good government as coming from social contracts. Rousseau wrote a book called The Social Contract. Both the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution are social contracts.

Other pages


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 27, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Social contract, which are similar to those in the above article.








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