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Society for Creative Anachronism

Arms of The Society for Creative Anachronism
Blazon: Or, a laurel wreath vert.
Formation 1966
Type Historical reenactment society
Location Worldwide
Membership about 32,000

The Society for Creative Anachronism (often called the SCA) is a living history group with the aim of studying and recreating mainly Medieval European cultures and their histories before the 17th century. A quip often used within the SCA describes it as a group devoted to the Middle Ages "as they ought to have been,"[1] choosing to "selectively recreate the culture, choosing elements of the culture that interest and attract us."[1] Founded in 1966, the society had about 32,000 members as of 2008 .[2][3]



The Society for Creative Anachronism's roots can be traced to a backyard graduation party of a medieval studies graduate, the author Diana Paxson, in Berkeley, California, on May Day in 1966.[4] The party began with a "Grand Tournament" in which the participants wore motorcycle helmets, fencing masks, and usually some semblance of a costume, and whacked away at each other with weapons including plywood swords, padded maces, and even a fencing foil. It ended with a parade down Telegraph Avenue with everyone singing "Greensleeves". It was styled as a "protest against the 20th century".[5] The SCA still measures dates within the society from the date of that party, calling the system Anno Societatis (Latin for "in the Year of the Society"). For example, 2009 May 1 to 2010 April 30 is A.S. XLIV (44). The name "Society for Creative Anachronism" was coined by science fiction author Marion Zimmer Bradley, an early participant, when the nascent group needed an official name in order to reserve a park for a tournament.[5][6]

In 1968, Bradley moved to Staten Island, New York and founded the Kingdom of the East, holding a tournament that summer to determine the first Eastern King of the SCA. That September, a tournament was held at the World Science Fiction Convention, which was in Berkeley that year. The SCA had produced a book for the convention called A Handbook for the Current Middle Ages, which was a how-to book for people wanting to start their own SCA chapters. Convention goers purchased the book and the idea spread. Soon, other local chapters began to form. In October 1968, the SCA was incorporated as a 501(c)(3) non-profit corporation in California.[4] By the end of 1969, the SCA's three original kingdoms had been established: West, East, and Middle. All SCA kingdoms trace their roots to these original three. The number of SCA kingdoms has continued to grow by the expansion and division of existing kingdoms; for example, the Outlands, Artemisia, Ansteorra, Gleann Abhann, Meridies, and Trimaris all originally belonged to the fourth kingdom, Atenveldt, which began as a branch of the West.



The SCA is divided into administrative regions which it calls kingdoms. Smaller branches within those kingdoms include Principalities, Regions, Baronies, and Provinces, and local chapters are known as Cantons, Ridings, Shires, Colleges, Strongholds, and Ports. Kingdoms, Principalities, and Baronies have ceremonial rulers who preside over activities and issue awards to individuals and groups. Colleges, Strongholds, and Ports are local chapters (like a shire) that are associated with an institution, such as a school, military base, or even a military ship at sea.[7]

All SCA branches are organized in descending order as follows:[7]

SCA members holding court
  • Kingdom: area ruled by a King and Queen (typically covering several U.S. states or Canadian provinces, and can be as large as countries or collections of countries). Minimum members required 400.[7]
    • Principality: area within a kingdom ruled by Prince and Princess (large area sometimes comprising entire states). Minimum members required 100.[7]
    • Region: equivalent of principality without ceremonial representative
      • Barony: area administered by a Baron and/or Baroness, the ceremonial representative(s) of the Crown (small chapter typically occurring in an urban area). Minimum members required 25.[7]
        • Canton: local branch reporting through a barony (local chapter, which may be on the way to becoming a shire)
      • Province: equivalent of barony without ceremonial representative
        • Riding: local branch reporting through a province
      • Shire: local branch reporting directly to a kingdom or principality (local chapter typically occurring in rural areas). Minimum members required 5.[7]
      • College: institutional branch based at a school, research facility, etc. (may be a part of a larger local group or report directly to a principality or kingdom)
      • Stronghold: institutional branch based at a military installation (may be a part of a larger local group or report directly to a principality or kingdom)
      • Port: institutional branch based at a military installation in situations where groups of members will be detached for long periods, as with ships at sea (may be a part of a larger local group or report directly to a principality or kingdom)

Groups are active all over the United States, Canada, Europe, Australia, South Africa, and New Zealand, with scattered groups elsewhere, including the Panama Canal Zone. At one time there was even a group on the aircraft carrier USS Nimitz, known as the "Shire of Curragh Mor" (anglicized Irish for "Big Boat"), and the shire's arms played on the Nimitz's ship's badge. There is also an active chapter in South Korea, the Stronghold of Warrior's Gate, with a mix of active duty military personnel from the several services and military-connected civilians. There are also local and regional sub-groups, usually called "households", which are not part of the Society's formal organization, the largest of which is the Mongol Empire-themed Great Dark Horde.[8]

Corporate organization

The SCA is incorporated as a 501(c)(3) non-profit corporation in California, with its current headquarters in the city of Milpitas, California. It is headed by a board of directors, each of which is nominated by the membership of the SCA, selected by sitting directors, and elected to serve for 3.5 years. Each director serves as an ombudsman for various kingdoms and society officers. The BoD, as it is called, is responsible for handling the corporate affairs of the SCA and is also in charge of certain disciplinary actions, such as revoking the membership status of participants who have broken Corpora regulations or modern law while participating in SCA activities.


The nineteen SCA Kingdoms are (in order of founding):[3]

  1. The West Kingdom was created when the Society originated in 1966. It currently includes Northern California, most of Nevada, and Alaska, as well as Japan, Korea, and the Pacific Rim (excluding Australia and New Zealand).
  2. The Kingdom of the East was created in 1968. In the United States it covers eastern Pennsylvania, eastern New York, Delaware, New Jersey, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine. In Canada, it covers Quebec, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Newfoundland.
  3. The Middle Kingdom was created in 1969 from a portion of the Kingdom of the East. Its current borders include Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and parts of Kentucky, Michigan, Iowa and Ontario.
  4. The Kingdom of Atenveldt was created in 1971 from the Kingdom of the West. It encompasses the state of Arizona, along with small parts of Utah and California.
  5. The Kingdom of Meridies was created in 1978 from the Kingdom of Atenveldt. Its borders currently encompass the entirety of Alabama; almost all of Georgia; all of Middle and East Tennessee, plus a substantial portion of West Tennessee; a bit of the panhandle of Florida; and small portions of both Kentucky and Virginia.
  6. The Kingdom of Caid was created in 1978 from the Kingdom of the West. It currently encompasses Southern California, the Greater Las Vegas Area, and Hawaii.
  7. The Kingdom of Ansteorra was created in 1979 from the Kingdom of Atenveldt. Ansteorra covers Oklahoma and most of Texas as well as the International Space Station.
  8. The Kingdom of Atlantia was created in 1981 from the Kingdom of the East. Its borders cover Maryland, most of Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina, as well as Augusta, Georgia.
  9. The Kingdom of An Tir was created in 1982 from the Kingdom of the West. It encompasses the US states of Oregon, Washington, and the northern tips of Idaho, and in Canada it covers British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, the Yukon, and the Northwest Territories.
  10. The Kingdom of Calontir was created in 1984 from the Kingdom of the Middle. It covers Kansas, Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska, and the 727xx Zip Code area around Fayetteville, Arkansas.
  11. The Kingdom of Trimaris was created in 1985. It was split from the Kingdom of Meridies and is composed of the majority of Florida, as well as Panama, and humorously, Antarctica (although see Lochac, below). Also, as a triskele (the Trimaris symbol) was sent into space on a shuttle, Trimaris claims space.
  12. The Kingdom of the Outlands was created in 1986 from the Kingdom of Atenveldt. It encompasses New Mexico, most of Colorado, parts of Wyoming, the panhandle of Nebraska, as well as El Paso County and Hudspeth County of Texas.
  13. The Kingdom of Drachenwald was created in 1993 from the Kingdom of the East. It is by far the largest kingdom in terms of land area, but not in population. It covers all of Europe (including islands), Africa, and the Middle East. In a humorous twist, it achieved its independence on the Fourth of July.
  14. The Kingdom of Artemisia was created in 1997 from the Kingdom of Atenveldt. It currently covers Montana, southern Idaho, most of Utah, northwestern Colorado, and southwestern Wyoming.
  15. The Kingdom of Æthelmearc was created in 1997 from the Kingdom of the East. It covers northeastern/central/western Pennsylvania, central/western New York, and West Virginia.
  16. The Kingdom of Ealdormere was created in 1998 from the Kingdom of the Middle. It comprises most of the Canadian province of Ontario.
  17. The Kingdom of Lochac was created in 2002 from the Kingdom of the West (Australia) and the Kingdom of Caid (New Zealand). It encompasses the entirety of Australia and New Zealand, and has some claim to at least parts of Antarctica, in possible contradiction of the claim held by the Kingdom of Trimaris.
  18. The Kingdom of Northshield was created in 2004 from the Kingdom of the Middle. It covers North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the upper peninsula of Michigan. It also extends into Canada, encompassing Manitoba and northwestern Ontario.
  19. The Kingdom of Gleann Abhann was created in 2005 from the Kingdom of Meridies. It covers Mississippi, Louisiana, most of Arkansas, and the western edge of Tennessee including the Memphis area.


The Society as a whole, each kingdom, and each local group within a kingdom, all have a standard group of officers with titles loosely based on medieval equivalents.[7]

  • Seneschal: The seneschal acts as the administrative head of the group. Every local group is required to have a seneschal who reports to the kingdom's seneschal.
  • Reeve: The treasurer, also known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer (from the British office), handles the financial matters of the group. Every local group is required to have one. The Society Chancellor of the Exchequer, who administrates the kingdom and local reeves, reports to the Society Treasurer who handles the corporate finances.
  • Knight Marshal: The combat supervisor, the knight marshal administrates Armored Combat (rattan and armor) activities for the group. A local group is required to have one in order to host combat activities.
  • Minister of Arts and Sciences: Sometimes split into two offices, one for arts and one for sciences, this office coordinates arts and sciences activities for the group, arranging classes and demonstrations, and leading participants to others who work in fields of their interest.
  • Herald: This officer is in charge of heraldic activities, such as the creation and registration of names and arms. Each kingdom has a College of Heralds which prepares submissions to go to the Society College of Arms, headed by the Laurel Sovereign of Arms.
  • Hospitaller or Chatelaine: In charge of welcoming and facilitating new participants into the SCA.
  • Chirurgeon: In charge of safety and modern first aid. This officer usually has some form of medical training outside the Society.
  • Rapier Marshal: Supervises rapier (fencing) activities for the group.
  • Constable: In charge of maintaining and tracking liability waivers for events and combat activities.
  • Chronicler: Produces and edits the group's newsletter. The Society Chronicler monitors each of the kingdom and local group's chroniclers, while the SCA's two organization-wide publications, Tournaments Illuminated and The Compleat Anachronist, each have their own editor-in-chief.
  • Minister of Children: Arranging and officiating children's activities. Sometimes known as Minister of Youth.
  • Historian: Recording the history of the group, from the local to the Society level.
  • Webminister: Derived from webmaster, this officer is in charge of maintaining the Internet presence of the group.

Culture of the group

SCA participant in period garb prepared for feast

Members of the SCA study and take part in a variety of activities, including combat, archery, equestrian activities, costuming, cooking, metalwork, woodworking, music, dance, calligraphy, fiber arts, etc.[6]


To aid historical recreation, participants in the SCA create historically plausible characters known individually as a persona.[6] To new members, a persona can simply be a costume and a name used for weekend events, while other members may study and create an elaborate personal history. The goal of a well crafted persona is a historically accurate person who might have lived in a particular historical time and place. The SCA has onomastic students who try to assist members in creating a persona name which could have existed in a particular time and place within the SCA's studied period. However, claiming to be a specific historical individual, especially a very familiar one (e.g. Genghis Khan, Julius Caesar, Henry Plantagenet, Queen Elizabeth I), is not permitted. Likewise, one is not allowed to claim the persona of a fellow SCA member, alive or dead. Nor is one allowed to take on the persona of a sufficiently familiar fictional character (e.g. Robin of Locksley or Robin Hood).[6][7]


A major dimension to the SCA is its internal system of Heraldry. Any member of the society may apply to register Arms for their persona, which are checked by the heralds for uniqueness and period authenticity, before being blazoned and recorded in the society's Armorial. The system has evolved since the formation of the society; and now has three Sovereigns of Arms, with Pursuivants for each Kingdom.[9]


An SCA tournament of chivalry

The SCA has ceremonial rulers chosen by winning tournaments (Kings/Queens, Princes/Princesses) in SCA Heavy Combat. Barons and Baronesses are appointed by Royalty, although some baronies hold elections or competitions to choose their preferred Baron and/or Baroness. One of the primary functions of state for reigning monarchs is to recognize participant achievement through awards. Most awards denote excellence in a specific pursuit such as local service, arts and sciences, and combat. Some awards change the precedence and title of the recipient, giving him or her the privilege of being known as "Lord"/"Lady", "Baron", "Duchess", "Master", and so forth. High level awards are often given with the consultation of the other people who have received the award, such as peerages and consulting orders.[7]

Ruler by 'right of arms' (SCA combat)

Each SCA kingdom is "ruled" by a king and queen chosen by winning a Crown Tournament in armoured combat. This is required by Corpora to be held as a "properly constituted armored combat" tournament.[7] The winner of the Crown Tournament and his/her Consort are styled "Crown Prince and Princess" and serve an advisory period (three to six months, depending upon the scheduling of the Crown Tournament) under the current King and Queen prior to acceding to the throne and ruling in their turn.[7]

Peerage orders

Royalty and former royals at a coronation

The highest ranking titles in the SCA belong to the royalty, followed by the former royalty. Former kings and queens become counts and countesses (dukes and duchesses if they have reigned more than once), and former princes and princesses of Principalities become viscounts and viscountesses.[7] This system is not historically based, but was developed out of practical necessity early in the Society's history.

Directly beneath this "landed" nobility (current and former royalty) rank the highest awards, the Peerages. The SCA has three orders of peerage: the Order of Chivalry, awarded for skill at arms; the Order of the Laurel, awarded for skill in the arts and sciences; and the Order of the Pelican, awarded for outstanding service to the Society.[7]

Cultural impact

In May, 1999, The Onion ran a front-page article headlined "Society For Creative Anachronism Seizes Control Of Russia" featuring photos of actual SCA participants from the Madison, Wisconsin Barony of Jaravellir.[10][11]

Members of the SCA are given pivotal roles in S.M. Stirling's Emberverse series; where their skills in pre-industrial technology and warfare become invaluable in helping humanity adapt when all modern technology (including firearms) ceases working.

In his conclusion to the Space Odyssey series, 3001: The Final Odyssey; Arthur C. Clarke portrays the SCA as still being active in the year 3001.

The novel Murder at the War (Knightfall in paperback edition) is a detective story concerning a murder that takes place at the SCA's largest annual event, Pennsic War. The story takes place entirely at Pennsic.

In the David Weber science fiction novel Field of Dishonor, main character Honor Harrington mentions that her uncle is a member of the SCA and that he taught her to shoot from the hip (the time the SCA covers having been moved up to the 1800s in the future era in which the novel is set, to include cowboy and Civil War reenactors).

In Christopher Stasheff's "Warlock" Series the inhabitants of the planet Gramarye are revealed to be descended from SCA participants.

Critiques and criticism of the SCA

The SCA will use modern elements when necessary (like plastic-framed eyeglasses) or to promote safety (like replacing steel swords with rattan during combat). Also, most SCA gatherings do not reenact a specific time or place in history as do most living history groups (e.g. Colonial Williamsburg). For this reason, SCA events are more self-referential to individual members' personas where several cultures and historic periods can be represented at an event. For example, in a tournament, a Roman may fight a 15th-century knight, then a Viking, and even an American Indian.[12] Thus the SCA may be more of a subculture than a reenactment group. For instance, the discussions of the Grand Council of the SCA, an advisory group to the Board of Directors, debated this at length.[13] There is evidence that the SCA is recognized in the popular culture as a subculture "fan" group, not a reenactment group.[14]

One argument in the SCA is the meaning of "Creative Anachronism". An oft-quoted though unofficial SCA motto is "The Middle Ages as they should have been"[15] – that is to say, lacking such undesirable elements as religious persecution, bubonic plague, and open-pit sewers. Another element of the Society is a ban on public religious ceremonies or proselytizing, in stark contrast to the real Middle Ages, and overt displays of religion are discouraged in many areas.[16]

Despite such criticisms, there is some educational quality to the group's activities and they have helped to foster a good deal of valuable research, especially in the area of medieval crafts.[17]

Extent of royal influence

Northshield court at an outdoor SCA event

While the Kings and Queens do have a significant influence within their individual kingdoms and the larger Society during their reigns, their duties are primarily ceremonial. The day-to-day business of running the Society is performed by volunteers or appointees in kingdom-level offices, and by the Society's Board of Directors. In fact, the Board of Directors can strip any Crown of its authority (retroactively to the beginning of their reign, even after it has ended) if that authority is abused. To date this has never occurred, although the Board has on several occasions voided individual awards given by Kings and Queens (usually for raising an individual from another kingdom into the peerage without first obtaining permission from their fellow sovereign), or banned individuals from competing for the Crown for a certain period.

The extent of the Crown's authority also varies from kingdom to kingdom. Argument over the extent of royal influence is another strong element of the SCA's internal culture. One view of this can be found in Mike Woodford's Trends of Change in the SCA.[18]

Elevation to the peerage

A new knight (in white) receives her shield

SCA peerages are bestowed as lifetime awards to those who receive them, though the recipient may surrender the title if he or she so wishes. It is possible, although usually difficult, to again receive a peerage so surrendered. Peerages are bestowed by the Crown (the Sovereign and Consort) of a Kingdom. In most cases, this is done with the consent of the members of a given peerage, often at their suggestion.[7] The Society's Bylaws state that "the Crown may elevate subjects to the Peerage by granting membership in one of the Orders conferring a Patent of Arms, after consultation with the members of the Order within the Kingdom, and in accordance with the laws and customs of the kingdom. Restriction: to advance a candidate to the Order of Knighthood, a Knight of the Society (usually the King) must bestow the accolade."[7]


Some people criticize the SCA because it does not require its members to adhere to as high a standard of authenticity as other living-history or reenactment groups. Other SCA members stipulate the fact that they are not 100% authentic in their recreations and merely add that this is the reason they have the word "creative" in their name. This attitude has created the unofficial motto: "The Middle Ages not as they were, but as they should have been." This tension is highlighted by David Friedman in his articles "A Dying Dream"[19] and "Concerning the C in SCA".[20 ]

SCA events tend to be unique to the SCA's culture. For instance, events can be heavily dominated by court and award granting, the bi-yearly (or, in one kingdom, tri-yearly) combat for the royal seats and subsequent coronations. Some SCA events have been dedicated to particular historic events or have portions of their camping sectioned off for only strict reenactment, sometimes called "Enchanted Ground",[19] in which much more strenuous attempts are made to keep anachronistic objects and actions out. However, this is not the norm.

Although it may be a false dichotomy, the distinction between the goals of fun and authenticity is an ongoing philosophical conflict within the Society. See, for example, the debates from, the SCA newsgroup on USENET.[21]

Sport versus re-creation fighting

Society for Creative Anachronism participants

SCA Armored Combat techniques are highly developed and many techniques commonly seen at events are based on what works with SCA weapons and armor rather than those used in history. As a result of deviations from historical combat, SCA combat is often placed into the category of "sport fighting" by critics and some participants alike. However, it would be hyperbolic to declare that all SCA combat techniques are historically inaccurate. The SCA hosts events where hundreds and sometimes thousands of participants enter the combat field. As a non-profit organization, the SCA is also bound by insurance company mandates where participant safety is involved, regardless of the number of participants. Such policies do impact certain combat techniques and their historical accuracy.

SCA combat

Some SCA combat techniques include things that work with SCA combat and armor as well as more historically accurate techniques, depending on the group observed and on what techniques and weapons they employ. There are SCA regional groups and individuals over the globe who research and teach historical combat techniques for medieval weaponry where possible. As with all other areas of historical research, the quality of one's work is dependent upon the surviving material for study as well as the effort an individual puts into research.

The broad historical scope of the SCA, as well as a notable absence of documentation on certain fighting styles and techniques, requires participants to fill in the gaps as best possible using knowledge of other combat techniques. The most well known of these changes is that the knee and below are invalid targets within the Chivalric combat style. Another known change is that certain historical weapons are not allowed as there is no safe way to construct an approximation of historical weight and function, as with the flail.

Rapier combat has a greater abundance of surviving historical documentation of various fighting styles from Europe's fencing academies, both in original language and translated forms, and many practitioners attempt to fight in a historically accurate style using a more historically accurate Renaissance-style blade. SCA rapier combat also makes concessions of accuracy for safety by disallowing percussive cuts, though there is currently investigation into the subject under the experimental "Sidesword" program.[22]

These deviations from historical fighting techniques have led critics to classify SCA combat as "sport fighting" rather than "re-creation fighting", regardless of the reasoning behind them.

Authenticity of determining a "king" by combat

Actual medieval monarchs were not chosen by Tournament combat. There are, however, literary and historical bases for the custom, most famously the tournament in Sir Walter Scott's Ivanhoe. In the Middle Ages, there were a number of different "mock king" games, some of which involved some form of combat, such as King of the Mountain or the King of Archers. In the 17th century the Cotswold Games were developed, the winner of which was declared to be "king". Also, the medieval sagas contain accounts of uniting petty kingdoms under a single king through actual combat.[23]

The SCA's first event did not choose a "king". Fighters vied for the right to declare their ladies (only men fought at the first event) "fairest", later called the "Queen of Love and Beauty".[4]

See also


  1. ^ a b What is the SCA "Life in the Current Middle Ages: What is the SCA?". Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc.. 2008-04-04. What is the SCA. Retrieved 2008-06-27.  
  2. ^
  3. ^ a b "Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc.". Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc.. 2006-11-29. Retrieved 2007-12-25.  
  4. ^ a b c Keyes, William (1980). "The Origins of the SCA". Ken Mayer. Retrieved 2007-06-07.  
  5. ^ a b Croucher, Martin (17 March 2008). "Latter-Day Knights Battle for Imaginary Kingdoms". The Epoch Times. Retrieved 2008-06-03.  
  6. ^ a b c d O'Roarke, Mistress Siobhan Medhbh. "Life in the Current Middle Ages: How did the SCA begin?". Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc.. Retrieved 2008-05-24.  
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o (PDF) The By-Laws and Corporate Policies of the SCA, Inc. Milpitas, CA: Society for Creative Anachronism, Inc.. 2007.  
  8. ^ "Gunnbjorn Gunnarsson" (Michael S. Rosecrans) "Households in the SCA". Legio Draconis. Retrieved 2008-12-03.
  9. ^ Laurel Sovereign of Arms. "Heraldry". SCA. Retrieved 2009-07-11.  
  10. ^ "Society For Creative Anachronism Seizes Control Of Russia" The Onion, 1999-05-26.
  11. ^ The story of how all this came about.
  12. ^ David Lowenthal (1985). The Past is a Foreign Country. Cambridge University Press. p. 363. ISBN 0521294800.  
  13. ^ "Board Report". SCA. 2005-08-05. Retrieved 2007-06-07.  
  14. ^ Duffy, Daniel; John (Plastic) (January 31, 2005). "Ringers, Trekkers And Re-Enactors".;sid=05/01/31/10485117;mode=nested. Retrieved 2007-06-07.  
  15. ^ Danielewicz, Sandy (2000). "How-to-Behave". Mark S. Harris. Retrieved 2007-06-07.  
  16. ^ Your Teenager And The SCA ­ Some Answers For Parents.
  17. ^ McLean, Will; Jeffrey L. Singman (1995). Daily Life in Chaucer's England. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p. 221. OCLC 32167609.  
  18. ^ Woodford, Mike (May 1983). Trends of Change in the SCA. Phoenix, AZ, USA: The Runnymede Press.  
  19. ^ a b Friedman, David; Cook, Elizabeth (1986). "A Dying Dream". Greg Lindahl. Retrieved 2007-06-07.  
  20. ^ Friedman, David; Cook, Elizabeth (1988). "Concerning the 'C' in SCA". Greg Lindahl. Retrieved 2007-06-07.  
  21. ^ Clark, Susan (21 March 1993). "The Dream". Mark S. Harris. Retrieved 2007-06-07.  
  22. ^ William E. Wilson (2006-11-15). "sca-sidesword". Retrieved 2007-06-07.  
  23. ^ Anonymous; Magnusson, Magnus; Palsson, Hermann (1969). Laxdaela Saga. Penguin Classics.,M1. Retrieved 2008-05-24.  

Further reading

  • O'Donnell, Patrick (2004) "The Knights Next Door: Everyday People Living Middle Ages Dreams" iUniverse Inc. ISBN 978-0595325306 OCLC 57352122 [1]
  • Erisman, W. E. (1998). Forward into the past: the poetics and politics of community in two historical re-creation groups. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Texas at Austin, 1998. (Available from University Microfilms), OCLC:44631432, [2]
  • The Known World Handbook (3rd ed.). Milpitas, CA: Society For Creative Anachronism, Inc.
  • Fincher, J. (1981). They 'Joust' as if Knighthood Were in Flower Today. Smithsonian, 12(2), 94-104.
  • Burns, C. (Director) and Cardinale, T. (Director). (2001). In Service to the Dream [Motion Picture]. Burbank, CA: Mythos Productions LLC.
  • Geist, B. (Interviewer). (2000, May 7). Weekend Warriors. CBS Sunday Morning [Television Program]. New York, NY: CBS Television.

External links

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