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neonsodiummagnesium
Li

Na

K
Appearance
silvery white metallic
General properties
Name, symbol, number sodium, Na, 11
Element category alkali metal
Group, period, block 13, s
Standard atomic weight 22.98976928(2)g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Ne] 3s1
Electrons per shell 2,8,1 (Image)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 0.968 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 0.927 g·cm−3
Melting point 370.87 K, 97.72 °C, 207.9 °F
Boiling point 1156 K, 883 °C, 1621 °F
Critical point (extrapolated)
2573 K, 35 MPa
Heat of fusion 2.60 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 97.42 kJ·mol−1
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) 28.230 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 554 617 697 802 946 1153
Atomic properties
Oxidation states +1, -1
(strongly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 0.93 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 495.8 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 4562 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 6910.3 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 186 pm
Covalent radius 166±9 pm
Van der Waals radius 227 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure body-centered cubic
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 47.7 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 142 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 71 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 3200 m/s
Young's modulus 10 GPa
Shear modulus 3.3 GPa
Bulk modulus 6.3 GPa
Mohs hardness 0.5
Brinell hardness 0.69 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-23-5
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of sodium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
22Na trace 2.602 y β+γ 0.5454 22Ne*
1.27453(2)[1] 22Ne
εγ - 22Ne*
1.27453(2) 22Ne
β+ 1.8200 22Ne
23Na 100% 23Na is stable with 12 neutrons
.Sodium (pronounced /ˈsoʊdiəm/, SOH-di-əm) is a metallic element with a symbol Na (from Latin natrium or Arabic natrun) and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal and is a member of the alkali metals within "group 1" (formerly known as ‘group IA’).^ Chemical and Physical Properties Titanium (atomic number 22; relative atomic mass 47.90; density 4.507 g/cm 3 at 20C) is a silvery grey metal in group IV of the periodic table and is a member of the first transition series of elements.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Properties and analytical methods Titanium is a grey metal with an atomic number of 22 and a relative atomic mass of 47.9.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The occurrence of a larger-than-expected number of cases of cancer within a group of people in a geographic area over a period of time.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.It has only one stable isotope, 23Na.^ PEER REVIEWED** Absorption of inhaled aluminum compounds has not been studied in detail; one reason for this is probably the fact that no stable radioactive isotope of aluminum is available.

.Elemental sodium was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1806 by passing an electric current through molten sodium hydroxide.^ Aluminum occurs ubiquitously in the environment in the form of silicates, oxides and hydroxides, combined with other elements such as sodium and fluorine and as complexes with organic matter.

^ Isolated by Sir Humphry Davy at the Royal Institution, London, UK. .
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Na Sodium 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Elemental sodium does not occur naturally on Earth, but quickly oxidizes in air and is violently reactive with water, so it must be stored in an inert medium, such as a liquid hydrocarbon.^ A metallic element that occurs naturally in tiny amounts in air, water, soil, and food.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Consequently, as was pointed out by Bertine & Goldberg (1971), the contribution to the titanium concentrations in air and natural waters will be most evident at these latitudes.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ PEER REVIEWED** Strong oxidizers (such as acids, acid salts, chlorates & nitrates) [Note: Absorbs moisture from the air forming a syrup].

.The free metal is used for some chemical synthesis, analysis, and heat transfer applications.^ Aluminum was transferred to the patients' blood during the dialysis treatments, because of the high metal content in the tap water used to prepare the dialysates.

^ The remainder is used in the chemical and electrochemical processing industries, for handling some of the most corrosive processes, and in marine and ordnance applications.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Used Heat Transfer Presses .
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Aluminum Suppliers Information and Resources 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC www.aluminumsuppliers.net [Source type: Reference]

.Sodium ion is soluble in water in nearly all of its compounds, and is thus present in great quantities in the Earth's oceans and other stagnant bodies of water.^ Cool all affected containers with flooding quantities of water.

^ The fact that during the Flood the “fountains of the great deep” were closed, so no new deep water has since been delivered to the surface of the earth.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed.

.In these bodies it is mostly counterbalanced by the chloride ion, causing evaporated ocean water solids to consist mostly of sodium chloride, or common table salt.^ [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed.

Sodium ion is also a component of many minerals.
.Sodium is an essential element for all animal life and for some plant species.^ Mineral Species sorted by the element Na Sodium .
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Na Sodium 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A very poisonous chemical substance made from tar and also found in some plants and essential oils (scented liquid taken from plants).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A type of polysaccharide (sugar molecule) that is made by some plants and animals.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In animals, sodium ions are used in opposition to potassium ions, to allow the organism to build up an electrostatic charge on cell membranes, and thus allow transmission of nerve impulses when the charge is allowed to dissipate by a moving wave of voltage change.^ Cancer cells take up more C-11 choline than normal cells, so the pictures can be used to find cancer cells in the body.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cells of a single type (human, animal, or plant) that have been adapted to grow continuously in the laboratory and are used in research.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A PET scanner is used to detect which cells in the body have taken up copper Cu 64-ATSM. It is a type of radioimaging agent.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Sodium is thus classified as a “dietary inorganic macro-mineral” for animals. .Sodium's relative rarity on land is due to its solubility in water, thus causing it to be leached into bodies of long-standing water by rainfall.^ In this procedure, the oxides are converted, under heating, into water-soluble sulfates by fumes of sulfuric acid, after which the corresponding sulfates are identified by staining reactions.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Gentamicin may thus interfere with the mechanisms for cellular uptake and intracellular processing of NAG causing increased NAG release into the tubular lumen.

^ It is produced by dissolving sugar in water to which string or wooden swizzle sticks are added, causing the sugar to transmute into transparent crystals which cling to the string or stick.

.Such is its relatively large requirement in animals, in contrast to its relative scarcity in many inland soils, that herbivorous land animals have developed a special taste receptor for sodium ion.^ The antidotal effectiveness of the association of hydroxoycobalamin and sodium thiosulfate has been demonstrated in mice and other animal species poisoned with cyanide.

Contents

Characteristics

.At room temperature, sodium metal is soft enough that it can be cut with a knife.^ Soft, silvery white metal which oxidizes rapidly when cut.
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Na Sodium 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In air, the bright silvery luster of freshly exposed sodium will rapidly tarnish. .The density of alkali metals generally increases with increasing atomic number, but sodium is denser than potassium.^ Infusion of /each/ compound resulted in immediate and ipsilateral increases in the fractional excretion of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium.

^ No alkanes lower than number 15 are generated.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sodium is a fairly good conductor of heat.^ PEER REVIEWED** GOOD CONDUCTOR OF HEAT & ELECTRICITY [Browning, E. Toxicity of Industrial Metals.

Chemical properties

Sodium metal (ca. 10 g) under oil
.Compared with other alkali metals, sodium is generally less reactive than potassium and more reactive than lithium,[2] in accordance with "periodic law": for example, their reaction in water, chlorine gas, etc.^ Most other places are less than 1%, except for anaerobic areas such as the Black Sea with values of 6 to 15%.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Except for a highly significant decrease in urinary calcium in the thiazide group (P less than 0.01) all other biochemical indices of calcium metabolism were unchanged.

^ In general it is advisable to limit the internal use of mineral oil to periods of less than 1 week.

.Sodium reacts exothermically with water: small pea-sized pieces will bounce across the surface of the water until they are consumed by it, whereas large pieces will explode.^ They may occur as one large stone or as many small ones, and vary from the size of a golf ball to a grain of sand.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Carbohydrates can be small and simple (for example, glucose) or they can be large and complex (for example, polysaccharides such as starch, chitin or cellulose).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.While sodium reacts with water at room temperature, the sodium piece melts with the heat of the reaction to form a sphere, if the reacting sodium piece is large enough.^ The oxygen might be expected to react and form carbon dioxide and water.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A supersaturated sugar solution contains more sugar than the water can dissolve at room temperature.

^ PEER REVIEWED** Methods of Manufacturing: Sodium cyanide can be prepared by heating sodium amide with carbon, by melting sodium chloride and calcium cyanamide together in an electric furnace ...

.The reaction with water produces very caustic sodium hydroxide (lye) and highly flammable hydrogen gas.^ Violent reaction with water; contact may cause an explosion or may produce a flammable gas.

^ PEER REVIEWED** Environmental considerations - Water spill: Add dilute caustic soda (sodium hydroxide).

^ Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas.

.These are extreme hazards (see Precautions section below).^ Due to these hazards, a condition of extreme peril of life and property now exists throughout (the) county.” .

.When burned in air, sodium forms sodium peroxide Na2O2, or with limited oxygen, the oxide Na2O (unlike lithium, the nitride is not formed).^ Aluminum occurs ubiquitously in the environment in the form of silicates, oxides and hydroxides, combined with other elements such as sodium and fluorine and as complexes with organic matter.

^ PEER REVIEWED** Stability/Shelf Life: IN MOIST AIR, OXIDE FILM FORMS WHICH PROTECTS METAL FROM CORROSION. [The Merck Index.

^ IN MOIST AIR, OXIDE FILM FORMS WHICH PROTECTS METAL FROM CORROSION; ...

If burned in oxygen under pressure, sodium superoxide NaO2 will be produced.

Compounds

.Sodium tends to form water-soluble compounds, such as halides, sulfate, nitrate, carboxylates and carbonates.^ The oxygen might be expected to react and form carbon dioxide and water.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PEER REVIEWED** Strong oxidizers (such as acids, acid salts, chlorates & nitrates) [Note: Absorbs moisture from the air forming a syrup].

^ Aluminum occurs ubiquitously in the environment in the form of silicates, oxides and hydroxides, combined with other elements such as sodium and fluorine and as complexes with organic matter.

.There are only isolated examples of sodium compounds precipitating from water solution.^ Sodium cyanide is the only compound tested that stimulates tributyltin induced hemolysis.

^ Whilst both of them show that water-wettability can be reversed (so that the rock becomes oil-wet) particularly when there are polar compounds in the oil, the wettability reversal takes 100 or more hours.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A significant but similar increment in urinary aluminum occurred with both aluminum alone and aluminum plus sodium bicarbonate, while only a small increment was noted with Shohl's solution alone.

.However, nature provides examples of many insoluble sodium compounds such as the feldspars (aluminum silicates of sodium, potassium and calcium).^ Silicosis, aluminosis, aluminum lung, and bauxite pneumoconiosis are the result of pulmonary fibrotic reactions to silical and aluminum -containing compounds, which have been observed in the lung tissue in humans.

^ Even so, many healthcare provider trained in nutritional therapies s have suggested the need for calcium supplementation by some patients using these drugs.

^ Back The soil would have to include a range of soluble minerals and compounds of calcium, potassium, phosphorus and the nitrates so that farming could continue.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are other insoluble sodium salts such as sodium bismuthate NaBiO3, sodium octamolybdate Na2Mo8O25• 4H2O, sodium thioplatinate Na4Pt3S6, sodium uranate Na2UO4.^ Aluminum occurs ubiquitously in the environment in the form of silicates, oxides and hydroxides, combined with other elements such as sodium and fluorine and as complexes with organic matter.

^ Other metallic ion-containing drugs, such as sucralfate, iron salts, and zinc salts, can also reduce absorption.

Sodium meta-antimonate's 2NaSbO3•7H2O solubility is 0.3 g/L as is the pyro form Na2H2Sb2O7•H2O of this salt. Sodium metaphosphate NaPO3 has a soluble and an insoluble form.[3]
.Sodium compounds are important to the chemical, glass, metal, paper, petroleum, soap, and textile industries.^ A chemical compound that binds tightly to metal ions.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The metallic characteristics of titanium are shown in compounds such as titanium chloride, phosphate, sulfate, and nitrate, whereas the non-metallic characteristics are exhibited in a series of titanates, e.g., calcium, iron, and sodium titanates.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Hard soaps are generally sodium salt of certain fatty acids (potassium produces softer or liquid soaps).^ A colorimetric method using the sodium salt of chromotropic acid was used for the determination of titanium in biological samples by Urusova (1969).
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Calcium, potassium, sodium, Cyanide salts/ [NIOSH; Criteria Document: Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts p.190 (1976) DHEW Pub.

[4]
.The sodium compounds that are the most important to industries are common salt (NaCl), soda ash (Na2CO3), baking soda (NaHCO3), caustic soda (NaOH), sodium nitrate (NaNO3), di- and tri-sodium phosphates, sodium thiosulfate (hypo, Na2S2O3 · 5H2O), and borax (Na2B4O7·10H2O).^ PEER REVIEWED** Environmental considerations - Water spill: Add dilute caustic soda (sodium hydroxide).

^ Metallic titanium, titanium dioxide, and titanium tetrachloride are the compounds most widely used in industry.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of the most common applications of titanium and its compounds are listed in Table 4.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[4]

Spectroscopy

Sodium spectral lines.
A low pressure sodium/sodium oxide (LPS/SOX) streetlamp at full power (detail)
A FASOR tuned to the D2A component of the sodium D line, used at the Starfire Optical Range to excite sodium atoms in the upper atmosphere.
When sodium or its compounds are introduced into a flame, they turn the flame a bright yellow color.
.One notable atomic spectral line of sodium vapor is the so-called D-line, which may be observed directly as the sodium flame-test line (see Applications) and also the major light output of low-pressure sodium lamps (these produce an unnatural yellow, rather than the peach-colored glow of high pressure lamps).^ Infusible magnesium minerals glow with exaggerated incandescence in the flame test (along with Sr, Ca, Zr, Zn, Ce - the "lime light effect").
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Mg Magnesium 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Back One explanation offered for reservoir high pressures is that as biological matter turns into kerogen and then into oil and gas, the resulting hydrocarbons occupy a larger volume than the precursor material.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A bright pink coloration of the skin due to high concentrations of oxyhemoglobin in the venous return may be confused with that of carbon monoxide poisoning.

The D-line is one of the classified Fraunhofer lines observed in the visible spectrum of the Sun's electromagnetic radiation. Sodium vapor in the upper layers of the Sun creates a dark line in the emitted spectrum of electromagnetic radiation by absorbing visible light in a band of wavelengths around 589.5 nm. This wavelength corresponds to transitions in atomic sodium in which the valence-electron transitions from a 3p to 3s electronic state. Closer examination of the visible spectrum of atomic sodium reveals that the D-line actually consists of two lines called the D1 and D2 lines at 589.6 nm and 589.0 nm, respectively. This fine structure results from a spin-orbit interaction of the valence electron in the 3p electronic state. The spin-orbit interaction couples the spin angular momentum and orbital angular momentum of a 3p electron to form two states that are respectively notated as 3p(2P01/2) and 3p(2P03/2) in the LS coupling scheme. The 3s state of the electron gives rise to a single state which is notated as 3s(2S1/2) in the LS coupling scheme. The D1-line results from an electronic transition between 3s(2S1/2) lower state and 3p(2P01/2) upper state. The D2-line results from an electronic transition between 3s(2S1/2) lower state and 3p(2P03/2) upper state. .Even closer examination of the visible spectrum of atomic sodium would reveal that the D-line actually consists of a lot more than two lines.^ "No more than I would with Lafitte.
  • Fiction Liberation Front--Gold 27 January 2010 23:57 UTC www.lewisshiner.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But there’s a lot more to it than that.

^ A small child, no more than two years old, crawled into Malone's lap.
  • Fiction Liberation Front--Gold 27 January 2010 23:57 UTC www.lewisshiner.com [Source type: Original source]

These lines are associated with hyperfine structure of the 3p upper states and 3s lower states. .Many different transitions involving visible light near 589.5 nm may occur between the different upper and lower hyperfine levels.^ In the Brent province, the mid-Ness shale which separates the upper part from the lower part of many reservoirs contains coal sequences (Morton et al 1992).
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals and different individuals with the same medical conditions with the same symptoms will often require differing treatments.

^ There was no correlation between the total body or different regional BMD levels and the duration or dosage of levothyroxine treatment or thyroid function test results.

[5][6]
.A practical use for lasers which work at the sodium D-line transition (see FASOR illustration) is to create artificial laser guide stars (artificial star-like images from sodium in the upper atmosphere) which assist in the adaptive optics for large land-based visible light telescopes.^ Creating Florida's multilingual global work force: Policies and practices in assessing and instructing students learning English as a new language.
  • ESOL ESOL TAPESTRY 11 September 2009 9:53 UTC tapestry.usf.edu [Source type: Academic]

Isotopes

Thirteen isotopes of sodium have been recognized. The only stable isotope is 23Na. Sodium has two radioactive cosmogenic isotopes which are also the two isotopes with longest half life, 22Na, with a half-life of 2.6 years and 24Na with a half-life of 15 hours. .All other isotopes have a half life of less than one minute.^ Except for a highly significant decrease in urinary calcium in the thiazide group (P less than 0.01) all other biochemical indices of calcium metabolism were unchanged.

^ The top of it was more than four feet down, one end higher than the other.
  • Fiction Liberation Front--Gold 27 January 2010 23:57 UTC www.lewisshiner.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Folic acid (3H-PGA) absorption was normal in all but one patient, while serum folate (less than 6.4 ng/ml) was reduced in all patients.

[7]
.Acute neutron radiation exposure (e.g., from a nuclear criticality accident) converts some of the stable 23Na in human blood plasma to 24Na.^ TIMAKIN, N.P. & BAGDASAROVA, L.B. (1969) [Quantitative spectrographic determination of some bioelements in human blood serum.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ HAMILTON, E.I., MINSKI, M.J., & CLEARY, J.J. (1972/1973) The concentration and distribution of some stable elements in healthy human tissues from the United Kingdom.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.By measuring the concentration of this isotope, the neutron radiation dosage to the victim can be computed.^ HARRISON, P.R., RAHN, K.A., DAMS, R., ROBBINS, J.A., WINCHESTER, J.W., BRAR, S.S., & NELSON, D. M. (1971) Areawide trace metal concentrations measured by multielement neutron activation analysis.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[8]

History

The flame test for sodium displays a brilliantly bright yellow emission due to the "sodium D-lines" at 588.9950 and 589.5924 nanometers.
Salt has been an important commodity in human activities, as testified by the English word salary, referring to salarium, the wafers of salt sometimes given to Roman soldiers along with their other wages.
In medieval Europe a compound of sodium with the Latin name of sodanum was used as a headache remedy. .The name sodium probably originates from the Arabic word suda meaning headache as the headache-alleviating properties of sodium carbonate or soda were well known in early times.^ The best known is that where living matter is assumed to decay and form oil—hence the name “fossil fuel.” The other model is that of an abiogenic origin—meaning that oil is directly produced from primordial matter.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For convenience, it is typical for the hydrocarbons with N atoms of carbon to be written as CN. The names and brief properties of the smaller molecules are listed in Table 1.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9]
.Sodium's chemical abbreviation Na was first published by Jöns Jakob Berzelius in his system of atomic symbols (Thomas Thomson, Annals of Philosophy[10]) and is a contraction of the element's new Latin name natrium which refers to the Egyptian natron,[9] the word for a natural mineral salt whose primary ingredient is hydrated sodium carbonate.^ Mineral Species sorted by the element Na Sodium .
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Na Sodium 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mineral Species sorted by the element Na (Sodium ) .
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Na Sodium 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mineral Species containing Sodium (Na ) .
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Na Sodium 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hydrated sodium carbonate historically had several important industrial and household uses later eclipsed by soda ash, baking soda and other sodium compounds.^ Metallic titanium, titanium dioxide, and titanium tetrachloride are the compounds most widely used in industry.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In other experiments, carbon tetrachloride was given in the same doses at both 48 hr and 24 hr prior to sodium cyanide.

^ Smaller amounts of titanium compounds are used in the electrical and dyeing industries.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Although sodium (sometimes called "soda" in English) has long been recognized in compounds, it was not isolated until 1807 by Sir Humphry Davy through the electrolysis of caustic soda.^ Isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1808.
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Mg Magnesium 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: Reference]

^ PEER REVIEWED** Environmental considerations - Water spill: Add dilute caustic soda (sodium hydroxide).

[11]
.Sodium imparts an intense yellow color to flames.^ Diagnostic tests: Compounds containing sodium give a strong and persistent yellow flame test .
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Na Sodium 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As early as 1860, Kirchhoff and Bunsen noted the high sensitivity that a flame test for sodium could give.^ PEER REVIEWED** Molten sodium, ammonia and charcoal react to give a high grade (98%) sodium cyanide [Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology.

They state in Annalen der Physik und Chemie in the paper "Chemical Analysis by Observation of Spectra":
In a corner of our 60 m3 room farthest away from the apparatus, we exploded 3 mg. of sodium chlorate with milk sugar while observing the nonluminous flame before the slit. After a while, it glowed a bright yellow and showed a strong sodium line that disappeared only after 10 minutes. From the weight of the sodium salt and the volume of air in the room, we easily calculate that one part by weight of air could not contain more than 1/20 millionth weight of sodium.

Occurrence

Albite (NaAlSi3O8), a sodium-containing mineral.
.Owing to its high reactivity, sodium is found in nature only as a compound and never as the free element.^ It is not found as a free metal because of its reactivity.

^ Sodium cyanide is the only compound tested that stimulates tributyltin induced hemolysis.

^ It was found that 70-90% of total aluminum bound to plasma proteins (60-70% to a high molecular weight protein and 10-20% to albumin while only 10-30% was unbound).

.Sodium makes up about 2.6% by weight of the Earth's crust, making it the sixth most abundant element overall[12] and the most abundant alkali metal.^ A substance made up of elements, such as hydrogen or sodium.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Kim Johnson 12/04/2006 10:40 AM I have a question about making caramels.

.Sodium is found in many different minerals, of which the most common is ordinary salt (sodium chloride), which occurs in vast quantities dissolved in seawater, as well as in solid deposits (halite).^ It is the most common mineral in the body.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ PEER REVIEWED** 2 ug/l of aluminum occurs in a dissolved state in seawater.

^ Calbindins are found in many different tissues in the body.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Others include amphibole, cryolite, soda niter and zeolite.
Sodium is relatively abundant in stars and the D spectral lines of this element are among the most prominent in star light. Though elemental sodium has a rather high vaporization temperature, its relatively high abundance and very intense spectral lines have allowed its presence to be detected by ground telescopes and confirmed by spacecraft (Mariner 10 and MESSENGER) in the thin atmosphere of the planet Mercury.[13]

Commercial production

.Sodium was first produced commercially in 1855 by thermal reduction of sodium carbonate with carbon at 1100 °C, in what is known as the Deville process.^ The principal method for the commercial production of titanium sponge metal is the Kroll process, which involves the reduction of titanium tetrachloride with magnesium metal in an inert atmosphere.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[14]
Na2CO3 (liquid) + 2 C (solid) → 2 Na (vapor) + 3 CO (gas).
A process based on the reduction of sodium hydroxide was developed in 1886.[14]
.Sodium is now produced commercially through the electrolysis of liquid sodium chloride, based on a process patented in 1924.[15][16] This is done in a Downs Cell in which the NaCl is mixed with calcium chloride to lower the melting point below 700 °C. As calcium is less electropositive than sodium, no calcium will be formed at the anode.^ No alkanes lower than number 15 are generated.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, the aortic bodies of the cat play a significant role in the hyperventilation produced by cytotoxic hypoxia, although it is less marked than that induced through the carotid bodies.

^ Most other places are less than 1%, except for anaerobic areas such as the Black Sea with values of 6 to 15%.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This method is less expensive than the previous Castner process of electrolyzing sodium hydroxide.
Very pure sodium can be isolated by the thermal decomposition of sodium azide.[17]
.Sodium metal in reagent-grade sold for about $1.50/pound ($3.30/kg) in 2009 when purchased in tonnage quantities.^ The sets were sold at specialty fishing retail stores nationwide from November 2008 through January 2009 for about $15.
  • Lead Paint Toy Recalls - Latest Lead Toy Recalls - Toxic Childrens Products - thedailygreen.com 14 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.thedailygreen.com [Source type: General]

^ There are about 30 commercially available grades of pure titanium and alloys.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The toys were sold on Kendamaspot’s Website and cultural festivals in Washington State from July 2008 through April 2009 for about $20.
  • Lead Paint Toy Recalls - Latest Lead Toy Recalls - Toxic Childrens Products - thedailygreen.com 14 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.thedailygreen.com [Source type: General]

Lower purity metal sells for considerably less. The market in this metal is volatile due to the difficulty in its storage and shipping. .It must be stored under an dry inert gas atmosphere or anhydrous mineral oil to prevent the formation of a surface layer of sodium oxide or sodium superoxide.^ V7 766]**PEER REVIEWED** When heated in a dry carbon dioxide atmosphere, sodium cyanide fuses without much decomposition.

^ Bone disease, manifested by reduced bone formation and demineralization in adults, and poor mineralization in infants, is associated with bone aluminum accumulation at the mineralizing surface.

^ Oil and gas reservoirs consist of a volume of porous rock (typically one to three miles beneath the ground surface).
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These oxides can react violently in the presence of organic materials. Sodium will also burn violently when heated in air. [18]
Smaller quantities of sodium, such as a kilogram, cost far more, in the range of $165/kg. This is partially due to the cost of shipping hazardous material. [19]

Applications

Metallic sodium

.
  • Sodium in its metallic form can be used to refine some reactive metals, such as zirconium and potassium, from their compounds.
  • In certain alloys to improve their structure.
  • To descale metal (make its surface smooth).
  • To purify molten metals.
  • In sodium vapor lamps, an efficient means of producing light from electricity (see the picture), often used for street lighting in cities.^ Produced in large quantities and used as metal in heat exchanger in atomic reactors.
    • Mineral Species sorted by the element Na Sodium 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It is a byproduct of zinc refining, and is used to make batteries, pigments, plastics, alloys, and electroplate.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ When making spun sugar, for example, too light a color would produce a ghostly effect and too dark a color would produce a brassy color when spun.

    Low-pressure sodium lamps give a distinctive yellow-orange light which consists primarily of the twin sodium D lines. .High-pressure sodium lamps give a more natural peach-colored light, composed of wavelengths spread much more widely across the spectrum.
  • As a heat transfer fluid in some types of nuclear reactors and inside the hollow valves of high-performance internal combustion engines.
  • In organic synthesis, sodium is used as a reducing agent, for example in the Birch reduction.
  • In chemistry, sodium is often used either alone or with potassium in an alloy, NaK as a desiccant for drying solvents.^ Most techniques in which neutron activation analysis is used require a large nuclear reactor, with the minimum flux for best overall performance acknowledged to be around 10 12 neutrons/second per cm 2 .
    • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ PEER REVIEWED** If material involved in fire: Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire.

    ^ It is also used to treat some types of kidney disease in children.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    Used with benzophenone, it forms an intense blue coloration when the solvent is dry and oxygen-free.
  • The sodium fusion test uses sodium's high reactivity, low melting point, and the near-universal solubility of its compounds, to qualitatively analyze compounds.

Sodium compounds

  • This alkali metal as the Na+ ion is vital to animal life.
  • In soap, as sodium salts of fatty acids. Sodium soaps are harder (higher melting) soaps than potassium soaps.
  • In some medicine formulations, the salt form of the active ingredient usually with sodium or potassium is a common modification to improve bioavailability.
  • Sodium chloride (NaCl), a compound of sodium ions and chloride ions, is an important heat transfer material.

Nuclear Reactor Cooling

.Molten sodium is used as a coolant in some types of nuclear reactors.^ It is also used to treat some types of kidney disease in children.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A drug used to treat acute leukemias and some other types of cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Citrovorum factor is used to treat some types of anemia and is also used together with fluorouracil to treat colorectal cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

In 1995 nearly three tons of sodium leaked from the fast breeder reactor in Monju, Japan and caught fire. .There have been many other such leaks around the world.^ The same would be true of many of the other Brent-type reservoirs, such as Statfjord (Morton et al.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, there is no indication that any of the conclusions drawn from the North Sea are not appropriate to all other parts of the world.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since sodium melts at about 98 °C, cooling pipes using it can freeze up when the reactor is shut down.^ The process of cooling and storing cells, tissues, or organs at very low or freezing temperatures to save them for future use.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Where reactors need to be frequently shut down, the alloy of sodium and potassium called NaK is used. .It melts at -11 Cº so cooling pipes will not freeze up at room temperature.^ The process of cooling and storing cells, tissues, or organs at very low or freezing temperatures to save them for future use.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.NaK is more dangerous than pure sodium in case of leaks because of the presence of potassium.^ In the case of certain petroleum reservoirs, there appears to have been more petroleum in the cap rocks than in the reservoirs.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Biological role

Maintaining body fluid volume in animals

.The serum sodium and urine sodium play important roles in medicine, both in the maintenance of sodium and total body fluid homeostasis, and in the diagnosis of disorders causing homeostatic disruption of salt/sodium and water balance.^ Thus, the aortic bodies of the cat play a significant role in the hyperventilation produced by cytotoxic hypoxia, although it is less marked than that induced through the carotid bodies.

.In mammals, decreases in blood pressure and decreases in sodium concentration sensed within the kidney result in the production of renin, a hormone which acts in a number of ways, one of them being to act indirectly to cause the generation of aldosterone, a hormone which decreases the excretion of sodium in the urine.^ In the early phases of poisoning, an increase in vasoconstrictor tone causes a rise in blood pressure and reflex slowing of the heart rate.

^ A condition in which fluid and proteins leak out of tiny blood vessels and flow into surrounding tissues, resulting in dangerously low blood pressure.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Infusion of /each/ compound resulted in immediate and ipsilateral increases in the fractional excretion of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium.

.As the body of the mammal retains more sodium, other osmoregulation systems which sense osmotic pressure in part from the concentration of sodium and water in the blood, act to generate antidiuretic hormone.^ Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Reaction with water may generate much heat which will increase the concentration of fumes in the air.

^ It may also increase blood pressure, heart rate, breathing rate, and the loss of water from the body in urine.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.This, in turn, which causes the body to retain water, thus helping to restore the body's total amount of fluid.^ Wash away any material which may have contacted the body with copious amounts of water or soap and water.

There is also a counterbalancing system, which senses volume. .As fluid is retained, receptors in the heart and vessels which sense distension and pressure, cause production of atrial natriuretic peptide, which is named in part for the Latin word for sodium.^ In the early phases of poisoning, an increase in vasoconstrictor tone causes a rise in blood pressure and reflex slowing of the heart rate.

^ A condition in which fluid and proteins leak out of tiny blood vessels and flow into surrounding tissues, resulting in dangerously low blood pressure.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Surgery in which a healthy blood vessel taken from another part of the body is used to make a new path for blood around a blocked artery leading to the heart.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

This hormone acts in various ways to cause the body to lose sodium in the urine. This causes the body's osmotic balance to drop (as low concentration of sodium is sensed directly), which in turn causes the osmoregulation system to excrete the "excess" water. The net effect is to return the body's total fluid levels back toward normal.

Maintaining electric potential in animal tissues

.Sodium cations are important in neuron (brain and nerve) function, and in influencing osmotic balance between cells and the interstitial fluid, with their distribution mediated in all animals (but not in all plants) by the so-called Na+/K+-ATPase pump.^ The growth of microorganisms such as bacteria and yeast, or human, plant, or animal cells in the laboratory.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is also important to remember that aside from being radioactive in all of its configurations, uranium is a toxic heavy metal which has proven to poison and genetically alter humans and animals.

^ Cells of a single type (human, animal, or plant) that have been adapted to grow continuously in the laboratory and are used in research.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[20] Sodium is the chief cation in fluid residing outside cells in the mammalian body (the so-called extracellular compartment), with relatively little sodium residing inside cells. .The volume of extracellular fluid is typically 15 liters in a 70 kg human, and the 50 grams of sodium it contains is about 90% of the body's total sodium content.^ More titanium was found in maple and elm leaves than in the leaves of other plants while the content of titanium in brush was 50-820 mg/kg.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ PEER REVIEWED** Body Burden: Cyanide is present in normal healthy human organs at concentrations ranging up to 0.5 mg/kg.

^ An alloy containing 6% aluminium and 4% vanadium comprises almost 50% of the total mill products used.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Dietary uses

.The most common sodium salt, sodium chloride ('table salt' or 'common salt'), is used for seasoning and warm-climate food preservation, such as pickling and making jerky (the high osmotic content of salt inhibits bacterial and fungal growth).^ A procedure that uses gold salts (a salt form of the metal element gold) to treat diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of the most common applications of titanium and its compounds are listed in Table 4.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A colorimetric method using the sodium salt of chromotropic acid was used for the determination of titanium in biological samples by Urusova (1969).
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

The human requirement for sodium in the diet is about 1.5 gram per day,[21] which is typically less than a tenth as much as many diets "seasoned to taste." Most people consume far more sodium than is physiologically needed. .For certain people with salt-sensitive blood pressure, this extra intake may cause a harmful effect on health.^ In the early phases of poisoning, an increase in vasoconstrictor tone causes a rise in blood pressure and reflex slowing of the heart rate.

^ A substance that is sometimes found in an increased amount in the blood of people who have certain cancers, other diseases, or who smoke.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cumulative exposure to a harmful substance or radiation may increase the risk of certain diseases or conditions.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.However, low sodium intake may lead to sodium deficiency (hyponatremia).^ However, methemoglobin levels may be artificially low if not analyzed within a few hours after drawing the blood.

Precautions

.Extreme care is required in handling elemental/metallic sodium.^ Sodium cyanide is an extremely hazardous substance (EHS) subject to reporting requirements when stored in amounts in excess of its threshold planning quantity (TPQ) of 100 lbs.

.Sodium is potentially explosive in water (depending on quantity), and it is rapidly converted to sodium hydroxide on contact with moisture and sodium hydroxide is a corrosive substance.^ Substance will react with water (some violently), releasing corrosive and/or toxic gases.

^ Sodium cyanide is an extremely hazardous substance (EHS) subject to reporting requirements when stored in amounts in excess of its threshold planning quantity (TPQ) of 100 lbs.

^ However, there may be individual substances whose irritating or corrosive properties are such that the wearing of contact lenses would be harmful to the eye.

.The powdered form may combust spontaneously in air or oxygen.^ PEER REVIEWED** Cyanide may react with carbon dioxide in ordinary air to form toxic hydrogen cyanide gas.

Sodium must be stored either in an inert (oxygen and moisture free) atmosphere (such as nitrogen or argon), or under a liquid hydrocarbon such as mineral oil or kerosene.
.The reaction of sodium and water is a familiar one in chemistry labs, and is reasonably safe if amounts of sodium smaller than a pencil eraser are used and the reaction is done behind a plastic shield by people wearing eye protection.^ And they are the ones most useful for human life (heating, plastics, petrol, and diesel).
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PEER REVIEWED** Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.

^ Treatment using more than one anticancer drug.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.However, the sodium-water reaction does not scale up well, and is treacherous when larger amounts of sodium are used.^ The EPA does not regulate domestic water wells, but offers guidance on management: .

.Larger pieces of sodium melt under the heat of the reaction, and the molten ball of metal is buoyed up by hydrogen and may appear to be stably reacting with water, until splashing covers more of the reaction mass, causing thermal runaway and an explosion which scatters molten sodium, lye solution, and sometimes flame.^ PEER REVIEWED** Cyanide may react with carbon dioxide in ordinary air to form toxic hydrogen cyanide gas.

^ Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas.

^ PEER REVIEWED** Molten sodium, ammonia and charcoal react to give a high grade (98%) sodium cyanide [Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology.

(18.5 g explosion [1]) This behavior is unpredictable, and among the alkali metals it is usually sodium which invites this surprise phenomenon, because lithium is not reactive enough to do it, and potassium is so reactive that chemistry students are not tempted to try the reaction with larger potassium pieces.
Sodium is much more reactive than magnesium; a reactivity which can be further enhanced due to sodium's much lower melting point. When sodium catches fire in air (as opposed to just the hydrogen gas generated from water by means of its reaction with sodium) it more easily produces temperatures high enough to melt the sodium, exposing more of its surface to the air and spreading the fire.
Few common fire extinguishers work on sodium fires. .Water, of course, exacerbates sodium fires, as do water-based foams.^ Large fires: Water spray, fog or alcohol-resistant foam.

CO2 and Halon are often ineffective on sodium fires, which reignite when the extinguisher dissipates. .Among the very few materials effective on a sodium fire are Pyromet and Met-L-X. Pyromet is a NaCl/(NH4)2HPO4 mix, with flow/anti-clump agents.^ PEER REVIEWED** If material involved in fire: Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire.

^ Regression plots of the relation between changes in sodium excretion and changes in renal plasma flow were similar for both agents.

^ TABLE]**PEER REVIEWED** If material involved in fire: Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire.

It smothers the fire, drains away heat, and melts to form an impermeable crust. This is the standard dry-powder canister fire extinguisher for all classes of fires. .Met-L-X is mostly sodium chloride, NaCl, with approximately 5% Saran plastic as a crust-former, and flow/anti-clumping agents.^ Regression plots of the relation between changes in sodium excretion and changes in renal plasma flow were similar for both agents.

It is most commonly hand-applied, with a scoop. .Other extreme fire extinguishing materials include Lith+, a graphite based dry powder with an organophosphate flame retardant; and Na+, a Na2CO3-based material.^ PEER REVIEWED** If material involved in fire: Extinguish fire using agent suitable for type of surrounding fire.

^ PEER REVIEWED** If material not involved in fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away.

^ PEER REVIEWED** Preventive Measures: If material not involved in fire: Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away.

.Because of the reaction scale problems discussed above, disposing of large quantities of sodium (more than 10 to 100 grams) must be done through a licensed hazardous materials disposer.^ Sodium cyanide is an extremely hazardous substance (EHS) subject to reporting requirements when stored in amounts in excess of its threshold planning quantity (TPQ) of 100 lbs.

^ Triton X-100 than in intact mitochondria, the mitochondrial membrane may constitute a barrier to sodium sulfide.

^ As a session chairman, Karlsen admitted that he had come to the conference hoping for some answers, but was going home with more problems than he had come with.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Smaller quantities may be broken up and neutralized carefully with ethanol (which has a much slower reaction than water), or even methanol (where the reaction is more rapid than ethanol's but still less than in water), but care should nevertheless be taken, as the caustic products from the ethanol or methanol reaction are just as hazardous to eyes and skin as those from water.^ Cancer cells take up more C-11 choline than normal cells, so the pictures can be used to find cancer cells in the body.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A condition lasting for more than 6 months in which a person feels tired most of the time and may have trouble concentrating and carrying out daily activities.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The chloroform is evaporated and the residue is taken up in ethanol.

.After the alcohol reaction appears complete, and all pieces of reaction debris have been broken up or dissolved, a mixture of alcohol and water, then pure water, may then be carefully used for a final cleaning.^ Reaction with water may generate much heat which will increase the concentration of fumes in the air.

^ Similar anodes are used in cathodic protection systems of ships, harbour installations, water heaters, and cleaning lines in the production of stainless steel strip.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

This should be allowed to stand a few minutes until the reaction products are diluted more thoroughly and flushed down the drain. .The purpose of the final water soaking and washing of any reaction mass or container which may contain sodium, is to ensure that alcohol does not carry unreacted sodium into the sink trap, where a water reaction may generate hydrogen in the trap space which can then be potentially ignited, causing a confined sink trap explosion.^ It may describe a body cavity (such as the space within the abdomen) or a hole in a tooth caused by decay.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Containers may explode when heated or contaminated with water.

^ Reaction with water may generate much heat which will increase the concentration of fumes in the air.

See also

References

  1. ^ Endt, P. M. ENDT, ,1 (1990) (12/1990). "Energy levels of A = 21-44 nuclei (VII)". Nuclear Physics A 521: 1. doi:10.1016/0375-9474(90)90598-G. 
  2. ^ De Leon, N.. "Reactivity of Alkali Metals". Indiana University Northwest. http://www.iun.edu/~cpanhd/C101webnotes/modern-atomic-theory/alkali-reac.html. Retrieved 2007-12-07. 
  3. ^ Dean, John Aurie; Lange, Norbert Adolph (1998). Lange's Handbook of Chemistry. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0070163847. 
  4. ^ a b Holleman, Arnold F.; Wiberg, Egon; Wiberg, Nils; (1985). "Natrium" (in German). Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie (91–100 ed.). Walter de Gruyter. pp. 931–943. ISBN 3-11-007511-3. 
  5. ^ Citron, M. L., et al. (1977). "Experimental study of power broadening in a two level atom". Physical Review A 16: 1507. doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.16.1507. http://prola.aps.org/abstract/PRA/v16/i4/p1507_1. 
  6. ^ Steck, Daniel A.. "Sodium D. Line Data" (PDF). Los Alamos National Laboratory (technical report). http://george.ph.utexas.edu/~dsteck/alkalidata/sodiumnumbers.pdf. 
  7. ^ Audi, Georges (2003). "The NUBASE Evaluation of Nuclear and Decay Properties". Nuclear Physics A (Atomic Mass Data Center) 729: 3–128. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001. 
  8. ^ Sanders, F. W.; Auxier, J. A. (1962). "Neutron Activation of Sodium in Anthropomorphous Phantoms". Health Physics 8 (4): 371–379. doi:10.1097/00004032-196208000-00005. http://www.health-physics.com/pt/re/healthphys/abstract.00004032-196208000-00005.htm. 
  9. ^ a b Newton, David E.. Chemical Elements. ISBN 0-7876-2847-6. 
  10. ^ van der Krogt, Peter. "Elementymology & Elements Multidict". http://www.vanderkrogt.net/elements/elem/na.html. Retrieved 2007-06-08. 
  11. ^ Davy, Humphry (1808). "On some new Phenomena of Chemical Changes produced by Electricity, particularly the Decomposition of the fixed Alkalies, and the Exhibition of the new Substances, which constitute their Bases". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 98: 1–45. doi:10.1098/rstl.1808.0001. http://books.google.com/books?id=Kg9GAAAAMAAJ. 
  12. ^ Lide, D. R., ed. (2005), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.), Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press, ISBN 0-8493-0486-5 
  13. ^ "Sodium found in Mercury's atmosphere". BNET. 1985-08-17. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1200/is_v128/ai_3898126. Retrieved 2008-09-18. 
  14. ^ a b Eggeman, Tim. Sodium and Sodium Alloys. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published online 2007. doi:10.1002/0471238961.1915040912051311.a01.pub2
  15. ^ Pauling, Linus, General Chemistry, 1970 ed., Dover Publications
  16. ^ "Los Alamos National Laboratory – Sodium". http://periodic.lanl.gov/elements/11.html. Retrieved 2007-06-08. 
  17. ^ Merck Index, 9th ed., monograph 8325
  18. ^ Sodium Metal 99.97% Purity
  19. ^ 007-Sodium Metal
  20. ^ Campbell, Neil (1987). Biology. Menlo Park, Calif.: Benjamin/Cummings Pub. Co.. pp. 795. ISBN 0-8053-1840-2. 
  21. ^ "It's Your Health". Canadian Government. 2008. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hl-vs/iyh-vsv/food-aliment/sodium-eng.php. 

External links


1911 encyclopedia

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Simple English

Simple English Wiktionary has the word meaning for:

[[File:|thumb|Sodium pellets in a container]] Sodium (symbol Na, from the Latin name natrium) is the chemical element number 11 in the periodic table of elements. It follows that its nucleus includes 11 protons, and 11 electrons orbit around it (according to the simplified model known as "Niels Bohr atom"). Even if a relatively large number of isotopes can be artificially produced, all decay in a short time. As a consequence all sodium found in nature (mainly in sea water) has the composition 11Na23, meaning that the nucleus includes 12 neutrons. The atomic mass of sodium is 22.9898; if it is rounded, it would be 23.

Contents

Properties

Sodium is a light, white metal. Sodium is so soft that it can be easily cut with a knife. Sodium is a little lighter than water; when it reacts with water it floats. This reaction is very fast. Hydrogen and sodium hydroxide are produced. The hydrogen may ignite. Since sodium melts at a low temperature, it melts when it reacts with water. It has one valence electron which is removed easily, making it highly reactive.

Compared with other alkali metals (metals in the first column of the periodic table), sodium is usually less reactive than potassium and more reactive than lithium.[1]

Discovery and name

Sodium was discovered by Sir Humphrey Davis, an English scientist, back in 1807. He made it by the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide. It is named after soda, a name for sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate.

Use as element

It is used in the preperation of organic compounds. It is also used in the street lights that are orange.

Use as compounds

Main article:Sodium compounds

Sodium compounds are used in soaps, toothpaste, baking, and antacids.

Occurrence and production

Sodium does not exist as an element in nature; its easily removed valence electron is too reactive. It exists as an ion in chemical compounds. Sodium ions are found in the ocean. It is also found as sodium chloride in the earth's crust, where it is mined.

Sodium chloride is normally made by electrolysis of very hot sodium chloride that was melted.

Use in organisms

Sodium ion in the form of sodium chloride is needed in the human body, but large amounts of it cause problems, which is why one should not eat too much salt. Many organisms in the ocean depend on the proper concentration of ions in sea water to live.

Other pages

References

frr:Natrium


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 10, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Sodium, which are similar to those in the above article.








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