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Sodium chloride
Identifiers
CAS number 7647-14-5 Yes check.svgY
PubChem 5234
ChemSpider 5044
RTECS number VZ4725000
Properties
Molecular formula NaCl
Molar mass 58.443 g/mol
Appearance Colorless/white crystalline solid
Odor Odorless
Density 2.165 g/cm3
Melting point
801 °C, 1074 K, 1474 °F
Boiling point
1413 °C, 1686 K, 2575 °F
Solubility in water 35.6 g/100 mL (0 °C)
35.9 g/100 mL (25 °C)
39.1 g/100 mL (100 °C)
Solubility soluble in glycerol, ethylene glycol, formic acid
insoluble in HCl
Solubility in methanol 1.49 g/100 mL
Solubility in ammonia 2.15 g/100 mL
Acidity (pKa) 6.7-7.3
Refractive index (nD) 1.5442 (589 nm)
Structure
Crystal structure Face-centered cubic
(see text), cF8
Space group Fm3m, No. 225
Lattice constant a = 564.02 pm
Coordination
geometry
Octahedral (Na+)
Octahedral (Cl)
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
EU Index Not listed
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
0
1
0
Flash point Non-flammable
LD50 3000–8000 mg/kg (oral in rats, mice, rabbits)[1]
Related compounds
Other anions Sodium fluoride
Sodium bromide
Sodium iodide
Other cations Lithium chloride
Potassium chloride
Rubidium chloride
Caesium chloride
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
 Yes check.svgY (what is this?)  (verify)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references
Close up view of NaCl crystals.
.Sodium chloride, also known as salt, common salt, table salt, or halite, is an ionic compound with the formula NaCl.^ Sodium v table salt .

^ Sodium Chloride (NaCl), common salt.

^ Salt is a compound containing 2 minerals, sodium and chloride and it attracts water.
  • High Blood Pressure, Stroke & Salt - Ask the Dietitian® 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: General]

.Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of the ocean and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms.^ Sodium Chloride (NaCl), common salt.

^ The most commonly known form of sodium is table salt, or sodium chloride.

^ Most reduced sodium salts are half salt (sodium chloride) and half salt substitute (potassium chloride).
  • High Blood Pressure, Stroke & Salt - Ask the Dietitian® 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: General]

.As the major ingredient in edible salt, it is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative.^ Salt is widely used for the seasoning, curing, and preserving of foods.

^ As the major ingredient in edible salt, it is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative.
  • Salt - Home Remedies - Page 1 - Mamaherb 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.mamaherb.com [Source type: General]

^ Best example of food preservation by salt?
  • Guardian of Eden h2o2 : Contents 20 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.dfwx.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Production and use

.Salt is currently mass-produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources, such as brine wells and salt lakes, and by mining rock salt, called halite.^ Salt is obtained from two sources: rock salt and brine.
  • Salt – FREE Salt information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Salt research 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rock salt is conventionally mined halite from underground or surface deposits.
  • Salt – FREE Salt information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Salt research 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt), refined salt (table salt), and iodized salt.
  • Salt - Home Remedies - Page 1 - Mamaherb 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.mamaherb.com [Source type: General]

.In 2002, world production was estimated at 210 million metric tons, the top five producers (in million tonnes) being the United States (40.3), China (32.9), Germany (17.7), India (14.5) and Canada (12.3).^ The top five tips for successful blogging are: Talk, don't sell your product; Post often and be interesting; Write on issues you know and...
  • Official Home Page - Up Grade, Salt Lake County 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.upgrade.slco.org [Source type: General]

^ In recent surveys, the median intake of potassium by adults in the United States was approximately 2.9 to 3.2 g/day 3 (74 to 82 mmol/day) for men and 2.1 to 2.3 g/day (54 to 59 mmol/day) for women; in Canada, the median intakes ranged from 12 to 3.4 g/day (82 to 87 mmol/day) for men and 2.4 to 2.6 g/day (62 to 67 mmol/day) for women.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, andSulfate - Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water /Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes /Food and Nutrition Board INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES 11feb04 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Large deposits of brine are found in Austria, France, Germany, India, the United States, and the United Kingdom.
  • Salt – FREE Salt information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Salt research 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]
.As well as the familiar uses of salt in cooking, salt is used in many applications, from manufacturing pulp and paper, to setting dyes in textiles and fabric, to producing soaps, detergents, and other bath products.^ Example manufacturers of products using this active .

^ Salt has many uses.
  • Salt – FREE Salt information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Salt research 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other than keeping the salt level at half, is there any other good rule of thumb to use as far as filling the softener is concerned?
  • Cargill Salt: About - FAQs - Water Conditioning 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.cargill.com [Source type: General]

.It is the major source of industrial chlorine and sodium hydroxide, and used in almost every industry.^ Its major use is in the production of Chlorine, Sodium , and Sodium Hydroxide .

^ Chlorine in the World - Natural sources of chlorine as well as chlorine use for industrial synthesis.
  • TOPIC 3: CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND BONDING
Sodium Chloride Tree 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC elmhurst.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ About 70% is used in the chemical industry, mostly as a source of chlorine.
  • Salt – FREE Salt information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Salt research 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sodium chloride is sometimes used as a cheap and safe desiccant because it appears to have hygroscopic properties, making salting an effective method of food preservation historically; as it draws water out of bacteria through osmotic pressure preventing them from reproducing and causing food to spoil.^ Sodium Chloride (NaCl), common salt.

^ Salt is a compound containing 2 minerals, sodium and chloride and it attracts water.
  • High Blood Pressure, Stroke & Salt - Ask the Dietitian® 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.dietitian.com [Source type: General]

^ Salt (sodium chloride) is essential for life.
  • Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC lpi.oregonstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Even though more effective desiccants are available, few are safe for humans to ingest.^ These treatments can be safer, less expensive and possibly even more effective than traditional methods.
  • Salt Deficiency: the cause of many diseases: Crystal Salt Therapy 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Solubility of NaCl in various solvents
(g NaCl / 100 g of solvent at 25 °C)
H2O 36
Liquid ammonia 3.02
Methanol 1.4
Sulfolane 0.005
Formic acid 5.2
Acetone 0.000042
Formamide 9.4
Acetonitrile 0.0003
Dimethylformamide 0.04
Reference:
Burgess, J. Metal Ions in Solution
(Ellis Horwood, New York, 1978)
ISBN 0-85312-027-7

Synthetic uses

.Sodium chloride is also the raw material used to produce chlorine which itself is required for sterilization and the production of many modern materials including PVC, pesticides and epoxy resins.^ Its major use is in the production of Chlorine, Sodium , and Sodium Hydroxide .

^ Daily sodium and chloride requirements .
  • Sodium & Chloride Requirements in Cats 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Sodium & Chloride Requirements in Dogs 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In general, the chloride requirement is 1.5 times the sodium requirement.
  • Sodium & Chloride Requirements in Cats 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Sodium & Chloride Requirements in Dogs 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

.Industrially, elemental chlorine is usually produced by the electrolysis of sodium chloride dissolved in water.^ The mechanism of sodium and chloride uptake by the gills of a fresh-water fish , Carassius a uratus ; II. Evidence for NH 4 + /Na + and HCO 3 – /Cl – exchanges.
  • The mechanism of sodium chloride uptake in hyperregulating aquatic animals -- Kirschner 207 (9): 1439 -- Journal of Experimental Biology 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC jeb.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For the nutrients in this report, AIs are set for all age groups for water, potassium and sodium (and chloride on an equi-molar basis to sodium).
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, andSulfate - Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water /Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes /Food and Nutrition Board INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES 11feb04 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

^ With the advent of industrial development, our natural salt was "chemically cleaned" and reduced only to sodium and chloride.
  • Salt Deficiency: the cause of many diseases: Crystal Salt Therapy 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Along with chlorine, this chloralkali process yields hydrogen gas and sodium hydroxide, according to the chemical equation
2NaCl + 2H2O → Cl2 + H2 + 2NaOH
.Sodium metal is produced commercially through the electrolysis of liquid sodium chloride.^ A dietary deficiency of sodium and chloride would be extremely rare because most pets today are fed commercial pet foods.
  • Sodium & Chloride Requirements in Cats 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Sodium & Chloride Requirements in Dogs 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Any excess intake of sodium or chloride is filtered through the kidneys and excreted into the urine.
  • Sodium & Chloride Requirements in Cats 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Sodium & Chloride Requirements in Dogs 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chloride materials can be decomposed by electrolysis to chlorine gas and the metal.
  • University of Zinc Chloride; India Zinc Chloride Manufacturer 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC zincchloride.net [Source type: Reference]

.This is now done in a Down's cell in which sodium chloride is mixed with calcium chloride to lower the melting point below 700 °C. As calcium is more electropositive than sodium, no calcium will be formed at the cathode.^ It's potassium chloride rather than sodium chloride .
  • Chloride Levels | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Ammonia and carbon dioxide are passed into a saturated sodium chloride solution to form soluble ammonium hydrogen carbonate, which reacts with the sodium chloride to form soluble ammonium chloride and a precipitate of sodium hydrogen carbonate (sodium bicarbonate) if the temperature is maintained below 15C. The sodium hydrogen carbonate is filtered off and heated to produce sodium carbonate.
  • Salt, NaCl, Sodium Chloride. - Page 2 - Science Forums 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Your intake of sodium chloride will be reduced and if you enjoy your meals more you might have less need for high calorie sweets for snacks.
  • Guardian of Eden h2o2 : Contents 20 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.dfwx.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This method is less expensive than the previous method of electrolyzing sodium hydroxide.^ It depends on the hardness of your water, but on average less than 3% of your sodium intake comes from drinking softened water.
  • Cargill Salt: About - FAQs - Water Conditioning 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.cargill.com [Source type: General]

^ Because potassium chloride is less expensive than ammonium chloride, the maintenance costs of the mixed bath are lower than the ammonia bath, and it does not require boric acid.
  • University of Zinc Chloride; India Zinc Chloride Manufacturer 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC zincchloride.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Most healthy people(> 97%) can use sodium chloride without trouble and sodium chloride is less expensive.
  • Cargill Salt: About - FAQs - Water Conditioning 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.cargill.com [Source type: General]

.Sodium chloride is used in other chemical processes for the large-scale production of compounds containing sodium or chlorine.^ Should the use of chlorine for the manufacture of chlorine containing compounds be banned?
  • TOPIC 3: CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND BONDING
Sodium Chloride Tree 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC elmhurst.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Option # 1: Complete ban on use of all chlorine containing compounds.
  • TOPIC 3: CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND BONDING
Sodium Chloride Tree 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC elmhurst.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Beneficial uses of the compound and other products made with the compound; 4.
  • TOPIC 3: CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND BONDING
Sodium Chloride Tree 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC elmhurst.edu [Source type: Reference]

.In the Solvay process, sodium chloride is used for producing sodium carbonate and calcium chloride.^ Widely used compounds include Sodium Chloride (common salt), Sodium Bicarbonate (baking soda), Sodium Carbonate (soda ash), hydroxide (lye), nitrate, phosphates, and Borax .

^ Species investigated were based on the recipe used for BSS (Alcon, New South Wales, Australia) and included sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, sodium acetate, and sodium citrate.
  • Arch Ophthalmol -- Absorption of 193- and 213-nm Laser Wavelengths in Sodium Chloride Solution and Balanced Salt Solution, April 2001, Dair et al. 119 (4): 533 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC archopht.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sodium chloride is used in this recipe but ammonium chloride gives results that are almost the same.
  • AlternativePhotography.com: a dash of salt - the salt paper print process 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.alternativephotography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Mannheim process and in the Hargreaves process, it is used for the production of sodium sulfate and hydrochloric acid.^ The pH is 2.0 (1.5 to 2.5); product may contain hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment.
  • University of Zinc Chloride; India Zinc Chloride Manufacturer 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC zincchloride.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Unfortunately, huge amounts of processed salts are used by fast food restaurants and virtually all food processors for grocery store products.
  • Guardian of Eden h2o2 : Contents 20 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.dfwx.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Combine hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide and what do you get?
  • AlternativePhotography.com: a dash of salt - the salt paper print process 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.alternativephotography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Biological uses

.Many micro organisms cannot live in an overly salty environment: water is drawn out of their cells by osmosis.^ Since water generally moves toward a more concentrated solution, the water of plant cells tends to be drawn out into the salty substrate.
  • Salt, NaCl, Sodium Chloride. - Page 2 - Science Forums 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the basis of osmosis which regulates fluid pressure within living cells and protects the body against excessive water loss (as in diarrhoea or on heavy sweating).

^ To the science of living cells, fulvic acids are vital in bringing substantial amounts of nutrients and minerals into water solution and delivering their living energies to the living cells.
  • Salt Deficiency: the cause of many diseases: Crystal Salt Therapy 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For this reason salt is used to preserve some foods, such as smoked bacon or fish.^ Salt is widely used for the seasoning, curing, and preserving of foods.

^ Best example of food preservation by salt?
  • Guardian of Eden h2o2 : Contents 20 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.dfwx.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, salt was also used for preservation of eggs.
  • Guardian of Eden h2o2 : Contents 20 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.dfwx.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It can also be used to detach leeches that have attached themselves to feed. It is also used to disinfect wounds.

Optical uses

.Pure NaCl crystal is an optical compound with a wide transmission range from 200 nm to 20 um.^ The NaCl intake ranged from a low level of 50 meq NaCl/day to 200, 400, and 550   meq/day, respectively.
  • High dietary sodium chloride consumption may not induce body fluid retention in humans -- Heer et al. 278 (4): 585 -- AJP - Renal Physiology 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC ajprenal.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

It was often used in the infrared spectrum range and it is still used sometimes.
NaCl crystal is soft, hygroscopic and inexpensive. .This limits its application to protected environment or for short term uses (prototyping).^ This presentation of their main capabilities and limitations should help you determine the types of applications for which they could be used.
  • Cover Pages: Speech Application Language Tags (SALT) 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC xml.coverpages.org [Source type: Reference]

Exposed to free air NaCl optics will "rot".
.Today tougher crystals like ZnSe are used instead of NaCl (for the IR spectral range).^ My local Council, as of today, looks like banning all use of hoses- allowing buckets and watering cans only.
  • Salt, NaCl, Sodium Chloride. - Science Forums 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today salt is used as a preservative in foods like bacon and cheese .
  • Salt@Everything2.com 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Normal, everyday table salt , like almost all other salts used in cooking, is basically Sodium Chloride , NaCl, but is almost always iodized .
  • Salt@Everything2.com 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Optical data

  • Transmitivity: 92% (from 400 nm to 13μm)
  • Refractive Index: 1.494 @ 10μm
  • Reflection Loss: 7.5% @ 10μm (2 surfaces)
  • dN/dT: -36.2 x 10-6/°C @ 0.7μm

Household uses

.Since at least medieval times, people have used salt as a cleansing agent rubbed on household surfaces.^ When people switch to sea salt (s), they never go back to processed table salt and it is the least expensive of all "health food ingredients."
  • Guardian of Eden h2o2 : Contents 20 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.dfwx.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And since SALT does not alter the behavior of the markup languages with which it is used, SALT is future-proof: it can be used with any future XML standard.
  • Cover Pages: Speech Application Language Tags (SALT) 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC xml.coverpages.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Typically only people who have a medical reason use these because the flavor is not as good as salt.
  • Salt, Salt - The Spice of Life, Types of Salt, Cooking with Salt, Salt Substitutions, Salt Composition and Medical Uses, History of Salt 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC whatscookingamerica.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is also used in many brands of shampoo, and popularly to de-ice driveways and patches of ice.
.At one time salt water was used to clean teeth.^ He writes: "I continue to be pain-free with my ankylosis spondylitis one year after starting the water/salt regime.

^ In addition, if the initial water level in your unit was set to use pellets, it may be too high to use solar salt (i.e.
  • Cargill Salt: About - FAQs - Water Conditioning 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.cargill.com [Source type: General]

^ Unless the salt product being used is high in water-insoluble matter, or there is a serious malfunction of some sort (e.g.
  • Cargill Salt: About - FAQs - Water Conditioning 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.cargill.com [Source type: General]

Firefighting uses

A class D fire extinguisher for various metals
.Sodium chloride is the principal extinguishing agent in fire extinguishers (Met-L-X, Super D) used on combustible metal fires such as magnesium, potassium, sodium, and NaK alloys (Class D).^ It's potassium chloride rather than sodium chloride .
  • Chloride Levels | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ As a chemical feedstock potassium chloride is used for the manufacture of potassium hydroxide and potassium metal.
  • Ammonium Chloride Zinc Chloride Calcium Chloride Potassium Chloride Sodium Acetate 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC sodium-bromide.com [Source type: Reference]

^ What is the difference between sodium (chloride) and potassium (chloride)?
  • Cargill Salt: About - FAQs - Water Conditioning 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.cargill.com [Source type: General]

Thermoplastic powder is added to the mixture, along with waterproofing (metal stearates) and anti-caking materials (tricalcium phosphate) to form the extinguishing agent. .When it is applied to the fire, the salt acts like a heat sink, dissipating heat from the fire, and also forms an oxygen-excluding crust to smother the fire.^ Or pour salt to smother grease fires.
  • Salt, Salt - The Spice of Life, Types of Salt, Cooking with Salt, Salt Substitutions, Salt Composition and Medical Uses, History of Salt 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC whatscookingamerica.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Zinc chloride forms two salts with ammonium chloride, (NH 4 )ZnCl 4 and (NH 4 ) 3 ClZnCl 4 , which decompose on heating liberating HCl just as zinc chloride hydrate does.
  • University of Zinc Chloride; India Zinc Chloride Manufacturer 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC zincchloride.net [Source type: Reference]

.The plastic additive melts and helps the crust maintain its integrity until the burning metal cools below its ignition temperature.^ Superfluidity The capability of liquid helium cooled below a temperature of 2.19K (the lambda point) to flow freely, even upward, with no measurable friction and viscosity.

.This type of extinguisher was invented in the late 1940s in the cartridge-operated type shown here, although stored pressure versions are now popular.^ Squib Switch (Explosive Switch) An electric switch operated by a squib or pressure cartridge.

Common sizes are 30 lb. portable and 350 lb. wheeled.

In weather

Clouds above the Pacific
.Small particles of sea salt are the dominant cloud condensation nuclei well out at sea, which allow the formation of clouds in otherwise non-polluted air.^ Salt Intake Sea Salt for Your Health Find out how substituting sea salt for normal table salt can improve the quality and nutritional value of your meals.

^ Heat from the sun is used in air-drying a variety of materials and in producing salt by the evaporation of sea water ( Desalination ).

^ The difference between table and Kosher salt is that during the evaporation process it is raked to give it a block-like structure which allows the salt to draw the blood out of meats.
  • Salt, Salt - The Spice of Life, Types of Salt, Cooking with Salt, Salt Substitutions, Salt Composition and Medical Uses, History of Salt 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC whatscookingamerica.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .Snow removal by addition of salt (salting) is done to make travel easier and safer, and decrease the long term impact of a heavy snowfall on human populations.^ Make a commitment for the long-term.
  • Official Home Page - Up Grade, Salt Lake County 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.upgrade.slco.org [Source type: General]

^ Lightly sprinkle rock salt on walks and driveways to assist with snow removal.
  • Salt, Salt - The Spice of Life, Types of Salt, Cooking with Salt, Salt Substitutions, Salt Composition and Medical Uses, History of Salt 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC whatscookingamerica.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diamond Crystal® Solar Salt Extra Coarse and Diamond Crystal® Rock Salt may be used to remove snow and ice from concrete sidewalks, parking lots and asphalt surfaces.
  • Cargill Salt: About - FAQs - Water Conditioning 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.cargill.com [Source type: General]

.This process is done by both individual households and by governments and institutions and utilizes salts to eliminate snow from road surfaces and sidewalks.^ Diamond Crystal® Solar Salt Extra Coarse and Diamond Crystal® Rock Salt may be used to remove snow and ice from concrete sidewalks, parking lots and asphalt surfaces.
  • Cargill Salt: About - FAQs - Water Conditioning 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.cargill.com [Source type: General]

[4]

Biological functions

.In humans, a high-salt intake has long been known to generally raise blood pressure, especially in certain individuals.^ Sodium induced hypertension occurs in 1/3 of individuals with high blood pressure.

^ In general terms, salt sensitivity is the extent of blood pressure change in response to a change in salt intake.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, andSulfate - Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water /Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes /Food and Nutrition Board INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES 11feb04 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

^ High blood pressure?
  • Salt, NaCl, Sodium Chloride. - Science Forums 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

More recently, it was demonstrated to attenuate nitric oxide production. .Nitric oxide (NO) contributes to vessel homeostasis by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle contraction and growth, platelet aggregation, and leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium.^ Another is that the sodium itself penetrates the vascular smooth muscle cell, causing it to contract [24].

[5][6]

Crystal structure

The crystal structure of sodium chloride. Each ion has six nearest neighbors, with octahedral geometry.
.Sodium chloride forms crystals with face-centered cubic symmetry.^ When salt is added to a liquid, particles with opposite charges are formed: a positively charged sodium ion and a negatively charged chloride ion.

^ In combination, though, the two elements form sodium chloride, commonly known as salt.

^ The sodium chloride, in its form as it comes from the refinery, is actually poisonous to them.

.In these, the larger chloride ions, shown to the right as green spheres, are arranged in a cubic close-packing, while the smaller sodium ions, shown to the right as silver spheres, fill all the cubic gaps between them.^ Recently NaVPA has shown to enhance the urinary excretion of sodium (Na + ) and chloride (Cl - ) ions in both genders, but the 24-h chloriduretic response in male rats to NaVPA was significantly higher than in female rats [ 3 ].
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Sodium valproate stimulates potassium and chloride urinary excretion in rats: gender differences 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When salt is added to a liquid, particles with opposite charges are formed: a positively charged sodium ion and a negatively charged chloride ion.

^ Chemists study a class of substances called salts , Sodium chloride is a kind of salt, an ionic compound that is made up of a lattice of sodium and chloride ions.
  • Salt, NaCl, Sodium Chloride. - Science Forums 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Each ion is surrounded by six ions of the other kind; the surrounding ions are located at the vertices of a regular octahedron.
.This same basic structure is found in many other minerals and is commonly known as the halite or rock-salt crystal structure.^ The are many other types of sea salts - ranging from pure and excellent to fraudulent or just a gimmick.
  • Guardian of Eden h2o2 : Contents 20 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.dfwx.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The washing process will wash away any remaining minerals and other ingredients of the salt.
  • Guardian of Eden h2o2 : Contents 20 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.dfwx.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This characteristic of the mineral structure enables the crystal to change back and forth from crystalline to liquid state.
  • Salt Deficiency: the cause of many diseases: Crystal Salt Therapy 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It can be represented as a face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice with a two atom basis. The first atom is located at each lattice point, and the second atom is located half way between lattice points along the fcc unit cell edge.
.It is held together by an ionic bond which is produced by electrostatic forces arising from the difference in charge between the ions.^ Those molecules that consist of charged ions with opposite charges are called IONIC. These ionic compounds are generally solids with high melting points and conduct electrical current.
  • TOPIC 3: CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS AND BONDING
Sodium Chloride Tree 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC elmhurst.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Separate-Loading Ammunition Ammunition in which the projectile, propelling charge and primer are not held together in a shell case, as in fixed ammunition, but are loaded into a gun separately.

^ States Of Matter The forms of matter differing in several properties because of differences in the motions of and the forces between the molecules (or atoms or ions) of which they are composed.

Road salt

.While salt was once a scarce commodity in history, industrialized production has now made salt plentiful.^ It describes the commodity, history, culture and how salt has been economically important.

^ There is a product called sour salt which is not made up of salt at all, instead it is citric acid.
  • Salt, Salt - The Spice of Life, Types of Salt, Cooking with Salt, Salt Substitutions, Salt Composition and Medical Uses, History of Salt 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC whatscookingamerica.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Industry Backing for SALT Grows With Completion of Specification, Availability of Products and Support of Top U.S. Wireless Service Provider."
  • Cover Pages: Speech Application Language Tags (SALT) 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC xml.coverpages.org [Source type: Reference]

Approximately 51% of world output is now used by cold countries to de-ice roads in winter, both in grit bins and spread by winter service vehicles. .Calcium chloride is preferred over sodium chloride, since CaCl2 releases energy upon forming a solution with water, heating any ice or snow it is in contact with.^ The mechanism of sodium and chloride uptake by the gills of a fresh-water fish , Carassius a uratus ; II. Evidence for NH 4 + /Na + and HCO 3 – /Cl – exchanges.
  • The mechanism of sodium chloride uptake in hyperregulating aquatic animals -- Kirschner 207 (9): 1439 -- Journal of Experimental Biology 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC jeb.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Salt A chemical compound (other than water) formed by neutralization reactions between Acids and Bases ; by direct combination of metal with nonmetal, e.g., sodium chloride (common table salt); by reaction of a metal with a dilute acid; by reaction of a metal oxide with acid; by reaction of a nonmetallic oxide with a base; or by reaction of two salts with each other to form two new salts.

^ When salt is added to a liquid, particles with opposite charges are formed: a positively charged sodium ion and a negatively charged chloride ion.

.It also lowers the freezing point, depending on the concentration.^ Salt lowers the freezing point of water making it possible to achieve below freezing temperature when applied to ice.
  • Cargill Salt: About - FAQs - Water Conditioning 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.cargill.com [Source type: General]

.NaCl does not release heat upon solution; however, it does lower the freezing point.^ Salt lowers the freezing point of water making it possible to achieve below freezing temperature when applied to ice.
  • Cargill Salt: About - FAQs - Water Conditioning 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.cargill.com [Source type: General]

.Calcium chloride is thought to be more environmentally friendly than sodium chloride when used to de-ice roads, however a drawback is that it tends to promote corrosion (of vehicles) more so than sodium chloride.^ Calcium Chloride is also used in making cheese.
  • Ammonium Chloride Zinc Chloride Calcium Chloride Potassium Chloride Sodium Acetate 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC sodium-bromide.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Calcium chloride can also be used as a preservative to maintain firmness in canned vegetables or in higher concentrations in pickles to give a salty taste while not increasing the food's Sod.
  • Ammonium Chloride Zinc Chloride Calcium Chloride Potassium Chloride Sodium Acetate 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC sodium-bromide.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Calcium Chloride Uses in Food As an ingredient, calcium chloride is listed as a permitted food additive in the European Union for use as a sequestrant and firming agent with the E number E509.
  • Ammonium Chloride Zinc Chloride Calcium Chloride Potassium Chloride Sodium Acetate 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC sodium-bromide.com [Source type: Reference]

NaCl is also more readily available and does not have any special handling or storage requirements, unlike calcium chloride. .The salinity (S) of water is measured as grams salt per kilogram (1000g) water, and the freezing temperatures are as follows.^ Salt makes water boil at a higher temperature which reduces cooking time.
  • Salt, Salt - The Spice of Life, Types of Salt, Cooking with Salt, Salt Substitutions, Salt Composition and Medical Uses, History of Salt 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC whatscookingamerica.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The amount of salt can be altered slightly but at three grams per 100 ml the paper prints a very faint violet unless double coated with silver.
  • AlternativePhotography.com: a dash of salt - the salt paper print process 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.alternativephotography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Salt lowers the freezing point of water making it possible to achieve below freezing temperature when applied to ice.
  • Cargill Salt: About - FAQs - Water Conditioning 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.cargill.com [Source type: General]

S(g/kg) 0 10 20 24.7 30 35
T(freezing) (C) 0 -0.5 -1.08 -1.33 -1.63 -1.91

Additives

.Most table salt sold for consumption today is not pure sodium chloride.^ Sodium v table salt .

^ Sodium Chloride (NaCl), common salt.

^ The most commonly known form of sodium is table salt, or sodium chloride.

.In 1911 magnesium carbonate was first added to salt to make it flow more freely.^ They have added chemical additives which bleach the salt whiter, prevent water absorption while the salt is in the box, make the salt flow freely in your salt shaker, and add iodine and iodine stabilizers.

^ These added chemicals include free flowing agents, inorganic iodine, plus dextrose and bleaching agents.

^ Further adulterated by chemical additives to make it free- flowing, bleached, and iodized.

[7] .In 1924 trace amounts of iodine in form of sodium iodide, potassium iodide or potassium iodate were first added, to reduce the incidence of simple goiter.^ Iodine is added to most North American salt in an effort to reduce Iodine Deficiency Disorder (IDD), which causes mental retardation, miscarriage, goiters, brain damage in infants and can impair growth and development.
  • Salt, Salt - The Spice of Life, Types of Salt, Cooking with Salt, Salt Substitutions, Salt Composition and Medical Uses, History of Salt 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC whatscookingamerica.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When salt is added to a liquid, particles with opposite charges are formed: a positively charged sodium ion and a negatively charged chloride ion.

^ E. Seeliger, M. Ladwig, and H. W. Reinhardt Are large amounts of sodium stored in an osmotically inactive form during sodium retention?
  • High dietary sodium chloride consumption may not induce body fluid retention in humans -- Heer et al. 278 (4): 585 -- AJP - Renal Physiology 10 January 2010 2:33 UTC ajprenal.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

[8]
.Salt for de-icing in the United Kingdom predominantly comes from a single mine in Winsford in Cheshire.^ This is the most ancient of all sea salts - so ancient that it actually comes from underground mines high up in the Himalayan Mountains of Tibet between India and China.
  • Guardian of Eden h2o2 : Contents 20 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.dfwx.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, most have heard of the "Bonneville Salt Flats" of the USA. Most processed salt comes from such surface mines.
  • Guardian of Eden h2o2 : Contents 20 September 2009 12:21 UTC www.dfwx.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Prior to distribution it has an anti-caking agent added, sodium hexacyanoferrate(II) at less than 100ppm, this treatment enables rock salt to flow freely out of the gritting vehicles despite being stockpiled prior to use.^ This led to salt being used medically.
  • Salt Deficiency: the cause of many diseases: Crystal Salt Therapy 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rock salt is less expensive in the store.
  • Cargill Salt: About - FAQs - Water Conditioning 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.cargill.com [Source type: General]

^ Unless the salt product being used is high in water-insoluble matter, or there is a serious malfunction of some sort (e.g.
  • Cargill Salt: About - FAQs - Water Conditioning 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.cargill.com [Source type: General]

.In recent years this additive has also been used in table salt.^ Occasionally, if you use salt pellets or cube-style salt which are too loosely compacted, they may revert to tiny crystals of evaporated salt - similar to table salt.
  • Cargill Salt: About - FAQs - Water Conditioning 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.cargill.com [Source type: General]

^ Ordinary table salt that is bought in the super markets has been stripped of its companion elements and contains additive elements such as aluminum silicate to keep it powdery and porous.

^ Being so widely used, salt has many alternative uses besides the traditional food additive.
  • Salt, Salt - The Spice of Life, Types of Salt, Cooking with Salt, Salt Substitutions, Salt Composition and Medical Uses, History of Salt 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC whatscookingamerica.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Environmental impact

.Road salt ends up in fresh water bodies and could harm aquatic plants and animals by disrupting their osmoregulation ability.^ Water and salt regulate the water content of the body.

^ Is the water softener salt in any way harmful to animals?
  • Cargill Salt: About - FAQs - Water Conditioning 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.cargill.com [Source type: General]

^ Many people believe that salt is harmful to the human body.

[9] An alternative is to spread rough sand on ice so the surface is not slippery.

Alternative names

  • NaCl, Sodium monochloride[10]
  • Table salt, Sal Culinare or Sal Culinaris
  • Common Salt, Sal Commune
  • Muriate of soda, Muriate of natrium, Chloride of Sodium, Hydrochlorate of Soda (older names)
  • Sodii Chloridum, SodAe Hydro-chloras, SodAe Murias (ancient names)
  • Nat Mur for Natrum Muriaticum, Natrum Muriatica, or even Natrium Muriate (homeopathic/Biochemic cell salts)

See also

.

References

  1. ^ Martel, B.; Cassidy, K. (2004), Chemical Risk Analysis: A Practical Handbook, Butterworth–Heinemann, p. 369, ISBN 1903996651 
  2. ^ Susan R. Feldman. Sodium chloride. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published online, 2005 doi:10.1002/0471238961.1915040902051820.a01.pub2
  3. ^ B. J. Mason (2006-12-19). "The role of sea-salt particles as cloud condensation nuclei over the remote oceans". The Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 127 (576): 2023–2032. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/114028130/abstract. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  4. ^ David A. Kuemmel (1994). Managing roadway snow and ice control operations. Transportation Research Board. p. 10. ISBN 9780309056663. http://books.google.com/books?id=I3gxuwTE5_MC&pg=PA10&lpg=PA10&dq=effect+of+snowfall+on+infrastructure&source=bl&ots=kmDWQqfCno&sig=yMOXi2gv5_LJf_o3qNA36e0FSO8&hl=en&ei=nKxUSt-pAY7ElAeIoZXkCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  5. ^ Relationship between Salt Intake, Nitric Oxide and Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Its Relevance to Patients with End-Stage
  6. ^ McCarron, David A. (2008), "Dietary sodium and cardiovascular and renal disease risk factors: dark horse or phantom entry?", Nephrol Dial Transplant 23 (7): 2133–2137, doi:10.1093/ndt/gfn312 .
  7. ^ "Morton Salt FAQ". http://www.mortonsalt.com/faqs/index.html#q3. Retrieved 2007-05-12. 
  8. ^ Markel H (1987). ""When it rains it pours": endemic goiter, iodized salt, and David Murray Cowie, MD". American journal of public health 77 (2): 219–29. doi:10.2105/AJPH.77.2.219. PMID 3541654. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1646845. 
  9. ^ Does road salt harm the environment?
  10. ^ National Institute of Standards and Technology: Sodium Chloride

Further reading

.
  1. Kaufmann, Dale W., SODIUM CHLORIDE, The Production and Properties of Salt and Brine, ACS Monograph 145, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1960, 743 pages.^ Sodium Chloride (NaCl), common salt.

    ^ Widely used compounds include Sodium Chloride (common salt), Sodium Bicarbonate (baking soda), Sodium Carbonate (soda ash), hydroxide (lye), nitrate, phosphates, and Borax .

    ^ Salt A chemical compound (other than water) formed by neutralization reactions between Acids and Bases ; by direct combination of metal with nonmetal, e.g., sodium chloride (common table salt); by reaction of a metal with a dilute acid; by reaction of a metal oxide with acid; by reaction of a nonmetallic oxide with a base; or by reaction of two salts with each other to form two new salts.

    .Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 79-50778.
  2. Kurlansky, Mark, SALT, A World History, Walker and Company, New York, 2002, 484 pages.^ [August 14, 2002] SALT Forum Contributes Speech Application Language Tags Specification to W3C. An announcement from the SALT Forum describes the contribution of the Speech Application Language Tags specification to the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).
    • Cover Pages: Speech Application Language Tags (SALT) 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC xml.coverpages.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ About History of Salt How Salt is Made Marketing News FAQs Food Agriculture Water Conditioning Ice Melters .
    • Cargill Salt: About - FAQs - Water Conditioning 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.cargill.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Source: Thomas Frederick Crane, Italian Popular Tales (Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin, and Company, 1885), no.
    • Love Like Salt 16 January 2010 19:45 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ISBN 0-8027-1373-4

External links


Citable sentences

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