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Systems like Debian are composed largely of free software
.Free software, software libre or libre software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with minimal restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things and that manufacturers of consumer-facing hardware allow user modifications to their hardware.^ The Free Software Foundation (FSF), established in 1985, is dedicated to promoting computer users' rights to use, study, copy, modify, and redistribute computer programs.
  • TEXAS OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE FOUNDATION 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC tossfoundation.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Synonyms for Free Software include Libre Software (c.a.
  • Economic Free Software perspectives | carlodaffara.conecta.it 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC carlodaffara.conecta.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can I use ALL free software?
  • FreeCulture.org – Students for Free Culture » Blog Archive » Free Software and Free Culture 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC freeculture.org [Source type: General]

.Free software is generally available without charge, but can have a fee.^ Freeware is proprietary software that is available free of charge in executable form.
  • Free software fefinition by The Linux Information Project (LINFO) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.linfo.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Free software is available gratis (free of charge) in most cases.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microsoft Launch WebsiteSpark: Free Software For Web Developers 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.techcrunch.com [Source type: General]

^ All these programs are copyrighted by Bob Crispen and are provided without charge under the terms of the GNU General Public License and other licenses as READMEware: In return for the software, you promise to read the documentation.
  • Free Software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.crispen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In practice, for software to be distributed as free software, the human-readable form of the program (the source code) must be made available to the recipient along with a notice granting the above permissions.^ Forms of software distribution .
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free product code recovery software: .

^ The usual way for software to be distributed as free software is for the software to be licensed to the recipient with a free software license (or be in the public domain), and the source code of the software to be made available (for a compiled language).
  • What Is Free Software? A Reply From The Source: Richard Stallman Video Interview 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.masternewmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such a notice either is a "free software license", or a notice that the source code is released into the public domain.^ Free product code recovery software: .

^ The usual way for software to be distributed as free software is for the software to be licensed to the recipient with a free software license (or be in the public domain), and the source code of the software to be made available (for a compiled language).
  • What Is Free Software? A Reply From The Source: Richard Stallman Video Interview 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.masternewmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the Free Software Foundation has stated, public domain software means software that is not copyrighted.
  • NSW Society for Computers and the Law: Journal: March 2003: Understanding Open Source Software 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.nswscl.org.au [Source type: Reference]

.The free software movement was conceived in 1983 by Richard Stallman to satisfy the need for and to give the benefit of "software freedom" to computer users.^ This led to the development of the free software movement by Richard Stallman.
  • Free software fefinition by The Linux Information Project (LINFO) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.linfo.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Richard Stallman : Free software means software that respects the user’s freedom.
  • What Is Free Software? A Reply From The Source: Richard Stallman Video Interview 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.masternewmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He started the free software movement to get back those freedoms.
  • Free Software - Ciaran O'Riordan 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC ciaran.compsoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .Stallman founded the Free Software Foundation in 1985 to provide the organizational structure to advance his Free Software ideas.^ Free poker software provider: .
  • Free poker software - best online poker networks comparison 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.casinator.com [Source type: General]

^ Free Software Foundation Skip to content.
  • What is free software and why is it so important for society? - Free Software Foundation 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.fsf.org [Source type: General]

^ The Free Software Foundation was founded in 1985 to provide the organizational structure which Stallman correctly foresaw would be necessary to advance his Free Software ideas.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From 1998 onward, alternative terms for free software came into use.^ The term free software is relatively new.
  • Free software fefinition by The Linux Information Project (LINFO) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.linfo.org [Source type: Reference]

^ From 1998 onward, alternative terms for free software came into use.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free Software for business use?
  • Free Software: a Beginner's Guide to GPL - www.reallylinux.com       14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.reallylinux.com [Source type: General]

.The most common are "software libre", "free and open source software" ("FOSS") and "free, libre and open source software" ("FLOSS").^ The XFree86 Project, Inc is a global volunteer organisation which produces XFree86, a freely redistributable open-source implementation of the X Window System .
  • TEXAS OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE FOUNDATION 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC tossfoundation.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Is content you can edit open source ?Web 2.0 and Open Source softwares not to be confusedHello, first of all thanks for the article.Second of all, on a marketing side, I think we have to differ Open Source softwares and Web 2.0 applications.
  • OPEN SOURCE and open-source software Resources | ZDNet 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC updates.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ As of this writing, the GNU General Public License ("GPL") is the most pervasive license of Open Source software.
  • NSW Society for Computers and the Law: Journal: March 2003: Understanding Open Source Software 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.nswscl.org.au [Source type: Reference]

.The "Software Freedom Law Center" was founded in 2005 to protect and advance FLOSS.[2] The antonym of free software is "proprietary software" or "non-free software". Commercial software may be either free software or proprietary software, contrary to a popular misconception that "commercial software" is a synonym for "proprietary software". (An example of commercial free software is Red Hat Linux.^ It is free for non-commercial purposes.
  • Freie wissenschaftliche Software - List of free statistical software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC statistiksoftware.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The "Software Freedom Law Center" was founded in 2005 to protect and advance FLOSS. [ 2 ] The antonym of free software is " proprietary software " or "non-free software".
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The free software community is large and diverse, not to mention packed chock-full of acronyms only a geek could love -- GNU, Linux, FreeBSD, Perl.
  • Salon | 21st: Apache's free-software warriors 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.salonmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)
.Free software, which may or may not be distributed free of charge, is distinct from "freeware" which, by definition, does not require payment for use.^ Freeware is software for which no licensing fee is being charged to use it .
  • The Free Software Catalog | Find Open Source and Freeware for Small Business at GARA.com 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.gara.com [Source type: General]

^ It is distributed free-of-charge upon request.
  • Freie wissenschaftliche Software - List of free statistical software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC statistiksoftware.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Freeware is proprietary software that is available free of charge in executable form.
  • Free software fefinition by The Linux Information Project (LINFO) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.linfo.org [Source type: Reference]

.The authors or copyright holders of freeware may retain all rights to the software; it is not necessarily permissible to reverse engineer, modify, or redistribute freeware.^ All software Freeware Shareware Demo .
  • Free software downloads of software tools 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC software.prerouting.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Copyright holders can permit other people to copy or modify their software.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All software is subject to copyright law.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3][4]
.Since free software may be freely redistributed it is generally available at little or no cost.^ Tag details Freeware (a.k.a., free software ) is software that is available at no cost to the user, now or ever.
  • FREE Software Articles, Posts, Blogs, Videos - Technorati 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC technorati.com [Source type: General]
  • free software Articles, Posts, Blogs, Videos - Technorati 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC technorati.com [Source type: General]

^ Free software is generally available at little to no cost and can result in permanently lower costs compared to proprietary software .
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To them free means "at no cost".
  • Debian -- What Does Free Mean? 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.debian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Free software business models are usually based on adding value such as applications, support, training, customization, integration, or certification.^ Free Ad/Spyware software removal .
  • Free Anti-Virus Software: Legally protect your PC for free... 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.moneysavingexpert.com [Source type: General]

^ Open source software-based business models research .
  • Economic Free Software perspectives | carlodaffara.conecta.it 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC carlodaffara.conecta.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Free software programmer's time is valuable.
  • How to Become a Free Software Hacker - wikiHow 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.wikihow.com [Source type: General]

.At the same time, some business models which work with proprietary software are not compatible with free software, such as those that depend on a user paying for a license in order to lawfully use a software product.^ Free product code recovery software: .

^ I work on and with Free software and I get paid for it.
  • What Is Free Software? A Reply From The Source: Richard Stallman Video Interview 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.masternewmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We do this work through our Free Software Licensing and Compliance Lab .
  • What is free software and why is it so important for society? - Free Software Foundation 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.fsf.org [Source type: General]

Contents

History

.In the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, it was normal for computer users to have the freedoms that are provided by free software.^ Richard Stallman : Free software means software that respects the user’s freedom.
  • What Is Free Software? A Reply From The Source: Richard Stallman Video Interview 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.masternewmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: History of free software In the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, it was normal for computer users to have the freedoms that are provided by free software.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A program is free software if users have all of these freedoms."
  • NSW Society for Computers and the Law: Journal: March 2003: Understanding Open Source Software 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.nswscl.org.au [Source type: Reference]

.Software was commonly shared by individuals who used computers and by hardware manufacturers who were glad that people were making software that made their hardware useful.^ Software was commonly shared by individuals who used computers and by hardware manufacturers who were glad that people were making software that made their hardware useful.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is pre-release software, so it may have a few little kinks in it, but this offer gives you a lot of computing power without making any investment at all.
  • Free Products Samples and Free Stuff 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.freehound.com [Source type: General]

^ The Free Software Foundation (FSF), founded in 1985, is dedicated to promoting computer users' rights to use, study, copy, modify, and redistribute computer programs.
  • Charity Navigator Rating - Free Software Foundation 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.charitynavigator.org [Source type: General]

.Organizations of users and suppliers were formed to facilitate the exchange of software; see, for example, SHARE.^ Organizations of users and suppliers were formed to facilitate the exchange of software, see, for example, SHARE .
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Open Source Refers to software that is distributed with its source code so that end user organizations and vendors can modify it for their own purposes.
  • OPEN SOURCE and open-source software Resources | ZDNet 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC updates.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ This means that any user can modify the software, and they can share their modifications so that every user can benefit from their work.
  • Free Software - Ciaran O'Riordan 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC ciaran.compsoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the late 1960s change was inevitable: software costs were dramatically increasing, a growing software industry was competing with the hardware manufacturer's bundled software products (free in that the cost was included in the hardware cost), leased machines required software support while providing no revenue for software, and some customers able to better meet their own needs did not want the costs of "free" software bundled with hardware product costs.^ Free product code recovery software: .

^ Did you know free software sometimes costs money?
  • May 98 Troubleshooting Professional Magazine: Free Software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.troubleshooters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are no industries (save for commercial software development) that require Windows products.
  • Microsoft offers free software for start-ups | Beyond Binary - CNET News 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

In United States vs. IBM, filed January 17, 1969, the government charged that bundled software was anticompetitive.[5] .While some software might always be free, there would be a growing amount of software that was for sale only.^ Look at there other free software too!

^ I am always updating and testing free software.

^ While some software might always be free, there would be a growing amount of software that was for sale only.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the 1970s and early 1980s, the software industry began using technical measures (such as only distributing binary copies of computer programs) to prevent computer users from being able to study and modify software.^ The Free Software Foundation (FSF), established in 1985, is dedicated to promoting computer users' rights to use, study, copy, modify, and redistribute computer programs.
  • TEXAS OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE FOUNDATION 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC tossfoundation.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Freedom 1: The freedom to study and modify the program.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1970s and early 1980s, the software industry began using technical measures (such as only distributing binary copies of computer programs ) to prevent computer users from being able to study and modify software.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1980 copyright law was extended to computer programs.^ In 1980 copyright law was extended to computer programs.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And they applied copyright law to prohibit computer users from sharing theri software with others.
  • Free Software - Ciaran O'Riordan 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC ciaran.compsoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Copyright © 2001, NSW Society for Computers and the Law, All rights reserved.
  • NSW Society for Computers and the Law: Journal: March 2003: Understanding Open Source Software 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.nswscl.org.au [Source type: Reference]

.In 1983, Richard Stallman, longtime member of the hacker community at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, announced the GNU project, saying that he had become frustrated with the effects of the change in culture of the computer industry and its users.^ In 1983, Richard Stallman , longtime member of the hacker community at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory , announced the GNU project , saying that he had become frustrated with the effects of the change in culture of the computer industry and its users.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The text of the new license can be read on a foundation Web page concerning GNU (Gnu's Not Unix) , the effort Stallman announced in 1983 to create an operating system similar to Unix but free of its proprietary software constraints.
  • Free Software Foundation releases GPL 3 - CNET News 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Richard Stallman : The fundamental instance of Free Software is the GNU operating system , which is the only operating system that was ever developed for ethical reasons, instead of for commercial or technical reasons, which is why most systems were developed.
  • What Is Free Software? A Reply From The Source: Richard Stallman Video Interview 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.masternewmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Software development for the GNU operating system began in January 1984, and the Free Software Foundation (FSF) was founded in October 1985. He developed a free software definition and the concept of "copyleft", designed to ensure software freedom for all.^ He founded the Free Software Foundation in October 1985 to handle distribution of GNU software, and to provide a legal infrastructure for GNU and the emerging free software community.
  • Free Software - Ciaran O'Riordan 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC ciaran.compsoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our operating system is GNU Linux, and it is a free operating system.
  • Stallman Clarifies Free Software Movement - Software - IT Channel News by CRN 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.crn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He developed a free software definition and the concept of " copyleft ", designed to ensure software freedom for all.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The economic viability of free software has been recognised by large corporations such as IBM, Red Hat, and Sun Microsystems.^ The economic viability of free software has been recognised by large corporations such as IBM , Red Hat , and Sun Microsystems .
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Economic incentives of Free Software adoption .
  • Economic Free Software perspectives | carlodaffara.conecta.it 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC carlodaffara.conecta.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Economic Free Software perspectives .
  • Economic Free Software perspectives | carlodaffara.conecta.it 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC carlodaffara.conecta.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6][7][8][9][10] .Many companies whose core business is not in the IT sector choose free software for their Internet information and sales sites, due to the lower initial capital investment and ability to freely customize the application packages.^ Over the years, many companies have contributed to free software development.
  • Why “Free Software” is better than “OpenSource” - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.gnu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where to find information about free software .
  • Free Software - Ciaran O'Riordan 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC ciaran.compsoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Download Business software products for free .
  • Download Business software products for free 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.freedownloadsplace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also, some non-software industries are beginning to use techniques similar to those used in free software development for their research and development process; scientists, for example, are looking towards more open development processes, and hardware such as microchips are beginning to be developed with specifications released under copyleft licenses (see the OpenCores project, for instance).^ But how can good software be developed for free?

^ It is completely free to use, and open source.
  • Open Source Software - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Such an agreement is made separately from the free software license.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Creative Commons and the free culture movement have also been largely influenced by the free software movement.^ I do believe in the free software movement.
  • The Free Software Catalog | Find Open Source and Freeware for Small Business at GARA.com 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.gara.com [Source type: General]

^ Creative Commons and the free culture movement have also been largely influenced by the free software movement.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The beginning of the free software movement .
  • Free Software - Ciaran O'Riordan 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC ciaran.compsoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Naming

.The FSF recommends using the term "free software" rather than "open source software" because, they state in a paper on Free Software philosophy, the latter term and the associated marketing campaign focuses on the technical issues of software development, avoiding the issue of user freedoms.^ Concrete5 is free and open source.

^ This is what most users think of when they hear the term "free software".
  • The Free Software Catalog | Find Open Source and Freeware for Small Business at GARA.com 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.gara.com [Source type: General]

^ Other resources for free open source software exist.

[11] ."Libre" is used to avoid the ambiguity of the word "free" in English language.^ Libre " is used to avoid the ambiguity of the word "free".
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When we use the term "free software" the word free can have two very distinctive meanings.
  • The Free Software Catalog | Find Open Source and Freeware for Small Business at GARA.com 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.gara.com [Source type: General]

^ Unfortunately, their form of “support” consists of releasing non-free software that works with the system—in other words, using our community as a market but not contributing to it.
  • Why “Free Software” is better than “OpenSource” - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.gnu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Definition

The first formal definition of free software was published by FSF in February 1986.[12] That definition, written by Richard Stallman, is still maintained today and states that software is free software if people who receive a copy of the software have the following four freedoms[13]:
  • Freedom 0: The freedom to run the program for any purpose.
  • Freedom 1: The freedom to study how the program works, and change it to make it do what you wish.
  • Freedom 2: The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor.
  • Freedom 3: The freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements (and modified versions in general) to the public, so that the whole community benefits.
.Freedoms 1 and 3 require source code to be available because studying and modifying software without its source code is highly impractical.^ Freedom 1: The freedom to study and modify the program.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Availability of the source code.
  • NSW Society for Computers and the Law: Journal: March 2003: Understanding Open Source Software 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.nswscl.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ Freedoms 1 and 3 require source code to be available because studying and modifying software without its source code is highly impractical.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, free software means that computer users have the freedom to cooperate with whom they choose, and to control the software they use.^ Have a means for documenting what software, and what version of that software, is in use.
  • NSW Society for Computers and the Law: Journal: March 2003: Understanding Open Source Software 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.nswscl.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ This is what most users think of when they hear the term "free software".
  • The Free Software Catalog | Find Open Source and Freeware for Small Business at GARA.com 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.gara.com [Source type: General]

^ Whereas with free software the users are in control, the users decide what the program will do.
  • What Is Free Software? A Reply From The Source: Richard Stallman Video Interview 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.masternewmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To summarize this into a remark distinguishing libre (freedom) software from gratis (zero price) software, the Free Software Foundation says: "Free software is a matter of liberty, not price.^ Synonyms for Free Software include Libre Software (c.a.
  • Economic Free Software perspectives | carlodaffara.conecta.it 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC carlodaffara.conecta.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free Software Foundation releases GPL 3 .
  • Free Software Foundation releases GPL 3 - CNET News 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ The aims and goals of the Free Software Foundation.
  • Open Source Software - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

To understand the concept, you should think of 'free' as in 'free speech', not as in 'free beer'".[14]
.In the late 90s, other groups published their own definitions which describe an almost identical set of software.^ In the late 90s, other groups published their own definitions which describe an almost identical set of software.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most notable are Debian Free Software Guidelines published in 1997, [ 9 ] and the Open Source Definition , published in 1998.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GNU General Public License the GNU Lesser General Public License the BSD License the Mozilla Public License the MIT License the Apache License The Free Software Foundation and the Open Source Initiative both publish lists of licenses that they find to comply with their own definitions of free software and open-source software respectively.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The most notable are Debian Free Software Guidelines published in 1997,[15] and the Open Source Definition, published in 1998.
.The BSD-based operating systems, such as FreeBSD, OpenBSD, and NetBSD, do not have their own formal definitions of free software.^ The software operates upon NTFS and NTFS5 based file system.
  • Free Downloads Freeware download full version software discount Purchase 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.trialsoft.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The text of the new license can be read on a foundation Web page concerning GNU (Gnu's Not Unix) , the effort Stallman announced in 1983 to create an operating system similar to Unix but free of its proprietary software constraints.
  • Free Software Foundation releases GPL 3 - CNET News 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ BSD freeDOS Linux NetBSD OpenBSD OpenSolaris (Sun) Samba (file/print services) VirtualBox (virtual machine) Wine (Windows emulator) Xen (virtual machine) .
  • Damicon - List of open-source software links 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.damicon.com [Source type: General]

.Users of these systems generally find the same set of software to be acceptable, but sometimes see copyleft as restrictive.^ We are giving away software for FREE. You'll find that these programs are staples in every computer user's diet.
  • Free Software Free ebooks Live seminars 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC free-mart.net [Source type: General]

^ If you have no interest in compiling these programs or porting them to another system, just delete the source code and the programs will still run exactly the same.
  • Free Software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.crispen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sooner or later these users will be invited to switch back to proprietary software for some practical advantage.
  • Why “Free Software” is better than “OpenSource” - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.gnu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They generally advocate permissive free software licenses, which allow others to make software based on their source code, and then release the modified result as proprietary software.^ Free product code recovery software: .
  • Free Software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC baygeeks.com [Source type: General]

^ Other resources for free open source software exist.

^ Free and open source software .
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Their view is that this permissive approach is more free.^ Their view is that this permissive approach is more free.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Kerberos, X.org, and Apache software licenses are substantially similar in intent and implementation.^ The Kerberos , X.org , and Apache software licenses are substantially similar in intent and implementation.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Frog requires a MySQL database with InnoDB support, a web server (Apache with mod_rewrite is highly recommended) and is distributed under the MIT software license.
  • Best Free Weblog Software Other Than WordPress | WordPress Resources 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.blogperfume.com [Source type: General]

^ We are the copyright holders of the b a r software package, which we distribute under the terms of the GNU General Public License from http://www.example.org/.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All of these software packages originated in academic institutions interested in wide technology transfer (University of California, MIT, and UIUC).^ All of these software packages originated in academic institutions interested in wide technology transfer ( University of California , MIT , and UIUC ).
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Drupal is a free software package that allows an individual or a community of users to easily publish, manage and organize a wide variety of content on a website.
  • Best Free Weblog Software Other Than WordPress | WordPress Resources 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.blogperfume.com [Source type: General]

^ In all of these cases free software packages are often better than similar commercial versions costing hundreds of dollars.
  • Saugus.net: Some Free Software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.saugus.net [Source type: General]

Examples of free software

.The Free Software Directory maintains a large database of free software packages.^ Geotechnical Software Directory - Free geotechnical software here.

^ Main article: List of open source software packages The Free Software Directory maintains a large database of free software packages.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But what interests me is the software directories that already exist, providing a combination of both free as in beer software, and open source software.

.Some of the best-known examples include the Linux Kernel, the BSD and GNU/Linux operating systems, the GNU Compiler Collection and C library; the MySQL relational database; the Apache web server; and the Sendmail mail transport agent.^ Wikipedia is the best known example.
  • The Free Software Definition - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.gnu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apache, PHP5 and MySQL server .
  • Free Software | bigBrains.com 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.bigbrains.com [Source type: General]

^ The text of the new license can be read on a foundation Web page concerning GNU (Gnu's Not Unix) , the effort Stallman announced in 1983 to create an operating system similar to Unix but free of its proprietary software constraints.
  • Free Software Foundation releases GPL 3 - CNET News 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

.Other influential examples include the emacs text editor; the GIMP raster drawing and image editor; the X Window System graphical-display system; the OpenOffice.org office suite; and the TeX and LaTeX typesetting systems.^ Other influential examples include the emacs text editor; the GIMP raster drawing and image editor; the X Window System graphical-display system; the OpenOffice.org office suite; and the TeX and LaTeX typesetting systems.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Open Office www.openoffice.org .
  • Free spreadsheet software, templates, add-ins, support resources 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.sysmod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ OpenOffice.org www.openoffice.org Windows .
  • The Best Free Software 2008 - Reviews by PC Magazine 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.pcmag.com [Source type: General]

Free software licenses

.All free software licenses must grant people all the freedoms discussed above.^ A program is free software if users have all of these freedoms."
  • NSW Society for Computers and the Law: Journal: March 2003: Understanding Open Source Software 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.nswscl.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ More and more people are discovering free software.

^ All about free software -- free as in freedom!

.However, unless the applications' licenses are compatible, combining programs by mixing source code or directly linking binaries is problematic, because of license technicalities.^ Also a Wireframe Modelling program with source code.

^ The usual way for software to be distributed as free software is for the software to be licensed to the recipient with a free software license (or be in the public domain), and the source code of the software to be made available (for a compiled language).
  • What Is Free Software? A Reply From The Source: Richard Stallman Video Interview 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.masternewmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the obvious meaning for the expression “open source software” is “You can look at the source code.” This is a much weaker criterion than free software; it includes free software, but also includes semi-free programs such as Xv, and even some proprietary programs, including Qt under its original license (before the QPL).
  • Why “Free Software” is better than “OpenSource” - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.gnu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Programs indirectly connected together may avoid this problem.^ Programs indirectly connected together may avoid this problem.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The majority of free software uses a small set of licenses.^ This software can be used in a classroom setting.
  • Free POS Software / Free Cash Register Program. 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC pages.prodigy.net [Source type: General]

^ The usual way for software to be distributed as free software is for the software to be licensed to the recipient with a free software license (or be in the public domain), and the source code of the software to be made available (for a compiled language).
  • What Is Free Software? A Reply From The Source: Richard Stallman Video Interview 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.masternewmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free Software Foundation Reducing Your Small Biz Software Budget with Open Source Software Don't want to pay over $400 for Microsoft Office, but can't afford to be without it?
  • Open Source Software - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

The most popular of these licenses are:
.The Free Software Foundation and the Open Source Initiative both publish lists of licenses that they find to comply with their own definitions of free software and open-source software respectively.^ Concrete5 is free and open source.

^ Because of this, I do identify which software titles are open source and under what type of license they are published.
  • The Free Software Catalog | Find Open Source and Freeware for Small Business at GARA.com 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.gara.com [Source type: General]

^ This includes modification of Open Source software.
  • NSW Society for Computers and the Law: Journal: March 2003: Understanding Open Source Software 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.nswscl.org.au [Source type: Reference]

.The FSF list is not prescriptive: free licensees can exist which the FSF has not heard about, or considered important enough to write about.^ List of FSF approved software licenses List of OSI approved software licenses The FSF list is not prescriptive: free licensees can exist which the FSF has not heard about, or considered important enough to write about.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So it's possible for a license to be free and not in the FSF list.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some claim that this method is biased by counting more vulnerabilities for the free software, since its source code is accessible and its community is more forthcoming about what problems exist.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.So it's possible for a license to be free and not in the FSF list.^ So it's possible for a license to be free and not in the FSF list.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main characteristic of the software packages listed, apart from their Software-Art-ness, is that they are under a Free license, and they do not depend on non-free code.
  • Free Software Art » Frequenty Asked Questions 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC freesoftwareart.org [Source type: General]

^ Rather, we are talking about software that is licensed under the precepts of the Free Software Foundation ("FSF") and its flagship GNU General Public License.
  • NSW Society for Computers and the Law: Journal: March 2003: Understanding Open Source Software 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.nswscl.org.au [Source type: Reference]

.The OSI list only lists licenses that have been submitted, considered and approved.^ Thus, it's not possible for a license to be Open Source and not on the OSI approved list.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the OSI list is prescriptive: they only list licenses that have been submitted, considered and approved.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Debian doesn't publish a list of approved licenses, so its judgments have to be tracked by checking what software they have allowed into their software archives.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All Open Source licences must meet the Open Source Definition.^ Although it is this OSI definition of Open Source to which the remainder of this paper relates, it is worthwhile to also examine the definition of Free Software, for often times the terms Free Software and Open Source are used interchangeably.
  • NSW Society for Computers and the Law: Journal: March 2003: Understanding Open Source Software 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.nswscl.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ Licensors of Protective Open Source licenses retain their copyright, grant all rights under copyright to the licensee, but apply at least one restriction, typically that the redistribution of the software, whether modified or unmodified, must be under the same license.
  • NSW Society for Computers and the Law: Journal: March 2003: Understanding Open Source Software 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.nswscl.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ Some of those risks may relate specifically to Open Source software, but most often they relate to all software, regardless of the form of license.
  • NSW Society for Computers and the Law: Journal: March 2003: Understanding Open Source Software 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.nswscl.org.au [Source type: Reference]

.Apart from these two organizations, the Debian project is seen by some to provide useful advice on whether particular licenses comply with their Debian Free Software Guidelines.^ Saugus.net: Some Free Software .
  • Saugus.net: Some Free Software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.saugus.net [Source type: General]

^ The Free Software Foundation acts as an umbrella organization for its projects.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Freedom from such restrictions is central to the concept, with the opposite of free software being proprietary software (a distinction unrelated to whether a fee is charged).
  • What Is Free Software? A Reply From The Source: Richard Stallman Video Interview 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.masternewmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Debian doesn't publish a list of approved licenses, so its judgments have to be tracked by checking what software they have allowed into their software archives.^ Debian doesn't publish a list of approved licenses, so its judgments have to be tracked by checking what software they have allowed into their software archives.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Winner of the CODiE Award for “Best Asset Management Solution,” Express Software Manager enables organizations to track and manage hardware and software assets, monitor application usage, determine where they’re under-licensed and over-licensed, and control the launch of unauthorized applications.
  • Business Software Alliance - Free Software Audit Tools 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.bsa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They generally advocate permissive free software licenses , which allow others to make software based on their source code, and then release the modified result as proprietary software.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That is summarized at the Debian web site.^ That is summarized at the Debian web site.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]
It is rare that a license announced as being in-compliance with the FSF guidelines does not also meet the Open Source Definition, although the reverse is not necessarily true (for example, the Netscape Public License used for early versions of Mozilla and NASA Open Source Agreement are both OSI-approved licenses, but non-free according to FSF)

Permissive and copyleft licenses

The FSF categorizes licenses in the following ways:
.
  • Public domain software – the copyright has expired, the work was not copyrighted or the author has released the software onto the public domain.^ As the Free Software Foundation has stated, public domain software means software that is not copyrighted.
    • NSW Society for Computers and the Law: Journal: March 2003: Understanding Open Source Software 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.nswscl.org.au [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Public domain software - the copyright has expired, the work was not copyrighted or the author has abandoned the copyright.
    • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The usual way for software to be distributed as free software is for the software to be licensed to the recipient with a free software license (or be in the public domain), and the source code of the software to be made available (for a compiled language).
    • What Is Free Software? A Reply From The Source: Richard Stallman Video Interview 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.masternewmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Since public-domain software lacks copyright protection, it may be freely incorporated into any work, whether proprietary or free.
  • Permissive licenses, also called BSD-style because they are applied to much of the software distributed with the BSD operating systems.^ As the Free Software Foundation has stated, public domain software means software that is not copyrighted.
    • NSW Society for Computers and the Law: Journal: March 2003: Understanding Open Source Software 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.nswscl.org.au [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Such a notice either is a " free software license ", or a notice that the source code is released into the public domain .
    • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Public domain software - the copyright has expired, the work was not copyrighted or the author has abandoned the copyright.
    • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The author retains copyright solely to disclaim warranty and require proper attribution of modified works, and permits redistribution and any modification, even proprietary ones.
  • Copyleft licenses, the GNU General Public License being the most prominent.^ The GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) is sometimes classified as a weak copyleft.
    • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The GNU General Public License, version 2 (GPLv2), is the most widely used FOSS license.
    • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ While Copyright, Copyleft and Creative Commons licenses protect authors work in...
    • What Is Free Software? A Reply From The Source: Richard Stallman Video Interview 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.masternewmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The author retains copyright and permits redistribution and modification provided all such redistribution is licensed under the same license.^ The author retains copyright and permits redistribution and modification provided all such redistribution is licensed under the same license.
    • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Code licensed under terms that do not permit such combinations are difficult to combine in the same project.
    • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The author retains copyright solely to disclaim warranty and require proper attribution of modified works, and permits redistribution and any modification, even proprietary ones.
    • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Additions and modifications by others must also be licensed under the same "copyleft" license whenever they are distributed with part of the original licensed product.

Security and reliability

.There is debate over the security of free software in comparison to proprietary software, with a major issue being security through obscurity.^ There is debate over the security of free software in comparison to proprietary software, with a major issue being security through obscurity .
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the first issue of Free Software Magazine.

^ Free Software Downloads - the advantages of being able to download software for free .
  • Free Software Downloads | Free DVD Software | Free Photo Software - SoftwareLode 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC softwarelode.com [Source type: General]

.A popular quantitative test in computer security is to use relative counting of known unpatched security flaws.^ A popular quantitative test in computer security is to use relative counting of known unpatched security flaws.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Protect the data stored and processed on a personal computer and local network resources; • Ensure security of information stored and used on laptops and removable media.

^ Anyone who has used computers for any length of time can testify to the amount of poorly tested software generally available today.
  • Free software downloads of software tools 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC software.prerouting.com [Source type: Reference]

.Generally, users of this method advise avoiding products which lack fixes for known security flaws, at least until a fix is available.^ The best way to ask the violator to fix the problem is to send a letter, via as many different methods as possible (at least by email, courier service, and fax).
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Free software advocates say that this method is biased by counting more vulnerabilities for the free software, since its source code is accessible and its community is more forthcoming about what problems exist,[17](This is called "Security Through Public Disclosure" by some) and proprietary software can have undisclosed flaws discoverable by or known to malicious users.^ Some claim that this method is biased by counting more vulnerabilities for the free software, since its source code is accessible and its community is more forthcoming about what problems exist.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free product code recovery software: .
  • Free Software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC baygeeks.com [Source type: General]

^ Free software advocates rebut that even if proprietary software does not have "published" flaws, flaws could still exist and possibly be known to malicious users.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As users can analyse and trace the source code, many more people with no commercial constraints can inspect the code and find bugs and loopholes than a corporation would find practicable.^ That is true, but no more true for Open Source vendors than for proprietary vendors.
  • NSW Society for Computers and the Law: Journal: March 2003: Understanding Open Source Software 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.nswscl.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ The ability of users to view and modify the source code allows many more people to potentially analyse the code and possibly to have a higher rate of finding bugs and flaws than an average sized corporation could manage.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Users having access to the source code also makes creating and deploying spyware far more difficult.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.User access to the source code makes deploying free software with undesirable hidden spyware functionality far more difficult than for proprietary software.^ Free product code recovery software: .
  • Free Software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC baygeeks.com [Source type: General]

^ Free Ad/Spyware software removal .
  • Free Anti-Virus Software: Legally protect your PC for free... 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.moneysavingexpert.com [Source type: General]

^ Free and open source software .
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18]

Commercial viability and adoption

.Free software played a part in the development of the Internet, the World Wide Web and the infrastructure of dot-com companies.^ So, why, why do people and companies develop free software?

^ Free software played a part in the development of the Internet, the World Wide Web and the infrastructure of dot-com companies .
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And so Free Software develops in a democratic manner.
  • What Is Free Software? A Reply From The Source: Richard Stallman Video Interview 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.masternewmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19][20] .Free software allows users to cooperate in enhancing and refining the programs they use; free software is a pure public good rather than a private good.^ Whereas with free software the users are in control, the users decide what the program will do.
  • What Is Free Software? A Reply From The Source: Richard Stallman Video Interview 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.masternewmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A program is free software if users have all of these freedoms."
  • NSW Society for Computers and the Law: Journal: March 2003: Understanding Open Source Software 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.nswscl.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ Free software allows users to cooperate in enhancing and refining the programs they use; free software is a pure public good rather than a private good .
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Companies that contribute to free software can increase commercial innovation amidst the void of patent cross licensing lawsuits.^ Free software licenses .
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Companies that contribute to free software can increase commercial innovation amidst the void of patent cross licensing lawsuits.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The usual way for software to be distributed as free software is for the software to be licensed to the recipient with a free software license (or be in the public domain), and the source code of the software to be made available (for a compiled language).
  • What Is Free Software? A Reply From The Source: Richard Stallman Video Interview 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.masternewmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(See mpeg2 patent holders.)
.Under the free software business model, free software vendors may charge a fee for distribution and offer pay support and software customization services.^ It is distributed free-of-charge upon request.
  • Freie wissenschaftliche Software - List of free statistical software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC statistiksoftware.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This model of software distribution is known as "shareware".
  • Free Software Downloads | Free DVD Software | Free Photo Software - SoftwareLode 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC softwarelode.com [Source type: General]

^ Some proprietary software vendors will also customize software for a fee.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Proprietary software uses a different business model, where a customer of the proprietary software pays a fee for a license to use the software.^ Some proprietary software vendors will also customize software for a fee.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Proprietary software uses a different business model, where a customer of the proprietary software pays a fee for a license to use the software.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Proprietary software should not exist and should not be used.
  • What Is Free Software? A Reply From The Source: Richard Stallman Video Interview 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.masternewmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This license may grant the customer the ability to configure some or no parts of the software themselves.^ This license may grant the customer the ability to configure some or no parts of the software themselves.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No software is listed unless we believe the submission is a bonafide software package that may be of use to people.
  • Free Software Downloads | Free DVD Software | Free Photo Software - SoftwareLode 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC softwarelode.com [Source type: General]

^ Whereas copyright law has traditionally been used to withhold permission to copy, modify or distribute software, some licenses instead use copyright law to require that such permissions be granted.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Often some level of support is included in the purchase of proprietary software, but additional support services (especially for enterprise applications) are usually available for an additional fee.^ Some proprietary software vendors will also customize software for a fee.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For some projects, having their code included in proprietary software is desirable.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Often some level of support is included in the purchase of proprietary software, but additional support services (especially for enterprise applications) are usually available for an additional fee.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some proprietary software vendors will also customize software for a fee.^ When customers have been using the free software for some time, their needs may grow and the vendor will be hoping that the customers purchases the bigger, more capable version of their software.
  • Free Software Downloads | Free DVD Software | Free Photo Software - SoftwareLode 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC softwarelode.com [Source type: General]

^ This allows peoples that have been ignored by proprietary software vendors to make software that is accessible to their own communities.
  • Introduction to Linux, Free Software and Open Source | Linux Australia 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.linux.org.au [Source type: General]

^ For some projects, having their code included in proprietary software is desirable.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21]
.Free software is generally available at no cost and can result in permanently lower costs compared to proprietary software.^ Free software is generally available at little to no cost and can result in permanently lower costs compared to proprietary software .
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No cost, no hassle security software f...
  • Free Downloads Encyclopedia - Softpedia 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC softpedia.com [Source type: General]

^ Since free software may be freely redistributed it is generally available at little or no cost.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With free software, businesses can fit software to their specific needs by changing the software themselves or by hiring programmers to modify it for them.^ And if I need a programmer, I'll try to hire a free-software author.
  • May 98 Troubleshooting Professional Magazine: Free Software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.troubleshooters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We believe that Free Software needs to do business differently.
  • Free Software at Rosenzweig and Maffia 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ With over 250 individuals trained through the FSI, many individuals were available for work with known business ready skills in Free Software.
  • Free Software at Rosenzweig and Maffia 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

.Free software often has no warranty, and more importantly, generally does not assign legal liability to anyone.^ More and more people are discovering free software.

^ Free software often has no warranty, and more importantly, generally does not assign legal liability to anyone.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More : Free Home & Hobby software..
  • Free software downloads freeware script and more We choose best download from over the world here for you. 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.loaddd.com [Source type: General]

.However, warranties are permitted between any two parties upon the condition of the software and its usage.^ However, warranties are permitted between any two parties upon the condition of the software and its usage.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This software will also permit you to control two (or more) PCs with one keyboard and mouse: .

^ Companies not willing to release their own software under the GPL can obtain a proprietary license that provides an exemption from the distribution conditions of the GPL, which seems desirable to some parties.
  • Economic Free Software perspectives | carlodaffara.conecta.it 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC carlodaffara.conecta.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such an agreement is made separately from the free software license.^ Such an agreement is made separately from the free software license.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free software licenses .
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Freedom from such restrictions is central to the concept, with the opposite of free software being proprietary software (a distinction unrelated to whether a fee is charged).
  • What Is Free Software? A Reply From The Source: Richard Stallman Video Interview 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.masternewmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A report by Standish Group says that adoption of open source has caused a drop in revenue to the proprietary software industry by about $60 billion per year.^ This includes modification of Open Source software.
  • NSW Society for Computers and the Law: Journal: March 2003: Understanding Open Source Software 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.nswscl.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ List of open source software packages .
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free and open source software .
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22]

Controversies

Binary blobs

In 2006, OpenBSD started the first campaign against the use of binary blobs, in kernels. .Blobs are usually freely distributable device drivers for hardware from vendors that do not reveal driver source code to users or developers.^ Blobs are usually freely distributable device drivers for hardware from vendors that do not reveal driver source code to users or developers.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some claim that this method is biased by counting more vulnerabilities for the free software, since its source code is accessible and its community is more forthcoming about what problems exist.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The FSF recommends using the term "free software" rather than "open source software" because the latter term and the associated marketing campaign focuses on the technical issues of software development, avoiding the issue of user freedoms.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This restricts the users' freedom to effectively modify the software and distribute modified versions.^ This restricts the users' freedom to effectively modify the software and distribute modified versions.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Users redistributing modified or unmodified versions of Open Source software must obey the GPL's "Golden Rule" of licensing the distributed software under the GPL and not adding any downstream restrictions.
  • NSW Society for Computers and the Law: Journal: March 2003: Understanding Open Source Software 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.nswscl.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ A copyright license that states no restrictions implicitly grants all rights, including rights to use, modify, distribute, etc.
  • NSW Society for Computers and the Law: Journal: March 2003: Understanding Open Source Software 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.nswscl.org.au [Source type: Reference]

.Also, since the blobs are undocumented and may have bugs, they pose a security risk to any operating system whose kernel includes them.^ Also, since the blobs are undocumented and may have bugs , they pose a security risk to any operating system whose kernel includes them.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Designed for the Windows® operating system and fully compatible with Windows XP/Vista/7, many Rose City Software titles may now also be used on the Apple Mac.
  • Software Summaries for Rose City Windows freeware and Top Shareware Utilities 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.rosecitysoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Some of those risks may relate specifically to Open Source software, but most often they relate to all software, regardless of the form of license.
  • NSW Society for Computers and the Law: Journal: March 2003: Understanding Open Source Software 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.nswscl.org.au [Source type: Reference]

.The proclaimed aim of the campaign against blobs is to collect hardware documentation that allows developers to write free software drivers for that hardware, ultimately enabling all free operating systems to become or remain blob-free.^ After all, much of the documentation for free software is available online on the web !
  • Saugus.net: Some Free Software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.saugus.net [Source type: General]

^ The aims and goals of the Free Software Foundation.
  • Open Source Software - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ DriverBackup : finds and collects the drivers for the hardware.

.The issue of binary blobs in the Linux kernel and other device drivers motivated some developers in Ireland to launch gNewSense, a GNU/Linux distribution with all the binary blobs removed.^ The issue of binary blobs in the Linux kernel and other device drivers motivated some developers in Ireland to launch gNewSense , a GNU/Linux distribution with all the binary blobs removed.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of them are already distributing some of their drivers (specially those for the Linux kernel) as Free Software.
  • Economic Free Software perspectives | carlodaffara.conecta.it 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC carlodaffara.conecta.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The proclaimed aim of the campaign against blobs is to collect hardware documentation that allows developers to write free software drivers for that hardware, ultimately enabling all free operating systems to become or remain blob-free.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The project received support from the Free Software Foundation.^ Free Software Foundation releases GPL 3 .
  • Free Software Foundation releases GPL 3 - CNET News 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ The aims and goals of the Free Software Foundation.
  • Open Source Software - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ The Free Software Foundation acts as an umbrella organization for its projects.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]

BitKeeper

.Larry McVoy invited high-profile free software projects to use his proprietary versioning system, BitKeeper, free of charge, in order to attract paying users.^ Have a means for documenting what software, and what version of that software, is in use.
  • NSW Society for Computers and the Law: Journal: March 2003: Understanding Open Source Software 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.nswscl.org.au [Source type: Reference]

^ Main article: BitKeeper#License concerns Larry McVoy invited high-profile free software projects to use his proprietary versioning system , BitKeeper , free of charge, in order to attract paying users.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is a cut-down version that can be used free of charge.
  • Free Cartoon Animation Software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.calicomonkey.com [Source type: General]

.In 2002, Linux coordinator Linus Torvalds decided to use BitKeeper to develop the Linux kernel, a free software project, claiming no free software alternative met his needs.^ Linux kernel leader Linus Torvalds has expressed his preference for GPL 2.
  • Free Software Foundation releases GPL 3 - CNET News 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ QuickTime Alternative: No need to download and install "QuickTime", use this instead.

^ There is no software to download, it's fun to do, and it's 100% free to use.
  • Software Summaries for Rose City Windows freeware and Top Shareware Utilities 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.rosecitysoftware.com [Source type: General]

.This controversial decision drew criticism from several sources, including the Free Software Foundation's founder Richard Stallman.^ Richard Stallman : Free software means software that respects the user’s freedom.
  • What Is Free Software? A Reply From The Source: Richard Stallman Video Interview 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.masternewmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free Software Foundation releases GPL 3 .
  • Free Software Foundation releases GPL 3 - CNET News 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Free and open source software .
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24]
.Following the apparent reverse engineering of BitKeeper's protocols, McVoy withdrew permission for gratis use by free software projects, leading the Linux kernel community to develop a free software replacement called Git.^ Following the apparent reverse engineering of BitKeeper's protocols, McVoy withdrew permission for gratis use by free software projects, leading the Linux kernel community to develop a free software replacement in Git .
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free software (Linux Reviews) .
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some claim that this method is biased by counting more vulnerabilities for the free software, since its source code is accessible and its community is more forthcoming about what problems exist.
  • Free software (Linux Reviews) 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Patent deals

.In November 2006, the Microsoft and Novell software corporations announced a controversial partnership involving, among other things, patent protection for some customers of Novell under certain conditions.^ Under the GPL 3, the foundation argues that all GPL software users will benefit from the Novell-Microsoft deal and others like it: "If you arrange to provide patent protection to some of the people who get the software from you, that protection is automatically extended to everyone who receives the software, no matter how they get it," said Brett Smith, the foundation's licensing-compliance engineer.
  • Free Software Foundation releases GPL 3 - CNET News 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ A provision to block future deals similar to that struck by Novell and Microsoft , in which Microsoft sells coupons to Novell's Suse Linux Enterprise Server that mean customers don't have to worry about Microsoft patent infringement lawsuits.
  • Free Software Foundation releases GPL 3 - CNET News 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Microsoft and the Office logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries.
  • Free Business Plan Software, Free Business Plan Template, Business Planning Guide 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.planware.org [Source type: General]

[25]

See also

References

  1. ^ "GNU project Initial Announcement". http://www.gnu.org/gnu/initial-announcement.html. 
  2. ^ "Software Freedom Law Center". http://www.softwarefreedom.org. 
  3. ^ Dixon, Rod (2004). Open Source Software Law. Artech House. p. 4. ISBN 9781580537193. http://books.google.com/books?id=9b_vVPf53xcC&pg=PA4&dq=%22free+software%22+freeware#PPA4,M1. Retrieved 2009-03-16. "On the other hand, freeware does not require any payment from the licensee or end-user, but it is not precisely free software, despite the fact that to an end-user the software is acquired in what appears to be an identical manner. Freeware is provided to end-users at no cost, but free software provides more benefits than simply delivering a no-cost product--indeed, for the end-user, there may be circumstances where the monetary cost of acquiring free software exceeds the cost of freeware." 
  4. ^ Graham, Lawrence D. (1999). Legal battles that shaped the computer industry. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 175. ISBN 9781567201789. http://books.google.com/books?id=c6IS3RnN6qAC&pg=PA175&dq=%22Legal+battles+that+shaped+the+computer+industry%22+%22from+the+beginning+of+the+computer+age%22. Retrieved 2009-03-16. "Freeware, however, is generally only free in terms of price; the author typically retains all other rights, including the rights to copy, distribute, and make derivative works from the software." 
  5. ^ Fisher, Franklin M.; McKie, James W.; Mancke, Richard B. (1983). IBM and the U.S. Data Processing Industry: An Economic History. Praeger. ISBN 0-03-063059-2. 
  6. ^ "IBM launches biggest Linux lineup ever". IBM. 1999-03-02. Archived from the original on 1999-11-10. http://web.archive.org/web/19991110114228/http://www.ibm.com/news/1999/03/02.phtml. 
  7. ^ Farrah Hamid (2006-05-24). "IBM invests in Brazil Linux Tech Center". LWN.net. http://lwn.net/Articles/185602/. 
  8. ^ "Interview: The Eclipse code donation". IBM. 2001-11-01. http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/linux/library/l-erick.html. 
  9. ^ "Sun begins releasing Java under the GPL". Free Software Foundation. November 15, 2006. http://www.fsf.org/news/fsf-welcomes-gpl-java.html. Retrieved 2007-09-23. "FSF president and founder Richard Stallman said, 'I think Sun has contributed more than any other company to the free software community in the form of software. It shows leadership. It's an example I hope others will follow.'" 
  10. ^ Rishab Aiyer Ghosh (November 20 2006). "Study on the: Economic impact of open source software on innovation and the competitiveness of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector in the EU" (PDF). European Union. pp. 51. http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/sectors/ict/files/2006-11-20-flossimpact_en.pdf. Retrieved 2007-01-25. 
  11. ^ "Why "Open Source" misses the point of Free Software". http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.html. "The philosophy of open source, with its purely practical values, impedes understanding of the deeper ideas of free software; it brings many people into our community, but does not teach them to defend it." 
  12. ^ "GNU's Bulletin, Volume 1 Number 1, page 8". http://www.gnu.org/bulletins/bull1.txt. 
  13. ^ FSF: The four freedoms
  14. ^ Free Software Foundation. "The Free Software Definition". http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html. Retrieved 2007-04-22. 
  15. ^ Bruce Perens. "Debian's "Social Contract" with the Free Software Community". debian-announce mailing list. http://lists.debian.org/debian-announce/debian-announce-1997/msg00017.html. 
  16. ^ "Debian -- License information". http://www.debian.org/legal/licenses/. Retrieved 2008-01-08. 
  17. ^ "Firefox more secure than MSIE after all". News.com. http://news.com.com/8301-10784_3-6047727-7.html. 
  18. ^ "Transcript where Stallman explains about spyware". http://fsfeurope.org/documents/rms-fs-2006-03-09.en.html#freedom-one. 
  19. ^ Netcraft. "Web Server Usage Survey". http://news.netcraft.com/archives/web_server_survey.html. 
  20. ^ The Apache Software Foundation. "Apache Strategy in the New Economy". http://www.unc.edu/~mohrmana/apache.pdf. 
  21. ^ Andy Dornan. "The Five Open Source Business Models". http://www.informationweek.com/blog/main/archives/2008/01/the_five_open_s.html. 
  22. ^ http://standishgroup.com/newsroom/open_source.php
  23. ^ GNU/Linux distributions we know of which consist entirely of free software, and whose main distribution sites distribute only free software.
  24. ^ "Richard Stallman thanking Larry McVoy for ending the gratis licenses for BitKeeper". NewsForge. http://software.newsforge.com/article.pl?sid=05/04/25/130207. 
  25. ^ "Ars Technica article on the Microsoft-Novell patent deal". http://arstechnica.com/articles/columns/linux/linux-20070128.ars. 

Articles

  • Puckette, Miller. “Who .Owns our Software?: A first-person case study.” eContact!^ For example, some old canned cloud physics subroutines in our own software library expect water densities in g/cm3; others expect kg/m3 .

    ^ View this open source blog software to manage your personal blog or your own domain along with all your online accounts at Twitter, Facebook.
    • Open Source Software - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Sign up for a free newsletter with White Papers, Case Studies and Product Info on: Open Source Software .
    • Open Source Software White Papers, Webcasts and Case Studies 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC whitepapers.businessweek.com [Source type: General]
    • SecurityDocs: Open Source Software 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC securitydocs.bitpipe.com [Source type: General]
    • Open Source Software Vendor Technology Document Directory 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC cxoamerica.bitpipe.com [Source type: General]
    • Open Source Software Whitepaper, Webcast and Product Lit Directory 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC b-eye-network.bitpipe.com [Source type: General]

    .11.3 — Logiciels audio « open source » / Open Source for Audio Application
    (September 2009).^ This is an open source application (GPL).

    ^ Nick - September 24th, 2009 at 11:20 am PDT They will never change because the tools from Microsoft are years ahead of any comparable open/free solution.
    • Microsoft Launch WebsiteSpark: Free Software For Web Developers 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.techcrunch.com [Source type: General]

    ^ April 26th, 2009 at 11:50 am may i know from where i can get adobe reader application of blacberry?
    • The best in free BlackBerry software applications and programs | BB Geeks 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.bbgeeks.com [Source type: General]

    Montréal: Communauté électroacoustique canadienne / Canadian Electroacoustic Community.

External links

.

Redirecting to Free software


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Contents

Introduction

.GNU/Linux, Mozilla, Open Office, and other pieces of Free and Open Source software (FOSS) are quickly, and often silently, making their way into the world's schools and its students' lives.^ Concrete5 is free and open source.

^ This is a general guide to free software and open source (FOSS), as well as the Linux (or GNU/Linux ) operating sytem.
  • Introduction to Linux, Free Software and Open Source | Linux Australia 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.linux.org.au [Source type: General]

^ Together, Free and Open Source Software is collectively abbreviated as FOSS .
  • Introduction to Linux, Free Software and Open Source | Linux Australia 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.linux.org.au [Source type: General]

.The governments, citizens, and students of Norway, Denmark, Germany and funding and working with the Skolelinux project bringing GNU/Linux based computer operating systems into middle and high schools.^ IVEware is currently available for personal computers using the Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems and for UNIX workstations using the Sun Solaris operating system.
  • Freie wissenschaftliche Software - List of free statistical software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC statistiksoftware.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Also high school students can get it to by one of their alternate methods of proving you’re a student.

^ Distribution Three Reasons Why Ubuntu is the Best Linux Operating System Linux is an "open source" operating system, meaning that it can be modified and distributed freely.
  • Open Source Software - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

The edUbuntu project is pursuing similar goals in South Africa and elsewhere. .Local governments and ministries of education in Spain have produced a long list of FOSS platforms that includes LinEx, Guadalinex, Catix, LliureX, and others.^ Why is FOSS important for government, business and education?
  • Introduction to Linux, Free Software and Open Source | Linux Australia 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.linux.org.au [Source type: General]

.Meanwhile, the One Laptop Per Child initiative has gained international attention and recognition for its insistence on a free and open source software platform in its drive to bring cheap computers to children of the world.^ Concrete5 is free and open source.

^ The basics of free and open source software (FOSS) are explained here .
  • Introduction to Linux, Free Software and Open Source | Linux Australia 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.linux.org.au [Source type: General]

^ Freeware/Open Software: ViSta is free and open.
  • Freie wissenschaftliche Software - List of free statistical software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC statistiksoftware.com [Source type: Academic]

.For reasons of cost, flexibility, adaptability, performance, coordinated deployment and decentralized support, Free Software in schools makes economic sense.^ In all of these cases free software packages are often better than similar commercial versions costing hundreds of dollars.
  • Saugus.net: Some Free Software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.saugus.net [Source type: General]

^ Free downloading programs makes you agree that the site TheSHHit.com does not suffer the consequences of loading, start or operation software.
  • Free software downloads for windows +++ TheSHHit.com 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC theshhit.com [Source type: General]

^ Did you know free software sometimes costs money?
  • May 98 Troubleshooting Professional Magazine: Free Software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.troubleshooters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, for many of those in the forefront of the movement to increase the involvement and impact of FOSS in education, the primary motivations are not pragmatic or economic but philosophical.
.At its core, Free Software is not primarily about price but about freedom.^ We at the Software Freedom Law Center are extremely fortunate because we get to provide legal assistance to some of the world’s leading free and open source software (FOSS) projects.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Open Office Unbelievable Alternatives to Expensive Commercial Software Before you spend any of your hard earned cash on high priced software, take a look here to learn about the cheap and absolutely free alternatives available.
  • Open Source Software - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Second, we present a starting point for lawyers and risk managers for thinking about the particular, at times counter-intuitive, logic of software freedom.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In particular, it is about the freedoms to use software for any purpose, modify software to fix problems and to share software in both modified and unmodified forms.^ Free software, software libre or libre software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with minimal restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things and that manufacturers of consumer-facing hardware allow user modifications to their hardware.
  • Microsoft Launch WebsiteSpark: Free Software For Web Developers 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.techcrunch.com [Source type: General]

^ Whereas copyright law has traditionally been used to withhold permission to copy, modify or distribute software, some licenses instead use copyright law to require that such permissions be granted.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You may modify this slogan provided you grant all others the right to freely use and distribute the modified form.
  • May 98 Troubleshooting Professional Magazine: Free Software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.troubleshooters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this way, free software embraces a model of openness, collaboration and coordinated learning that resembles the product and processes of education when it is most successful.^ Freeware/Open Software: ViSta is free and open.
  • Freie wissenschaftliche Software - List of free statistical software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC statistiksoftware.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Free Software Foundation Reducing Your Small Biz Software Budget with Open Source Software Don't want to pay over $400 for Microsoft Office, but can't afford to be without it?
  • Open Source Software - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Open Source Software Microsoft vs. Free and Open Source Software and What it has to do with Vista Recently there have been some notable developments between the software powerhouse known as Microsoft and the open source community, namely Linux.
  • Open Source Software - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.The developers and advocates of the each of the FOSS in education projects mentioned above do not believe that a web browser is just a web browser.^ This chapter provides guidance to FOSS developers who wish to protect their projects and their users against patent risk.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With so many developers generating new copyrights almost constantly as they develop software, most FOSS projects need a process to manage, and perhaps centralize, copyrights.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The patent holder might publicize it, a FOSS developer might call attention to it, a user might ask you about it, or you might discover it in a web search.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Instead, they believe that it is a product of and a representative of a particular process defined in terms of a number of legal and philosophical constraints. .They believe that part of free software's potential for education lies in the fact that free software introduces students to a set of freedoms that hold the potential to improve the learning process in profound ways.^ They allow anyone who aspires to be any one of these, access to database and community building web site software for free!
  • Open Source Software - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Open Source Virtual Machine Software for Beginners In part 1 of an ongoing series we will be learning about Virtual Machine Software from various vendors.
  • Open Source Software - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ There are a number of different ways to organize a free software project: as an unincorporated organization, as a nonprofit corporation, as part of an umbrella organization or as an individual acting independently, for example.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The success of FOSS in education, in these terms, is only possible if students are able to connect the products—the software on their computers—to the process and ideas that created them.^ Documentation Improve Your Work Productivity with These Free Software Applications Here are some free software applications that will make your work day more efficient.
  • Open Source Software - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Excel Charts Creating a Windows-Free Web Design Enviroment It is possible to create a productive web site development environment usiine Gnu/Linux and Free and Open-Source Software.
  • Open Source Software - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Getting software to protect your computer is unfortunately a must these days.
  • Free Anti-Virus Software: Legally protect your PC for free... 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.moneysavingexpert.com [Source type: General]

.What follows is a curriculum that attempts to make this connection and to introduce students to the concepts and the practice of Free and Open Source software.^ Together, Free and Open Source Software is collectively abbreviated as FOSS .
  • Introduction to Linux, Free Software and Open Source | Linux Australia 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.linux.org.au [Source type: General]

^ Closely related is the concept of Open Source Software .
  • Introduction to Linux, Free Software and Open Source | Linux Australia 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.linux.org.au [Source type: General]

^ The basics of free and open source software (FOSS) are explained here .
  • Introduction to Linux, Free Software and Open Source | Linux Australia 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.linux.org.au [Source type: General]

Applicability

Free Software/Open Source

.The Free and Open Source Software movements are parallel movements with a complex relationship and history whose explanation is outside the scope of this curriculum.^ The basics of free and open source software (FOSS) are explained here .
  • Introduction to Linux, Free Software and Open Source | Linux Australia 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.linux.org.au [Source type: General]

^ Freeware/Open Software: ViSta is free and open.
  • Freie wissenschaftliche Software - List of free statistical software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC statistiksoftware.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Examples of such free and open source software organizations are: .
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When discussing software, licenses, and development communities, the terms are usually synonymous.^ Open Source Software Microsoft vs. Free and Open Source Software and What it has to do with Vista Recently there have been some notable developments between the software powerhouse known as Microsoft and the open source community, namely Linux.
  • Open Source Software - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ The license that's usually called "free software" says you can give the software away, you can sell it, you can even modify it and give it away or sell it.
  • May 98 Troubleshooting Professional Magazine: Free Software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.troubleshooters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By choosing the same license as their peers in related projects, these developers make it easier to share code and create copyright policies that are standard throughout a development community.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When discussing the motivation, philosophy, and politics behind the the production of this software, the terms vary wildly.^ We load our BlackBerries with various softwares and applications to increase our productivity and customize them with interesting themes and ringtones.
  • The best in free BlackBerry software applications and programs | BB Geeks 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.bbgeeks.com [Source type: General]

^ The Free Software Foundation explains the philosophy behind it.
  • Introduction to Linux, Free Software and Open Source | Linux Australia 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.linux.org.au [Source type: General]

^ The software packages themselves vary from productivity applications to games.
  • Saugus.net: Some Free Software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.saugus.net [Source type: General]

.As to the nature of the distinction, an inadequate but useful distinction can be drawn: Free Software is a social movement; Open Source is a development methodology.^ The basics of free and open source software (FOSS) are explained here .
  • Introduction to Linux, Free Software and Open Source | Linux Australia 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.linux.org.au [Source type: General]

^ Freeware/Open Software: ViSta is free and open.
  • Freie wissenschaftliche Software - List of free statistical software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC statistiksoftware.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Examples of such free and open source software organizations are: .
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From my own position, "Free Software" seems like the better match.^ There's plenty of free Microsoft software already available like SQL Server Express, Hyper-V Server, Visual Studio Express that would work.
  • Microsoft offers free software for start-ups | Beyond Binary - CNET News 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Aziz A. Qureshi on September 13th, 2009 at 4:54 am Need a software for my blackberry pearl, showing worldtime, ofcourse free Thanks Aziz .
  • The best in free BlackBerry software applications and programs | BB Geeks 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.bbgeeks.com [Source type: General]

^ If a startup uses a software platform like MSFT for 3 years, you will never change it to Free Software ever.
  • Microsoft Launch WebsiteSpark: Free Software For Web Developers 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.techcrunch.com [Source type: General]

.As a result, I err on the side of overusing the term Free Software.^ You may redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License ( GPL ) as published by the Free Software Foundation .
  • Freie wissenschaftliche Software - List of free statistical software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC statistiksoftware.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Is there a free software 2 record the calls.obvlsy both side conversation needs 2b recorded.
  • The best in free BlackBerry software applications and programs | BB Geeks 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.bbgeeks.com [Source type: General]

.This curriculum is an experiment prompted by the OLPC project (i.e., the "One Hundred Dollar Laptop Project" spearheaded by Nicholas Negroponte of the MIT Media Lab).^ See also: http://www.tucows.com/ XO Activities The OLPC Project maintains a page of free software packaged for the XO laptop.
  • Saugus.net: Some Free Software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.saugus.net [Source type: General]

.The principles of free and open source software are of utmost importance to the OLPC project.^ The basics of free and open source software (FOSS) are explained here .
  • Introduction to Linux, Free Software and Open Source | Linux Australia 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.linux.org.au [Source type: General]

^ Freeware/Open Software: ViSta is free and open.
  • Freie wissenschaftliche Software - List of free statistical software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC statistiksoftware.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Examples of such free and open source software organizations are: .
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This curriculum offers a proposal for one way that these principles of software freedom and and more general commitment to openness can be communicated to the users of the laptop.^ Documentation Improve Your Work Productivity with These Free Software Applications Here are some free software applications that will make your work day more efficient.
  • Open Source Software - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Some of these you will not be able to live without once you use them By Falling Man   |  Published 9/5/2008 More topics: Image Software .
  • Open Source Software - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Open Source Software Money Saving Tips for the Small Business In these tough economic times, cutting corners is necessary.
  • Open Source Software - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.While this curriculum has been designed to be used with the OLPC laptop, it could easily be applied outside of that project and without access to the laptop.^ By observing the following “best practices” guidelines when using or licensing their marks, most projects should be able to easily avoid abandonment and genericide concerns.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using patent-pending technology, developers can relinquish control over content without sacrificing the site's design.

^ Time Stamp - a freeware program you can use to easily track time spent on a project.

.While the curriculum becomes most meaningful in contexts where students are using free and open source software daily, it can also be deployed, with few modifications, in a diversity of settings.^ It is completely free to use, and open source.
  • Open Source Software - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Together, Free and Open Source Software is collectively abbreviated as FOSS .
  • Introduction to Linux, Free Software and Open Source | Linux Australia 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.linux.org.au [Source type: General]

^ The basics of free and open source software (FOSS) are explained here .
  • Introduction to Linux, Free Software and Open Source | Linux Australia 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.linux.org.au [Source type: General]

.The curriculum assumes and requires access to a computer but does not assume prior experience in programming or computer sciences.^ Mac Does it matter what computer I use to access Edit-X? We've designed our site to work well with as wide a range of systems as possible while still serving up a comprehensive and dynamic experience.

It is designed primary for students in 8th-10th grade.
.This curriculum is most well suited to the environments where students are already familiar with free/open source software products—even if they are not familiar with the fact their software products are free software.^ The basics of free and open source software (FOSS) are explained here .
  • Introduction to Linux, Free Software and Open Source | Linux Australia 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.linux.org.au [Source type: General]

^ Freeware/Open Software: ViSta is free and open.
  • Freie wissenschaftliche Software - List of free statistical software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC statistiksoftware.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Examples of such free and open source software organizations are: .
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It aims to connect the philosophy and productive practice behind free software to the larger questions raised around the ownership of ideas and expression—and by extension, intellectual property more generally.^ The Free Software Foundation explains the philosophy behind it.
  • Introduction to Linux, Free Software and Open Source | Linux Australia 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.linux.org.au [Source type: General]

^ The aims and goals of the Free Software Foundation.
  • Open Source Software - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ More lists of free statistical software .
  • Freie wissenschaftliche Software - List of free statistical software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC statistiksoftware.com [Source type: Academic]

.It seeks to become meaningful by grounding these concepts in the software that students already use on a daily basis.^ Some of these you will not be able to live without once you use them By Falling Man   |  Published 9/5/2008 More topics: Image Software .
  • Open Source Software - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ It is the ideal vehicle for new users to learn how to use and discover the concepts behind CAD software.

^ Of these, it is especially useful to develop and document an informed, good-faith argument that (a) even if the patent is valid, your software does not infringe it, and (b) the patent is not valid.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Overview

This is a challenging, interdisciplinary, activist curriculum. It introduces difficult concepts of computation, information, ownership, communication, the impact of technological decisions, and freedom movements. .Its fundamental goal is to connect the processes and philosophies that have helped create students' software to the software itself and to do it in such a way that students understand the role and impact that they can play in defining their own information environment.^ The GNU Manifesto advocated free software, specifically a free UNIX workalike, which Stallman then began creating with the help of others.
  • May 98 Troubleshooting Professional Magazine: Free Software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.troubleshooters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apple itself uses the MPW for its own classic Mac OS software development.
  • Saugus.net: Some Free Software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.saugus.net [Source type: General]

^ The creators of Synfig have ambitious goals of their software being used to create feature film quality animation.
  • Free Cartoon Animation Software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.calicomonkey.com [Source type: General]

Sections

This curriculum introduces a number of complex issues. Each one could, potentially, be given it's own curriculum. .The aim of this curriculum is not to impart mastery of any one area but to give students an a set of tools—both technological and analogical—which they can use in their own explorations.^ They are grouped together here because it is very common for one application to feature both capabilities.
  • Saugus.net: Some Free Software 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.saugus.net [Source type: General]

^ If your project decides to unify copyrights, developers need not give up their rights to use that code in other projects, even proprietary ones!
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Software for Students - Microsoft DreamSpark Microsoft is giving its valuable software developer and design tools directly to students worldwide at no charge!
  • BlogMS - Official Microsoft Team Blogs : Resource Guide to Free Microsoft Software and Online Services 14 January 2010 0:44 UTC blogs.technet.com [Source type: General]

Issues in this curriculum are tackled in the following sections which attempt to alternate between more technical and more theoretical topics:
  • Software Freedom/Information: A section that explores the nature of information goods and the idea of ownership of these goods;
  • Software Freedom/Computation: An introduction to computation and computer programming;
  • Software Freedom/Collaboration: An exploration of collaboration and its impact and costs;
  • Software Freedom/Context: A more targeted exploration of computation and programming that focuses on the computer in relation to the student and, in specific, the software on the students desktop;
  • Software Freedom/Communication: A look at technologies of communication and the way that technological rules define the terms on which we communicate with each other;
  • Software Freedom/FOSS: A free and open source software and attempts to tie the concepts introduced before together into a synthetic whole.

Activities

See also

External links


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 20, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Free software, which are similar to those in the above article.








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