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Soil nailing is a technique in which soil slopes, excavations or retaining walls are reinforced by the insertion of relatively slender elements - normally steel reinforcing bars. The bars are usually installed into a pre-drilled hole and then grouted into place or drilled and grouted simultaneously. They are usually installed untensioned at a slight downward inclination. A rigid or flexible facing (often pneumatically applied concrete otherwise known as shotcrete) or isolated soil nail heads may be used at the surface. Since its first application using modern techniques in Versailles, France in 1972,[1] soil nailing is now a well-established technique around the world. One of the first national guideline publications for soil nailing was produced in Japan in 1987; the USA has produced national guideline publications through the Federal Highway Administration on this subject in 1996[2] and in 2003.[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Construction d'un mur de soutènement entre Versailles-Chantiers et Versailles-Matelots", S. Rabejac and P. Toudic, Revue générale des chemins de fer, 93ème annee, pp 232-237
  2. ^ FHWA Publication No. FHWA-SA-96-069, Manual for Design and Construction Monitoring of Soil Nail Walls
  3. ^ FHWA Publication No. FHWA-IF-03-017, Geotechnical Engineering Circular No. 7- Soil Nail Walls
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