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.A solar cell is a device that converts the energy of sunlight directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect.^ In this article, we will examine solar cells to learn how they convert the sun's energy directly into electricity.
  • HowStuffWorks "How Solar Cells Work" 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A photoelectric cell converts light energy into electrical energy.
  • Robotics - Sensory Systems 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC science.jrank.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar cells, otherwise known as solar photovoltaic cells are devices that convert solar energy into electricity.

.Sometimes the term solar cell is reserved for devices intended specifically to capture energy from sunlight such as solar panels and solar cells, while the term photovoltaic cell is used when the light source is unspecified.^ Photovoltaic cells, sometimes called solar cells, can convert light, such as sunlight, into electrical energy.

^ Why should I use solar cells?
  • Solar Cells convert sunlight into electricity. Solar cells, a future of free energy | dasolar.com 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.dasolar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Element used in solar cells?
  • WikiAnswers - What element do solar cells rely on 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.Assemblies of cells are used to make solar panels, solar modules, or photovoltaic arrays.^ Photovoltaic Cell, solar cell manufacturers .
  • Photovoltaic Cell, solar cell manufacturers 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.hebesolar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Why should I use solar cells?
  • Solar Cells convert sunlight into electricity. Solar cells, a future of free energy | dasolar.com 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.dasolar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Element used in solar cells?
  • WikiAnswers - What element do solar cells rely on 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.Photovoltaics is the field of technology and research related to the application of solar cells in producing electricity for practical use.^ Photovoltaic Cell, solar cell manufacturers .
  • Photovoltaic Cell, solar cell manufacturers 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.hebesolar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Why should I use solar cells?
  • Solar Cells convert sunlight into electricity. Solar cells, a future of free energy | dasolar.com 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.dasolar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Western Electric licences commercial solar cell technologies.
  • Solar Cell History & Timeline 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.The energy generated this way is an example of solar energy (also known as solar power).^ Photovoltaic, photovoltaic cells, solar power, solar energy .
  • Photovoltaic, photovoltaic cells, solar power, solar energy 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.econation.co.nz [Source type: General]

^ Solar power · Renewable energy Technology .
  • This week we want to know all about ... Solar-powered clothing | Environment | The Observer 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Solar energy or solar power is then the energy that is generated in this means.

A solar cell made from a monocrystalline silicon wafer

Contents

History of solar cells

.The term "photovoltaic" comes from the Greek φῶς (phōs) meaning "light", and "voltaic", meaning electric, from the name of the Italian physicist Volta, after whom a unit of electro-motive force, the volt, is named.^ They are sometimes called photovoltaics which means "light-electricity".
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Photovoltaic cells do just what the name implies: photo meaning light and voltaic meaning electricity.

^ Main article: Timeline of solar cells The term "photovoltaic" comes from the Greek φώς: phos meaning "light", and "voltaic", meaning electrical, from the name of the Italian physicist Volta , after whom the measurement unit volt is named.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

The term "photo-voltaic" has been in use in English since 1849.[1]
.The photovoltaic effect was first recognized in 1839 by French physicist A. E. Becquerel.^ The photovoltaic effect was first recognized in 1839 by French physicist A. E. Becquerel.
  • Solar Cell - KTerra 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC kterra.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The photovoltaic effect was first recognised in 1839 by French physicist Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Solar Cell History & Timeline 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is known as the photovoltaic effect, and was first noticed in 1839.
  • Photovoltaics (solar cells) - briefing document 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.abelard.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, it was not until 1883 that the first solar cell was built, by Charles Fritts, who coated the semiconductor selenium with an extremely thin layer of gold to form the junctions.^ The solar cells are built up in several layers.
  • solar cell - Sparking Tech 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC sparkingtech.com [Source type: General]

^ Charles Fritts develops a solar cell using selenium on a thin layer of gold to form a device giving less than 1% efficiency.
  • Solar Cell History & Timeline 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The heart of the cell is two layers of semiconductor : a thin (e.g., 2 micron) n-type layer over a p-type layer.
  • ISRU solar cells - NewMarsWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.newmars.com [Source type: Academic]

.The device was only around 1% efficient.^ The device was only around 1% efficient.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Solar Cell History & Timeline 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the CURRENT reality is that the panels still commonly available are generally only around 7% efficient.
  • http://mb-soft.com/solar/photovol.html 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is noting that (commonly available) existing photovoltaic cell technology only is around 7% efficient regarding electricity made as compared to the solar energy that hits the cell.
  • http://mb-soft.com/solar/photovol.html 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.Subsequently Russian physicist Aleksandr Stoletov built the first solar cell based on the outer photoelectric effect (discovered by Heinrich Hertz earlier in 1887).^ When sunlight strikes a solar cell, an electron is freed by the photoelectric effect.
  • solar cell (electronics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A solar cell based on plant biology !
  • New Solar Electric Cells - 80% efficient 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.hbci.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar cells - built for modularity .
  • Solar Cells convert sunlight into electricity. Solar cells, a future of free energy | dasolar.com 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.dasolar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Albert Einstein explained the photoelectric effect in 1905 for which he received the Nobel prize in Physics in 1921. Russell Ohl patented the modern junction semiconductor solar cell in 1946[2], which was discovered while working on the series of advances that would lead to the transistor.^ When sunlight strikes a solar cell, an electron is freed by the photoelectric effect.
  • solar cell (electronics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It was not until 1941 when Russel Ohl produced and patented the first ‘modern’ silicon-based solar cell.

^ Build a solar cell Solar cells work Homemade solar cell...
  • Solar_cell encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: General]

High-efficiency cells

.High-efficiency solar cells are a class of solar cell that can generate more electricity per incident solar power unit (watt/watt).^ Tags: solar cells , solar power Posted in solar power .
  • solar cells « Tek-Supply Blog 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC tek-supply.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Salyut 1 is powered by solar cells.
  • Solar Cell History & Timeline 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nanotechnology , Photovoltaics , Cell , Semiconductor , solar cell , researcher , power generation .
  • solar cell stories - ZDNet Asia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.zdnetasia.com [Source type: News]

.Much of the industry is focused on the most cost efficient technologies in terms of cost per generated power.^ Results show that they surpass conventional technologies with efficiencies higher than 22%, so they can be considered as an alternative technology for power sources onboard of terrestrial mobile robots.
  • Robotics Institute: Analysis of High-Efficiency Solar Cells in Mobile Robot Applications 11 September 2009 6:16 UTC www-old.ri.cmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Solar cells currently cost around $3.50 per watt for crystalline cells, and $2 per watt for thin-film wafers, which are less efficient but can be integrated into building materials.
  • Eco-Economy Indicators - Solar Power- Solar Cell Sales Booming| EPI 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.earth-policy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, the new array is much lighter than previous space solar arrays, providing five times more power per pound than the International Space Station arrays.
  • Entech-Led Team To Develop Advanced Solar Arrays For Spacecraft 11 September 2009 6:16 UTC www.spacedaily.com [Source type: News]

.The two main strategies to bring down the cost of photovoltaic electricity are increasing the efficiency of the cells and decreasing their cost per unit area.^ There are two main criteria - efficiency and cost.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our developments allow an increase in active cell area, increasing efficiency.
  • 3Gsolar - Dye Solar Cell (DSC) TechnologyDeveloping Low-Cost Solar Modules 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC 3gsolar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Photovoltaic Cell - Solar-electric Homes .
  • Photovoltaic Cell - How They Work, Applications, Solar-electric Homes, Materials, Amorphous Silicon, Crystalline Silicon 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC science.jrank.org [Source type: Reference]

.However, increasing the efficiency of a solar cell without decreasing the total cost per kilowatt-hour is not more economical, since sunlight is free.^ Solar cell efficiency factors .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Solar cell - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia .

^ Solar cells, a future of free energy .
  • Solar Cells convert sunlight into electricity. Solar cells, a future of free energy | dasolar.com 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.dasolar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, whether or not "efficiency" matters depends on whether "cost" is defined as cost per unit of sunlight falling on the cell, per unit area, per unit weight of the cell, or per unit energy produced by the cell.^ Efficiency hardly matters, compared to cost-per-watt.
  • Solar cells with 63% efficiency by 2020 – Computer Chips & Hardware Technology | Geek.com 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.geek.com [Source type: General]

^ The cost of energy produced by solar cell systems continues to drop.
  • Solar Cells convert sunlight into electricity. Solar cells, a future of free energy | dasolar.com 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.dasolar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The current thus produced is the output of the cell.
  • Scitoys Message Board: Collecting radio energy 11 September 2009 6:16 UTC scitoys.com [Source type: General]

.In situations where much of the cost of a solar system scales with its area (so that one is effectively "paying" for sunlight), the challenge of increasing the photovoltaic efficiency is thus of great interest, both from the academic and economic points of view.^ We need to make solar energy more cost effective and efficient.” .

^ Photovoltaic (solar cell) Systems News .
  • Photovoltaic (solar cell) Systems - Solar Energy - Renewable Energy World 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.renewableenergyworld.com [Source type: News]

^ Cost and efficiency were the great barriers to solar energy.
  • 80% Efficient Solar Panel?! Works at Night?! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ecogeek.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many groups have published papers claiming possibility of high efficiencies after conducting optical measurements under many hypothetical conditions.^ This term is calculated by dividing P max by the input light irradiance ( E , in W/m², measured under standard test conditions) multiplied by the surface area of the solar cell (A C , in m 2 ).
  • Choices for measuring solar-cell output power - Electronic Products 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www2.electronicproducts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In simple terms, a semiconductor is a material that acts as an insulator, but is also capable of conducting electricity under certain conditions.
  • Photovoltaic Cells 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ This project is focused on producing high-efficiency solar cells that are resistant to extreme conditions such as those found near the sun.
  • Kopin wins NASA award for nanostructured InGaP solar cells (Compound Semiconductor Blog) - compoundsemiconductor.net 11 September 2009 6:16 UTC compoundsemiconductor.net [Source type: News]

.The efficiency should be measured under real conditions and the basic parameters that need to be evaluated are the short circuit current, open circuit voltage.^ This unit is rated for 8V open voltage and 310mA short circuit.
  • SparkFun Electronics - Solar Cell Large 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.sparkfun.com [Source type: General]
  • Make: Online : Solar cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC blog.makezine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Open circuit voltage is 5.2 volts.

^ In the picture, I-U characteristics at short circuit and open circuit conditions can be seen.

[3]
The chart at the right illustrates the best laboratory efficiencies obtained for various materials and technologies, generally this is done on very small, i.e. one square cm, cells. Commercial efficiencies are significantly lower.
Reported timeline of solar cell energy conversion efficiencies (from National Renewable Energy Laboratory (USA)

Record efficiencies

Multiple-junction solar cells

.The record for multiple junction solar cells is disputed.^ All solar cells are junction diodes.
  • Big Frog Mountain- Solar Electric Glossary Of Terminology Used In Renewable Or Alternative Energy Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC bigfrogmountain.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Solar cell breaks efficiency record .
  • Solar cell breaks efficiency record - CNET News 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]
  • Solar cell breaks efficiency record | Tech News on ZDNet 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC news.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Principle of p-n junction solar cell .
  • Solar cell research at Durham 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.dur.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Teams led by the University of Delaware, the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, and NREL all claim the world record title at 42.8, 41.1, and 40.8%, respectively.^ The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems in Germany verified the efficiency claim.
  • Greentech Media: Suniva Expands Solar Cell Production, Boosts Efficiency 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.greentechmedia.com [Source type: News]

^ New solar power world record .
  • Titania nanotubes make better solar cells 19 September 2009 6:58 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The University of Delaware's Institute of Energy Conversion has developed new technology for the manufacture of flexible solar cells, which could reduce the costs associated with the use of ...
  • New Flexible Plastic Solar Panels Are Inexpensive And Easy To Make 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: News]

[4][5][6] .Boeing SpectroLab also claims commercial availability of cells at nearly 42% efficiency in a triple junction design; the cost is breathtaking.^ Multijunction cells available commercially from Spectrolab have rated efficiency of 29%.
  • Solar Power Cells: Efficiency and Types 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC solar.smps.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spectrolab designs highly efficient solar cell .
  • Solar Cell -- Engadget 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.engadget.com [Source type: General]

^ When converted by a solar cell of 10 percent efficiency (presently reached or exceeded by most commercially available solar panels), this means that 100 W/m 2 in electrical energy can be harvested.
  • Solar Cells – FREE Solar Cells information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Solar Cells research 19 September 2009 6:58 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.NREL claims that the other implementations have not been put under standardized tests and, in the case of the University of Delaware project, represents only hypothetical efficiencies of a panel that has not been fully assembled.^ Procuring parts off of eBay normally causes others hardship when they try to duplicate the project, however in this case there are so many types of cells people can use to produce their own unique solar panel.
  • 60 Watt solar panel built from cells - Hack a Day 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

^ The cells have only been tested under lab conditions, and the non-silicon cells are still too expensive for most potential uses.
  • Solar Cell Celebration or Confusion? | Science Blog 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.scienceblog.com [Source type: News]

^ This term is calculated by dividing P max by the input light irradiance ( E , in W/m², measured under standard test conditions) multiplied by the surface area of the solar cell (A C , in m 2 ).
  • Choices for measuring solar-cell output power - Electronic Products 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www2.electronicproducts.com [Source type: Academic]

[7] .NREL claims it is one of only three laboratories in the world capable of conducting valid tests, although the Fraunhofer Institute is among those three facilities.^ Roads all over the world cover huge amounts of area, but they only serve one purpose- to help us get to our destination.

^ We tested one of our devices and found that it was stable (to 92 percent of initial performance) for three months.
  • Fact Sheet: MIT's solar concentrators 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Their world record for “single layer” organic solar cell efficiency is now certified on the books of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colo.
  • Startup: Plextronics, Organic Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC earth2tech.com [Source type: General]

.A March 2010 experimental demonstration of a design by a Caltech group may be more efficient still; it has an absorption efficiency of 85% in sunlight and 95% at certain wavelengths (it is claimed to have near perfect quantum efficiency).[31] However, absorption efficiency should not be confused with the sunlight-to-electricity conversion efficiency.^ This first conversion of sunlight to electricity was one percent efficient.
  • How solar cell is made - material, manufacture, making, used, parts, structure, procedure, steps, industry, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of solar cell 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the sun changes position in the sky, the proportions of "white" light to that of infrared and ultraviolet change dramatically due primarily to atmospheric absorption of certain wavelengths.
  • Re: can a photoelectric cell be made to absorb any frequency of light? 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC www.madsci.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conversion efficiency refers to the percentage of sunlight converted into electricity, a critical metric in reducing solar energy costs.
  • Suniva Prints 20% Efficient Solar Cell 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC earth2tech.com [Source type: General]

Thin-film solar cells

.In 2002, the highest reported efficiency for thin film solar cells based on CdTe is 18%, which was achieved by research at Sheffield Hallam University, although this has not been confirmed by an external test laboratory.^ Rapid development of film solar cells.
  • http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0838866.html 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thin film solar cells are typically less efficient than crystalline silicon solar cells.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thin-film solar cells .
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The US national renewable energy research facility NREL achieved an efficiency of 19.9% for the solar cells based on copper indium gallium selenide thin films, also known as CIGS (also see CIGS solar cells).^ Rapid development of film solar cells.
  • http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0838866.html 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are CdS solar cells, gallium arsenide solar cells, solar cells are several copper indium selenium.
  • The classification of solar cell 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.sunnybp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Such alternative materials as copper indium selenide offer the promise that a so-called thin-film heterojunction solar cell can be developed.
  • Original:Understanding Solar Cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]

.These CIGS films have been grown by physical vapour deposition in a three-stage co-evaporation process.^ The record for efficiency was done by the U.S. National Renewable Energy Research Laboratory (NREL) earlier this year, which reached 19.9 percent efficiency through a co-evaporation process.
  • IBM muscles into CIGS solar-cell market | Green Tech - CNET News 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Though these solar cells are in the developmental stage, they are expected to hit the markets in about three years.
  • Creation of a more efficient Organic Solar Cell 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.thinksolarenergy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, processing parameters such as solvent choice, evaporation rates, substrate surfaces, and annealing conditions will be tuned to optimize molecular ordering and film morphology.
  • Advanced Materials and Devices for Low-Cost and High-Performance Organic Photovoltaic Cells - GCEP 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC gcep.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In this process In, Ga and Se are evaporated in the first step; in the second step it is followed by Cu and Se co-evaporation and in the last step terminated by In, Ga and Se evaporation again.^ The last step in the process sputters on indium tin oxide (ITO) to form a transparent conductive coating for attachment of electrical leads.
  • Thinner is better in solar cells | Machine Design 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC machinedesign.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The record for efficiency was done by the U.S. National Renewable Energy Research Laboratory (NREL) earlier this year, which reached 19.9 percent efficiency through a co-evaporation process.
  • IBM muscles into CIGS solar-cell market | Green Tech - CNET News 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ In a word, It was a depth research report on C-Si (Crystalline Silicon) A-Si(amorphous silicon) CIGS Cu In Ga Se Solar cell and module industry.
  • China C-Si A-Si CIGS Solar Cell and Module Project Research Report 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.bharatbook.com [Source type: Academic]

.Thin film solar has approximately 15% marketshare; the other 85% is crystalline silicon.^ Fabrication of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells.
  • Fabrication of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells. 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.crystec.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells.
  • Fabrication of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells. 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.crystec.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Multi-crystalline silicon solar cell .
  • The classification of solar cell 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.sunnybp.com [Source type: Academic]

[8] .Most of the commercial production of thin film solar is CdTe with an efficiency of 11%.^ Solar Production Turn-key lines for thin-film module production.
  • Global Solar Technology - Konarka reaches milestone in efficiency for plastic solar cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC globalsolartechnology.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This reduces the efficiency of the thin film solar cell.
  • Fabrication of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells. 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.crystec.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thin film solar cells .
  • Solar Cell Technologies 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarbuzz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Crystalline Silicon

.The highest efficiencies on silicon have been achieved on monocrystalline cells.^ Monocrystalline silicon solar cells .
  • The classification of solar cell 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.sunnybp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Highest Achieved Efficiency (Lab cells) .
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Monocrystalline silicon solar cell .
  • The classification of solar cell 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.sunnybp.com [Source type: Academic]

.The highest commercial efficiency (22%) is produced by SunPower, which uses expensive, high-quality silicon wafers.^ Amorphous silicon is much less expensive to produce, but is less efficient in producing electricity.

^ Silicon is expensive to process and mass produce.
  • solar cells « Tek-Supply Blog 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC tek-supply.com [Source type: Academic]
  • UC Berkeley Press Release 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.berkeley.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The new cells showed efficiencies as high as 10 percent, a record for this type of solar cell (efficiency is the ratio of useful energy delivered by a system to the energy initially supplied).
  • Solar Cells Set New Performance Mark | LiveScience 19 September 2009 6:58 UTC www.livescience.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The University of New South Wales has achieved 25% efficiency on monocrystalline silicon in the lab[9], technology that has been commercialized through its partnership with Suntech Power.^ Commercialization of new solar technology to boost solar efficiency.
  • Extreme Solar Energy Cell Makeover | The X-Journals 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC x-journals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Highest Achieved Efficiency (Lab cells) .
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The University of Delaware's Institute of Energy Conversion has developed new technology for the manufacture of flexible solar cells, which could reduce the costs associated with the use of ...
  • New Flexible Plastic Solar Panels Are Inexpensive And Easy To Make 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: News]

.Crystalline silicon devices are approaching the theoretical limiting efficiency of 29%[10] and achieve an energy payback period of 1-2 years.^ What is the energy payback period for solar cells?
  • Solar Cells convert sunlight into electricity. Solar cells, a future of free energy | dasolar.com 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.dasolar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By comparison, a typical silicon solar panel has an energy payback time of around three years, and a typical vacuum-deposited thin-film cell has one of 1-2 years.
  • AllWin21 Corp. 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.allwin21.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When converted by a solar cell of 10 percent efficiency (presently reached or exceeded by most commercially available solar panels), this means that 100 W/m 2 in electrical energy can be harvested.
  • Solar Cells - Chemistry Encyclopedia - structure, metal, equation, The pn Junction, Current-Voltage Characteristics, Solar Cell Materials, Optimization of Photon Absorption, Solar Cell Efficiency 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.chemistryexplained.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Solar Cells – FREE Solar Cells information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Solar Cells research 19 September 2009 6:58 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

[11][12]

Applications and implementations

Polycrystaline photovoltaic cells laminated to backing material in a module
Polycrystalline photovoltaic cells
.Solar cells are often electrically connected and encapsulated as a module.^ Solar cells today do not store electricity.
  • SolarOne - About Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarone.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar cells are often electrically connected and encapsulated as a module .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Solar cells are usually connected in series in modules, so that their voltages add.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Photovoltaic modules often have a sheet of glass on the front (sun up) side, allowing light to pass while protecting the semiconductor wafers from the elements (rain, hail, etc.^ PV modules often have a sheet of glass on the front (sun up) side with a resin barrier behind, allowing light to pass while protecting the semiconductor wafers from the elements ( rain , hail , etc.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ PV modules often have a sheet of glass on the front (sun up) side , allowing light to pass while protecting the semiconductor wafers from the elements (rain, hail, etc.
  • Solar Cell - KTerra 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC kterra.com [Source type: Academic]

^ PV modules often have a sheet of glass on the front (sun up) side , allowing light to pass while protecting the semiconductor wafers from the elements ( rain , hail , etc.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

). .Solar cells are also usually connected in series in modules, creating an additive voltage.^ Ohmic resistance which is connected in series with the solar cell .
  • Q-Cells SE - Solar Glossary 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.q-cells.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Several cells have to be connected in a series of cells to produce a useable voltage.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Voltage is also doubled or tripled by the serial connection.
  • Fabrication of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells. 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.crystec.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Connecting cells in parallel will yield a higher current.^ Multiple cells can be wired in parallel for higher current applications.

^ Can be connected in parallel for higher current and in series for higher voltage.
  • Photovoltaic Cells 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.cisolar.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Connecting cells in parallel will yield a higher amperage.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.Modules are then interconnected, in series or parallel, or both, to create an array with the desired peak DC voltage and current.^ The cells, modules, and arrays can be connected in series or parallel, or typically a combination, to create a desired peak voltage output.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Individual solar cells can be connected in series and parallel to obtain desired voltages and currents.
  • Photovoltaics 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.epsea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Photovoltaic modules and arrays produce direct current (dc) electricity.
  • Photovoltaic Cells 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC digtheheat.com [Source type: Reference]

.The power output of a solar array is measured in watts or kilowatts.^ The power output of a solar array is measured in watts or kilowatts .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Choices for measuring solar-cell output power .
  • Choices for measuring solar-cell output power - Electronic Products 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www2.electronicproducts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The power output of a solar array is given in watts or kilowatts .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.In order to calculate the typical energy needs of the application, a measurement in watt-hours, kilowatt-hours or kilowatt-hours per day is often used.^ In order to calculate the typical energy needs of the application, a measurement in kilowatt-hours (or kilowatt-hours per day) is often used, which accounts for changes in insolation .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In order to calculate the typical energy needs of the application, a measurement in watt-hours , kilowatt-hours or kilowatt-hours per day is often used.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The strength of a photovoltaic cell can be measured in kilowatt peak (kWp) – that’ the amount of energy the cell can generate in full sunlight.

A common rule of thumb is that average power is equal to 20% of peak power, so that each peak kilowatt of solar array output power corresponds to energy production of 4.8 kWh per day (24 hours x 1 kW x 20% = 4.8 kWh)
.To make practical use of the solar-generated energy, the electricity is most often fed into the electricity grid using inverters (grid-connected photovoltaic systems); in stand-alone systems, batteries are used to store the energy that is not needed immediately.^ The roof can be used for electricity generating solar collectors.
  • Establishment and Platform for an E-government System and its Security 11 September 2009 6:16 UTC www.tomw.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Establishment and Platform for an E-government System and its Security 11 September 2009 6:16 UTC www.tomw.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gridconnected systems (on-grid systems) are connected to the grid and inject the electricity into the grid.
  • Photovoltaic Technology and Solar Cells | Renewable Energy Sources - Photovoltaic, Geothermal, Wind Plus Much More 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.renewable-energy-sources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Photovoltaics: Photovoltaic (or PV) systems convert light energy into electricity.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Solar cells can also be applied to other electronics devices to make it self-power sustainable in the sun.^ Tags: solar cells , solar power Posted in solar power .
  • solar cells « Tek-Supply Blog 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC tek-supply.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Salyut 1 is powered by solar cells.
  • Solar Cell History & Timeline 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Discover new Solar Cells and other Electronic Components ...
  • Solar Cells Manufacturers & Suppliers 19 September 2009 6:58 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

.There are solar cell phone chargers, solar bike light and solar camping lanterns that people can adopt for daily use.^ Why should I use solar cells?
  • Solar Cells convert sunlight into electricity. Solar cells, a future of free energy | dasolar.com 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.dasolar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Element used in solar cells?
  • WikiAnswers - What element do solar cells rely on 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Try to light up an LED using solar cells.
  • solarcell 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.exo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Theory

Simple explanation

.
  1. Photons in sunlight hit the solar panel and are absorbed by semiconducting materials, such as silicon.
  2. Electrons (negatively charged) are knocked loose from their atoms, allowing them to flow through the material to produce electricity.^ Solar cells are made of semiconductor materials, such as silicon.
    • Photovoltaic Technology and Solar Cells | Renewable Energy Sources - Photovoltaic, Geothermal, Wind Plus Much More 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.renewable-energy-sources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ When enough sunlight (energy) is absorbed by the material (a semiconductor), electrons are dislodged from the material's atoms.
    • EIA Energy Kids - Solar 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: Reference]

    ^ When sunlight strikes the solar panel, photons from the light are absorbed by the semiconductor atoms, which then release electrons.
    • Solar Panels from Wholesale Solar Renewable Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wholesalesolar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Due to the special composition of solar cells, the electrons are only allowed to move in a single direction.
  3. An array of solar cells converts solar energy into a usable amount of direct current (DC) electricity.

Photogeneration of charge carriers

When a photon hits a piece of silicon, one of three things can happen:
.
  1. the photon can pass straight through the silicon — this (generally) happens for lower energy photons,
  2. the photon can reflect off the surface,
  3. the photon can be absorbed by the silicon, if the photon energy is higher than the silicon band gap value.^ The first is that the photon can pass straight through the silicon.
    • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Photons with less energy than the band gap energy pass through the material.

    ^ An example is silicon, which has an energy gap of 1.1 eV. .
    • The Physics of Photovoltaic Cells 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.jgsee.kmutt.ac.th [Source type: Academic]

    This generates an electron-hole pair and sometimes heat, depending on the band structure.
.When a photon is absorbed, its energy is given to an electron in the crystal lattice.^ When a photon is absorbed, its energy is given to an electron in the crystal lattice.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ What this means is that the energy of the absorbed light is transferred to the semiconductor and in turn this causes energy to knock loose electrons which then begin to flow freely.

^ When sunlight strikes the solar panel, photons from the light are absorbed by the semiconductor atoms, which then release electrons.
  • Solar Panels from Wholesale Solar Renewable Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wholesalesolar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Usually this electron is in the valence band, and is tightly bound in covalent bonds between neighboring atoms, and hence unable to move far.^ The valence electrons move in the space between the two atoms with energies in a band of energies known as the valence band (Fig.
  • The Physics of Photovoltaic Cells 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.jgsee.kmutt.ac.th [Source type: Academic]

^ Usually this electron is in the valence band , and is tightly bound in covalent bonds between neighboring atoms, and hence unable to move far.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The band gap is the amount of energy, expressed in electron volts (eV), required to kick an electron from a semiconductor's valence band, which is chock full of electrons bound to atoms, into its empty conduction band, where electrons are free to move.
  • A Step Closer to the Optimum Solar Cell 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.lbl.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The energy given to it by the photon "excites" it into the conduction band, where it is free to move around within the semiconductor.^ The energy given to it by the photon "excites" it into the conduction band, where it is free to move around within the semiconductor.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The energy given to it by the photon "excites" it into the conduction band , where it is free to move around within the semiconductor.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Energy in excess of the amount needed to promote an electron into a conducting state is lost as heat to atomic vibrations (phonons) in the material lattice.
  • solar cells « Tek-Supply Blog 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC tek-supply.com [Source type: Academic]

.The covalent bond that the electron was previously a part of now has one fewer electron — this is known as a hole.^ The covalent bond that the electron was previously a part of now has one less electron - this is known as a hole.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The covalent bond that the electron was previously a part of now has one fewer electron — this is known as a hole.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Equilibrium will quickly be reached as a couple electrons move to fill the holes, but as each one does, the potential gradient for following electrons increases more and more, making it less and less likely.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - WolfWikis 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC wikis.lib.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The presence of a missing covalent bond allows the bonded electrons of neighboring atoms to move into the "hole," leaving another hole behind, and in this way a hole can move through the lattice.^ This leaves a hole behind that also moves .
  • Solar cell operation, Energy production Animations 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.educypedia.be [Source type: Academic]

^ This hole can easily be filled by an electron from an adjacent covalent bond, so the hole can move through the lattice.
  • The Physics of Photovoltaic Cells 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.jgsee.kmutt.ac.th [Source type: Academic]

^ The electrons move towards and through the junction, the holes in opposite direction.
  • Solar Cells - Chemistry Encyclopedia - structure, metal, equation, The pn Junction, Current-Voltage Characteristics, Solar Cell Materials, Optimization of Photon Absorption, Solar Cell Efficiency 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.chemistryexplained.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Solar Cells – FREE Solar Cells information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Solar Cells research 19 September 2009 6:58 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Thus, it can be said that photons absorbed in the semiconductor create mobile electron-hole pairs.^ As photons hit the silicon layers, some of these photons create electron-hole pairs.
  • The Basics of a Photovoltaic Solar Cell: 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC teachers.usd497.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some photons do not carry enough energy to create the electron-hole pair.
  • The Basics of a Photovoltaic Solar Cell: 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC teachers.usd497.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each photon can cause only production of one electron-hole pair.

.A photon need only have greater energy than that of the band gap in order to excite an electron from the valence band into the conduction band.^ Their energies are in another band known as the conduction band at a higher energy level than the valence band.
  • The Physics of Photovoltaic Cells 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.jgsee.kmutt.ac.th [Source type: Academic]

^ The energy given to it by the photon "excites" it into the conduction band, where it is free to move around within the semiconductor.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Photons with less energy than the band gap energy pass through the material.

.However, the solar frequency spectrum approximates a black body spectrum at ~6000 K, and as such, much of the solar radiation reaching the Earth is composed of photons with energies greater than the band gap of silicon.^ An example is silicon, which has an energy gap of 1.1 eV. .
  • The Physics of Photovoltaic Cells 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.jgsee.kmutt.ac.th [Source type: Academic]

^ Photons with less energy than the band gap energy pass through the material.

^ IR photons are much lower energy than visible light.
  • 80% Efficient Solar Panel?! Works at Night?! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ecogeek.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These higher energy photons will be absorbed by the solar cell, but the difference in energy between these photons and the silicon band gap is converted into heat (via lattice vibrations — called phonons) rather than into usable electrical energy.^ Photovoltaic cells, sometimes called solar cells, can convert light, such as sunlight, into electrical energy.

^ A photovoltaic cell converts this line radiation into electrical energy.
  • Thermionic-photovoltaic energy converter - Patent # 4528417 - PatentGenius 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.patentgenius.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A photovoltaic cell, commonly called a solar cell or PV, is the technology used to convert solar energy directly into electrical power.
  • EIA Energy Kids - Solar 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: Reference]

Charge carrier separation

There are two main modes for charge carrier separation in a solar cell:
  1. drift of carriers, driven by an electrostatic field established across the device
  2. diffusion of carriers from zones of high carrier concentration to zones of low carrier concentration (following a gradient of electrochemical potential).
.In the widely used p-n junction solar cells, the dominant mode of charge carrier separation is by drift.^ Why should I use solar cells?
  • Solar Cells convert sunlight into electricity. Solar cells, a future of free energy | dasolar.com 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.dasolar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Separation of carriers by the p-n junction .
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the widely used p-n junction solar cells, the dominant mode of charge carrier separation is by drift.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, in non-p-n-junction solar cells (typical of the third generation solar cell research such as dye and polymer solar cells), a general electrostatic field has been confirmed to be absent, and the dominant mode of separation is via charge carrier diffusion.^ Co-sensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells .
  • CA Patent 2456213 - TRANSPARENT FLAT BODY 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nanotechnology , Photovoltaics , Cell , Semiconductor , solar cell , researcher , power generation .
  • solar cell stories - ZDNet Asia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.zdnetasia.com [Source type: News]

^ Separation of carriers by the p-n junction .
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]

The p-n junction

.The most commonly known solar cell is configured as a large-area p-n junction made from silicon.^ Polycrystalline silicon solar cells .
  • The classification of solar cell 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.sunnybp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Monocrystalline silicon solar cells .
  • The classification of solar cell 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.sunnybp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Until recently most solar cells were made from single crystal silicon wafers.
  • Original:Understanding Solar Cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]

.As a simplification, one can imagine bringing a layer of n-type silicon into direct contact with a layer of p-type silicon.^ As a simplification, one can imagine bringing a layer of n-type silicon into direct contact with a layer of p-type silicon.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Heliovolt is one of several startups developing a type of thin-film solar cell that converts light into electricity with a micrometers-thick layer of a copper-indium-gallium selenide (CIGS) semiconductor.

^ When we place a layer of n-type silicon on a layer of p-type silicon, a barrier is created at the junction of the two materials.
  • How solar power works - an introduction to solar cells and solar panels 19 September 2009 6:58 UTC www.explainthatstuff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In practice, p-n junctions of silicon solar cells are not made in this way, but rather by diffusing an n-type dopant into one side of a p-type wafer (or vice versa).^ The way the hybrid nanorod-polymer solar cells are made is the key.
  • Power: Hybrid Nanorod-Polymer Solar Cell - Reviews by PC Magazine 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.pcmag.com [Source type: General]

^ Polycrystalline silicon solar cells .
  • The classification of solar cell 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.sunnybp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Monocrystalline silicon solar cells .
  • The classification of solar cell 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.sunnybp.com [Source type: Academic]

.If a piece of p-type silicon is placed in intimate contact with a piece of n-type silicon, then a diffusion of electrons occurs from the region of high electron concentration (the n-type side of the junction) into the region of low electron concentration (p-type side of the junction).^ When n- and p-type silicon come into contact, excess electrons move from the n-type side to the p-type side.

^ If we imagine what happens when a piece of p-type silicon is placed in intimate contact with a piece of n-type silicon, then what occurs is a diffusion of electrons from the region of high electron concentration - the n-type side of the junction, into the region of low electron concentration - p-type side of the junction.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Likewise, there is a diffusion of holes across the junction from the p-type side to the n-type side.
  • The Physics of Photovoltaic Cells 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.jgsee.kmutt.ac.th [Source type: Academic]

.When the electrons diffuse across the p-n junction, they recombine with holes on the p-type side.^ Here, they recombine with a hole that was either created as an electron-hole pair on the p-type side of the solar cell, or swept across the junction from the n-type side after being created there.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Electrons may pass from the n-type side into the p-type side, and holes may pass from the p-type side to the n-type side.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The freed electrons from the n-junction side move toward the holes in the p-junction section.
  • Gallium arsenide solar cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The diffusion of carriers does not happen indefinitely, however, because charges build up on either side of the junction and create an electric field.^ At this junction, an interior electric field is built up which leads to the separation of the charge carriers that are released by light.
  • HOW TO DESIGN A SOLAR POWERED CAR THAT WORKS | PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS ARRAY 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: Reference]

^ At p-n junction, an electric field is built up which leads to the separation of the charge carriers (electrons and holes).

^ The diffusion of carriers does not happen indefinitely however, because of an electric field which is created by the imbalance of charge immediately either side of the junction which this diffusion creates.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.The electric field creates a diode that promotes charge flow, known as drift current, that opposes and eventually balances out the diffusion of electron and holes.^ The unit of resistance to the flow of an electric current.
  • Big Frog Mountain- Solar Electric Glossary Of Terminology Used In Renewable Or Alternative Energy Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC bigfrogmountain.com [Source type: Reference]

^ To maintain charge neutrality, an excited electron will also have a corresponding ‘hole’ that balances the electron’s charge.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the electric field pulls electrons and holes in opposing directions.
  • The Basics of a Photovoltaic Solar Cell: 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC teachers.usd497.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This region where electrons and holes have diffused across the junction is called the depletion region because it no longer contains any mobile charge carriers.^ This region where electrons have diffused across the junction is called the depletion region because it no longer contains any mobile charge carriers.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These carriers can diffuse over to the junction, where they will be swept across by the built-in electric field in the depletion region.
  • Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC cnx.org [Source type: General]
  • Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC cnx.org [Source type: General]

^ At this junction, there are virtually no mobile charge carriers.
  • The Basics of a Photovoltaic Solar Cell: 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC teachers.usd497.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is also known as the space charge region.^ It is also known as the "space charge region".
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

Connection to an external load

.Ohmic metal-semiconductor contacts are made to both the n-type and p-type sides of the solar cell, and the electrodes connected to an external load.^ Each cell is made from a slab of semiconductor...
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Shop Smarter.com 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]
  • Free Photovoltaic Cells - Shop Smarter.com 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ Place the solar cells on a metal plate, ideally made from copper.
  • 150 3x6 Everbright Solar Untabbed Cells Grade B 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.everbrightsolar.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar cells can be made from single crystals, crystalline and amorphous semiconductors.
  • Solar Cells - Chemistry Encyclopedia - structure, metal, equation, The pn Junction, Current-Voltage Characteristics, Solar Cell Materials, Optimization of Photon Absorption, Solar Cell Efficiency 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.chemistryexplained.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Solar Cells – FREE Solar Cells information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Solar Cells research 19 September 2009 6:58 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Electrons that are created on the n-type side, or have been "collected" by the junction and swept onto the n-type side, may travel through the wire, power the load, and continue through the wire until they reach the p-type semiconductor-metal contact.^ If Ohmic metal-semiconductor contacts are made to both the n-type and p-type sides of the solar cell, and the electrodes connected to an external load, then electrons which are created on the n-type side, or have been "collected" by the junction and swept onto the n-type side may travel through the wire, power the load, and continue through the wire until they reach the p-type semiconductor-metal contact where they recombine with a hole which was either created as an electron-hole pair on the p-type side of the solar cell, or swept across the junction from the n-type side after being created there.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Electron energies in a p-type semiconductor.
  • The Physics of Photovoltaic Cells 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.jgsee.kmutt.ac.th [Source type: Academic]

^ Hence, these may be different semiconductors (or the same semiconductor with different types of conduction), or they may be a metal and a semiconductor.
  • solar cell (electronics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Here, they recombine with a hole that was either created as an electron-hole pair on the p-type side of the solar cell, or a hole that was swept across the junction from the n-type side after being created there.^ Hoffman Electronics creates a 14 percent efficient solar cell.
  • Power Polymers Fuel Solar Cell Advances - 2007-10-08 00:00:00 | Design News 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.designnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this situation, instead of recombination, we will get photo-generation of electron hole pairs.
  • Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC cnx.org [Source type: General]

^ Here, they recombine with a hole that was either created as an electron-hole pair on the p-type side of the solar cell, or swept across the junction from the n-type side after being created there.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

The voltage measured is equal to the difference in the quasi Fermi levels of the minority carriers, i.e. electrons in the p-type portion and holes in the n-type portion.

Equivalent circuit of a solar cell

The equivalent circuit of a solar cell
The schematic symbol of a solar cell
.To understand the electronic behavior of a solar cell, it is useful to create a model which is electrically equivalent, and is based on discrete electrical components whose behavior is well known.^ Why should I use solar cells?
  • Solar Cells convert sunlight into electricity. Solar cells, a future of free energy | dasolar.com 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.dasolar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hoffman Electronics creates a 14 percent efficient solar cell.
  • Power Polymers Fuel Solar Cell Advances - 2007-10-08 00:00:00 | Design News 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.designnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hoffman Electronics creates a 14% efficient solar cell.
  • Solar Cell History & Timeline 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.An ideal solar cell may be modelled by a current source in parallel with a diode; in practice no solar cell is ideal, so a shunt resistance and a series resistance component are added to the model.^ An ideal solar cell may be modelled by a current source in parallel with a diode ; in practice no solar cell is ideal, so a shunt resistance and a series resistance component are added to the model.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Individual solar cells can be connected in series and parallel to obtain desired voltages and currents.
  • Photovoltaics 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.epsea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Current solar cell News: .
  • solar cell Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about solar cell 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

[14] .The resulting equivalent circuit of a solar cell is shown on the left.^ Search Results for 'solar cells' .

^ The structure of a solar cell is shown in Figure 1.
  • Original:Understanding Solar Cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The resulting equivalent circuit of a solar cell is shown on the left.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.Also shown, on the right, is the schematic representation of a solar cell for use in circuit diagrams.^ Why should I use solar cells?
  • Solar Cells convert sunlight into electricity. Solar cells, a future of free energy | dasolar.com 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.dasolar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The structure of a solar cell is shown in Figure 1.
  • Original:Understanding Solar Cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Also shown, on the right, is the schematic representation of a solar cell for use in circuit diagrams.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]


Characteristic equation

From the equivalent circuit it is evident that the current produced by the solar cell is equal to that produced by the current source, minus that which flows through the diode, minus that which flows through the shunt resistor:[15][16]
I = ILIDISH
where
  • I = output current (amperes)
  • IL = photogenerated current (amperes)
  • ID = diode current (amperes)
  • ISH = shunt current (amperes).
The current through these elements is governed by the voltage across them:
Vj = V + IRS
where
  • Vj = voltage across both diode and resistor RSH (volts)
  • V = voltage across the output terminals (volts)
  • I = output current (amperes)
  • RS = series resistance (Ω).
By the Shockley diode equation, the current diverted through the diode is:
I_{D} = I_{0} \left\{\exp\left[\frac{qV_{j}}{nkT}\right] - 1\right\}[17]
where
By Ohm's law, the current diverted through the shunt resistor is:
I_{SH} = \frac{V_{j}}{R_{SH}}
where
  • RSH = shunt resistance (Ω).
Substituting these into the first equation produces the characteristic equation of a solar cell, which relates solar cell parameters to the output current and voltage:
I = I_{L} - I_{0} \left\{\exp\left[\frac{q(V + I R_{S})}{nkT}\right] - 1\right\} - \frac{V + I R_{S}}{R_{SH}}.
.An alternative derivation produces an equation similar in appearance, but with V on the left-hand side.^ RESTRICTED RESTRICTED On the left side of the device and downward is located the operating switch number 9, and the alternative cycle switch number 8 which is used to operate the tape pulling system manually.
  • http://www.gulflink.osd.mil/declassdocs/dia/19961031/961031_ln179-95_1.html 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC www.gulflink.osd.mil [Source type: Reference]

.The two alternatives are identities; that is, they yield precisely the same results.^ To further explain, two objects at the same physical temperature will not 'appear' the same temperature in an infrared image if they have differing emissivities.
  • 80% Efficient Solar Panel?! Works at Night?! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ecogeek.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In principle, given a particular operating voltage V the equation may be solved to determine the operating current I at that voltage.^ A solar cell may operate over a wide range of voltages (V) and currents (I).
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Plug in any standard 120-volt appliance or electronic device, and it will analyze such things as current draw, incoming voltage and cost of operation.
  • Sustainable Design Update » Blog Archive » New High Efficiency Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC sustainabledesignupdate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The current-voltage characteristic through a pn -junction is given by the typical diode equation: .
  • Solar Cells - Chemistry Encyclopedia - structure, metal, equation, The pn Junction, Current-Voltage Characteristics, Solar Cell Materials, Optimization of Photon Absorption, Solar Cell Efficiency 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.chemistryexplained.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, because the equation involves I on both sides in a transcendental function the equation has no general analytical solution.^ Electron-hole pairs generated in a photovoltaic cell by the absorption of photons increase the number of minority carriers on both sides of the n-p junction.
  • The Physics of Photovoltaic Cells 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.jgsee.kmutt.ac.th [Source type: Academic]

^ The diffusion of carriers does not happen indefinitely however, because of an electric field which is created by the imbalance of charge immediately either side of the junction which this diffusion creates.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This diffusion of carriers does not happen indefinitely however, because of the electric field which is created by the imbalance of charge immediately either side of the junction which this diffusion creates.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, even without a solution it is physically instructive. Furthermore, it is easily solved using numerical methods. .(A general analytical solution to the equation is possible using Lambert's W function, but since Lambert's W generally itself must be solved numerically this is a technicality.^ Concentrators can be used to generate extremely high temperatures, making solar furnaces possible.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since concentrated solar uses existing generators, piping and mirrors, the production costs are much lower than PV solar and don’t require special production facilities.
  • Industry:Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wikinvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industry:Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wikinvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)
.Since the parameters I0, n, RS, and RSH cannot be measured directly, the most common application of the characteristic equation is nonlinear regression to extract the values of these parameters on the basis of their combined effect on solar cell behavior.^ Solar cells have many applications.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The most common solar cells function by the photovoltaic effect.
  • HOW TO DESIGN A SOLAR POWERED CAR THAT WORKS | PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS ARRAY 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: Reference]

^ Solar cell efficiency is a most valuable measure of its performance.
  • Solar Cells - Chemistry Encyclopedia - structure, metal, equation, The pn Junction, Current-Voltage Characteristics, Solar Cell Materials, Optimization of Photon Absorption, Solar Cell Efficiency 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.chemistryexplained.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Solar Cells – FREE Solar Cells information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Solar Cells research 19 September 2009 6:58 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

Open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current
.When the cell is operated at open circuit, I = 0 and the voltage across the output terminals is defined as the open-circuit voltage.^ The test cell, which was .25 centimeters 2 , had an open circuit voltage of 999mV, a short circuit current of 29.7 square mA/cm, and a fill factor of 83.2%.
  • Gallium arsenide solar cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As R L gets bigger and bigger, we keep moving along the curve until, at point C, where R L is an open and we have the maximum voltage across the device, but, of course, no current coming out!
  • Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC cnx.org [Source type: General]

^ In order to make the appropriate voltages and outputs available for different applications, single solar cells are interconnected to form larger units.
  • HOW TO DESIGN A SOLAR POWERED CAR THAT WORKS | PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS ARRAY 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: Reference]

Assuming the shunt resistance is high enough to neglect the final term of the characteristic equation, the open-circuit voltage VOC is:
V_{OC} \approx \frac{kT}{q} \ln \left(\frac{I_L}{I_0} + 1\right).
.Similarly, when the cell is operated at short circuit, V = 0 and the current I through the terminals is defined as the short-circuit current.^ In this tandem cell the short-circuit current exceeds that of the current-limiting subcell.
  • Wiley InterScience :: Hot Topics :: Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www3.interscience.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Wiley InterScience :: Hot Topics :: Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The test cell, which was .25 centimeters 2 , had an open circuit voltage of 999mV, a short circuit current of 29.7 square mA/cm, and a fill factor of 83.2%.
  • Gallium arsenide solar cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Schematics of a typical solar cell with light falling through an electrode grid onto a semiconductor sheet containing a pn junction that separates electrons and holes that flow to the respective electrodes and create a current through an external circuit.
  • Solar Cells - Chemistry Encyclopedia - structure, metal, equation, The pn Junction, Current-Voltage Characteristics, Solar Cell Materials, Optimization of Photon Absorption, Solar Cell Efficiency 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.chemistryexplained.com [Source type: Academic]

It can be shown that for a high-quality solar cell (low RS and I0, and high RSH) the short-circuit current ISC is:
I_{SC} \approx I_L.
Effect of physical size
.The values of I0, RS, and RSH are dependent upon the physical size of the solar cell.^ At the other end of the plant, 100,000 solar cells, each about the size of a CD case, will come off the line every day.
  • Outlook for solar cells is sunny | Marketplace From American Public Media 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC marketplace.publicradio.org [Source type: General]

^ Because of their small size, they exhibit unusual and interesting properties governed by quantum mechanics, such as the absorption of different colors of light depending upon their size.
  • Solar Cell Power Doubler - KeelyNet 12/17/01 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.keelynet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the start of the value chain is the polysilicon, which is then used to make silicon wafers, which in turn are used to construct solar cells and finally modules.
  • Industry:Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wikinvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industry:Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wikinvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In comparing otherwise identical cells, a cell with twice the surface area of another will, in principle, have double the I0 because it has twice the junction area across which current can leak.^ The dye-sensitized solar cell depends on a mesoporous layer of nanoparticulate titanium dioxide to greatly amplify the surface area (200-300 m²/gram TiO 2 , as compared to approximately 10 m²/gram of flat single crystal).
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The best commercial-grade silicon cells currently have efficiencies a little lower than this, so 18-20% is either for lab-grown silicon or commercial III-V single-junction cells.
  • Of Circles and Solar Cells | Popular Science 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.popsci.com [Source type: General]

^ The dye-sensitized solar cell depends on a mesoporous layer of nanoparticulate titanium dioxide to greatly amplify the surface area (200-300 m²/g TiO 2 , as compared to approximately 10 m²/g of flat single crystal).
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.It will also have half the RS and RSH because it has twice the cross-sectional area through which current can flow.^ This an electrical device which prevents the batteries from being ruined through overcharging, and which also prevents electrical current from flowing back out of the battery into the PV module or solar panel.
  • Photovoltaic Cells 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The freed electrons cannot return to the positively charged sites ("holes") without flowing through an external circuit, thus generating current.
  • Photovoltaics 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.epsea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The voltage developed across a cell by the current flow through the resistance of the cell.
  • Big Frog Mountain- Solar Electric Glossary Of Terminology Used In Renewable Or Alternative Energy Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC bigfrogmountain.com [Source type: Reference]

For this reason, the characteristic equation is frequently written in terms of current density, or current produced per unit cell area:
J = J_{L} - J_{0} \left\{\exp\left[\frac{q(V + J r_{S})}{nkT}\right] - 1\right\} - \frac{V + J r_{S}}{r_{SH}}
where
  • J = current density (amperes/cm2)
  • JL = photogenerated current density (amperes/cm2)
  • J0= reverse saturation current density (amperes/cm2)
  • rS = specific series resistance (Ω-cm2)
  • rSH = specific shunt resistance (Ω-cm2).
This formulation has several advantages. .One is that since cell characteristics are referenced to a common cross-sectional area they may be compared for cells of different physical dimensions.^ However, it may be desirable to primarily coat only one side, since double-sided coating can result in waste of valuable components of the ink, e.g., indium.
  • SOLUTION-BASED FABRICATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL - Patents 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ But since the sign of the charge on electrons and holes is opposite, conventional current may only flow in one direction.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In solar cell fabrication, however, one seeks to construct a large-area device because the power produced is proportional to the illuminated area.
  • solar cell (electronics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.While this is of limited benefit in a manufacturing setting, where all cells tend to be the same size, it is useful in research and in comparing cells between manufacturers.^ In use, radiant photon energy shines on the surface of the photovoltaic cell causing electrons to move between the electrodes on the cell.

^ Use of lunar material has also been widely proposed for manufacture of solar cells for satellite solar power stations [4] .
  • Artemis Project: Lunar Production of Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.asi.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Newer techniques use technical-grade silicon cast into blocks, sawed into wafers, and fabricated into cells using the same processes as used in single crystal material.
  • Original:Understanding Solar Cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]

.Another advantage is that the density equation naturally scales the parameter values to similar orders of magnitude, which can make numerical extraction of them simpler and more accurate even with naive solution methods.^ Another advantage of the reduced mass is that less support is needed when placing panels on rooftops and it allows fitting panels on light materials or flexible materials, even textiles.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Semiconductor particles layer [0052] In order to apply the semiconductor particles to the electrically conductive support, a method may be used which comprises applying a dispersion or colloid solution of semiconductor particles to an electrically conductive support.
  • JP Patent 2001168359 - PHOTOELECTRIC TRANSFER ELEMENT AND PHOTOELECTRIC CELL 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Even in the best latitudes, homes that barely make a surplus from the day require far more than that surplus to use at night.
  • DailyTech - Record Setting Photovoltaic Cell is 40.8 Percent Efficient 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

There are practical limitations of this formulation. .For instance, certain parasitic effects grow in importance as cell sizes shrink and can affect the extracted parameter values.^ The photoelectric cell body is painted with a certain paint in order to avoid the effect of moisture on the photoelectric cell work.
  • http://www.gulflink.osd.mil/declassdocs/dia/19961031/961031_ln179-95_1.html 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC www.gulflink.osd.mil [Source type: Reference]

.Recombination and contamination of the junction tend to be greatest at the perimeter of the cell, so very small cells may exhibit higher values of J0 or lower values of RSH than larger cells that are otherwise identical.^ The barrier may include UV stabilizers and/or UV absorbing luminescent chromophores (which emit at higher wavelengths) and antioxidants to protect and improve the efficiency of the cell.

^ However, they can easily be formed into square shapes that cover a greater fraction of a panel than monocrystalline cells, and this compensates for their lower efficiencies.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The solid may be ground at that temperature until small nanoparticles (e.g., less than 5 nm) are present.
  • SOLUTION-BASED FABRICATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL - Patents 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.In such cases, comparisons between cells must be made cautiously and with these effects in mind.^ Please mind that these are not the premium efficiency or the largest panels, but modest 175-185 Watts per panel, made in China production surplus.

^ While other cells are made from thin films of metal (such as CdTe, CIGS and IGN) these metals are safely contained within the cell and do not pose health risks [12] .
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These cells are typically made using silicon wafer.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.This approach should only be used for comparing solar cells with comparable layout.^ Solar cells should have a useful life of at least 10 years.
  • Original:Understanding Solar Cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ What's the minimum size (% )of a broken or chipped solar cell I should use in… .

^ Solar cell panels also are used to provide electric power in many remote terrestrial locations where conventional electric power sources are either unavailable or prohibitively expensive to install.
  • solar cell (electronics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.For instance, a comparison between primarily quadratical solar cells like typical crystalline silicon solar cells and narrow but long solar cells like typical thin film solar cells can lead to wrong assumptions caused by the different kinds of current paths and therefore the influence of for instance a distributed series resistance rS.^ Crystalline silicon solar cells typically use silicon or polysilicon substrates.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Candidate solar cell types are crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon.
  • Artemis Project: Lunar Production of Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.asi.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Crystalline silicon solar cells come in three primary categories: .
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] [19]
Cell temperature
Effect of temperature on the current-voltage characteristics of a solar cell
.Temperature affects the characteristic equation in two ways: directly, via T in the exponential term, and indirectly via its effect on I0 (strictly speaking, temperature affects all of the terms, but these two far more significantly than the others).^ It does not account for terminal disclaimers, term adjustments, failure to pay maintenance fees, or other factors which might affect the term of a patent.
  • Solar powered electric candle - US Patent 6929381 Description 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC www.patentstorm.us [Source type: Reference]

^ A modern car engine itself is far more efficient than one from 1915.
  • DailyTech - Record Setting Photovoltaic Cell is 40.8 Percent Efficient 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ In fact, the sunlight falling on a very small fraction of a home's roof is typically more than enough to provide all the energy needs of a home.
  • Solar Primer 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nmsea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

While increasing T reduces the magnitude of the exponent in the characteristic equation, the value of I0 increases exponentially with T. .The net effect is to reduce VOC (the open-circuit voltage) linearly with increasing temperature.^ The test cell, which was .25 centimeters 2 , had an open circuit voltage of 999mV, a short circuit current of 29.7 square mA/cm, and a fill factor of 83.2%.
  • Gallium arsenide solar cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The device open-circuit voltage, efficiency, and thermal stability are all affected by the IFL, and performance enhancement over PEDOT:PSS devices is achieved.
  • Wiley InterScience :: Hot Topics :: Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www3.interscience.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Wiley InterScience :: Hot Topics :: Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is the ratio of the maximum power point divided by the open circuit voltage ( V oc ) and the short circuit current ( I sc ): .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.The magnitude of this reduction is inversely proportional to VOC; that is, cells with higher values of VOC suffer smaller reductions in voltage with increasing temperature.^ That will lead to darkening the active photoelectric cell, and as a result a change in the photoelectric unit of the device and an increase of the voltage on the valve lattice causing it to glow.
  • http://www.gulflink.osd.mil/declassdocs/dia/19961031/961031_ln179-95_1.html 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC www.gulflink.osd.mil [Source type: Reference]

^ They can stand temperatures of up to 70 [degrees] C but the plastic laminating material between the cells and the glass cover will yellow with time if exposed to higher temperatures.
  • Original:Understanding Solar Cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A way of joining photovoltaic cells or batteries by connecting positive leads to negative leads; such a configuration increases the voltage.
  • Big Frog Mountain- Solar Electric Glossary Of Terminology Used In Renewable Or Alternative Energy Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC bigfrogmountain.com [Source type: Reference]

.For most crystalline silicon solar cells the reduction is about 0.50%/°C, though the rate for the highest-efficiency crystalline silicon cells is around 0.35%/°C. By way of comparison, the rate for amorphous silicon solar cells is 0.20-0.30%/°C, depending on how the cell is made.^ Why not compare most efficient in the world solar cell to the most efficient in the world car?
  • DailyTech - Record Setting Photovoltaic Cell is 40.8 Percent Efficient 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ The best cells made have an efficiency of 19%.
  • Artemis Project: Lunar Production of Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.asi.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Silicon-based solar cells have been around since the 1960s.
  • Photovoltaics (solar cells) - briefing document 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.abelard.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The amount of photogenerated current IL increases slightly with increasing temperature because of an increase in the number of thermally generated carriers in the cell.^ Tempered glass cannot be used with amorphous silicon cells because of the high temperatures during the deposition process.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because the cells produce electricity that would otherwise be made by more polluting forms of power generation, use of solar cells can increase air quality.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This electron-hole pair may then travel to the surface of the solar cell and contribute to the current produced by the cell; such a carrier is said to be collected .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.This effect is slight, however: about 0.065%/°C for crystalline silicon cells and 0.09% for amorphous silicon cells.^ Candidate solar cell types are crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon.
  • Artemis Project: Lunar Production of Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.asi.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This technology makes use of the advantages of crystalline silicon as a solar cell material, with the cost savings of using a thin-film approach.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tempered glass cannot be used with amorphous silicon cells because of the high temperatures during the deposition process.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.The overall effect of temperature on cell efficiency can be computed using these factors in combination with the characteristic equation.^ Solar cell efficiency factors .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These cells have about 6% efficiency.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These cells have low efficiencies around 8%.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, since the change in voltage is much stronger than the change in current, the overall effect on efficiency tends to be similar to that on voltage.^ The material could lead to relatively inexpensive, highly-efficient solar cells that would be much simpler to make than today's high-end multijunction solar cells.” .
  • Photovoltaics (solar cells) - briefing document 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.abelard.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These materials are typically less efficient than silicon, but can be manufactured at much lower costs.
  • Power Polymers Fuel Solar Cell Advances - 2007-10-08 00:00:00 | Design News 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.designnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Regarding the cited 7% efficiency of solar panels: As noted above, there ARE some panels which have recently been tested in laboratories to be of much higher efficiency than I cite here.
  • http://mb-soft.com/solar/photovol.html 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC mb-soft.com [Source type: Original source]

.Most crystalline silicon solar cells decline in efficiency by 0.50%/°C and most amorphous cells decline by 0.15-0.25%/°C. The figure above shows I-V curves that might typically be seen for a crystalline silicon solar cell at various temperatures.^ Why not compare most efficient in the world solar cell to the most efficient in the world car?
  • DailyTech - Record Setting Photovoltaic Cell is 40.8 Percent Efficient 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ Solar cell efficiency factors .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The structure of a solar cell is shown in Figure 1.
  • Original:Understanding Solar Cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]


Series resistance
Effect of series resistance on the current-voltage characteristics of a solar cell
.As series resistance increases, the voltage drop between the junction voltage and the terminal voltage becomes greater for the same flow of current.^ The unit of resistance to the flow of an electric current.
  • Big Frog Mountain- Solar Electric Glossary Of Terminology Used In Renewable Or Alternative Energy Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC bigfrogmountain.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The voltage developed across a cell by the current flow through the resistance of the cell.
  • Big Frog Mountain- Solar Electric Glossary Of Terminology Used In Renewable Or Alternative Energy Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC bigfrogmountain.com [Source type: Reference]

^ An ideal solar cell may be modelled by a current source in parallel with a diode ; in practice no solar cell is ideal, so a shunt resistance and a series resistance component are added to the model.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.The result is that the current-controlled portion of the I-V curve begins to sag toward the origin, producing a significant decrease in the terminal voltage V and a slight reduction in ISC, the short-circuit current.^ When many electrons, each carrying a negative charge, travel toward the front surface of the cell, the resulting imbalance of charge between the cell's front and back surfaces creates a voltage potential like the negative and positive terminals of a battery.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Now Class: A "Photovoltaic Cell" Lesson..... | Solar Feeds News And Commentary Network 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.solarfeeds.com [Source type: News]

^ I-V data --The relationship between current and voltage of a photovoltaic device in the power-producing quadrant, as a set of ordered pairs of current and voltage readings in a table, or as a curve plotted in a suitable coordinate system (i.e., Cartesian).
  • Big Frog Mountain- Solar Electric Glossary Of Terminology Used In Renewable Or Alternative Energy Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC bigfrogmountain.com [Source type: Reference]

^ (MPP)--The point on the current-voltage (I-V) curve of a module under illumination, where the product of current and voltage is maximum.
  • Big Frog Mountain- Solar Electric Glossary Of Terminology Used In Renewable Or Alternative Energy Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC bigfrogmountain.com [Source type: Reference]

.Very high values of RS will also produce a significant reduction in ISC; in these regimes, series resistance dominates and the behavior of the solar cell resembles that of a resistor.^ These are called heterojunction solar cells.
  • Original:Understanding Solar Cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ High quality and products assurance Made in China.solar cell supplied by Chinese manufacturer with the most competitive price and super quality.
  • solar cell, China solar cell,solar cell Manufacturer,solar cell factory,solar cell suppliers 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-sunny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These semiconductors are especially attractive for thin film solar cell application because of their high optical absorption coefficients and versatile optical and electrical characteristics which can in principle be manipulated and tuned for a specific need in a given device.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.These effects are shown for crystalline silicon solar cells in the I-V curves displayed in the figure to the right.^ These are called heterojunction solar cells.
  • Original:Understanding Solar Cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The structure of a solar cell is shown in Figure 1.
  • Original:Understanding Solar Cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Crystalline silicon solar cells typically use silicon or polysilicon substrates.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Losses caused by series resistance are in a first approximation given by Ploss=VRsI=I2RS and increase quadratically with (photo-)current.^ An ideal solar cell may be modelled by a current source in parallel with a diode ; in practice no solar cell is ideal, so a shunt resistance and a series resistance component are added to the model.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A new method is presented to image quantitatively series resistance and dark saturation current density on silicon solar cells.
  • Wiley InterScience :: Hot Topics :: Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www3.interscience.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Wiley InterScience :: Hot Topics :: Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This Letter introduces a fast converging iterative procedure for calculating images of the series resistance ( R s ) and saturation current density from two electroluminescence (EL) images.
  • Wiley InterScience :: Hot Topics :: Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www3.interscience.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Wiley InterScience :: Hot Topics :: Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]

.Series resistance losses are therefore most important at high illumination intensities.^ One of the most important properties of a solar cell is its series resistance.
  • Wiley InterScience :: Hot Topics :: Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www3.interscience.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Wiley InterScience :: Hot Topics :: Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is therefore important that the recycling efficiency of the process be high.
  • Artemis Project: Lunar Production of Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.asi.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In order to enhance the efficiency of generation of electricity, it is most important to take light beam into the module without any loss.
  • JP Patent 2001168359 - PHOTOELECTRIC TRANSFER ELEMENT AND PHOTOELECTRIC CELL 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Reference]


Shunt resistance
Effect of shunt resistance on the current–voltage characteristics of a solar cell
.As shunt resistance decreases, the current diverted through the shunt resistor increases for a given level of junction voltage.^ An ideal solar cell may be modelled by a current source in parallel with a diode ; in practice no solar cell is ideal, so a shunt resistance and a series resistance component are added to the model.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Through the above mechanism a negative voltage is formed on the valve (Cyrillic text) (figure number 2) which leads to preventing electric current from going through (closed valve).
  • http://www.gulflink.osd.mil/declassdocs/dia/19961031/961031_ln179-95_1.html 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC www.gulflink.osd.mil [Source type: Reference]

^ If order to increase the stability of the light block of the valve lattice (Cyrillic text), the ground should be connected through the condenser (Cyrillic text) voltage.
  • http://www.gulflink.osd.mil/declassdocs/dia/19961031/961031_ln179-95_1.html 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC www.gulflink.osd.mil [Source type: Reference]

.The result is that the voltage-controlled portion of the I-V curve begins to sag toward the origin, producing a significant decrease in the terminal current I and a slight reduction in VOC.^ When many electrons, each carrying a negative charge, travel toward the front surface of the cell, the resulting imbalance of charge between the cell's front and back surfaces creates a voltage potential like the negative and positive terminals of a battery.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Now Class: A "Photovoltaic Cell" Lesson..... | Solar Feeds News And Commentary Network 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.solarfeeds.com [Source type: News]

^ I-V data --The relationship between current and voltage of a photovoltaic device in the power-producing quadrant, as a set of ordered pairs of current and voltage readings in a table, or as a curve plotted in a suitable coordinate system (i.e., Cartesian).
  • Big Frog Mountain- Solar Electric Glossary Of Terminology Used In Renewable Or Alternative Energy Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC bigfrogmountain.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Most current plans for a lunar base assume that the base will include an industrial facility, primarily to produce oxygen for propulsion systems by reduction of the lunar soil [1] .
  • Artemis Project: Lunar Production of Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.asi.org [Source type: Academic]

Very low values of RSH will produce a significant reduction in VOC. .Much as in the case of a high series resistance, a badly shunted solar cell will take on operating characteristics similar to those of a resistor.^ High quality and products assurance Made in China.solar cell supplied by Chinese manufacturer with the most competitive price and super quality.
  • solar cell, China solar cell,solar cell Manufacturer,solar cell factory,solar cell suppliers 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-sunny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The key to getting solar gain at the right time (winter), and not at the wrong time (summer) is to take advantage of the fact that the path taken by the winter sun is much lower in the southern sky than the path taken by the summer sun (which passes nearly overhead at high noon: .
  • Solar Primer 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nmsea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These semiconductors are especially attractive for thin film solar cell application because of their high optical absorption coefficients and versatile optical and electrical characteristics which can in principle be manipulated and tuned for a specific need in a given device.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.These effects are shown for crystalline silicon solar cells in the I-V curves displayed in the figure to the right.^ These are called heterojunction solar cells.
  • Original:Understanding Solar Cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The structure of a solar cell is shown in Figure 1.
  • Original:Understanding Solar Cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Crystalline silicon solar cells typically use silicon or polysilicon substrates.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


Reverse saturation current
Effect of reverse saturation current on the current-voltage characteristics of a solar cell
If one assumes infinite shunt resistance, the characteristic equation can be solved for VOC:
V_{OC} = \frac{kT}{q} \ln\left(\frac{I_{SC}}{I_{0}} + 1\right).
.Thus, an increase in I0 produces a reduction in VOC proportional to the inverse of the logarithm of the increase.^ Generally, reduction in the melting point is inversely proportional to the particle radius, i.e., the smaller the nanoparticles, the lower the melting point.
  • SOLUTION-BASED FABRICATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL - Patents 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

This explains mathematically the reason for the reduction in VOC that accompanies increases in temperature described above. .The effect of reverse saturation current on the I-V curve of a crystalline silicon solar cell are shown in the figure to the right.^ Crystalline silicon solar cells typically use silicon or polysilicon substrates.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Candidate solar cell types are crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon.
  • Artemis Project: Lunar Production of Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.asi.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Crystalline silicon solar cells come in three primary categories: .
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Physically, reverse saturation current is a measure of the "leakage" of carriers across the p-n junction in reverse bias.^ This region where electrons have diffused across the junction is called the depletion region because it no longer contains any mobile charge carriers.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They should demonstrate a measurable bias in current flow , which is the hallmark of semiconductor transistors .
  • A New Solar Cell 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.chemexplore.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This imbalance of charge across the p-n junction sets up an electric field which opposes further diffusion of charge carriers across the junction.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This leakage is a result of carrier recombination in the neutral regions on either side of the junction.^ If they are created within a minority carrier diffusion length of the junction, then, depending on which side of the junction the electron-hole pair is created, the electric field at the junction will either sweep the electron to the n-type side, or the hole to the p-type side.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a piece of p-type silicon is placed in intimate contact with a piece of n-type silicon, then a diffusion of electrons occurs from the region of high electron concentration (the n-type side of the junction) into the region of low electron concentration (p-type side of the junction).
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When the electrons diffuse across the p-n junction, they recombine with holes on the p-type side.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]


Ideality factor
Effect of ideality factor on the current-voltage characteristics of a solar cell
.The ideality factor (also called the emissivity factor) is a fitting parameter that describes how closely the diode's behavior matches that predicted by theory, which assumes the p-n junction of the diode is an infinite plane and no recombination occurs within the space-charge region.^ Also called depletion zone, cell junction, or space charge.
  • Big Frog Mountain- Solar Electric Glossary Of Terminology Used In Renewable Or Alternative Energy Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC bigfrogmountain.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It is also known as the "space charge region".
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An ideal solar cell may be modelled by a current source in parallel with a diode ; in practice no solar cell is ideal, so a shunt resistance and a series resistance component are added to the model.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

A perfect match to theory is indicated when n = 1. .When recombination in the space-charge region dominate other recombination, however, n = 2.^ It is also known as the "space charge region".
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.The effect of changing ideality factor independently of all other parameters is shown for a crystalline silicon solar cell in the I-V curves displayed in the figure to the right.^ Solar cell efficiency factors .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The structure of a solar cell is shown in Figure 1.
  • Original:Understanding Solar Cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Crystalline silicon solar cells typically use silicon or polysilicon substrates.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most solar cells, which are quite large compared to conventional diodes, well approximate an infinite plane and will usually exhibit near-ideal behavior under Standard Test Condition (n ≈ 1).^ Why not compare most efficient in the world solar cell to the most efficient in the world car?
  • DailyTech - Record Setting Photovoltaic Cell is 40.8 Percent Efficient 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ All solar cells are junction diodes.
  • Big Frog Mountain- Solar Electric Glossary Of Terminology Used In Renewable Or Alternative Energy Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC bigfrogmountain.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The dye-sensitized solar cell depends on a mesoporous layer of nanoparticulate titanium dioxide to greatly amplify the surface area (200-300 m²/gram TiO 2 , as compared to approximately 10 m²/gram of flat single crystal).
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.Under certain operating conditions, however, device operation may be dominated by recombination in the space-charge region.^ It is also known as the "space charge region".
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some generating equipment may be operated at certain times as peaking capacity and at other times to serve loads on an around-the-clock basis.
  • Dictionary of Energy - definisions - Energy Glossary - P 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.photius.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Plugged-back footage: Under certain conditions, drilling operations may be continued to a greater depth than that at which a potentially productive formation is found.
  • Dictionary of Energy - definisions - Energy Glossary - P 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.photius.com [Source type: Reference]

This is characterized by a significant increase in I0 as well as an increase in ideality factor to n ≈ 2. .The latter tends to increase solar cell output voltage while the former acts to erode it.^ Individual solar cells provide a relatively small amount of power, but electrical output can be significant when cells are connected together in a PV module.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ That will lead to darkening the active photoelectric cell, and as a result a change in the photoelectric unit of the device and an increase of the voltage on the valve lattice causing it to glow.
  • http://www.gulflink.osd.mil/declassdocs/dia/19961031/961031_ln179-95_1.html 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC www.gulflink.osd.mil [Source type: Reference]

^ Because the cells produce electricity that would otherwise be made by more polluting forms of power generation, use of solar cells can increase air quality.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The net effect, therefore, is a combination of the increase in voltage shown for increasing n in the figure to the right and the decrease in voltage shown for increasing I0 in the figure above.^ If such an increase could result in a net decrease in cost of 50%(ish) you'd see a very different reality.
  • DailyTech - Record Setting Photovoltaic Cell is 40.8 Percent Efficient 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

Typically, I0 is the more significant factor and the result is a reduction in voltage.

Solar cell efficiency factors

Energy conversion efficiency

Dust often accumulates on the glass of solar panels seen here as black dots.
.A solar cell's energy conversion efficiency (η, "eta"), is the percentage of power converted (from absorbed light to electrical energy) and collected, when a solar cell is connected to an electrical circuit.^ This term should not be confused with energy conversion efficiency , as it does not convey information about the power collected from the solar cell.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Photovoltaic cells, sometimes called solar cells, can convert light, such as sunlight, into electrical energy.

^ Photovoltaics: Photovoltaic (or PV) systems convert light energy into electricity.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This term is calculated using the ratio of the maximum power point, Pm, divided by the input light irradiance (E, in W/m2) under standard test conditions (STC) and the surface area of the solar cell (Ac in m2).^ This term is calculated using the ratio of P m , divided by the input light irradiance under "standard" test conditions ( E , in W/m 2 ) and the surface area of the solar cell ( A c in m²).
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This term is calculated using the ratio of the maximum power point, P m , divided by the input light irradiance ( E , in W/m²) under standard test conditions (STC) and the surface area of the solar cell ( A c in m²).
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The efficiency of a solar cell is defined as the ratio of the electrical power output to the solar power input.
  • Original:Understanding Solar Cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]

\eta = \frac{P_{m}}{E 	imes A_c}
.STC specifies a temperature of 25 °C and an irradiance of 1000 W/m2 with an air mass 1.5 (AM1.5) spectrum.^ STC specifies a temperature of 25°C and an irradiance of 1000 W/m² with an air mass 1.5 (AM1.5) spectrum.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ (STC) --Conditions under which a module is typically tested in a laboratory: (1) Irradiance intensity of 1000 W/square meter (0.645 watts per square inch), AM1.5 solar reference spectrum, and (3) a cell (module) temperature of 25 degrees C, plus or minus 2 degrees C (77 degrees F, plus or minus 3.6 degrees F).
  • Big Frog Mountain- Solar Electric Glossary Of Terminology Used In Renewable Or Alternative Energy Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC bigfrogmountain.com [Source type: Reference]

^ W/m² solar reference spectrum AM ( airmass ) 1.5 cell temperature 25 °C .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.These correspond to the irradiance and spectrum of sunlight incident on a clear day upon a sun-facing 37°-tilted surface with the sun at an angle of 41.81° above the horizon.^ These correspond to the irradiance and spectrum of sunlight incident on a clear day upon a sun-facing 37°-tilted surface with the sun at an angle of 41.81° above the horizon.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These latter materials are transparent to most ultraviolet rays of the sun's spectrum , and so would permit more radiant energy to reach the pentacene layer below .
  • A New Solar Cell 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.chemexplore.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These photons contain various amounts of energy corresponding to the different wavelengths of the solar spectrum.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20][21] .This condition approximately represents solar noon near the spring and autumn equinoxes in the continental United States with surface of the cell aimed directly at the sun.^ This condition approximately represents solar noon near the spring and autumn equinoxes in the continental United States with surface of the cell aimed directly at the sun.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The dye-sensitized solar cell depends on a mesoporous layer of nanoparticulate titanium dioxide to greatly amplify the surface area (200-300 m²/gram TiO 2 , as compared to approximately 10 m²/gram of flat single crystal).
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Review Today?s commercial solar cells only convert 15% of the sun?s radiant energy into electricity.
  • Solar Cells - Shop Smarter.com 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

.Thus, under these conditions a solar cell of 12% efficiency with a 100 cm2 (0.01 m2) surface area can be expected to produce approximately 1.2 watts of power.^ Thus, a typical 1 m solar panel in direct sunlight will produce approximately 120 watts of peak power.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These cells have low efficiencies around 8%.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, under these conditions a solar cell of 12% efficiency with a 100 cm 2 (0.01 m 2 ) surface area can be expected to produce approximately 1.2 watts of power.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.The efficiency of a solar cell may be broken down into reflectance efficiency, thermodynamic efficiency, charge carrier separation efficiency and conductive efficiency.^ Solar cell efficiency factors .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are two main modes for charge carrier separation in a solar cell: .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Charge carrier separation .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.The overall efficiency is the product of each of these individual efficiencies.^ These products are expected to have monocrystalline cell conversion efficiencies of 18.5% and multicrystalline cell efficiencies of 17%.

^ In addition, thin films of many of these materials on conventional silicon solar cells can increase the optical coupling efficiency into the silicon cell, thus boosting the overal efficiency.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, thin films of many of these materials on conventional silicon solar cells can increase the optical coupling efficiency into the silicon cell, thus boosting the overall efficiency.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.Due to the difficulty in measuring these parameters directly, other parameters are measured instead: thermodynamic efficiency, quantum efficiency, VOC ratio, and fill factor.^ The EPT of a panel is dependent on many factors such as manufacturing process, the panel efficiency, the amount of carbon in the electricity mix where the panel is manufactured, the geographical location of where the panel is operating along with many other factors.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If these are not present, this, together with other factors, can eventually cause marriage disaster.
  • EzineArticles Submission - Submit Your Best Quality Original Articles For Massive Exposure, Ezine Publishers Get 25 Free Article Reprints 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC ezinearticles.com [Source type: General]

^ The quantum efficiency of thin film solar cells is also lower due to reduced number of collected charge carriers per incident photon.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.Reflectance losses are a portion of the quantum efficiency under "external quantum efficiency". Recombination losses make up a portion of the quantum efficiency, VOC ratio, and fill factor.^ External quantum efficiency is the fraction of incident photons that are converted to electrical current, while internal quantum efficiency is the fraction of absorbed photons that are converted to electrical current.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Selenium allows for better uniformity across the layer and so the number of recombination sites in the film are reduced which benefits the quantum efficiency and thus the conversion efficiency.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A solar module's energy conversion efficiency, (or just efficiency) is the ratio of the maximum output electrical power divided by the input light power under "standard" test conditions.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Resistive losses are predominantly categorized under fill factor, but also make up minor portions of the quantum efficiency, VOC ratio.^ See also claims that solar pv makes another step forward , with theoretic possibilities up beyond 60% efficiency.
  • Photovoltaics (solar cells) - briefing document 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.abelard.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A solar module's energy conversion efficiency, (or just efficiency) is the ratio of the maximum output electrical power divided by the input light power under "standard" test conditions.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Photovoltaic cells, which are those black squares that make up a solar panel, are getting more efficient and less expensive.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

Thermodynamic efficiency limit

.Solar cells operate as quantum energy conversion devices, and are therefore subject to the "thermodynamic efficiency limit". Photons with an energy below the band gap of the absorber material cannot generate a hole-electron pair, and so their energy is not converted to useful output and only generates heat if absorbed.^ Solar cell efficiency factors .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When a photon is absorbed, its energy is given to an electron in the crystal lattice.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Generates heat, OR Generates electron-hole pairs, if the photon energy is higher than the silicon band gap value.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.For photons with an energy above the band gap energy, only a fraction of the energy above the band gap can be converted to useful output.^ In PhotoVoltaic or Charge integrating light detectors, the amount of electrical energy is related to the amount of photons converted to charges = Quantum Efficiency.
  • 80% Efficient Solar Panel?! Works at Night?! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ecogeek.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Review Today?s commercial solar cells only convert 15% of the sun?s radiant energy into electricity.
  • Solar Cells - Shop Smarter.com 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ The energy given to it by the photon "excites" it into the conduction band, where it is free to move around within the semiconductor.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When a photon of greater energy is absorbed, the excess energy above the band gap is converted to kinetic energy of the carrier combination.^ In PhotoVoltaic or Charge integrating light detectors, the amount of electrical energy is related to the amount of photons converted to charges = Quantum Efficiency.
  • 80% Efficient Solar Panel?! Works at Night?! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ecogeek.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These higher energy photons will be absorbed by the solar cell, but the difference in energy between these photons and the silicon band gap is converted into heat (via lattice vibrations - called phonons) rather than into usable electrical energy.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, this new product can also convert light in the infrared and ultraviolet spectrums, making its effective energy conversion greater.
  • Solar cells with 63% efficiency by 2020 – Computer Chips & Hardware Technology | Geek.com 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.geek.com [Source type: General]

.The excess kinetic energy is converted to heat through phonon interactions as the kinetic energy of the carriers slows to equilibrium velocity.^ Mounted at the focal point is either a Stirling Engine, which converts heat to mechanical energy, which then turns a turbine, or, less often, a photovoltaic panel.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The balance of the solar energy is converted into heat, which is removed by water flowing in a channel behind the solar cells.
  • Establishment and Platform for an E-government System and its Security 11 September 2009 6:16 UTC www.tomw.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are not converting the IR energy into heat like a black object would, they are converting it directly into energy electricity.
  • 80% Efficient Solar Panel?! Works at Night?! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ecogeek.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Solar cells with multiple band gap absorber materials are able to more efficiently convert the solar spectrum.^ Solar cell efficiency factors .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This type of cell achieves a higher efficiency by capturing more of the solar spectrum.
  • Photovoltaics (solar cells) - briefing document 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.abelard.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Various materials have been investigated for solar cells.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By using multiple band gaps, the solar spectrum may be broken down into smaller bins where the thermodynamic efficiency limit is higher for each bin.^ The barrier may include UV stabilizers and/or UV absorbing luminescent chromophores (which emit at higher wavelengths) and antioxidants to protect and improve the efficiency of the cell.

^ To be 80% efficient solar cells, it MUST capture, convert, and be able to produce power form more than just the IR spectrum of AM1.5.
  • 80% Efficient Solar Panel?! Works at Night?! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ecogeek.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where you will see solar cells in in homes on buildings where space is limited, thus efficiency is important if this is the final use.
  • Solar cells with 63% efficiency by 2020 – Computer Chips & Hardware Technology | Geek.com 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.geek.com [Source type: General]

[23]

Quantum efficiency

As described above, when a photon is absorbed by a solar cell it can produce a pair of free charge carriers, i.e. an electron-hole pair. One of the carriers (the minority carrier) may then be able to reach the p-n junction and contribute to the current produced by the solar cell; such a carrier is said to be collected. .Alternatively, the carrier may give up its energy and once again become bound to an atom within the solar cell without being collected; this process is then called recombination since one electron and one hole recombine and thereby annihilate the associated free charge.^ These are called heterojunction solar cells.
  • Original:Understanding Solar Cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This electron-hole pair may then travel to the surface of the solar cell and contribute to the current produced by the cell; such a carrier is said to be collected .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Alternatively, the carrier may give up its energy and once again become bound to an atom within the solar cell without reaching the surface; this is called recombination , and carriers that recombine do not contribute to the production of electrical current.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.The carriers that recombine do not contribute to the generation of electrical current.^ This electron-hole pair may then travel to the surface of the solar cell and contribute to the current produced by the cell; such a carrier is said to be collected .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Alternatively, the carrier may give up its energy and once again become bound to an atom within the solar cell without reaching the surface; this is called recombination , and carriers that recombine do not contribute to the production of electrical current.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A P-N junction W can be used to collect the electrons and holes, generating an electrical potential that allows a current to flow.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Quantum efficiency refers to the percentage of photons that are converted to electric current (i.e., collected carriers) when the cell is operated under short circuit conditions.^ External quantum efficiency is the fraction of incident photons that are converted to electrical current, while internal quantum efficiency is the fraction of absorbed photons that are converted to electrical current.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Quantum efficiency refers to the percentage of absorbed photons that produce electron-hole pairs (or charge carriers ).
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The cells convert solar energy into direct current electricity .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.External quantum efficiency (EQE) is the fraction of incident photons that are converted to electrical current, while internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is the fraction of absorbed photons that are converted to electrical current.^ External quantum efficiency is the fraction of incident photons that are converted to electrical current, while internal quantum efficiency is the fraction of absorbed photons that are converted to electrical current.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Quantum efficiency refers to the percentage of photons that are converted to electric current (i.e., collected carriers).
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In PhotoVoltaic or Charge integrating light detectors, the amount of electrical energy is related to the amount of photons converted to charges = Quantum Efficiency.
  • 80% Efficient Solar Panel?! Works at Night?! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ecogeek.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mathematically, internal quantum efficiency is related to external quantum efficiency by the reflectance (R) and the transmittance (T) of the solar cell by IQE = EQE / (1 − RT).^ This term should not be confused with energy conversion efficiency , as it does not convey information about the power collected from the solar cell.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The layers are highly flexible, well-adhered, and can be used directly after appropriate annealing in efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.
  • Wiley InterScience :: Hot Topics :: Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www3.interscience.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Wiley InterScience :: Hot Topics :: Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Why not compare most efficient in the world solar cell to the most efficient in the world car?
  • DailyTech - Record Setting Photovoltaic Cell is 40.8 Percent Efficient 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.Please note that for a thick bulk Si solar cell T is approximately zero and is therefore in practical cases often neglected.^ This condition approximately represents solar noon near the spring and autumn equinoxes in the continental United States with surface of the cell aimed directly at the sun.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Presently, high-efficiency crystalline silicon (c-Si) cell concepts are driving the design of next-generation equipment tooling for production lines in the solar industry.
  • solar cell cutting on Coherent inc. 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC lasers.coherent.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It is more practical than solar panels, will save 40% gas therefore reduce the carbon footprint, get rid of complex hunky-chunky gasoline engines.
  • 80% Efficient Solar Panel?! Works at Night?! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ecogeek.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Quantum efficiency should not be confused with energy conversion efficiency, as it does not convey information about the fraction of power that is converted by the solar cell.^ This term should not be confused with energy conversion efficiency , as it does not convey information about the power collected from the solar cell.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Energy conversion efficiency .
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The cells convert solar energy into direct current electricity .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.Furthermore, quantum efficiency is most usefully expressed as a spectral measurement (that is, as a function of photon wavelength or energy).^ Furthermore, quantum efficiency is most usefully expressed as a spectral measurement (that is, as a function of photon wavelength or energy).
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In PhotoVoltaic or Charge integrating light detectors, the amount of electrical energy is related to the amount of photons converted to charges = Quantum Efficiency.
  • 80% Efficient Solar Panel?! Works at Night?! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ecogeek.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since some wavelengths are absorbed more effectively than others in most semiconductors, spectral measurements of quantum efficiency can yield information about which parts of a particular solar cell design are most in need of improvement.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.Since some wavelengths are absorbed more effectively than others in most semiconductors, spectral measurements of quantum efficiency can yield valuable information about the quality of the semiconductor bulk and surfaces.^ Furthermore, quantum efficiency is most usefully expressed as a spectral measurement (that is, as a function of photon wavelength or energy).
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Since some wavelengths are absorbed more effectively than others in most semiconductors, spectral measurements of quantum efficiency can yield information about which parts of a particular solar cell design are most in need of improvement.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The barrier may include UV stabilizers and/or UV absorbing luminescent chromophores (which emit at higher wavelengths) and antioxidants to protect and improve the efficiency of the cell.

Maximum-power point

.A solar cell may operate over a wide range of voltages (V) and currents (I).^ A solar cell may operate over a wide range of voltages (V) and currents (I).
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ C. and can be incorporated into flexible solar cells that are substantially non-transparent in the visible range.

^ The cells convert solar energy into direct current electricity .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.By increasing the resistive load on an irradiated cell continuously from zero (a short circuit) to a very high value (an open circuit) one can determine the maximum-power point, the point that maximizes V×I; that is, the load for which the cell can deliver maximum electrical power at that level of irradiation.^ By increasing the resistive load on an irradiated cell continuously from zero (a short circuit ) to a very high value (an open circuit ) one can determine the maximum-power point, the point that maximizes V×I, that is, the load for which the cell can deliver maximum electrical power at that level of irradiation.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ By increasing the resistive load on an irradiated cell from zero (a short circuit ) to a very high value (an open circuit ) one can determine the maximum-power point, that is the maximum output electrical power that the cell can deliver at that level of irradiation.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Maximum-power point .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.(The output power is zero in both the short circuit and open circuit extremes).^ Over a daily cycle, the maximum power output is attained when the sun is at its highest and, of course, falls to zero between dusk and dawn.
  • Original:Understanding Solar Cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ By increasing the resistive load on an irradiated cell continuously from zero (a short circuit ) to a very high value (an open circuit ) one can determine the maximum-power point, the point that maximizes V×I, that is, the load for which the cell can deliver maximum electrical power at that level of irradiation.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Interestingly, a solar cell or module can be shorted or left open circuited indefinitely without being damaged.
  • Original:Understanding Solar Cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]

.A high quality, monocrystalline silicon solar cell, at 25 °C cell temperature, may produce 0.60 volts open-circuit (VOC).^ W/m² solar reference spectrum AM ( airmass ) 1.5 cell temperature 25 °C .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Equivalent circuit of a solar cell .
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Silicon solar cell device manufacture .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.The cell temperature in full sunlight, even with 25 °C air temperature, will probably be close to 45 °C, reducing the open-circuit voltage to 0.55 volts per cell.^ Solar output is reduced on cloudy days, but diffuse sunlight can still produce a useful fraction of full output.
  • Original:Understanding Solar Cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ By reducing the material required per cell, the overall cost is reduced compared to first generation devices.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sunlight contains photons with energies that reflect the sun’s surface temperature; in energy units of electron volts.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The voltage drops modestly, with this type of cell, until the short-circuit current is approached (Isc).^ This is the ratio of the maximum power point divided by the open circuit voltage ( V oc ) and the short circuit current ( I sc ): .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In order to enhance the efficiency of generation of electricity, it is important to lower the connecting resistivity between the cells and hence inhibit the drop cf the internal voltage.
  • JP Patent 2001168359 - PHOTOELECTRIC TRANSFER ELEMENT AND PHOTOELECTRIC CELL 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The maximum current that can be drawn from a solar cell, the short-circuit current, is about 300 amperes per square meter in strong sun.
  • Original:Understanding Solar Cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]

.Maximum power (with 45 °C cell temperature) is typically produced with 75% to 80% of the open-circuit voltage (0.43 volts in this case) and 90% of the short-circuit current.^ This is the ratio of the maximum power point divided by the open circuit voltage ( V oc ) and the short circuit current ( I sc ): .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For maximum power, a silicon cell should be operated at about 0.45 V (in full sun) and 90% of the short-circuit current.
  • Original:Understanding Solar Cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Vmp --Voltage at maximum power .
  • Big Frog Mountain- Solar Electric Glossary Of Terminology Used In Renewable Or Alternative Energy Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC bigfrogmountain.com [Source type: Reference]

This output can be up to 70% of the VOC x ISC product. .The short-circuit current (Isc) from a cell is nearly proportional to the illumination, while the open-circuit voltage (VOC) may drop only 10% with a 80% drop in illumination.^ This is the ratio of the maximum power point divided by the open circuit voltage ( V oc ) and the short circuit current ( I sc ): .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In this tandem cell the short-circuit current exceeds that of the current-limiting subcell.
  • Wiley InterScience :: Hot Topics :: Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www3.interscience.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Wiley InterScience :: Hot Topics :: Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A solar cell may operate over a wide range of voltages (V) and currents (I).
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.Lower-quality cells have a more rapid drop in voltage with increasing current and could produce only 1/2 VOC at 1/2 ISC.^ As more current is drawn from the cell by the load, the voltage falls.
  • Original:Understanding Solar Cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ However, the stringent requirements for cleanliness and quality control of semiconductor fabrication are a little more relaxed for solar cells.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ To be 80% efficient solar cells, it MUST capture, convert, and be able to produce power form more than just the IR spectrum of AM1.5.
  • 80% Efficient Solar Panel?! Works at Night?! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ecogeek.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The usable power output could thus drop from 70% of the VOC x ISC product to 50% or even as little as 25%.^ This is the ratio of the maximum power point divided by the open circuit voltage ( V oc ) and the short circuit current ( I sc ): .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dunno what to think of a claim of 70% efficiency in harnessing the sun's power...surely if those professors could only achieve 42%...
  • FuturePundit: New Solar Photovoltaic Cell Efficiency Record: 42.8% 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.futurepundit.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Vendors who rate their solar cell "power" only as VOC x ISC, without giving load curves, can be seriously distorting their actual performance.^ Skylab is powered by solar cells.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Review Today?s commercial solar cells only convert 15% of the sun?s radiant energy into electricity.
  • Solar Cells - Shop Smarter.com 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ The power rating of a solar cell is expressed in watts, as either as peak watt (Wp), which is a measure of maximum possible performance under ideal conditions, or under more real-life conditions including normal operating cell temperature and AMPM (whole day rather than peak sunshine) standard ratings.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The maximum power point of a photovoltaic varies with incident illumination.^ The maximum power point of a photovoltaic varies with incident illumination.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Maximum-power point .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ (PV) conversion efficiency --The ratio of the electric power produced by a photovoltaic device to the power of the sunlight incident on the device.
  • Big Frog Mountain- Solar Electric Glossary Of Terminology Used In Renewable Or Alternative Energy Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC bigfrogmountain.com [Source type: Reference]

.For systems large enough to justify the extra expense, a maximum power point tracker tracks the instantaneous power by continually measuring the voltage and current (and hence, power transfer), and uses this information to dynamically adjust the load so the maximum power is always transferred, regardless of the variation in lighting.^ For systems large enough to justify the extra expense, a maximum power point tracker tracks the instantaneous power by continually measuring the voltage and current (and hence, power transfer), and uses this information to dynamically adjust the load so the maximum power is always transferred, regardless of the variation in lighting.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The maximum power point of a photovoltaic varies with incident illumination.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Maximum-power point .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

Fill factor

.Another defining term in the overall behavior of a solar cell is the fill factor (FF).^ Solar cell efficiency factors .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Another defining term in the overall behavior of a solar cell is the fill factor ( FF ).
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Photovoltaic Cells Solar Decathlon Winner Announced The third Solar Decathlon ended on October 19, with a team from Germany winning the overall competition.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

This is the ratio of the maximum power point divided by the open circuit voltage (Voc) and the short circuit current (Isc):
FF = \frac{P_{m}}{V_{oc} 	imes I_{sc}} = \frac{\eta 	imes A_c 	imes E}{V_{oc} 	imes I_{sc}}.
.The fill factor is directly affected by the values of the cells series and shunt resistance.^ An ideal solar cell may be modelled by a current source in parallel with a diode ; in practice no solar cell is ideal, so a shunt resistance and a series resistance component are added to the model.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One of the most important properties of a solar cell is its series resistance.
  • Wiley InterScience :: Hot Topics :: Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www3.interscience.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Wiley InterScience :: Hot Topics :: Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A new method is presented to image quantitatively series resistance and dark saturation current density on silicon solar cells.
  • Wiley InterScience :: Hot Topics :: Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www3.interscience.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Wiley InterScience :: Hot Topics :: Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]

.Increasing the shunt resistance (Rsh) and decreasing the series resistance (Rs) will lead to higher fill factor, thus resulting in greater efficiency, and pushing the cells output power closer towards its theoretical maximum.^ Solar cell efficiency factors .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The barrier may include UV stabilizers and/or UV absorbing luminescent chromophores (which emit at higher wavelengths) and antioxidants to protect and improve the efficiency of the cell.

^ Since photovoltaic cells give their highest output when pointed directly at the sun, electrical performance can be optimized by putting them on a moving mount that is always pointed toward the sun.
  • Original:Understanding Solar Cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]

[16]

Comparison of energy conversion efficiencies

.Energy conversion efficiency is measured by dividing the electrical power produced by the cell by the light power falling on the cell.^ Energy conversion efficiency .
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Machinery for producing electric power .
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Efficiency is a ratio of the electric power output to the light power input.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many factors influence the electrical power output, including spectral distribution, spatial distribution of power, temperature, and resistive load applied to the cell.^ Since photovoltaic cells give their highest output when pointed directly at the sun, electrical performance can be optimized by putting them on a moving mount that is always pointed toward the sun.
  • Original:Understanding Solar Cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ His invention involved placing an image on a cylinder and scanning it with a powerful light beam that had a photoelectric cell which could convert light, or the absence of light, into transmittable electrical impulses.
  • Buy Discount Fax Machine toner cartridges | thermal ribbon film roll | Coupon code promo HP efax 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC www.fleege.com [Source type: General]

^ The EPT of a panel is dependent on many factors such as manufacturing process, the panel efficiency, the amount of carbon in the electricity mix where the panel is manufactured, the geographical location of where the panel is operating along with many other factors.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.IEC standard 61215 is used to compare the performance of cells and is designed around terrestrial, temperate conditions, using its standard temperature and conditions (STC): irradiance) of 1 kW/m2, a spectral distribution close to solar radiation through AM (airmass) of 1.5 and a cell temperature 25 °C. The resistive load is varied until the peak or maximum power point (MPP) is achieved.^ This term is calculated using the ratio of the maximum power point, P m , divided by the input light irradiance ( E , in W/m²) under standard test conditions (STC) and the surface area of the solar cell ( A c in m²).
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The maximum power point of a photovoltaic varies with incident illumination.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ W/m² solar reference spectrum AM ( airmass ) 1.5 cell temperature 25 °C .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.The power at this point is recorded as Watt-peak (Wp).^ Thus, a typical 1 m solar panel in direct sunlight will produce approximately 120 watts of peak power.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since solar cell output power depends on multiple factors, such as the sun 's incidence angle , for comparison purposes between different cells and panels, the peak watt (Wp) is used.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Since solar cell output power depends on multiple factors, such as the sun 's incidence angle , for comparison purposes between different cells and panels, the measure of watts peak (Wp) is used.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

The same standard is used for measuring the power and efficiency of PV modules,
.Air mass has an effect on power output.^ Hence, the "standard" solar radiation (known as the "air mass 1.5 spectrum") has a power density of 1000 watts per square meter .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Simply, the filtering effect ranges from Air Mass 0 in space, to approximately Air Mass 1.5 on earth.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The "standard" solar radiation (known as the "air mass 1.5 spectrum") has a power density of 1000 watts per square metre.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In space, where there is no atmosphere, the spectrum of the sun is relatively unfiltered.^ In space, where there is no atmosphere, the spectrum of the sun is relatively unfiltered.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ So while there are electrons pouring out of the nano-antennas when exposed to the sun, there is no way to capture those electrons.
  • 80% Efficient Solar Panel?! Works at Night?! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ecogeek.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, on earth, with air filtering the incoming light, the solar spectrum changes.^ Light filter changing block 12.
  • http://www.gulflink.osd.mil/declassdocs/dia/19961031/961031_ln179-95_1.html 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC www.gulflink.osd.mil [Source type: Reference]

^ However on earth, with air filtering the incoming light, the solar spectrum changes.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Light filter change block 29.
  • http://www.gulflink.osd.mil/declassdocs/dia/19961031/961031_ln179-95_1.html 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC www.gulflink.osd.mil [Source type: Reference]

.To account for the spectral differences, a system was devised to calculate this filtering effect.^ To account for the spectral differences, a system was devised to calculate this filtering effect.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ That is, accounting practices with regard to capitalization of certain items may differ across companies, and therefore this figure in FRS (Financial Reporting System) will be a function of each reporting company's policy.
  • Dictionary of Energy - definisions - Energy Glossary - P 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.photius.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Following the initial discovery of the PV effect, scientists experimented with different materials in an attempt to find a practical use for PV systems.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Simply, the filtering effect ranges from Air Mass 0 (AM0) in space, to approximately Air Mass 1.5 on Earth.^ Simply, the filtering effect ranges from Air Mass 0 in space, to approximately Air Mass 1.5 on earth.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, a Silicon solar cell in space might have an efficiency of 14% at AM0, but have an efficiency of 16% on earth at AM 1.5.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However on earth, with air filtering the incoming light, the solar spectrum changes.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.Multiplying the spectral differences by the quantum efficiency of the solar cell in question will yield the efficiency of the device.^ What are the different types of solar cells?
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Silicon solar cell device manufacture .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of the most efficient solar cell materials are cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS).
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, a silicon solar cell in space might have an efficiency of 14% at AM0, but have an efficiency of 16% on earth at AM 1.5. Terrestrial efficiencies typically are greater than space efficiencies.^ Thin film solar cells are typically less efficient than crystalline silicon solar cells.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hoffman Electronics creates a 14% efficient solar cell.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, a Silicon solar cell in space might have an efficiency of 14% at AM0, but have an efficiency of 16% on earth at AM 1.5.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.Solar cell efficiencies vary from 6% for amorphous silicon-based solar cells to 40.7% with multiple-junction research lab cells and 42.8% with multiple dies assembled into a hybrid package.^ Solar cell efficiency factors .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Solar cell efficiencies vary from 6% for amorphous silicon-based solar cells to 42.8% with multiple-junction research lab cells.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Highest Achieved Efficiency (Lab cells) .
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] .Solar cell energy conversion efficiencies for commercially available multicrystalline Si solar cells are around 14-19%.^ Solar cell efficiency factors .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The cell exhibited a solar conversion efficiency of about 3%.

^ Energy conversion efficiency .
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

[25] .The highest efficiency cells have not always been the most economical — for example a 30% efficient multijunction cell based on exotic materials such as gallium arsenide or indium selenide and produced in low volume might well cost one hundred times as much as an 8% efficient amorphous silicon cell in mass production, while only delivering about four times the electrical power.^ This process produces a material without crystalline orientation : amorphous silicon.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, solar electricity (in the form of photovoltaics) is about 7 times the wholesale cost of utility scale wind power, but only about 2-3 times the cost of retail electricity.  .
  • Solar Primer 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nmsea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These cells have about 6% efficiency.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, there is a way to "boost" solar power.^ However, there is a way to "boost" solar power.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are currently three principal types of concentrating solar energy systems : trough systems, dish/engine systems and power towers.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar Energy Conservation: Solar Power Teach kids friendly ways to save the earth.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.By increasing the light intensity, typically photogenerated carriers are increased, resulting in increased efficiency by up to 15%.^ By increasing the light intensity, typically photogenerated carriers are increased, resulting in increased efficiency by up to 15%.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A typical concentrator system may use a light intensity 6-400 times the sun, and increase the efficiency of a one sun GaAs cell from 31% at AM 1.5 to 35%.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The increase in intensity is typically accomplished by using concentrating optics.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.These so-called "concentrator systems" have only begun to become cost-competitive as a result of the development of high efficiency GaAs cells.^ These are called heterojunction solar cells.
  • Original:Understanding Solar Cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ These cells have about 6% efficiency.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While these films can achieve 11% efficiency, their costs are still too high.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The increase in intensity is typically accomplished by using concentrating optics.^ The increase in intensity is typically accomplished by using concentrating optics.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Additionally, increasing the concentration ratio improves the performance of general photovoltaic materials [27] and also allows for the use of high-performance materials such as gallium arsenide .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Additionally, increasing the concentration ratio improves the performance of general photovoltaic materials and also allows for the use of high-performance materials such as gallium arsenide .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.A typical concentrator system may use a light intensity 6-400 times the sun, and increase the efficiency of a one sun GaAs cell from 31% at AM 1.5 to 35%.^ By increasing the light intensity, typically photogenerated carriers are increased, resulting in increased efficiency by up to 15%.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A typical concentrator system may use a light intensity 6-400 times the sun, and increase the efficiency of a one sun GaAs cell from 31% at AM 1.5 to 35%.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The increase in intensity is typically accomplished by using concentrating optics.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.See Solar_cell#Concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) below and Concentrating solar power (CSP).^ Solar power is in rapid growth mode; new manufacturers and installers of photovoltaic solar cell systems are cropping up everywhere.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This engine is later used in the dish/Stirling system, a solar thermal electric technology that concentrates the sun's thermal energy to produce electric power.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I dont see many sucessful ventures of solar cells for commercial power use taking off because other proven technologies have proven to have a greater efficiency.
  • Solar cells with 63% efficiency by 2020 – Computer Chips & Hardware Technology | Geek.com 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.geek.com [Source type: General]

.A common method used to express economic costs of electricity-generating systems is to calculate a price per delivered kilowatt-hour (kWh).^ A common method used to express economic costs of electricity-generating systems is to calculate a price per delivered kilowatt-hour (kWh).
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ PV systems ,  calculating the cost of photovoltaic systems .
  • Solar Primer 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nmsea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At this level, and assuming that whole system costs fall at a similar rate, solar electricity will be competitive with centralized, fossil-fuel generating systems and will be used on a large scale both by utility corporations and by individuals who own rooftop arrays.
  • Original:Understanding Solar Cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]

.The solar cell efficiency in combination with the available irradiation has a major influence on the costs, but generally speaking the overall system efficiency is important.^ Generally speaking, solar cells can be expected to last over 20 years.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar cell efficiency factors .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The solar cell efficiency in combination with the available irradiation has a major influence on the costs, but generally speaking the overall system efficiency is important.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.Using the commercially available solar cells (as of 2006) and system technology leads to system efficiencies between 5 and 19%.^ Western Electric licences commercial solar cell technologies.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The best cells made have an efficiency of 19%.
  • Artemis Project: Lunar Production of Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.asi.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The following chart shows solar-efficiencies for several of the leading-edge solar cell technologies.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As of 2005, photovoltaic electricity generation costs ranged from ~0.60 US$/kWh (0.50 €/kWh) (central Europe) down to ~0.30 US$/kWh (0.25 €/kWh) in regions of high solar irradiation.^ Photovoltaic cells, sometimes called solar cells, can convert light, such as sunlight, into electrical energy.

^ The installation , to be completed by 2010 , will comprise over a million solar electrical panels , which should generate about 40 MW under optimum conditions .
  • A New Solar Cell 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.chemexplore.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, advanced solar-energy systems provide electricity to pump water, power communications equipment and increasingly generate electricity on a commercial scale.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This electricity is generally fed into the electrical grid on the customer's side of the meter.^ This electricity is generally fed into the electrical grid on the customer's side of the meter.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ By installing a solar array, users can generate electricity for their personal use or for distribution on a connected electrical grid.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In order to enhance the efficiency of generation of electricity, it is most important to take light beam into the module without any loss.
  • JP Patent 2001168359 - PHOTOELECTRIC TRANSFER ELEMENT AND PHOTOELECTRIC CELL 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Reference]

.The cost can be compared to prevailing retail electric pricing (as of 2005), which varied from between 0.04 and 0.50 US$/kWh worldwide.^ The cost can be compared to prevailing retail electric pricing (as of 2005), which varied from between 0.04 and 0.50 US$/kWh worldwide.
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^ A common method used to express economic costs of electricity-generating systems is to calculate a price per delivered kilowatt-hour (kWh).
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ As of 2005, photovoltaic electricity generation costs ranged from ~ 50 eurocents/kWh (0.60 US$/kWh) (central Europe) down to ~ 25 eurocents/kWh (0.30 US$/kWh) in regions of high solar irradiation.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.(Note: in addition to solar irradiance profiles, these costs/kWh calculations will vary depending on assumptions for years of useful life of a system.^ PV systems ,  calculating the cost of photovoltaic systems .
  • Solar Primer 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nmsea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar cells should have a useful life of at least 10 years.
  • Original:Understanding Solar Cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ (Note: in addition to solar irradiance profiles, these costs/kwh calculations will vary depending on assumptions for years of useful life of a system.
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.Most c-Si panels are warranted for 25 years and should see 35+ years of useful life.^ Most c-Si panels are warrantied for 25 years and should see 35+ years of useful life.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Solar cells should have a useful life of at least 10 years.
  • Original:Understanding Solar Cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ However, effective module lives are typically 25 years or more [5] , so replacement costs should be considered as well.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

)

Solar cells and energy payback

.In the 1990s, when silicon cells were twice as thick, efficiencies were much lower than today and lifetimes were shorter, it may well have cost more energy to make a cell than it could generate in a lifetime.^ Polycrystalline silicon has lower conversion efficiency but also lower cost.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the 1990s, when silicon cells were twice as thick, efficiencies were 30% lower than today and lifetimes were shorter, it may well have cost more energy to make a cell than it could generate in a lifetime.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Solar energy has shown great progress and new advancements are making solar cells more efficient than ever.

.In the meantime, the technology has progressed significantly, and the energy payback time, defined as the recovery time required for generating the energy spent for manufacturing of the respective technical energy systems, of a modern photovoltaic module is typically from 1 to 4 years[11][26] depending on the module type and location.^ The energy payback time of a modern photovoltaic module is anywhere from 1 to 20 years (usually under five) [12] depending on the type and where it is used (see net energy gain ).
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The energy payback time (EPT) of a technology is commonly defined by the following equation: .
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Point-of-use solar energy would generate the exact amount of energy any one individual needs, at the location where it is needed.
  • Wiley InterScience :: Hot Topics :: Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www3.interscience.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Wiley InterScience :: Hot Topics :: Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]

.Generally, thin-film technologies - despite having comparatively low conversion efficiencies - achieve significantly shorter energy payback times than conventional systems (often < 1 year).^ Energy conversion efficiency .
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Comparison of energy conversion efficiencies .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ What does "energy conversion efficiency" mean?
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] With a typical lifetime of 20 to 30 years, this means that modern solar cells are net energy producers, i.e. they generate significantly more energy over their lifetime than the energy expended in producing them.[11][28][29]

Light-absorbing materials

.All solar cells require a light absorbing material contained within the cell structure to absorb photons and generate electrons via the photovoltaic effect.^ Structures and materials for photovoltaic cell .
  • CA Patent 2456213 - TRANSPARENT FLAT BODY 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Four generations of solar cells .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cadmium telluride is an efficient light-absorbing material for thin-film solar cells.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.The materials used in solar cells tend to have the property of preferentially absorbing the wavelengths of solar light that reach the Earth surface.^ Cadmium telluride is an efficient light-absorbing material for thin-film solar cells.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The materials used in solar cells tend to have the property of preferentially absorbing the wavelengths of solar light that reach the earth surface; however, some solar cells are optimized for light absorption beyond Earth's atmosphere as well.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It uses material from Wikipedia Encyclopedia article "Solar Cell" .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, some solar cells are optimized for light absorption beyond Earth's atmosphere as well.^ The materials used in solar cells tend to have the property of preferentially absorbing the wavelengths of solar light that reach the earth surface; however, some solar cells are optimized for light absorption beyond Earth's atmosphere as well.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Some of the most efficient solar cell materials are cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS).
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the stringent requirements for cleanliness and quality control of semiconductor fabrication are a little more relaxed for solar cells.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.Light absorbing materials can often be used in multiple physical configurations to take advantage of different light absorption and charge separation mechanisms.^ Light absorbing materials can often be used in multiple physical configurations to take advantage of different light absorption and charge separation mechanisms (listed in alphabetical order).
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Light-absorbing materials .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Light absorbing materials can often be used in multiple physical configurations to take advantage of different light absorption and charge separation mechanisms.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

Photovoltaic panels are normally made of either silicon or thin-film cells:
.Many currently available solar cells are configured as bulk materials that are subsequently cut into wafers and treated in a "top-down" method of synthesis (silicon being the most prevalent bulk material).^ Until recently most solar cells were made from single crystal silicon wafers.
  • Original:Understanding Solar Cells - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Solar cells have many applications.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Many currently available solar cells are configured as bulk materials that are subsequently cut into wafers and treated in a "top-down" method of synthesis (silicon being the most prevalent bulk material).
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.Other materials are configured as thin-films (inorganic layers, organic dyes, and organic polymers) that are deposited on supporting substrates, while a third group are configured as nanocrystals and used as quantum dots (electron-confined nanoparticles) embedded in a supporting matrix in a "bottom-up" approach.^ Thin film approaches are module based.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second generation photovoltaic materials is based on the use of thin-film deposits of semiconductors.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Material for a functional layer of an organic electronic component, method for the production thereof, and use thereof .
  • CA Patent 2456213 - TRANSPARENT FLAT BODY 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Academic]

.Silicon remains the only material that is well-researched in both bulk (also called wafer-based) and thin-film configurations.^ Thin film approaches are module based.
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^ Also called thin film.
  • Big Frog Mountain- Solar Electric Glossary Of Terminology Used In Renewable Or Alternative Energy Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC bigfrogmountain.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Silicon remains the only material that is well-researched in both bulk and thin-film configurations.
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Bulk

.These bulk technologies are often referred to as wafer-based manufacturing.^ These bulk technologies are often referred to as wafer-based manufacturing.
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^ These technologies are wafer based manufacturing.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Typically, the efficiencies of thin-film solar cells are lower compared to bulk silicon (=wafer-based) solar cells, but manufacturing costs are also lower, so that a lower price in terms of $/watt of electrical output can be achieved.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.In other words, in each of these approaches, self-supporting wafers between 180 to 240 micrometers thick are processed and then soldered together to form a solar cell module.^ In other words, in each of the above approaches, self supporting wafers of ~300 micrometres thick are fabricated and then soldered together to form a module.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, in each of these approaches, self-supporting wafers between 180 to 240 micrometers thick are processed and then soldered together to form a solar cell module.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Silicon wafer based solar cells .
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Crystalline silicon

Basic structure of a silicon based solar cell and its working mechanism.
.By far, the most prevalent bulk material for solar cells is crystalline silicon (abbreviated as a group as c-Si), also known as "solar grade silicon". Bulk silicon is separated into multiple categories according to crystallinity and crystal size in the resulting ingot, ribbon, or wafer.^ Crystalline silicon solar cells typically use silicon or polysilicon substrates.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crystalline silicon solar cells come in three primary categories: .
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crystalline silicon and gallium arsenide are typical choices of materials for solar cells.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.
  1. monocrystalline silicon (c-Si): often made using the Czochralski process.^ Si): often made using the Czochralski process .
    • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
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    ^ Tempered glass cannot be used with amorphous silicon cells because of the high temperatures during the deposition process.
    • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
    • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ These cells are typically made using silicon wafer.
    • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Single-crystal wafer cells tend to be expensive, and because they are cut from cylindrical ingots, do not completely cover a square solar cell module without a substantial waste of refined silicon.^ Single-crystal wafer cells tend to be expensive, and because they are cut from cylindrical ingots, do not completely cover a square solar cell module without a substantial waste of refined silicon.
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    ^ Silicon solar cell device manufacture .
    • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
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    ^ Silicon wafer based solar cells .
    • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
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    .Hence most c-Si panels have uncovered gaps at the four corners of the cells.
  2. Poly- or multicrystalline silicon (poly-Si or mc-Si): made from cast square ingots — large blocks of molten silicon carefully cooled and solidified.^ Poly- or multicrystalline silicon (poly-Si or mc-Si): made from cast square ingots - large blocks of molten silicon carefully cooled and solidified.
    • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Poly- or multicrystalline silicon (poly-Si or mc-Si): made from cast square ingots — large blocks of molten silicon carefully cooled and solidified.
    • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Most solar cells are made from silicon, which is the primary component of sand.
    • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Poly-Si cells are less expensive to produce than single crystal silicon cells, but are less efficient.^ Thin film solar cells are typically less efficient than crystalline silicon solar cells.
    • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ These cells are less expensive to produce than single crystal cells but are less efficient.
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    ^ The solar cells made from these materials tend to have lower energy conversion efficiency than bulk silicon, but are also less expensive to produce.
    • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
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    .US DOE data shows that there were a higher number of multicrystalline sales than monocrystalline silicon sales.
  3. Ribbon silicon[30] is a type of multicrystalline silicon: it is formed by drawing flat thin films from molten silicon and results in a multicrystalline structure.^ Ribbon silicon : formed by drawing flat thin films from molten silicon and having a multicrystalline structure.
    • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
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    ^ Common thin-film technologies include amorphous silicon, cadium telluride, and copper indium gallium selenide.
    • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Silicon thin-films are mainly deposited by chemical vapor deposition (typically plasma-enhanced (PE-CVD)) from silane gas and hydrogen gas.
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    These cells have lower efficiencies than poly-Si, but save on production costs due to a great reduction in silicon waste, as this approach does not require sawing from ingots.

Thin films

.The various thin-film technologies currently being developed reduce the amount (or mass) of light absorbing material required in creating a solar cell.^ This contributed to a prediction of greatly reduced costs for thin film solar cells.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Solar Cells Thin Film Solar Cells Are the Wave of the Future Recent developments in solar cell technology have revolutionized the solar cell market.

^ This is a term intrinsic to the light absorbing material , and not the cell as a whole (which becomes more relevant for thin-film solar cells).
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.This can lead to reduced processing costs from that of bulk materials (in the case of silicon thin films) but also tends to reduce energy conversion efficiency (an average 7 to 10% efficiency), although many multi-layer thin films have efficiencies above those of bulk silicon wafers.^ Polycrystalline silicon has lower conversion efficiency but also lower cost.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thin layer energy system .
  • CA Patent 2456213 - TRANSPARENT FLAT BODY 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thin-film processing .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.They have become popular compared to wafer silicon due to lower costs and advantages including flexibility, lighter weights, and ease of integration.^ This technology makes use of the advantages of crystalline silicon as a solar cell material, with the cost savings of using a thin-film approach.
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^ Polycrystalline silicon has lower conversion efficiency but also lower cost.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, manufacturing costs of CIS solar cells at present are high when compared with amorphous silicon solar cells but continuing work is leading to more cost-effective production processes.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

Cadmium telluride solar cell

.A cadmium telluride solar cell is a solar cell based on cadmium telluride, an efficient light-absorbing material for thin-film cells.^ Solar cell efficiency factors .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is a term intrinsic to the light absorbing material , and not the cell as a whole (which becomes more relevant for thin-film solar cells).
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thin film approaches are module based.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Compared to other thin-film materials, CdTe is easier to deposit and more suitable for large-scale production.^ Compared to other thin-film materials, CdTe is easier to deposit and more suitable for large-scale production.
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^ Silicon thin-films are mainly deposited by chemical vapor deposition (typically plasma-enhanced (PE-CVD)) from silane gas and hydrogen gas.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Another interesting aspect of thin-film solar cells is the possibility to deposit the cells on all kind of materials, including flexible substrates (PET for example), which opens a new dimension for new applications.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There has been much discussion of the toxicity of CdTe-based solar cells.^ There are many types of solar cell.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Silicon wafer based solar cells .
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^ Some of the most efficient solar cell materials are cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS).
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The perception of the toxicity of CdTe is based on the toxicity of elemental cadmium, a heavy metal that is a cumulative poison.^ The perception of the toxicity of CdTe is based on the toxicity of elemental cadmium , a heavy metal that is a cumulative poison .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Plutonium (Pu): A heavy, fissionable, radioactive, metallic element (atomic number 94) that occurs naturally in trace amounts.
  • Dictionary of Energy - definisions - Energy Glossary - P 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.photius.com [Source type: Reference]

.While the toxicity of CdTe is presently under debate, it has been shown that the release of cadmium to the atmosphere is impossible during normal operation of the cells and is unlikely during fires in residential roofs.^ The perception of the toxicity of CdTe is based on the toxicity of elemental cadmium , a heavy metal that is a cumulative poison .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Peaking capacity: Capacity of generating equipment normally reserved for operation during the hours of highest daily, weekly, or seasonal loads.
  • Dictionary of Energy - definisions - Energy Glossary - P 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.photius.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Despite much discussion of the toxicity of CdTe-based solar cells, this is the only technology (apart from amorphous silicon) that can be delivered on a large scale, as shown by First Solar and Antec Solar.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

[31] .Furthermore, a square meter of CdTe contains approximately the same amount of Cd as a single C cell Nickel-cadmium battery, in a more stable and less soluble form.^ Some of the most efficient solar cell materials are cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS).
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While other cells are made from thin films of metal (such as CdTe, CIGS and IGN) these metals are safely contained within the cell and do not pose health risks [12] .
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charles Fritts develops a solar cell using selenium on a thin layer of gold to form a device giving less than 1% efficiency.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

[31]

Copper-Indium Selenide

.The materials based on CuInSe2 that are of interest for photovoltaic applications include several elements from groups I, III and VI in the periodic table.^ I III VI elements in the periodic table that has photovoltaic effect .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The materials based on CuInSe 2 that are of interest for photovoltaic applications include several elements from groups I, III and VI in the periodic table.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Possible combinations of I III VI elements in the periodic table that have photovoltaic effect .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.These semiconductors are especially attractive for thin film solar cell application because of their high optical absorption coefficients and versatile optical and electrical characteristics which can in principle be manipulated and tuned for a specific need in a given device[32].^ Solar cells have many applications.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thin-film solar cells .
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These semiconductors are especially attractive for thin film solar cell application because of their high optical absorption coefficients and versatile optical and electrical characteristics which can in principle be manipulated and tuned for a specific need in a given device.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.CIS is an abbreviation for general chalcopyrite films of copper indium selenide (CuInSe2), CIGS mentioned below is a variation of CIS. CIS films (no Ga) achieved greater than 14% efficiency.^ The abbreviation stands for copper indium gallium selenide .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ CIS is an abbreviation for general chalcopyrite films of copper indium selenide ( C u I n S e 2 ), CIGS mentioned below is a variation of CIS. CIS films (no Ga) achieved greater than 14% efficiency.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Common thin-film technologies include amorphous silicon, cadium telluride, and copper indium gallium selenide.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, manufacturing costs of CIS solar cells at present are high when compared with amorphous silicon solar cells but continuing work is leading to more cost-effective production processes.^ However, manufacturing costs of CIS solar cells at present are high when compared with amorphous silicon solar cells but continuing work is leading to more cost-effective production processes.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Silicon solar cell device manufacture .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ CIS is an abbreviation for general chalcopyrite films of copper indium selenide ( C u I n S e 2 ), CIGS mentioned above is a variation of CIS. While these films can achieve 13.5% efficiency, their manufacturing costs at present are high when comparing to silicon solar cell but continuing work is leading to more cost-effective production processes.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.The first large-scale production of CIS modules was started in 2006 in Germany by Würth Solar.^ CSG Solar expects to release its first product for sale in 2006.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, embodiments of the present invention are compatible with roll-to-roll manufacturing of photovoltaic cells and modules that can be readily scaled up to high production volumes.
  • SOLUTION-BASED FABRICATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL - Patents 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Our company was established in 2006 with registered capital of 12 million RMB. The output of our first solar module production line is 25MW, and our workshop...
  • Solar cell Suppliers, Solar cell Factories, Solar cell Manufacturers - European Business Directory, European Trade Portal, Europe B2B Marketplace 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC europe.bloombiz.com [Source type: General]

.Manufacturing techniques vary and include the use of Ultrasonic Nozzles for material deposition.^ Methods to make nanoparticles of the desired materials having the desired narrow particle size distribution include controlling the reaction conditions under which the nanoparticles are made or using size-selective precipitation and other techniques (such as ultrafiltration and membrane emulsification).
  • SOLUTION-BASED FABRICATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL - Patents 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ But while microprocessor producers can use design and manufacturing techniques to improve chip efficiency and performance, improvements to solar cells means changing materials.
  • First there was Moore's Law; now, 'Gore's Law'? 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: News]

^ The second generation of photovoltaic materials is based on the use of thin epitaxial deposits of semiconductors on lattice-matched wafers.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.Electro-Plating in other efficient technology to apply the CI(G)S layer.^ Triple junction solar cell have (as the name suggest) 3 diodes layered on top of each other, each absorbing a different spectrum of light, efficiency as high as 28% have been achieved.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then the thin multispectrum layers can be stacked to make multispectrum solar cells more efficient and cheaper based on polymer solar cell and multijunction technology used by NASA on Mars missions.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.When gallium is substituted for some of the indium in CIS, the material is referred to as CIGS, or copper indium/gallium diselenide, a solid mixture of the semiconductors CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2, often abbreviated by the chemical formula CuInxGa(1-x)Se2.^ The abbreviation stands for copper indium gallium selenide .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When gallium is substituted for some of the indium in CIS, the material is sometimes called CIGS , or copper indium/gallium diselenide , a solid mixture of the semiconductors CuInSe 2 and CuGaSe 2 , often abbreviated by the chemical formula CuIn x Ga (1-x) Se 2 .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Common thin-film technologies include amorphous silicon, cadium telluride, and copper indium gallium selenide.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unlike the conventional silicon based solar cell, which can be modelled as a simple p-n junction (see under semiconductor), these cells are best described by a more complex heterojunction model.^ Unlike the basic silicon solar cell, which can be modelled as a simple p-n junction (see under semiconductor), these cells are best described by a more complex heterojunction model.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Silicon solar cell device manufacture .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Unlike conventional solar cells, the new, cheap material has no rigid silicon base..."
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The best efficiency of a thin-film solar cell as of March 2008 was 19.9% with CIGS absorber layer.^ Thin-film solar cells .
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CIGS are multi-layered thin-film composites.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cadmium telluride is an efficient light-absorbing material for thin-film solar cells.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

[33] .Higher efficiencies (around 30%) can be obtained by using optics to concentrate the incident light or by using multi-junction tandem solar cells.^ This allows more light to be concentrated on the solar cell, improving the efficiency of solar cells.
  • First there was Moore's Law; now, 'Gore's Law'? 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: News]

^ The best efficiency of a thin-film solar cell as of December 2005 was 19.5% with CIGS. Higher efficiencies (around 30%) can be obtained by using optics to concentrate the incident light.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ With light concentrators, the highest record cell is a multi-junction cell that has a measured 40.8% efficiency.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The use of gallium increases the optical bandgap of the CIGS layer as compared to pure CIS, thus increasing the open-circuit voltage, but decreasing the short circuit current.^ The use of gallium increases the optical bandgap of the CIGS layer as compared to pure CIS, thus increasing the open-circuit voltage.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For the current state-of-the-art dye-sensitized solar cell , the loss-in-potential from the optical bandgap to the open-circuit voltage is 0.75 eV. This results in a maximum efficiency of 13.4% with an absorption onset at 840 nm.
  • Wiley InterScience :: Hot Topics :: Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www3.interscience.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Wiley InterScience :: Hot Topics :: Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This will help particles fuse together much easier thus enhancing the cohesion of the resulting CIGS layer (W. H. Qi, et al.
  • SOLUTION-BASED FABRICATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL - Patents 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.In another point of view, gallium is added to replace indium due to gallium's relative availability to indium.^ In another point of view, gallium is added to replace as much indium as possible due to gallium's relative availability to indium.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, an ink may be made starting with a molten mixture of Gallium and/or Indium (commercially available, e.g., from Alfa Aesar of Ward Hill, Mass.
  • SOLUTION-BASED FABRICATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL - Patents 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Approximately 70%[34] of indium currently produced is used by the flat-screen monitor industry.^ Approximately 70% of Indium currently produced is used by the flat-screen monitor industry.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Approximately 70% [18] of indium currently produced is used by the flat-screen monitor industry.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These conductive films are also used in the LCD industry for flat panel displays.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, the atomic ratio for Ga in the >19% efficient CIGS solar cells is ~7%, which corresponds to a bandgap of ~1.15 eV. CIGS solar cells with higher Ga amounts have lower efficiency.^ However, the stringent requirements for cleanliness and quality control of semiconductor fabrication are a little more relaxed for solar cells.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This term should not be confused with energy conversion efficiency , as it does not convey information about the power collected from the solar cell.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Individual solar cells provide a relatively small amount of power, but electrical output can be significant when cells are connected together in a PV module.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.For example, CGS solar cells (which have a bandgap of ~1.7 eV have a record efficiency of 9.5% for pure CGS and 10.2% for surface-modified CGS. Some investors in solar technology worry that production of CIGS cells will be limited by the availability of indium.^ Solar cell efficiency factors .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some investors in solar technology worry that production of CIGS cells will be limited by the availability of indium.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The dye-sensitized solar cell depends on a mesoporous layer of nanoparticulate titanium dioxide to greatly amplify the surface area (200-300 m²/gram TiO 2 , as compared to approximately 10 m²/gram of flat single crystal).
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

Producing 2 GW of CIGS cells (roughly the amount of silicon cells produced in 2006) would use about 10% of the indium produced in 2004.[35] For comparison, silicon solar cells used up 33% of the world's electronic grade silicon production in 2006.
.Se allows for better uniformity across the layer and so the number of recombination sites in the film are reduced which benefits the quantum efficiency and thus the conversion efficiency.^ Selenium allows for better uniformity across the layer and so the number of recombination sites in the film are reduced which benefits the quantum efficiency and thus the conversion efficiency.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An advantage of thin-film technology theoretically results in reduced mass so it allows fitting panels on light or flexible materials, even textiles.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although they are reduced in energy conversion efficiency from single crystalline Si wafers, they are also much easier to produce at comparably lower costs.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

Gallium arsenide multijunction

.High-efficiency multijunction cells were originally developed for special applications such as satellites and space exploration, but at present, their use in terrestrial concentrators might be the lowest cost alternative in terms of $/kWh and $/W.[36] These multijunction cells consist of multiple thin films produced using metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy.^ These cells have about 6% efficiency.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Their "thin-film" cousins have been developed using lower-cost processes, but have lower AM0 efficiencies (7-9%) in production and are questionable for space applications.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These devices were initially designed to be high-efficiency, multiple junction photovoltaic cells.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.A triple-junction cell, for example, may consist of the semiconductors: GaAs, Ge, and GaInP2.^ A triple-junction cell, for example, may consist of the semiconductors: GaAs , Ge , and GaInP 2 .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A triple-junction cell, for example, may consist of the semiconductors: GaAs, Ge, and GaInP 2 .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Unlike the basic silicon solar cell, which can be modelled as a simple p-n junction (see under semiconductor ), these cells are best described by a more complex heterojunction model.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

[37] .Each type of semiconductor will have a characteristic band gap energy which, loosely speaking, causes it to absorb light most efficiently at a certain color, or more precisely, to absorb electromagnetic radiation over a portion of the spectrum.^ Each type of semiconductor will have a characteristic band gap energy which, loosely speaking, causes it to absorb light most efficiently at a certain color, or more precisely, to absorb electromagnetic radiation over a portion of the spectrum.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The band gap of the p-type compound semiconductor to be used in the invention is preferably 2 eV or more, more preferably 2.5 eV or more.
  • JP Patent 2001168359 - PHOTOELECTRIC TRANSFER ELEMENT AND PHOTOELECTRIC CELL 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In PhotoVoltaic or Charge integrating light detectors, the amount of electrical energy is related to the amount of photons converted to charges = Quantum Efficiency.
  • 80% Efficient Solar Panel?! Works at Night?! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ecogeek.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The semiconductors are carefully chosen to absorb nearly all of the solar spectrum, thus generating electricity from as much of the solar energy as possible.^ The semiconductors are carefully chosen to absorb nearly all of the solar spectrum, thus generating electricity from as much of the solar energy as possible.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Point-of-use solar energy would generate the exact amount of energy any one individual needs, at the location where it is needed.
  • Wiley InterScience :: Hot Topics :: Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www3.interscience.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Wiley InterScience :: Hot Topics :: Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Solar electricity has long been recognized as a potential energy source that holds great promise.
  • Wiley InterScience :: Hot Topics :: Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www3.interscience.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Wiley InterScience :: Hot Topics :: Solar Cells 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]

.GaAs based multijunction devices are the most efficient solar cells to date, reaching a record high of 40.7% efficiency under "500-sun" solar concentration and laboratory conditions.^ With light concentrators, the highest record cell is a multi-junction cell that has a measured 40.8% efficiency.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar cell efficiency factors .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This allows more light to be concentrated on the solar cell, improving the efficiency of solar cells.
  • First there was Moore's Law; now, 'Gore's Law'? 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: News]

[38]
.This technology is currently being utilized in the Mars rover missions.^ This technology is being used right now on the Mars rover missions.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Current research is being conducted under a DARPA grant to determine if this technology is viable.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The various thin-film technologies currently being developed reduce the amount (or mass) of light absorbing material required in creating a solar cell .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.Tandem solar cells based on monolithic, series connected, gallium indium phosphide (GaInP), gallium arsenide GaAs, and germanium Ge pn junctions, are seeing demand rapidly rise.^ Solar arrays made with a material which contains gallium arsenide GaAs and germanium Ge is seeing demand rapidly rise.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Gallium arsenide (GaAs) multijunction .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A triple-junction cell, for example, may consist of the semiconductors: GaAs , Ge , and GaInP 2 .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.In just the past 12 months (12/2006 - 12/2007), the cost of 4N gallium metal has risen from about $350 per kg to $680 per kg.^ In just the past 12 months (12/2006 - 12/2007), the cost of 4N gallium metal has risen from about $350 per kg to $680 per kg.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Additionally, germanium metal prices have risen substantially to $1000-$1200 per kg this year.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.Additionally, germanium metal prices have risen substantially to $1000–$1200 per kg this year.^ Additionally, germanium metal prices have risen substantially to $1000-$1200 per kg this year.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tempe, Ariz., has seen its per-share stock price rocket from about $25 two years ago toward Google -like highs.
  • First there was Moore's Law; now, 'Gore's Law'? 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: News]

^ In just the past 12 months (12/2006 - 12/2007), the cost of 4N gallium metal has risen from about $350 per kg to $680 per kg.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.Those materials include gallium (4N, 6N and 7N Ga), arsenic (4N, 6N and 7N) and germanium, pyrolitic boron nitride (pBN) crucibles for growing crystals, and boron oxide, these products are critical to the entire substrate manufacturing industry.^ Those materials include gallium (4N, 6N and 7N Ga), arsenic (4N, 6N and 7N) and germanium, pyrolitic boron nitride (pBN) crucibles for growing crystals, and boron oxide, these products are critical to the entire substrate manufacturing industry.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other examples of compound semiconductor include phosphide of zinc, gallium, indium and cadmium, selenide of gallium-arsenic and copper-indium, and sulfide of copper-indium.
  • JP Patent 2001168359 - PHOTOELECTRIC TRANSFER ELEMENT AND PHOTOELECTRIC CELL 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Solar arrays made with a material which contains gallium arsenide GaAs and germanium Ge is seeing demand rapidly rise.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.Triple-junction GaAs solar cells were also being used as the power source of the Dutch four-time World Solar Challenge winners Nuna in 2005 and 2007, and also by the Dutch solar cars Solutra (2005) and Twente One (2007).^ But solar cells are just one aspect of the cost of solar power.
  • First there was Moore's Law; now, 'Gore's Law'? 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: News]

^ Four generations of solar cells .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Skylab is powered by solar cells.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.The Dutch Radboud University Nijmegen set the record for thin film solar cell efficiency using a single junction GaAs to 25.8% in August 2008 using only 4 µm thick GaAs layer which can be transferred from a wafer base to glass or plastic film.^ Thin-film solar cells .
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thin film approaches are module based.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thin film cells are plated onto a plate of glass.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]

Light-absorbing dyes (DSSC)

.Typically a ruthenium metalorganic dye (Ru-centered) is used as a monolayer of light-absorbing material.^ Light-absorbing dyes .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Light-absorbing materials .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Light absorbing dyes .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.The dye-sensitized solar cell depends on a mesoporous layer of nanoparticulate titanium dioxide to greatly amplify the surface area (200-300 m2/g TiO2, as compared to approximately 10 m2/g of flat single crystal).^ Gel electrolytes for dye sensitized solar cells .
  • CA Patent 2456213 - TRANSPARENT FLAT BODY 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The dye-sensitized solar cell depends on a mesoporous layer of nanoparticulate titanium dioxide to greatly amplify the surface area (200-300 m²/gram TiO 2 , as compared to approximately 10 m²/gram of flat single crystal).
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Efficient Photoelectrochemical cells are developed; the Dye-sensitized solar cell is invented.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.The photogenerated electrons from the light absorbing dye are passed on to the n-type TiO2, and the holes are passed to an electrolyte on the other side of the dye.^ Light-absorbing dyes .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Electrons may pass from the n-type side into the p-type side, and holes may pass from the p-type side to the n-type side.
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Light absorbing dyes .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.The circuit is completed by a redox couple in the electrolyte, which can be liquid or solid.^ The circuit is completed by a redox couple in the electrolyte, which can be liquid or solid.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A p/n junction is used here too in the form of a doped solid (normally titanium dioxide) in contact with a solid or liquid electrolyte (for example CuI).
  • SOLAR CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS OR ARRAYS FOR SALE CHEAP BARGAINS AMAZON BEST VALUE 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.speedace.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This type of cell allows a more flexible use of materials, and is typically manufactured by screen printing and/or use of Ultrasonic Nozzles, with the potential for lower processing costs than those used for bulk solar cells.^ This type of cell allows a more flexible use of materials, and typically are manufactured by screen printing, with the potential for lower processing costs than those used for bulk solar cells.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This allows more light to be concentrated on the solar cell, improving the efficiency of solar cells.
  • First there was Moore's Law; now, 'Gore's Law'? 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: News]

^ What are the different types of solar cells?
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the dyes in these cells also suffer from degradation under heat and UV light, and the cell casing is difficult to seal due to the solvents used in assembly.^ These solvents may be used in admixture.
  • JP Patent 2001168359 - PHOTOELECTRIC TRANSFER ELEMENT AND PHOTOELECTRIC CELL 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ However, the dyes in these cells also suffer from degradation under heat and UV light, and the cell casing is difficult to seal due to the solvents used in assembly.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Unlike the basic silicon solar cell, which can be modelled as a simple p-n junction (see under semiconductor ), these cells are best described by a more complex heterojunction model.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.In spite of the above, this is a popular emerging technology with some commercial impact forecast within this decade.^ In spite of the above, this is a popular emerging technology with some commercial impact forecasted within this decade.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In spite of the above, this is a popular emerging technology with some commercial impact forecast within this decade.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.The first commercial shipment of DSSC solar modules occurred in July 2009 from G24i Innovations (www.g24i.com).^ Our company was established in 2006 with registered capital of 12 million RMB. The output of our first solar module production line is 25MW, and our workshop...
  • Solar cell Suppliers, Solar cell Factories, Solar cell Manufacturers - European Business Directory, European Trade Portal, Europe B2B Marketplace 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC europe.bloombiz.com [Source type: General]

^ Currently, the world commercial production focuses on first generation solar cells, with a small, but expanding, portion of the market devoted to second generation technology.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First generation photovoltaic cells (also known as silicon wafer-based solar cells) are the dominant technology in the commercial production of solar cells, accounting for more than 86% of the solar cell market.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

Organic/polymer solar cells

.Organic solar cells and polymer solar cells are built from thin films (typically 100 nm) of organic semiconductors such as polymers and small-molecule compounds like polyphenylene vinylene, copper phthalocyanine (a blue or green organic pigment) and carbon fullerenes and fullerene derivatives such as PCBM.^ Organic/polymer solar cells .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Organic solar cells and Polymer solar cells are built from thin films (typically 100 nm) of organic semiconductors such as polymers and small-molecule compounds like polyphenylene vinylene , copper phthalocyanine (a blue or green organic pigment) and carbon fullerenes .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Solar modules, the panels that comprise solar cells, have to be constructed with equipment such as batteries, inverters that convert DC into AC power and increasingly expensive metals, such as copper.
  • First there was Moore's Law; now, 'Gore's Law'? 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: News]

.Energy conversion efficiencies achieved to date using conductive polymers are low compared to inorganic materials.^ Energy conversion efficiency .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Comparison of energy conversion efficiencies .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Energy conversion efficiencies achieved to date using conductive polymers are low at 4-5% efficiency for the best cells to date.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, it improved quickly in the last few years and the highest NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) certified efficiency has reached 6.77%[40].^ Research is also being done in this area by the USA 's National Renewable Energy Laboratory .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ That being said many Life Cycle Analyses have been conducted on solar photovoltaic panels and a range of payback times have been determined, Alsema and Fthenakis found a range of EPT of 1-2.7 [8] years while the National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL found EPTs ranging from 1-4 years.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With light concentrators, the highest record cell is a multi-junction cell that has a measured 40.8% efficiency.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition, these cells could be beneficial for some applications where mechanical flexibility and disposability are important.^ However, these cells could be beneficial for some applications where mechanical flexibility and disposability are important.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Some of the highest efficiencies for solar cell electric power generation have been obtained by using this material, but previous applications have not yet caused demand to increase significantly.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is important to note that although performance will be reduced, your cells will continue to make some power!
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These devices differ from inorganic semiconductor solar cells in that they do not rely on the large built-in electric field of a PN junction to separate the electrons and holes created when photons are absorbed.^ As described above, when a photon is absorbed by a solar cell it is converted to an electron-hole pair.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Silicon solar cell device manufacture .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ What are the different types of solar cells?
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The active region of an organic device consists of two materials, one which acts as an electron donor and the other as an acceptor.^ The internal structure of the photoelectric conversion device can be roughly divided into two groups, i.e., structure allowing the entrance of light beam from the both surfaces thereof and structure allowing the entrance of light beam from one surface thereof.
  • JP Patent 2001168359 - PHOTOELECTRIC TRANSFER ELEMENT AND PHOTOELECTRIC CELL 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Fundamentally, the device needs to fulfill only two functions: photogeneration of charge carriers (electrons and holes) in a light-absorbing material, and separation of the charge carriers to a conductive contact that will transmit the electricity.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The photoelectric conversion device of item (2) above, wherein the positive hole-transporting material is at least one p-type compound semiconductor positive hole-transporting material.
  • JP Patent 2001168359 - PHOTOELECTRIC TRANSFER ELEMENT AND PHOTOELECTRIC CELL 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Reference]

.When a photon is converted into an electron hole pair, typically in the donor material, the charges tend to remain bound in the form of an exciton, and are separated when the exciton diffuses to the donor-acceptor interface.^ As described above, when a photon is absorbed by a solar cell it is converted to an electron-hole pair.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although the cost of producing solar cells has declined, their ability to convert sunlight into electricity remains low.
  • First there was Moore's Law; now, 'Gore's Law'? 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: News]

^ The presence of a missing covalent bond allows the bonded electrons of neighboring atoms to move into the "hole," leaving another hole behind, and in this way a hole can move through the lattice.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.The short exciton diffusion lengths of most polymer systems tend to limit the efficiency of such devices.^ GaAs multijunction devices are the most efficient solar cells to date, reaching as high as 39% efficiency.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

Nanostructured interfaces, sometimes in the form of bulk heterojunctions, can improve performance.[41]

Silicon thin films

.Silicon thin-film cells are mainly deposited by chemical vapor deposition (typically plasma-enhanced (PE-CVD)) from silane gas and hydrogen gas.^ Silicon thin-films are mainly deposited by Chemical vapor deposition (typically plasma enhanced (PE-CVD)) from silane gas and hydrogen gas.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Organic solar cells and Polymer solar cells are built from thin films (typically 100 nm) of organic semiconductors such as polymers and small-molecule compounds like polyphenylene vinylene , copper phthalocyanine (a blue or green organic pigment) and carbon fullerenes .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Light trapping schemes where the incoming light is obliquely coupled into the silicon and the light traverses the film several times enhance the absorption of sunlight in the films.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

Depending on the deposition parameters, this can yield:[42]
  1. Amorphous silicon (a-Si or a-Si:H)
  2. Protocrystalline silicon or
  3. Nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si or nc-Si:H), also called microcrystalline silicon.
.It has been found that protocrystalline silicon with a low volume fraction of nanocrystalline silicon is optimal for high open circuit voltage.^ This is the ratio of the maximum power point divided by the open circuit voltage ( V oc ) and the short circuit current ( I sc ): .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ The use of gallium increases the optical bandgap of the CIGS layer as compared to pure CIS, thus increasing the open-circuit voltage.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, second generation technologies do not have the high efficiencies obtained by the pure crystalline silicon devices found in the first generation of solar technologies.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43] .These types of silicon present dangling and twisted bonds, which results in deep defects (energy levels in the bandgap) as well as deformation of the valence and conduction bands (band tails).^ These types of silicon present dangling and twisted bonds, which results in deep defects (energy levels in the bandgap) as well as deformation of the valence and conduction bands (band tails).
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The energy given to it by the photon "excites" it into the conduction band , where it is free to move around within the semiconductor.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Generates heat, OR Generates electron-hole pairs, if the photon energy is higher than the silicon band gap value.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.The solar cells made from these materials tend to have lower energy conversion efficiency than bulk silicon, but are also less expensive to produce.^ Polycrystalline silicon has lower conversion efficiency but also lower cost.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These cells are typically made using silicon wafer.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These cells have about 6% efficiency.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.The quantum efficiency of thin film solar cells is also lower due to reduced number of collected charge carriers per incident photon.^ This contributed to a prediction of greatly reduced costs for thin film solar cells.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Solar cell efficiency factors .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The quantum efficiency of thin film solar cells is also lower due to reduced number of collected charge carriers per incident photon.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.Amorphous silicon has a higher bandgap (1.7 eV) than crystalline silicon (c-Si) (1.1 eV), which means it absorbs the visible part of the solar spectrum more strongly than the infrared portion of the spectrum.^ Kingston has a higher solar flux than expected for this part of Canada.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amorphous silicon has a higher bandgap (1.7 eV) than crystalline silicon (c-Si) (1.1 eV), which means it absorbs the visible part of the solar spectrum more strongly than the infrared portion of the spectrum.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The top cell in a-Si absorbs the visible light and leaves the infrared part of the spectrum for the bottom cell in nanocrystalline Si.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
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.As nc-Si has about the same bandgap as c-Si, the nc-Si and a-Si can advantageously be combined in thin layers, creating a layered cell called a tandem cell.^ As nc-Si has about the same bandgap as c-Si, the two material can be combined in thin layers, creating a layered cell called a tandem cell .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This technology makes use of the advantages of crystalline silicon as a solar cell material, with the cost savings of using a thin-film approach.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Charles Fritts develops a solar cell using selenium on a thin layer of gold to form a device giving less than 1% efficiency.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.The top cell in a-Si absorbs the visible light and leaves the infrared part of the spectrum for the bottom cell in nc-Si.^ The top cell in a-Si absorbs the visible light and leaves the infrared part of the spectrum for the bottom cell in nanocrystalline Si.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Main article: Dye-sensitized solar cells Typically a ruthenium metalorganic dye (Ru-centered) is used as a monolayer of light-absorbing material.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Multi-junction cells can be visuallized as several cells stacked on top of each other, with each cell optimized for a different part of the optical spectrum.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Recently, solutions to overcome the limitations of thin-film crystalline silicon have been developed.^ Recently, solutions to overcome the limitations of thin-film crystalline silicon have been developed.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Recently, solutions to overcome the limitations of thin film crystalline silicon have been developed.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Silicon thin-films are mainly deposited by chemical vapor deposition (typically plasma-enhanced (PE-CVD)) from silane gas and hydrogen gas.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.Light trapping schemes where the weakly absorbed long wavelength light is obliquely coupled into the silicon and traverses the film several times can significantly enhance the absorption of sunlight in the thin silicon films.^ Light trapping schemes where the incoming light is obliquely coupled into the silicon and the light traverses the film several times enhance the absorption of sunlight in the films.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Common thin-film technologies include amorphous silicon, cadium telluride, and copper indium gallium selenide.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Silicon thin-films are mainly deposited by chemical vapor deposition (typically plasma-enhanced (PE-CVD)) from silane gas and hydrogen gas.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

[44] .Thermal processing techniques can significantly enhance the crystal quality of the silicon and thereby lead to higher efficiencies of the final solar cells.^ Solar cell efficiency factors .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thermal processing techniques enhance the crystallinity of the silicon and passify electronic defects.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thermal processing techniques enhance the crystallinity of the silicon and pacify electronic defects.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

[45]
.A silicon thin film technology is being developed for building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) in the form of semi-transparent solar cells which can be applied as window glazing.^ A silicon thin film technology is being developed for building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) in the form of semi-transparent solar cells which can be applied as window glazing.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We specialize in R & D, Producing, selling of solar cells, solar panels, silicon-film solar cells and photovoltaic system.
  • Solar cell Suppliers, Solar cell Factories, Solar cell Manufacturers - European Business Directory, European Trade Portal, Europe B2B Marketplace 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC europe.bloombiz.com [Source type: General]

^ Silicon solar cell device manufacture .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.These cells function as window tinting while generating electricity.^ These cells function as window tinting while generating electricity.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Solar cells function by converting electromagnetic radiation (primarily light from the sun) into electrical energy.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because the cells produce electricity that would otherwise be made by more polluting forms of power generation, use of solar cells can increase air quality.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Nanocrystalline solar cells
.These structures make use of some of the same thin-film light absorbing materials but are overlain as an extremely thin absorber on a supporting matrix of conductive polymer or mesoporous metal oxide having a very high surface area to increase internal reflections (and hence increase the probability of light absorption).^ Cadmium telluride is an efficient light-absorbing material for thin-film solar cells.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Main article: Nanocrystal solar cell These structures make use of some of the same thin-film light absorbing materials but are overlain as an extremely thin absorber on a supporting matrix of conductive polymer or mesoporous metal oxide having a very high surface area to increase internal reflections (and hence increase the probability of light absorption).
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These semiconductors are especially attractive for thin film solar cell application because of their high optical absorption coefficients and versatile optical and electrical characteristics which can in principle be manipulated and tuned for a specific need in a given device.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.Using nanocrystals allows one to design architectures on the length scale of nanometers, the typical exciton diffusion length.^ A typical concentrator system may use a light intensity 6-400 times the sun, and increase the efficiency of a one sun GaAs cell from 31% at AM 1.5 to 35%.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is typically applied in a layer several hundred nanometers thick using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD).
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ These cells are typically made using a diffusion process with silicon wafers .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.In particular, single-nanocrystal ('channel') devices, an array of single p-n junctions between the electrodes and separated by a period of about a diffusion length, represent a new architecture for solar cells and potentially high efficiency.^ Solar cell efficiency factors .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Silicon solar cell device manufacture .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This condition approximately represents solar noon near the spring and autumn equinoxes in the continental United States with surface of the cell aimed directly at the sun.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

Schema of Concentrating photovoltaics

Concentrating photovoltaics (CPV)

.Concentrating photovoltaic systems use a large area of lenses or mirrors to focus sunlight on a small area of photovoltaic cells.^ Concentrating photovoltaic systems use a large area of lenses or mirrors to focus sunlight on a small area of photovoltaic cells.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Flexible Photovoltaic cells, systems and methods .
  • CA Patent 2456213 - TRANSPARENT FLAT BODY 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Rotational photovoltaic cells, systems and methods .
  • CA Patent 2456213 - TRANSPARENT FLAT BODY 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Academic]

[46] .High concentration means a hundred or more times direct sunlight is focused when compared with crystalline silicon panels.^ Light trapping schemes where the incoming light is obliquely coupled into the silicon and the light traverses the film several times enhance the absorption of sunlight in the films.
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^ If a piece of p-type silicon is placed in intimate contact with a piece of n-type silicon, then a diffusion of electrons occurs from the region of high electron concentration (the n-type side of the junction) into the region of low electron concentration (p-type side of the junction).
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ These cells use a single junction and have high efficiencies, but use a large amount of pure crystalline silicon, making the technology relatively expensive.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most commercial producers are developing systems that concentrate between 400 and 1000 suns.^ NREL develops a GaInP/GaAs two-terminal concentrator cell (180 suns) which becomes the first solar cell to exceed 30% conversion efficiency.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A typical concentrator system may use a light intensity 6-400 times the sun, and increase the efficiency of a one sun GaAs cell from 31% at AM 1.5 to 35%.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Using the commercially available solar cells (as of 2006) and system technology leads to system efficiencies between 5 and 19%.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
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.All concentration systems need a one axis or more often two axis tracking system for high precision, since most systems only use direct sunlight and need to aim at the sun with errors of less than 3 degrees.^ Two or more kinds of semiconductor particles having different particle diameter distributions may be used in admixture.
  • JP Patent 2001168359 - PHOTOELECTRIC TRANSFER ELEMENT AND PHOTOELECTRIC CELL 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Concentrating photovoltaic systems use a large area of lenses or mirrors to focus sunlight on a small area of photovoltaic cells.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Charles Fritts develops a solar cell using selenium on a thin layer of gold to form a device giving less than 1% efficiency.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.The primary attraction of CPV systems is their reduced usage of semiconducting material which is expensive and currently in short supply.^ The primary attraction of CPV systems is their reduced usage of semiconducting material which is expensive and currently in short supply.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ The various thin-film technologies currently being developed reduce the amount (or mass) of light absorbing material required in creating a solar cell .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.Additionally, increasing the concentration ratio improves the performance of high efficiency photovoltaic cells.^ Additionally, increasing the concentration ratio improves the performance of general photovoltaic materials [27] and also allows for the use of high-performance materials such as gallium arsenide .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Additionally, increasing the concentration ratio improves the performance of general photovoltaic materials and also allows for the use of high-performance materials such as gallium arsenide .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ With light concentrators, the highest record cell is a multi-junction cell that has a measured 40.8% efficiency.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47] .Despite the advantages of CPV technologies their application has been limited by the costs of focusing, sun tracking and cooling equipment.^ Despite the advantages of CPV technologies their application has been limited by the costs of focusing, tracking and cooling equipment.
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^ This technology makes use of the advantages of crystalline silicon as a solar cell material, with the cost savings of using a thin-film approach.
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.On October 25, 2006, the Australian federal government and the Victorian state government together with photovoltaic technology company Solar Systems announced a project using this technology, Solar power station in Victoria, planned to come online in 2008 and be completed by 2013. This plant, at 154 MW, would be ten times larger than the largest current photovoltaic plant in the world.^ Steps for getting a solar power system .
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This plant, at 154 MW, would be ten times larger than the largest current photovoltaic plant in the world.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This plant, at 154 MW , would be ten times larger than the largest current photovoltaic plant in the world.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

[48]

Silicon solar cell device manufacture

Solar-powered scientific calculator
.Because solar cells are semiconductor devices, they share many of the same processing and manufacturing techniques as other semiconductor devices such as computer and memory chips.^ Solar cells have many applications.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Silicon solar cell device manufacture .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because solar cells are semiconductor devices, they share many of the same processing and manufacturing techniques as other semiconductor devices such as computer and memory chips .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, the stringent requirements for cleanliness and quality control of semiconductor fabrication are a little more relaxed for solar cells.^ However, the stringent requirements for cleanliness and quality control of semiconductor fabrication are a little more relaxed for solar cells.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Unlike the basic silicon solar cell, which can be modelled as a simple p-n junction (see under semiconductor ), these cells are best described by a more complex heterojunction model.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hoffman Electronics-Semiconductor Division creates a 2% efficient commercial solar cell for $25/cell or $1,785/Watt.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.Most large-scale commercial solar cell factories today make screen printed poly-crystalline silicon solar cells.^ Most solar cells are made from silicon, which is the primary component of sand.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most large-scale commercial solar cell factories today make screen printed poly-crystalline silicon solar cells.
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^ Silicon solar cell device manufacture .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
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.Single crystalline wafers which are used in the semiconductor industry can be made into excellent high efficiency solar cells, but they are generally considered to be too expensive for large-scale mass production.^ Solar cell efficiency factors .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These cells are typically made using silicon wafer.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Four generations of solar cells .
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.Poly-crystalline silicon wafers are made by wire-sawing block-cast silicon ingots into very thin (180 to 350 micrometer) slices or wafers.^ Poly-crystalline silicon wafers are made by wire-sawing block-cast silicon ingots into very thin (180 to 350 micrometer) slices or wafers.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ During the manufacturing process, crystalline silicon ingots are sliced into wafer -thin disks, polished to remove slicing damage, dopants are introduced into the soup, and metallic conductors are deposited onto each surface: a thin grid on the sun-facing side and usually a flat sheet on the other.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This technology makes use of the advantages of crystalline silicon as a solar cell material, with the cost savings of using a thin-film approach.
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.The wafers are usually lightly p-type doped.^ The wafers are usually lightly p-type doped.
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.To make a solar cell from the wafer, a surface diffusion of n-type dopants is performed on the front side of the wafer.^ To make a solar cell from the wafer, a surface diffusion of n-type dopants is performed on the front side of the wafer.
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^ What are the different types of solar cells?
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Silicon wafer based solar cells .
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.This forms a p-n junction a few hundred nanometers below the surface.^ This forms a p-n junction a few hundred nanometers below the surface.
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.Antireflection coatings, which increase the amount of light coupled into the solar cell, are typically next applied.^ Antireflection coatings, which increase the amount of light coupled into the solar cell, are typically applied next.
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^ Some solar cells have textured front surfaces that, like antireflection coatings, serve to increase the amount of light coupled into the cell.
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^ Main article: Dye-sensitized solar cells Typically a ruthenium metalorganic dye (Ru-centered) is used as a monolayer of light-absorbing material.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

.Over the past decade, silicon nitride has gradually replaced titanium dioxide as the antireflection coating of choice because of its excellent surface passivation qualities (i.e., it prevents carrier recombination at the surface of the solar cell).^ Over the past decade, silicon nitride has gradually replaced titanium dioxide as the antireflection coating of choice because of its excellent surface passivation qualities (i.e., it prevents carrier recombination at the surface of the solar cell).
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Silicon solar cell device manufacture .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Silicon wafer based solar cells .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is typically applied in a layer several hundred nanometers thick using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD).^ It is typically applied in a layer several hundred nanometers thick using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD).
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Silicon thin-films are mainly deposited by chemical vapor deposition (typically plasma-enhanced (PE-CVD)) from silane gas and hydrogen gas.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Semiconductor particles layer [0052] In order to apply the semiconductor particles to the electrically conductive support, a method may be used which comprises applying a dispersion or colloid solution of semiconductor particles to an electrically conductive support.
  • JP Patent 2001168359 - PHOTOELECTRIC TRANSFER ELEMENT AND PHOTOELECTRIC CELL 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Reference]

.Some solar cells have textured front surfaces that, like antireflection coatings, serve to increase the amount of light coupled into the cell.^ Second generation solar cells : In an effort to reduce the cost of solar cells, a second generation of photovoltaic devices was investigated and is characterized by devices using very small amounts of source material.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are Supplier and Seller of: solar street lamp, wind turbine, solar cell modules, led light, led tunnel light, solar warning light, wind-solar hybrid power supply, solar garden light, solar products.
  • Solar cell Suppliers, Solar cell Factories, Solar cell Manufacturers - European Business Directory, European Trade Portal, Europe B2B Marketplace 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC europe.bloombiz.com [Source type: General]

^ We are Supplier and Seller of: solar panel, solar cell , solar system, solar lights, solar home off-grid system, on grid solar system, solar power station, solar module, solar products.
  • Solar cell Suppliers, Solar cell Factories, Solar cell Manufacturers - European Business Directory, European Trade Portal, Europe B2B Marketplace 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC europe.bloombiz.com [Source type: General]

.Such surfaces can usually only be formed on single-crystal silicon, though in recent years methods of forming them on multicrystalline silicon have been developed.^ Such surfaces can usually only be formed on single-crystal silicon, though in recent years methods of forming them on multicrystalline silicon have been developed.
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^ For example, single crystal silicon solar cells have largely been replaced by less expensive multicrystalline silicon solar cells, and thin film silicon solar cells have also been developed recently at lower costs of production yet (see Solar cell ).
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One way of doing this is to develop cheaper methods of obtaining silicon that is sufficiently pure.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.The wafer then has a full area metal contact made on the back surface, and a grid-like metal contact made up of fine "fingers" and larger "busbars" are screen-printed onto the front surface using a silver paste.^ The rear contact is also formed by screen-printing a metal paste, typically aluminium.
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^ The wafer is then metallized, whereby a full area metal contact is made on the back surface, and a grid-like metal contact made up of fine "fingers" and larger "busbars" is screen-printed onto the front surface using a silver paste.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ To make a solar cell from the wafer, a surface diffusion of n-type dopants is performed on the front side of the wafer.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
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.The rear contact is also formed by screen-printing a metal paste, typically aluminium.^ The rear contact is also formed by screen-printing a metal paste, typically aluminium.
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^ Usually this contact covers the entire rear side of the cell, though in some cell designs it is printed in a grid pattern.
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^ The paste is then fired at several hundred degrees Celsius to form metal electrodes in ohmic contact with the silicon.
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.Usually this contact covers the entire rear side of the cell, though in some cell designs it is printed in a grid pattern.^ Usually this contact covers the entire rear side of the cell, though in some cell designs it is printed in a grid pattern.
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^ Ohmic metal -semiconductor contacts are made to both the n-type and p-type sides of the solar cell, and the electrodes connected to an external load.
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^ The rear contact is also formed by screen-printing a metal paste, typically aluminium.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
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.The paste is then fired at several hundred degrees Celsius to form metal electrodes in ohmic contact with the silicon.^ The paste is then fired at several hundred degrees Celsius to form metal electrodes in ohmic contact with the silicon.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Solid silica can be directly converted (reduced) to pure silicon by electrolysis in a molten salt bath at a fairly mild temperature (800 to 900 degrees Celsius).
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^ Ohmic metal -semiconductor contacts are made to both the n-type and p-type sides of the solar cell, and the electrodes connected to an external load.
  • Solar Cell Projects & Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Academic]
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.Some companies use an additional electro-plating step to increase the cell efficiency.^ Graetzel, EPFL, Laussane, Switzerland achieves 11% efficient energy conversion with dye-sensitized cells that use a photoelectrochemical effect.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because the cells produce electricity that would otherwise be made by more polluting forms of power generation, use of solar cells can increase air quality.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charles Fritts develops a solar cell using selenium on a thin layer of gold to form a device giving less than 1% efficiency.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.After the metal contacts are made, the solar cells are interconnected in series (and/or parallel) by flat wires or metal ribbons, and assembled into modules or "solar panels". Solar panels have a sheet of tempered glass on the front, and a polymer encapsulation on the back.^ Solar panels have a sheet of tempered glass on the front, and a polymer encapsulation on the back.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Solar cells are often electrically connected and encapsulated as a module .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Each photovoltaic (PV) module is made of multiple interconnected solar cells .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.Tempered glass cannot be used with amorphous silicon cells because of the high temperatures during the deposition process.^ Tempered glass cannot be used with amorphous silicon cells because of the high temperatures during the deposition process.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This technology makes use of the advantages of crystalline silicon as a solar cell material, with the cost savings of using a thin-film approach.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ First generation solar cells : The photovoltaic industry began around crystalline silicon and the first solar cells made using pure crystalline silicon are commonly referred to as first generation.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Miniaturization

.Polycrystalline paper-thin solar cell extends the operating life of mobile phones and other portable systems.^ This technology makes use of the advantages of crystalline silicon as a solar cell material, with the cost savings of using a thin-film approach.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This contributed to a prediction of greatly reduced costs for thin film solar cells.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We are Supplier and Seller of: solar panel, solar cell , solar system, solar lights, solar home off-grid system, on grid solar system, solar power station, solar module, solar products.
  • Solar cell Suppliers, Solar cell Factories, Solar cell Manufacturers - European Business Directory, European Trade Portal, Europe B2B Marketplace 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC europe.bloombiz.com [Source type: General]

LROGC03 type panel is going to have a surface of 41 x 33 millimetres, half the size of the first LROGC02 panel. [49]
Tiny glitter-sized photovoltaic cells (from 14 to 20 micrometers thick) could have intelligent controls, inverters and even storage built in at the chip level. .Glitter photovoltaic cells use 100 times less silicon to generate the same amount of electricity.^ This technology makes use of the advantages of crystalline silicon as a solar cell material, with the cost savings of using a thin-film approach.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tempered glass cannot be used with amorphous silicon cells because of the high temperatures during the deposition process.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Solar Photovoltaic panels, on the other hand, use the sun’s light to produce electricity which can then be used for all sorts of applications.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They have 14.9 percent efficiency and off-the-shelf commercial modules range from 13 to 20 percent efficient.^ Typical solar panels have an average efficiency of 12%, with the best commercially available panels at 20%.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Solar cell energy conversion efficiencies for commercially available mc-Si solar cells are around 14-16%.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ PV warranties typically allow for 20 percent output degradation over the module’s 20- to 25-year warranty life.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50]

Lifespan

.Most commercially available solar cells are capable of producing electricity for at least twenty years without a significant decrease in efficiency.^ Western Electric licences commercial solar cell technologies.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Does the efficiency of a solar cell decrease over time?
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This term should not be confused with energy conversion efficiency , as it does not convey information about the power collected from the solar cell.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.The typical warranty given by panel manufacturers is for a period of 25 - 30 years, wherein the output shall not fall below 85% of the rated capacity.^ However, effective module lives are typically 25 years or more [5] , so replacement costs should be considered as well.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Manufacturers of these proven technologies are now comfortable offering warranties of 25 years or more.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is safe to say that modules carrying warranties of 20 years or more have a high probability of working well 30 years from now.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Costs

.Cost is established in cost-per-watt and in cost-per-watt in 24 hours for infrared capable photovoltaic cells.^ A common method used to express economic costs of electricity-generating systems is to calculate a price per delivered kilowatt-hour (kWh).
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ By reducing the material required per cell, the overall cost is reduced compared to first generation devices.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Third generation solar cells : The third generation of photovoltaics aims to achieve the high efficiencies of the first generation and the low cost of the second generation devices.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Slicing costs

.University of Utah engineers devised a new way to slice thin wafers of the chemical element germanium for use in the most efficient type of solar power cells.^ What are the different types of solar cells?
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Skylab is powered by solar cells.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Silicon wafer based solar cells .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.The new method should lower the cost of such cells by reducing the waste and breakage of the brittle semiconductor.^ CVD and PVD or mechanical methods such as laser scribing, plasma CVM (as described in "Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells", 48, pp.
  • JP Patent 2001168359 - PHOTOELECTRIC TRANSFER ELEMENT AND PHOTOELECTRIC CELL 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ By reducing the material required per cell, the overall cost is reduced compared to first generation devices.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This contributed to a prediction of greatly reduced costs for thin film solar cells.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

[51]

Low-cost solar cell

.Dye-sensitized solar cell, and luminescent solar concentrators are considered low-cost solar cells.^ Efficient Photoelectrochemical cells are developed; the Dye-sensitized solar cell is invented.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Main article: Dye-sensitized solar cells .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The dye-sensitized solar cell depends on a mesoporous layer of nanoparticulate titanium dioxide to greatly amplify the surface area (200-300 m²/gram TiO 2 , as compared to approximately 10 m²/gram of flat single crystal).
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.This cell is extremely promising because it is made of low-cost materials and does not need elaborate apparatus to manufacture, so it can be made in a DIY way allowing more players to produce it than any other type of solar cell.^ What are the different types of solar cells?
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ U.S. Patent 4,927,721 disclosed a photoelectric conversion device and solar cell comprising semiconductor particles sensitized with a dye, materials from which such a photoelectric conversion device is prepared, and a production technique for producing such a photoelectric conversion device.
  • JP Patent 2001168359 - PHOTOELECTRIC TRANSFER ELEMENT AND PHOTOELECTRIC CELL 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ CVD and PVD or mechanical methods such as laser scribing, plasma CVM (as described in "Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells", 48, pp.
  • JP Patent 2001168359 - PHOTOELECTRIC TRANSFER ELEMENT AND PHOTOELECTRIC CELL 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Reference]

.In bulk it should be significantly less expensive than older solid-state cell designs.^ Charles Fritts develops a solar cell using selenium on a thin layer of gold to form a device giving less than 1% efficiency.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Photovoltaic cells, which are those black squares that make up a solar panel, are getting more efficient and less expensive.

^ The solar cells made from these materials tend to have lower energy conversion efficiency than bulk silicon, but are also less expensive to produce.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

It can be engineered into flexible sheets. .Although its conversion efficiency is less than the best thin film cells, its price/performance ratio should be high enough to allow it to compete with fossil fuel electrical generation.^ This arrangement gives a structure allowing the external supply of electricity thus generated.
  • JP Patent 2001168359 - PHOTOELECTRIC TRANSFER ELEMENT AND PHOTOELECTRIC CELL 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The electrical conductivity of the positive hole-transporting layer of the invention is preferably from 10 <-8> S/cm to less than 10 <2> S/cm, more preferably from 10 <-6> S/cm to less than 10 S/cm.
  • JP Patent 2001168359 - PHOTOELECTRIC TRANSFER ELEMENT AND PHOTOELECTRIC CELL 25 September 2009 7:27 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Solar energy has shown great progress and new advancements are making solar cells more efficient than ever.

Current research on materials and devices

.There are currently many research groups active in the field of photovoltaics in universities and research institutions around the world.^ University of Washington Pumping Water with Solar Power Photovoltaic solar energy is used for the extraction of water in places where there is no normal electricity.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ While there are many types of solar cells available, most of the current photovoltaic technologies are fully recycleable.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Third generation solar cells are currently found mainly in research labs and universities.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This research can be divided into three areas: making current technology solar cells cheaper and/or more efficient to effectively compete with other energy sources; developing new technologies based on new solar cell architectural designs; and developing new materials to serve as light absorbers and charge carriers.^ Solar energy has shown great progress and new advancements are making solar cells more efficient than ever.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Space Exploration Tech Advances, More Manufacturers to Bring Cheaper Solar Power A new assessment released today predicts a larger, cheaper market for solar power in coming years.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Energy Consumption Department of Energy Announces $5.2 Million Solar Power Project The Department of Energy announced additional funding for research into advanced methods and materials for developing Concentrated Solar Power as an economically and commercially viable renewable energy technology.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

Silicon processing

.One way of reducing the cost is to develop cheaper methods of obtaining silicon that is sufficiently pure.^ However, second generation technologies do not have the high efficiencies obtained by the pure crystalline silicon devices found in the first generation of solar technologies.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another way to reduce the cost (payback) is to consider a commercial model for the panels as electric power generators.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are there discounts or other ways to reduce the cost of my system?
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Silicon is a very common element, but is normally bound in silica, or silica sand.^ Silicon is a very common element, but is normally bound in silica, or silica sand .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.Processing silica (SiO2) to produce silicon is a very high energy process - at current efficiencies, it takes one to two years for a conventional solar cell to generate as much energy as was used to make the silicon it contains.^ Hydrogen Power Printable, Paintable Solar Cells Could Provide Energy, Research Indicates Researchers at the New Jersey Institute of Technology have developed a carbon-based solar cell that uses nanomaterials, particles approaching the size of molecules, to capture energy and generate electricity from the sun.

^ The simultaneous use of all detector functions make this detector very useful but, the real advantage of the trifunctional detector is that it allows the analyst a choice of the three most useful detector function in one detecting system.

^ Alternative Power Solar Energy as Alternative Energy Solar energy is becoming more practical with every passing year.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.More energy efficient methods of synthesis are not only beneficial to the solar industry, but also to industries surrounding silicon technology as a whole.^ Solar Oven Introduction to Solar Energy A short article designed to help familiarize the reader with the commonly encountered terms surrounding solar energy.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Alternative Power Solar Energy as Alternative Energy Solar energy is becoming more practical with every passing year.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ More Energy The Pros and Cons of Solar Energy Have your electric and heating bills been killing you?
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.The current industrial production of silicon is via the reaction between carbon (charcoal) and silica at a temperature around 1700 °C. In this process, known as carbothermic reduction, each tonne of silicon (metallurgical grade, about 98% pure) is produced with the emission of about 1.5 tonnes of carbon dioxide.^ Alternating Current Solar Power Alternatives to Save Homeowners Money Solar Power is a clean, alternative energy source that does not produce any greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ First generation solar cells : The photovoltaic industry began around crystalline silicon and the first solar cells made using pure crystalline silicon are commonly referred to as first generation.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Solid silica can be directly converted (reduced) to pure silicon by electrolysis in a molten salt bath at a fairly mild temperature (800 to 900 °C).[52][53] .While this new process is in principle the same as the FFC Cambridge Process which was first discovered in late 1996, the interesting laboratory finding is that such electrolytic silicon is in the form of porous silicon which turns readily into a fine powder, with a particle size of a few micrometres, and may therefore offer new opportunities for development of solar cell technologies.^ Hydrogen Power Printable, Paintable Solar Cells Could Provide Energy, Research Indicates Researchers at the New Jersey Institute of Technology have developed a carbon-based solar cell that uses nanomaterials, particles approaching the size of molecules, to capture energy and generate electricity from the sun.

^ Gel electrolytes for dye sensitized solar cells .
  • CA Patent 2456213 - TRANSPARENT FLAT BODY 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Solar energy has shown great progress and new advancements are making solar cells more efficient than ever.

.Another approach is also to reduce the amount of silicon used and thus cost, is by micromachining wafers into very thin, virtually transparent layers that could be used as transparent architectural coverings.^ Second generation solar cells : In an effort to reduce the cost of solar cells, a second generation of photovoltaic devices was investigated and is characterized by devices using very small amounts of source material.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LCD or window pane having controllable transparency, has active layer between two electrodes enclosed by covering layer .
  • CA Patent 2456213 - TRANSPARENT FLAT BODY 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Independence from utility companies can either reduce/eliminate utility costs or serve as another income stream to the household.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[54] .The technique involves taking a silicon wafer, typically 1 to 2 mm thick, and making a multitude of parallel, transverse slices across the wafer, creating a large number of slivers that have a thickness of 50 micrometres and a width equal to the thickness of the original wafer.^ A number of different chemical processes can be used to recycle the silicon in the photovoltiac cells into pure silicon wafers.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These slices are rotated 90 degrees, so that the surfaces corresponding to the faces of the original wafer become the edges of the slivers. .The result is to convert, for example, a 150 mm diameter, 2 mm-thick wafer having an exposed silicon surface area of about 175 cm2 per side into about 1000 slivers having dimensions of 100 mm × 2 mm × 0.1 mm, yielding a total exposed silicon surface area of about 2000 cm2 per side.^ A number of different chemical processes can be used to recycle the silicon in the photovoltiac cells into pure silicon wafers.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, if a solar array has an overall efficiency of 10% and an exposed area of 1 square meter, the expected electrical power output would be 10 watts if the incident light irradiance W was 1000 watts per square meter.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sensor cell usually consists of a cylindrical cavity about 1 mm I.D and a few mm long, having a capacity that ranges from about two micro-liters to eight micro-liters.

.As a result of this rotation, the electrical doping and contacts that were on the face of the wafer are located at the edges of the sliver, rather than at the front and rear as in the case of conventional wafer cells.^ To make a solar cell from the wafer, a surface diffusion of n-type dopants is performed on the front side of the wafer.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In practice, p-n junctions of silicon solar cells are not made in this way, but rather, by diffusing an n-type dopant into one side of a p-type wafer (or vice versa).
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These higher energy photons will be absorbed by the solar cell, but the difference in energy between these photons and the silicon band gap is converted into heat (via lattice vibrations - called phonons ) rather than into usable electrical energy.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

This has the interesting effect of making the cell sensitive from both the front and rear of the cell (a property known as bifaciality).[54] .Using this technique, one silicon wafer is enough to build a 140 watt panel, compared to about 60 wafers needed for conventional modules of same power output.^ A number of different chemical processes can be used to recycle the silicon in the photovoltiac cells into pure silicon wafers.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Off-grid refers to systems that are not connected to the utility electrical grid; all power generated by the panels is either stored or used by the building they are fixed to.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar Panels Going Green with Solar Panels One area in which we would probably all like to participate is in the use of solar panels to produce domestic solar power.

Thin-film processing

.Thin-film photovoltaic cells can use less than 1% of the expensive raw material (silicon or other light absorbers) compared to wafer-based solar cells, leading to a significant price drop per Watt peak capacity.^ Photovoltaic Cells Solar Decathlon Winner Announced The third Solar Decathlon ended on October 19, with a team from Germany winning the overall competition.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Info Photovoltaic Cells This article gives a general overview of photovoltaic cells for the benefit of people not in the feild and then goes on to discuss triple junction solar cells, light concentration techniques, quantum dots, carbon nanotubules, and dye sensitized and thin film cells.

^ Common thin-film technologies include amorphous silicon, cadium telluride, and copper indium gallium selenide.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are many research groups around the world actively researching different thin-film approaches and/or materials.^ For other photovoltaic technologies, such as Group-III thin film technologies, the material components can still be recovered but the recycling technolgies are not as well established as silicon-based photovoltaic recycling.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Second generation photovoltaics are commonly called 'thin-film' solar cells, due to the small amount of material required as compared to first generation technology.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, it remains to be seen if these solutions can achieve a similar market penetration as traditional bulk silicon solar modules.^ However, second generation technologies do not have the high efficiencies obtained by the pure crystalline silicon devices found in the first generation of solar technologies.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[55]
.One particularly promising technology is crystalline silicon thin films on glass substrates.^ One particularly promising technology is crystalline silicon thin films on glass substrates.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The result is a new technology - thin film Crystaline Silicon on Glass (CSG) [3] .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This technology makes use of the advantages of crystalline silicon as a solar cell material, with the cost savings of using a thin-film approach.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.This technology combines the advantages of crystalline silicon as a solar cell material (abundance, non-toxicity, high efficiency, long-term stability) with the cost savings of using a thin-film approach.^ This technology makes use of the advantages of crystalline silicon as a solar cell material, with the cost savings of using a thin-film approach.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This contributed to a prediction of greatly reduced costs for thin film solar cells.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One particularly promising technology is crystalline silicon thin films on glass substrates.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

[56][57]
.Another interesting aspect of thin-film solar cells is the possibility to deposit the cells on all kind of materials, including flexible substrates (PET for example), which opens a new dimension for new applications.^ While other cells are made from thin films of metal (such as CdTe, CIGS and IGN) these metals are safely contained within the cell and do not pose health risks [12] .
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar energy has shown great progress and new advancements are making solar cells more efficient than ever.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ For other photovoltaic technologies, such as Group-III thin film technologies, the material components can still be recovered but the recycling technolgies are not as well established as silicon-based photovoltaic recycling.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58]

Metamorphic multijunction solar cell

.The National Renewable Energy Laboratory won a R&D Magazine's R&D 100 Awards for its Metamorphic Multijunction Solar Cell, an ultra-light and flexible cell that converts solar energy with record efficiency.^ The cells convert solar energy into direct current electricity .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Are solar and renewable energies are a good investment?
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That being said many Life Cycle Analyses have been conducted on solar photovoltaic panels and a range of payback times have been determined, Alsema and Fthenakis found a range of EPT of 1-2.7 [8] years while the National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL found EPTs ranging from 1-4 years.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[59]
.The ultra-light, highly efficient solar cell was developed at NREL and is being commercialized by Emcore Corp.^ With light concentrators, the highest record cell is a multi-junction cell that has a measured 40.8% efficiency.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Third generation solar cells : The third generation of photovoltaics aims to achieve the high efficiencies of the first generation and the low cost of the second generation devices.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar cells function by converting electromagnetic radiation (primarily light from the sun) into electrical energy.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[60] of Albuquerque, N.M., in partnership with the Air Force Research Laboratories Space Vehicles Directorate at Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque.
.It represents a new class of solar cells with clear advantages in performance, engineering design, operation and cost.^ Energy Cost New York Solar and Fuel Cell Tax Credit New York offers a state income tax credit of 25% of the cost of a solar photovoltaic or solar thermal system up to a maximum credit of $5,000, and 20% of the cost of a fuel cell up to $1,500.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Third generation solar cells : The third generation of photovoltaics aims to achieve the high efficiencies of the first generation and the low cost of the second generation devices.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar energy has shown great progress and new advancements are making solar cells more efficient than ever.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.For decades, conventional cells have featured wafers of semiconducting materials with similar crystalline structure.^ Structures and materials for photovoltaic cell .
  • CA Patent 2456213 - TRANSPARENT FLAT BODY 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Structures and materials for dye sensitized solar cells .
  • CA Patent 2456213 - TRANSPARENT FLAT BODY 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Academic]

^ STRUCTURES AND MATERIALS FOR DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS .
  • CA Patent 2456213 - TRANSPARENT FLAT BODY 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Academic]

Their performance and cost effectiveness is constrained by growing the cells in an upright configuration. Meanwhile, the cells are rigid, heavy and thick with a bottom layer made of germanium.
In the new method, the cell is grown upside down. .These layers use high-energy materials with extremely high quality crystals, especially in the upper layers of the cell where most of the power is produced.^ These semiconductors are especially attractive for thin film solar cell application because of their high optical absorption coefficients and versatile optical and electrical characteristics which can in principle be manipulated and tuned for a specific need in a given device.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This term should not be confused with energy conversion efficiency , as it does not convey information about the power collected from the solar cell.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This technology makes use of the advantages of crystalline silicon as a solar cell material, with the cost savings of using a thin-film approach.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

Not all of the layers follow the lattice pattern of even atomic spacing. .Instead, the cell includes a full range of atomic spacing, which allows for greater absorption and use of sunlight.^ Alternatively a broad band light source can be used and the light after passing through the cell can be optically dispersed by prism or grating and allowed to fall onto a diode array.

The thick, rigid germanium layer is removed, reducing the cell's cost and 94% of its weight. .By turning the conventional approach to cells on its head, the result is an ultra-light and flexible cell that also converts solar energy with record efficiency (40.8% under 326 suns concentration).^ With light concentrators, the highest record cell is a multi-junction cell that has a measured 40.8% efficiency.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar cells function by converting electromagnetic radiation (primarily light from the sun) into electrical energy.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Third generation solar cells : The third generation of photovoltaics aims to achieve the high efficiencies of the first generation and the low cost of the second generation devices.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Polymer processing

.The invention of conductive polymers (for which Alan Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa were awarded a Nobel prize) may lead to the development of much cheaper cells that are based on inexpensive plastics.^ The invention of conductive polymers (for which Alan Heeger , Alan G. MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa were awarded a Nobel prize ) may lead to the development of much cheaper cells that are based on inexpensive plastics.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Energy conversion efficiencies achieved to date using conductive polymers are low at 4-5% efficiency for the best cells to date.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, organic solar cells generally suffer from degradation upon exposure to UV light, and hence have lifetimes which are far too short to be viable.^ Generally speaking, solar cells can be expected to last over 20 years.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First generation solar cells : The photovoltaic industry began around crystalline silicon and the first solar cells made using pure crystalline silicon are commonly referred to as first generation.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Second generation solar cells : In an effort to reduce the cost of solar cells, a second generation of photovoltaic devices was investigated and is characterized by devices using very small amounts of source material.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The bonds in the polymers, are always susceptible to breaking up when radiated with shorter wavelengths. .Additionally, the conjugated double bond systems in the polymers which carry the charge, react more readily with light and oxygen.^ Many (but not all) substances absorb light in this wavelength range, including those substances having one or more double bonds (p electrons) and substances having unshared (unbonded) electrons, e.g.

So most conductive polymers, being highly unsaturated and reactive, are highly sensitive to atmospheric moisture and oxidation, making commercial applications difficult.

Nanoparticle processing

.Experimental non-silicon solar panels can be made of quantum heterostructures, e.g.^ Recycling of solar panels is economically attractive as most of the raw silicon processing steps can be bypassed when using recycled materials.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The majority of commerical solar cells are primarily made of silicon, which can be fully recovered.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most solar cells are made from silicon, which is the primary component of sand.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

carbon nanotubes or quantum dots, embedded in conductive polymers or mesoporous metal oxides. .In addition, thin films of many of these materials on conventional silicon solar cells can increase the optical coupling efficiency into the silicon cell, thus boosting the overall efficiency.^ Solar cells have many applications.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These cells have about 6% efficiency.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, thin films of many of these materials on conventional silicon solar cells can increase the optical coupling efficiency into the silicon cell, thus boosting the overal efficiency.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.By varying the size of the quantum dots, the cells can be tuned to absorb different wavelengths.^ By varying the size of the quantum dots, the cells can be tuned to absorb different wavelengths.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The various thin-film technologies currently being developed reduce the amount (or mass) of light absorbing material required in creating a solar cell .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.Although the research is still in its infancy, quantum dot modified photovoltaics may be able to achieve up to 42% energy conversion efficiency due to multiple exciton generation (MEG).^ Energy conversion efficiency .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although the research is still in its infancy, quantum dot -modified photovoltaics may be able to achieve up to 42 percent energy conversion efficiency due to multiple exciton generation.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Comparison of energy conversion efficiencies .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

[61]

Transparent conductors

.Many new solar cells use transparent thin films that are also conductors of electrical charge.^ Solar cells have many applications.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Solar cells have gone on to be used in many applications.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many new solar cells use transparent thin films that are also conductors of electrical charge.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.The dominant conductive thin films used in research now are transparent conductive oxides (abbreviated "TCO"), and include fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO2:F, or "FTO"), doped zinc oxide (e.g.: ZnO:Al), and indium tin oxide (abbreviated "ITO").^ This technology makes use of the advantages of crystalline silicon as a solar cell material, with the cost savings of using a thin-film approach.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These conductive films are also used in the LCD industry for flat panel displays.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Institute of Energy Conversion at University of Delaware develops the first thin-film solar cell exceeding 10% efficiency using Cu2S/CdS technology.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.These conductive films are also used in the LCD industry for flat panel displays.^ These conductive films are also used in the LCD industry for flat panel displays.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Approximately 70% of Indium currently produced is used by the flat-screen monitor industry.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These multijunction cells consist of multiple thin films produced using molecular beam epitaxy .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.The dual function of a TCO allows light to pass through a substrate window to the active light-absorbing material beneath, and also serves as an ohmic contact to transport photogenerated charge carriers away from that light-absorbing material.^ Photogeneration of charge carriers .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The dual function of a TCO allows light to pass through a substrate window to the active light absorbing material beneath, and also serves as an ohmic contact to transport photogenerated charge carriers away from that light absorbing material.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fundamentally, the device needs to fulfill only two functions: photogeneration of charge carriers (electrons and holes) in a light-absorbing material, and separation of the charge carriers to a conductive contact that will transmit the electricity.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.The present TCO materials are effective for research, but perhaps are not yet optimized for large-scale photovoltaic production.^ The present TCO materials are effective for research, but perhaps are not yet optimized for large-scale photovoltaic production.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Compared to other thin-film materials, CdTe is easier to deposit and more suitable for large-scale production.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.They require very special deposition conditions at high vacuum, they can sometimes suffer from poor mechanical strength, and most have poor transmittance in the infrared portion of the spectrum (e.g.: ITO thin films can also be used as infrared filters in airplane windows).^ Second generation photovoltaics are commonly called 'thin-film' solar cells, due to the small amount of material required as compared to first generation technology.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These factors make large-scale manufacturing more costly.^ Manufacturers of these proven technologies are now comfortable offering warranties of 25 years or more.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These cells use a single junction and have high efficiencies, but use a large amount of pure crystalline silicon, making the technology relatively expensive.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A relatively new area has emerged using carbon nanotube networks as a transparent conductor for organic solar cells.^ Hydrogen Power Printable, Paintable Solar Cells Could Provide Energy, Research Indicates Researchers at the New Jersey Institute of Technology have developed a carbon-based solar cell that uses nanomaterials, particles approaching the size of molecules, to capture energy and generate electricity from the sun.

^ As well, new advances into dye-sensitized and organic/polymer photovoltaics are emerging technologies.
  • Solar Photovoltaic Cells for the Kingston Home FAQ - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar energy has shown great progress and new advancements are making solar cells more efficient than ever.

.Nanotube networks are flexible and can be deposited on surfaces a variety of ways.^ Nanotube networks are flexible and can be deposited on surfaces a variety of ways.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.With some treatment, nanotube films can be highly transparent in the infrared, possibly enabling efficient low-bandgap solar cells.^ With some treatment, nanotube films can be highly transparent in the infrared, possibly enabling efficient low bandgap solar cells.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This term should not be confused with energy conversion efficiency , as it does not convey information about the power collected from the solar cell.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This technology makes use of the advantages of crystalline silicon as a solar cell material, with the cost savings of using a thin-film approach.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.Nanotube networks are p-type conductors, whereas traditional transparent conductors are exclusively n-type.^ Nanotube networks are p-type conductors, whereas traditional transparent conductors are exclusively n-type.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A relatively new area has emerged using carbon nanotube networks as a transparent conductor for organic solar cells.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The availability of a p-type transparent conductor could lead to new cell designs that simplify manufacturing and improve efficiency.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.The availability of a p-type transparent conductor could lead to new cell designs that simplify manufacturing and improve efficiency.^ The availability of a p-type transparent conductor could lead to new cell designs that simplify manufacturing and improve efficiency.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ New Structures : These new compounds are special arrangements of silicon that can dramatically improve efficiency such as ormosil Thin films .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The New York Times forecasts that solar cells will eventually lead to a source of "limitless energy of the sun".
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

Silicon wafer-based solar cells

.Despite the numerous attempts at making better solar cells by using new and exotic materials, the reality is that the photovoltaics market is still dominated by silicon wafer-based solar cells (first-generation solar cells).^ These cells are typically made using silicon wafer.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Structures and materials for photovoltaic cell .
  • CA Patent 2456213 - TRANSPARENT FLAT BODY 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reflective solar concentrators are first used with solar cells.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.This means that most solar cell manufacturers are currently equipped to produce this type of solar cells.^ This means that most solar cell manufacturers are equipped to produce these type of solar cells.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Silicon solar cell device manufacture .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ To make a solar cell from the wafer, a surface diffusion of n-type dopants is performed on the front side of the wafer.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.Consequently, a large body of research is being done all over the world to manufacture silicon wafer-based solar cells at lower cost and to increase the conversion efficiencies without an exorbitant increase in production cost.^ In addition, upon Substantial Completion of each Phase, Contractor shall assign to Solar Star all related manufacturer' s and/or supplier' s warranties for the applicable Phase.

^ Solar energy has shown great progress and new advancements are making solar cells more efficient than ever.

^ Solar Solar Energy Gaining Ground New advances in solar panel efficiency and tax breaks increasing solar power plant construction.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.The ultimate goal for both wafer-based and alternative photovoltaic concepts is to produce solar electricity at a cost comparable to currently market-dominant coal, natural gas, and nuclear power in order to make it the leading primary energy source.^ Solar A Great Source of Alternative Energy: Solar Power The sun is a great source of energy.

^ A solar panel is a good source of alternative energy for home use.

^ The cells convert solar energy into direct current electricity .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.To achieve this it may be necessary to reduce the cost of installed solar systems from currently about US$ 1.80 (for bulk Si technologies) to about US$ 0.50 per Watt peak power.^ This term should not be confused with energy conversion efficiency , as it does not convey information about the power collected from the solar cell.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This technology makes use of the advantages of crystalline silicon as a solar cell material, with the cost savings of using a thin-film approach.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A common method used to express economic costs of electricity-generating systems is to calculate a price per delivered kilowatt-hour (kWh).
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

[62] .Since a major part of the final cost of a traditional bulk silicon module is related to the high cost of solar grade polysilicon feedstock (about US$ 0.4/Watt peak) there exists substantial drive to make Si solar cells thinner (material savings) or to make solar cells from cheaper upgraded metallurgical silicon (so called "dirty Si").^ This technology makes use of the advantages of crystalline silicon as a solar cell material, with the cost savings of using a thin-film approach.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ By far, the most prevalent bulk material for solar cells is crystalline silicon (abbreviated as a group as c-Si ), also known as "solar grade silicon".
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Silicon solar cell device manufacture .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

.IBM has a semiconductor wafer reclamation process that uses a specialized pattern removal technique to repurpose scrap semiconductor wafers to a form used to manufacture silicon-based solar panels.^ Silicon solar cell device manufacture .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A general description of silicon wafer processing is provided in Manufacture and Devices .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Silicon wafer based solar cells .
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

The new process was recently awarded the “2007 Most Valuable Pollution Prevention Award” from The National Pollution Prevention Roundtable (NPPR).[63]

Infrared solar cells

.Researchers at Idaho National Laboratory, along with partners at Microcontinuum Inc.^ President George H. W. Bush directs the U.S. Department of Energy to establish the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (transferring the existing Solar Energy Research Institute).
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Energy Research Facility is established.
  • PowerPedia:Solar cell - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: Academic]

[64] in .Cambridge, MA and Patrick Pinhero of the University of Missouri, have devised an inexpensive way to produce plastic sheets containing billions of nanoantennas that collect heat energy generated by the sun and other sources, which garnered two 2007 Nano50 awards.^ Solar A Great Source of Alternative Energy: Solar Power The sun is a great source of energy.

^ Solar power, like the two other major environmentally friendly energy alternatives rely on ideal conditions and plenty of sunshine.

^ They use Photovoltaic cells or solar panels located inside the lights to store energy from the sun, collected in the daytime hours, which is later used a no cost source of lighting at night.

.The technology is the first step toward a solar energy collector that could be mass-produced on flexible materials.^ Energy Consumption Department of Energy Announces $5.2 Million Solar Power Project The Department of Energy announced additional funding for research into advanced methods and materials for developing Concentrated Solar Power as an economically and commercially viable renewable energy technology.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Solar Oven How Solar Power Works Solar power converts solar energy into electricity using photovoltaic and solar thermal technology.

^ Energy Crisis Wind Power: The Cutting Edge Alternative Energy Wind power is 2007's cutting edge of alternative energy compared to the cutting edge technology of 2006, solar power.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.While methods to convert the energy into usable electricity still need to be developed, the sheets could one day be manufactured as lightweight "skins" that power everything from hybrid cars to computers and iPods with higher efficiency than traditional solar cells.^ Solar-powered cars can't get here too soon for me.

^ Solar Lights Solar Tower: Ancient Technology Becomes a Modern Power Option At more than 550 ft high, it is an imposing glass-like tower surrounded with acres of thick transparent sheeting .

^ Hydrogen Power Printable, Paintable Solar Cells Could Provide Energy, Research Indicates Researchers at the New Jersey Institute of Technology have developed a carbon-based solar cell that uses nanomaterials, particles approaching the size of molecules, to capture energy and generate electricity from the sun.

.The nanoantennas also have the potential to act as cooling devices that draw waste heat from buildings or electronics without using electricity.^ Manufacturers How to Have a Solar-Heated House Without Solar Panels Learn about passive solar home design, which keeps your house cool in the summer and warm in the winter without the need of electricity or even solar panels.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Photovoltaic Cells How to Have a Solar-Heated House Without Solar Panels Learn about passive solar home design, which keeps your house cool in the summer and warm in the winter without the need of electricity or even solar panels.

.The nanoantennas target mid-infrared rays, which the Earth continuously radiates as heat after absorbing energy from the sun during the day; also double-sided nanoantenna sheets can harvest energy from different parts of the Sun's spectrum.^ Coal is a battery for Sun and Earth energy.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Sustainable Energy The Energy Transit Spectrum Wind power originally comes from the Sun.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Solar Radiation Maine Incentives for Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Systems Maine offers a rebate program for the installation of a solar photovoltaic or solar thermal heating system at your residence.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

In contrast, traditional solar cells can only use visible light, rendering them idle after dark.

UV solar cells

.Japan's National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) has succeeded in developing a transparent solar cell that uses ultraviolet (UV) light to generate electricity but allows visible light to pass through it.^ Solar Lights How to Choose a Solar Energy System for Your Home Solar energy has the potential to save you thousands of dollars on your electric bill.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Photovoltaic Cells Going Green with Solar Panels One area in which we would probably all like to participate is in the use of solar panels to produce domestic solar power.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ The solar pumps are used as a primary source of energy to sunlight, which through an array of photovoltaic, transforms light into electricity.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.Most conventional solar cells use visible and infrared light to generate electricity.^ Solar Lights How to Choose a Solar Energy System for Your Home Solar energy has the potential to save you thousands of dollars on your electric bill.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Photovoltaic Cells Going Green with Solar Panels One area in which we would probably all like to participate is in the use of solar panels to produce domestic solar power.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ The solar pumps are used as a primary source of energy to sunlight, which through an array of photovoltaic, transforms light into electricity.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

In contrast, the innovative new solar cell uses ultraviolet radiation. .Used to replace conventional window glass, the installation surface area could be large, leading to potential uses that take advantage of the combined functions of power generation, lighting and temperature control.^ Christmas Lighting Power Wave: Ocean Supplies Alternative Energy Wave energy conversion can be used to generate electricity, safely replacing our need for toxic fossil fuels and dangerous nuclear power plants, while reducing millions of pounds of greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Photovoltaic Solar Security Lighting Basics Solar powered security lighting has several advantages over wired lighting systems.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.Also, easily fabricated PEDOT:PSS photovoltaic cells are ultraviolet light selective and sensitive.^ Methods of scoring for fabricating interconnected photovoltaic cells .
  • CA Patent 2456213 - TRANSPARENT FLAT BODY 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Academic]

^ WIRE INTERCONNECTS FOR FABRICATING INTERCONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS .
  • CA Patent 2456213 - TRANSPARENT FLAT BODY 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Academic]

[65]

3D solar cells

.Three-dimensional solar cells that capture nearly all of the light that strikes them and could boost the efficiency of photovoltaic systems while reducing their size, weight and mechanical complexity.^ Flexible Photovoltaic cells, systems and methods .
  • CA Patent 2456213 - TRANSPARENT FLAT BODY 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Rotational photovoltaic cells, systems and methods .
  • CA Patent 2456213 - TRANSPARENT FLAT BODY 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Photovoltaic Cells Solar Decathlon Winner Announced The third Solar Decathlon ended on October 19, with a team from Germany winning the overall competition.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.The new 3D solar cells capture photons from sunlight using an array of miniature “tower” structures that resemble high-rise buildings in a city street grid.^ Solar Panels 5 Simple Solar Powered Gadgets Worth Looking At With solar power so much in the news, here are five great uses for solar power you can use now.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Solar energy has shown great progress and new advancements are making solar cells more efficient than ever.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Photovoltaic Cells Going Green with Solar Panels One area in which we would probably all like to participate is in the use of solar panels to produce domestic solar power.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

[66]

Metamaterials

Metamaterials are heterogeneous materials employing the juxtaposition of many microscopic elements, giving rise to properties not seen in ordinary solids. Using these, it is possible to fashion solar cells that are perfect absorbers over a narrow range of wavelengths. [67][68]

Photovoltaic thermal hybrid

.Systems which combine photovoltaic with thermal solar, the advantage of such a system is that the thermal solar part carries heat away and cools the photovoltaic cells, keeping temperature down lowers the resistance and improves the cell efficiency.^ Flexible Photovoltaic cells, systems and methods .
  • CA Patent 2456213 - TRANSPARENT FLAT BODY 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Rotational photovoltaic cells, systems and methods .
  • CA Patent 2456213 - TRANSPARENT FLAT BODY 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Loans are also offered for solar photovoltaic and solar water heating systems.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

[69]

Validation, certification and manufacturers

.National Renewable Energy Laboratory tests and validates solar technologies.^ Solar Oven Renewable Energy: 10 Things to Know What is renewable energy (RE)?
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Solar The Future of U.S. Renewable Energy Policy Holding back further use of hydropower has been the lack of an efficient, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly device to extract energy from water.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Energy Consumption Department of Energy Announces $5.2 Million Solar Power Project The Department of Energy announced additional funding for research into advanced methods and materials for developing Concentrated Solar Power as an economically and commercially viable renewable energy technology.
  • Photovoltaic Cells - Associated Content - Topic 18 September 2009 11:52 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

There are three reliable certifications of solar equipment: UL and IEEE (both U.S. standards) and IEC.
Solar cells are manufactured primarily in Japan, Germany, Mainland China, Taiwan and United States,[70] though numerous other nations have or are acquiring significant solar cell production capacity. While technologies are constantly evolving toward higher efficiencies, the most effective cells for low cost electrical production are not necessarily those with the highest efficiency, but those with a balance between low-cost production and efficiency high enough to minimize area-related balance of systems cost. Those companies with large scale manufacturing technology for coating inexpensive substrates may, in fact, ultimately be the lowest cost net electricity producers, even with cell efficiencies that are lower than those of single-crystal technologies.

China

Backed by Chinese government's unprecedented plan to offer subsidies for utility-scale solar power projects that is likely to spark a new round of investment from Chinese solar panel makers. Chinese companies have already played a more important role in solar panels manufacturing in recent years. .China produced solar cells/modules with an output of 1,180 MW in 2007 making it the largest producer in the world, according to statistics from China Photovoltaic Association.^ Ultrasonic slitting of photovoltaic cells and modules .
  • CA Patent 2456213 - TRANSPARENT FLAT BODY 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Flexible photovoltaic cells and modules formed using foils .
  • CA Patent 2456213 - TRANSPARENT FLAT BODY 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Academic]

^ SOLAR CELL MODULE .
  • CA Patent 2456213 - TRANSPARENT FLAT BODY 20 November 2009 21:021 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Academic]

[71] .Some Chinese companies such as Suntech Power, Yingli, LDK Solar Co, JA Solar and ReneSola have already announced projects in cooperation with regional governments with hundreds of megawatts each after the ‘Golden Sun’ incentive program was announced by the government.^ If reasonably requested by Solar Star, Contractor shall, at Contactor' s sole cost and expense, provide Solar Star reasonable assistance in obtaining such subsidies, rebates or incentives.

^ MEMC Electronic / SUNTECH POWER HOLDINGS CO., LTD - Solar Wafer Supply Agreement, Dated As of July 25, 2006 .

[72] The new development of solar module manufacturers with thin-film technology such as Veeco and Anwell Technologies Limited will further help to boost the domestic solar industry.[73][74]

United States

New manufacturing facilities for solar cells and modules in Massachusetts, Michigan, New York, Ohio, Oregon, and Texas promise to add enough capacity to produce thousands of megawatts of solar devices per year within the next few years from 2008.[75]
In late September 2008, Sanyo Electric Company, Ltd. announced its decision to build a manufacturing plant for solar ingots and wafers in Salem, Oregon. The plant will begin operating in October 2009 and will reach its full production capacity of 70 megawatts (MW) of solar wafers per year by April 2010.
In early October 2008, First Solar, Inc. broke ground on an expansion of its Perrysburg, Ohio, facility that will add enough capacity to produce another 57 MW per year of solar modules at the facility, bringing its total capacity to roughly 192 MW per year. The company expects to complete construction early next year and reach full production by mid-2010.
In mid-October 2008, SolarWorld AG opened a manufacturing plant in Hillsboro, Oregon, that is expected to produce 500 MW of solar cells per year when it reaches full production in 2011.
In March 2010, SpectraWatt, Inc. began production at its manufacturing plant in Hopewell Junction, NY, which is expected to produce 120 MW of solar cells per year when it reaches full production in 2011.

See also

References

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External links


Simple English

silicon wafer]]

A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device that converts light energy into electrical energy. Sometimes the term solar cell is reserved for devices intended specifically to capture energy from sunlight, while the term photovoltaic cell is used when the light source is unspecified.

Fundamentally, the device needs to fulfill only two functions: photogeneration of charge carriers (electrons and holes) in a light-absorbing material, and separation of the charge carriers to a conductive contact that will transmit the electricity. This conversion is called the photovoltaic effect, and the field of research related to solar cells is known as photovoltaics.

Solar cells have many applications. They have long been used in situations where electrical power from the grid is unavailable, such as in remote area power systems, Earth-orbiting satellites and space probes, consumer systems, e.g. handheld calculators or wrist watches, remote radiotelephones and water pumping applications. More recently, they are starting to be used in assemblies of solar modules connected to the electricity grid through an inverter, often in combination with a net metering arrangement.

Solar cells are regarded as one of the key technologies towards a sustainable energy supply.

Contents

Three generations of development

First

The first generation photovoltaic, consists of a large-area, single layer p-n junction diode, which is capable of generating usable electrical energy from light sources with the wavelengths of sunlight. These cells are typically made using a silicon wafer. First generation photovoltaic cells (also known as silicon wafer-based solar cells) are the dominant technology in the commercial production of solar cells, accounting for more than 86% of the solar cell market.

Second

The second generation of photovoltaic materials is based on the use of thin-film deposits of semiconductors. These devices were initially designed to be high-efficiency, multiple junction photovoltaic cells. Later, the advantage of using a thin-film of material was noted, reducing the mass of material required for cell design. This contributed to a prediction of greatly reduced costs for thin film solar cells. Currently (2007) there are different technologies/semiconductor materials under investigation or in mass production, such as amorphous silicon, poly-crystalline silicon, micro-crystalline silicon, cadmium telluride, copper indium selenide/sulfide. Typically, the efficiencies of thin-film solar cells are lower compared with silicon (wafer-based) solar cells, but manufacturing costs are also lower, so that a lower price in terms of $/watt of electrical output can be achieved. Another advantage of the reduced mass is that less support is needed when placing panels on rooftops and it allows fitting panels on light materials or flexible materials, even textiles.

Third

Third generation photovoltaics are very different from the other two, broadly defined as semiconductor devices which do not rely on a traditional p-n junction to separate photogenerated charge carriers. These new devices include photoelectrochemical cells, Polymer solar cells, and nanocrystal solar cells.

Companies working on third generation photovoltaics include Xsunx, Konarka Technologies, Inc., Nanosolar and Nanosys. Research is also being done in this area by the USA's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (http://www.nrel.gov/).

Other pages

References

  • McDonald SA, Konstantatos G, Zhang S, Cyr PW, Klem EJ, Levina L, Sargent EH (2005). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics"]. Nature Materials 4 (2): 138-42. PMID 15640806. 
  • PVNET European Roadmap for PV R&D Ed Arnulf Jager-Waldan Office for Publications of the European Union 2004

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