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A parabolic dish and Stirling engine system, which concentrates sunlight to produce useful solar power.
Solar energy
Solar power tower
Renewable energy
Wind Turbine
.Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies.^ Solar energy is the energy received by the earth from the sun.

^ Solar energy is the radiant light and heat from the Sun that has been harnessed by humans.
  • SOLAR ENERGY CANADA|Solar Water Heater|Solar Panel Mississauga|Brampton, Ontario Canada 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC sunpetra.com [Source type: General]

^ Thermal mass is any material that can be used to store heat—heat from the Sun in the case of solar energy.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

.Solar radiation, along with secondary solar-powered resources such as wind and wave power, hydroelectricity and biomass, account for most of the available renewable energy on earth.^ Clearly, solar energy is a resource of the future.
  • An Introduction to Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ccs.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar energy is the energy received by the earth from the sun.

^ Solar energy is renewable.
  • Solar Energy | New Energy Alternative 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC newenergyalternative.com [Source type: General]
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Only a minuscule fraction of the available solar energy is used.^ Solar energy has a number of different uses.

^ What are the advantages/disadvantages of using solar energy?
  • residentsolar.com - Resident Solar - Practical advice on using solar energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.residentsolar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are there disadvantages to using solar energy ?
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Solar powered electrical generation relies on heat engines and photovoltaics.^ This same solar power can also be used to generate larger amounts of electricity.
  • NC GreenPower :: Types of Renewable Energy :: Solar 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ncgreenpower.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Get in the pipeline for solar electric power NOW !
  • Texas Solar Power Company - Renewable Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.txspc.com [Source type: General]

^ Thermal solar energy can be used to generate electricity and heat water.

.Solar energy's uses are limited only by human ingenuity.^ Solar energy has a number of different uses.

^ What are the advantages/disadvantages of using solar energy?
  • residentsolar.com - Resident Solar - Practical advice on using solar energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.residentsolar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are there disadvantages to using solar energy ?
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A partial list of solar applications includes space heating and cooling through solar architecture, potable water via distillation and disinfection, daylighting, solar hot water, solar cooking, and high temperature process heat for industrial purposes.To harvest the solar energy, the most common way is to use solar panels.^ Currently, solar power is most commonly used for water and space heating.
  • Solar Panels, Energy & Power - Resources For The Future 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC solar.envirohub.net [Source type: General]

^ Today, the most common application of heat energy in the home is to heat water.
  • How Can Solar Power Help Conserve Energy-Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarpowerappliances.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar water heating is the name given to the process where we use the power of the sun to heat up your hot water.

.Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy.^ There are two types of solar energy; passive and active.
  • Viva Solar - Use renewable sources of energy - Solar Power, solar panels, grid tie systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC vivasolar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only way to capture the renewable energy of solar energy is through solar panels.

^ Active solar energy is just the opposite.
  • Solar Energy Information, Definition & Explanation 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ifpaenergyconference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy.^ The sun generates an enormous amount of power and energy that can be harnessed using photovoltaic panels.
  • Everything You Ever Wanted To Know About Sustainable Development... GreenEnergySteps.Com! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC greenenergysteps.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Posted in solar thermal energy .
  • Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.eblips.net [Source type: General]

^ Solar energy has a number of different uses.

.Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air.^ Passive Solar Heating Passive solar heating refers to building designs that provide natural heating to a home or business.

^ Thermal mass is any material that can be used to store heat—heat from the Sun in the case of solar energy.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

^ These techniques include selecting materials with favorable thermal properties, designing spaces that naturally circulate air and referencing the position of a building to the sun.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

Contents

Energy from the Sun

About half the incoming solar energy reaches the Earth's surface.
.The Earth receives 174 petawatts (PW) of incoming solar radiation (insolation) at the upper atmosphere.^ Solar Radiation on Earth [A quick overview of what happens with incoming solar radiation.
  • SunWind Solar Energy Education Notes and Links 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.sunwindsolar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • SunWind Solar Energy Education Notes and Links 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.web.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar - Insolation (INcoming SOLar radiATION) .
  • Solar Energy - Photovoltaic Links 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.autobahn.mb.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Solar radiation that avoids atmospheric scattering and arrives at the earth's surface in an unbroken line from the sun is termed direct, while the scattered radiation that reaches the earth from all parts of the sky is called diffuse.
  • Texas Renewable Energy Resources - Solar 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.infinitepower.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .Approximately 30% is reflected back to space while the rest is absorbed by clouds, oceans and land masses.^ From this amount about 29% is reflected back to space, 23% is absorbed in the atmosphere, and 48% reaches the surface.
  • Solar Energy Information 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC solar.smps.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The thermal mass absorbs and stores the heat energy during the day and then radiates it back into the living space as night falls and the interior temperature begins to cool.

^ Roughly 30% of the sun's visible radiation (wavelengths from 400 nm to 700 nm) is reflected back to space by the atmosphere or the Earth's surface.
  • Solar radiation - Encyclopedia of Earth 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Academic]

.The spectrum of solar light at the Earth's surface is mostly spread across the visible and near-infrared ranges with a small part in the near-ultraviolet.^ Some of it is in the form of infrared and ultraviolet light, but most of it is in the form of visible light.

^ The surface of the sun is roughly 6,000°C and its hot gases emit light that has a spectrum ranging from the ultraviolet, through the visible, into the infrared.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar energy is plentiful, if underutilized: The amount that hits the Earth's surface in one hour equals the energy humans consume in a year.
  • Scientists developing more efficient solar energy solutions | MSU News | Michigan State University 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC news.msu.edu [Source type: News]

[2]
.Earth's land surface, oceans and atmosphere absorb solar radiation, and this raises their temperature.^ Geothermal power is an energy alternative that uses the heat from beneath the Earths surface and heat which is collected from the atmosphere and oceans to generate electricity.
  • Everything You Ever Wanted To Know About Sustainable Development... GreenEnergySteps.Com! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC greenenergysteps.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A relatively minor additional loss is due to the Earth’s atmosphere and clouds, which absorb or scatter as much as 54 percent of the incoming sunlight.
  • solar energy -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Solar energy is plentiful, if underutilized: The amount that hits the Earth's surface in one hour equals the energy humans consume in a year.
  • Scientists developing more efficient solar energy solutions | MSU News | Michigan State University 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC news.msu.edu [Source type: News]

.Warm air containing evaporated water from the oceans rises, causing atmospheric circulation or convection.^ This then causes parts of the atmosphere to warm differently.

^ It heats its atmosphere and its lands, generates its winds, drives the water cycle, warms its oceans, grows its plants and feeds its animals.

^ The water would evaporate and the down-draft created by falling, cooled, moist, air would then drive a special wind-turbine located within the tower.
  • Solar Energy in Israel 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.mfa.gov.il [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the air reaches a high altitude, where the temperature is low, water vapor condenses into clouds, which rain onto the Earth's surface, completing the water cycle.^ About 35% of the energy reaching the Earth is absorbed; most is spent evaporating moisture into clouds, and some is converted into organic chemical energy by photosynthesis in plants.
  • solar energy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about solar energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Solar thermal systems also collect the sun's energy, but they use mechanical devices to move water or air across surfaces that have absorbed sunlight to heat them.
  • NRDC's The Green Squad: Solar Energy in Schools Fact Sheet 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: General]

^ Concentrating Solar Power Systems : Mirrors concentrate solar power in order to convert the sun's energy into high-temperature heat.
  • Solar Energy Systems - Utah Geological Survey 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC geology.utah.gov [Source type: Reference]

.The latent heat of water condensation amplifies convection, producing atmospheric phenomena such as wind, cyclones and anti-cyclones.^ Steam generators using thermal collectors to heat a fluid, such as water, sometimes convert even higher amounts of solar energy into electricity.
  • Solar | Energy Sources | Chevron 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.chevron.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Thermal applications include heat collection and heat-driven mechanisms, such as converting water to steam to power a steam engine that generates electricity.
  • Prometheus Institute for Sustainable Development 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.prometheus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pumping water at the lower end of the tube allows the water to reach the upper levels through convection and the process continues all the while as the tube gets heated up by sunrays.
  • Solar Power Advice| Solar Energy | Renewable Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC solar-power-advice.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .Sunlight absorbed by the oceans and land masses keeps the surface at an average temperature of 14 °C.^ Solar thermal systems also collect the sun's energy, but they use mechanical devices to move water or air across surfaces that have absorbed sunlight to heat them.
  • NRDC's The Green Squad: Solar Energy in Schools Fact Sheet 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nrdc.org [Source type: General]

^ Sunlight contains photons with energies that reflect the sun’s surface temperature; in energy units of electron volts.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 122 petawatts of sunlight reaching the earth's surface is plentiful compared to the 13 terawatts of average power consumed by humans.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

[4] .By photosynthesis green plants convert solar energy into chemical energy, which produces food, wood and the biomass from which fossil fuels are derived.^ Producing solar cells need not use fossil fuel energy.
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Maldonado said plants are good at converting solar energy into chemical bond energy for making chemical fuels.
  • Our energy future: Solar | The Michigan Daily 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.michigandaily.com [Source type: News]

^ Plants turn sunlight into chemical energy using photosynthesis.
  • Solar - Sunlight to Energy | Greenpeace International 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.greenpeace.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]
Yearly Solar fluxes & Human Energy Consumption
Solar 3,850,000 EJ[6]
Wind 2,250 EJ[7]
Biomass 3,000 EJ[8]
Primary energy use (2005) 487 EJ[9]
Electricity (2005) 56.7 EJ[10]
.The total solar energy absorbed by Earth's atmosphere, oceans and land masses is approximately 3,850,000 exajoules (EJ) per year.^ Natural collection of solar energy occurs in the earth's atmosphere, oceans, and plant life.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=x-so142300a&article_id=177&chapter_id=4&chapter_title=Environment&article_title=Solar_Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Solar energy runs the engines of the earth.

^ Solar Energy heats the world ocean.
  • SunWind Solar Energy Education Notes and Links 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.sunwindsolar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • SunWind Solar Energy Education Notes and Links 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.web.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] .In 2002, this was more energy in one hour than the world used in one year.^ More sunlight energy hits the earth each hour than the world’s population consumes in an entire year.
  • Solar Power and Renewable Home Energy - from ecomii 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ecomii.com [Source type: General]

^ More energy from sunlight strikes the Earth in one hour than all the energy consumed on the planet in a year.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why do other countries use more solar energy than the U.S.A. ?

[12][13] .Photosynthesis captures approximately 3,000 EJ per year in biomass.^ India has expanded generating capacity from 1,712 Mw in 1950 to 42,000 Mw in 1986 (9% growth per year).

^ It is therefore easy to calculate that such a unit saves its owner some 2,000 kWh per year in electricity costs, raising the temperature of a tankful of water by approximately 30 o C above its starting point on an average day - i.e.
  • Solar Energy in Israel 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.mfa.gov.il [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note also that Solix is now claiming 10,000 gallons per acre per year.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .The amount of solar energy reaching the surface of the planet is so vast that in one year it is about twice as much as will ever be obtained from all of the Earth's non-renewable resources of coal, oil, natural gas, and mined uranium combined.^ Clearly, solar energy is a resource of the future.
  • An Introduction to Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ccs.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar energy is renewable.
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where can I get information about solar energy competitions ?
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15]
.From the table of resources it would appear that solar, wind or biomass would be sufficient to supply all of our energy needs, however, the increased use of biomass has had a negative effect on global warming and dramatically increased food prices by diverting forests and crops into biofuel production.^ Clearly, solar energy is a resource of the future.
  • An Introduction to Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ccs.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Producing solar cells need not use fossil fuel energy.
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are, however, critics of solar energy.
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16] .As intermittent resources, solar and wind raise other issues.^ Solar radiation , along with secondary solar-powered resources such as wind and wave power , hydroelectricity and biomass , account for most of the available renewable energy on Earth.
  • Solar Energy on Briteindustrial 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC briteindustrial.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ China is boosting the target of how much of its energy it obtains from renewable resources such as solar and wind to 15 percent by 2020, according to a China Daily report .
  • solar energy,What is solar? - EE Times-Asia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.eetasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other Resources: To find a solar energy system designer or installer in your area, please visit our solar yellow pages for a list of sources of solar professionals.
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Solar energy can be harnessed in different levels around the world.^ Below are the different uses of solar energy.

^ Solar Energy Meetups around the world .
  • Solar Energy Meetup Groups - Solar Energy Meetups 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC solar-energy.meetup.com [Source type: News]

^ The world of solar energy .
  • Solar Energy Age 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC solarenergyage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Depending on a geographical location the closer to the equator the more "potential" solar energy is available.^ Virginia Solar Energy Association location .
  • Find Solar Installers Solar contractors: Solar cost estimate. Solar energy solar power analysis. Customer reviews of solar professionals pros. Local directory for solar electric water pool heat contractor. Findsolar 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: General]

^ Availability of solar energy .
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Web guide , and more on Solar Energy -> .
  • Solar Energy - Web Guide - People in Action 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peopleinaction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17]

Applications of solar technology

.
Average insolation showing land area (small black dots) required to replace the world primary energy supply with solar electricity.
^ Electric grid: Is solar energy compatible with electric grids?
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar cells can supply energy to anything that is powered by batteries or electrical power.

^ Nuclear energy does not require as much land as solar.
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

18 TW is 568 Exajoule (EJ) per year. Insolation for most people is from 150 to 300 W/m² or 3.5 to 7.0 kWh/m²/day.
.Solar energy refers primarily to the use of solar radiation for practical ends.^ Solar refers to the use or operation by energy derived from the sun.
  • solar energy,What is solar? - EE Times-Asia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.eetasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar energy technologies harness the sun's energy for practical ends.

^ This is referred to as solar energy.

.However, all renewable energies, other than geothermal and tidal, derive their energy from the sun.^ Indirectly, the sun or other stars are responsible for ALL our energy.
  • The Energy Story - Chapter 15: Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.energyquest.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Solar 101 - What Is Solar Energy and PV? 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.gosolarcalifornia.ca.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar-powered devices, however, harness the sun's energy directly, and take advantage of an energy source (the sun) that is available indefinitely.
  • Science NetLinks: Harnessing Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.sciencenetlinks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usually, however, the term solar energy refers to the portion of the sun's radiant energy harnessed for a specific purpose by man-made devices.

.Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive or active depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute sunlight.^ This is an active way of using solar energy.
  • Solar Energy | Solar Power | Solar Products | Solar Panels | Photovoltaics Cells | Solar Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarenergy-solarpower.com [Source type: General]

^ Other solar technologies are passive.

^ Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive or active depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute sunlight.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

.Active solar techniques use photovoltaic panels, pumps, and fans to convert sunlight into useful outputs.^ A rooftop solar panel converts sunlight to electricity.

^ Photovoltaic solar cells convert solar radiation, or sunlight, directly into electrical power.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar panels are a common technology used to convert solar power into usable electricity.
  • Solar Panels, Energy & Power - Resources For The Future 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC solar.envirohub.net [Source type: General]

.Passive solar techniques include selecting materials with favorable thermal properties, designing spaces that naturally circulate air, and referencing the position of a building to the Sun.^ The Passive solar design and construction handbook.
  • Solar Energy (Science Tracer Bullet - Science Reference Services, Libraryof Congress 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Passive thermal building design is as simple as designing to maximize the sun’s use.

^ Solar design: photovoltaics for old buildings, urban space, landscape.
  • Solar Energy (Science Tracer Bullet - Science Reference Services, Libraryof Congress 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Active solar technologies increase the supply of energy and are considered supply side technologies, while passive solar technologies reduce the need for alternate resources and are generally considered demand side technologies.^ Posted in solar energy technology .
  • Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.eblips.net [Source type: General]

^ Interest in solar energy has steadily been increasing.

^ This is an active way of using solar energy.
  • Solar Energy | Solar Power | Solar Products | Solar Panels | Photovoltaics Cells | Solar Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarenergy-solarpower.com [Source type: General]

[18]

Architecture and urban planning

.
Darmstadt University of Technology in Germany won the 2007 Solar Decathlon in Washington, D.C. with this passive house designed specifically for the humid and hot subtropical climate.
^ Other solar technologies are passive.

^ The Passive solar design and construction handbook.
  • Solar Energy (Science Tracer Bullet - Science Reference Services, Libraryof Congress 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The passive solar house.
  • Solar Energy (Science Tracer Bullet - Science Reference Services, Libraryof Congress 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

[19]
.Sunlight has influenced building design since the beginning of architectural history.^ Since man started building homes, sunlight played a major influence in the design.

^ Among their architectural designs are a Brooklyn brownstone renovation, a Regina convent conversion, and a home addition located on Brooks Avenue, which can literally be called a “green building”.
  • Solar Energy // Current 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the structure designed to absorb sunlight are merely threads, the researchers believe the technology could introduce new ways of integrating solar power devices into buildings.

[20] .Advanced solar architecture and urban planning methods were first employed by the Greeks and Chinese, who oriented their buildings toward the south to provide light and warmth.^ Architecture and urban planning .
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These technologies date from the time of the early Greeks, Native Americans and Chinese, who warmed their buildings by orienting them toward the sun.

^ The Taiwan government plans to invest about $1.4 billion in the domestic green energy industry, which includes solar energy equipment and lights that reduce power consumption .
  • solar energy,What is solar? - EE Times-Asia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.eetasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21]
.The common features of passive solar architecture are orientation relative to the Sun, compact proportion (a low surface area to volume ratio), selective shading (overhangs) and thermal mass.^ All silicon-based photovoltaic solar energy collectors however suffer from their ability to absorb energy from a relatively narrow range of the sun's light wave emission.

^ The basic ingredients for a passive solar house in Israel are: (1) A well-insulated building envelope; (2) sufficient thermal mass to smooth out large temperature swings and provide night storage; (3) an appropriate area of south-facing windows.
  • Solar Energy in Israel 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.mfa.gov.il [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A solar chimney (or thermal chimney, in this context) is a passive solar ventilation system composed of a vertical shaft connecting the interior and exterior of a building.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

[20] .When these features are tailored to the local climate and environment they can produce well-lit spaces that stay in a comfortable temperature range.^ The ancients might not be as intellectually sophisticated then to use catch phrases as passive solar and thermal mass but when they build, they were building in compact proportion, employing overhangs, producing insulation and building in manners that direct the airflow within the structure and producing well lit, well ventilated spaces using the relative position of the sun to the orientation of their structures.

^ The power produced by these flowing waters as they pass through modern turbines is called hydroelectric power.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=x-so142300a&article_id=177&chapter_id=4&chapter_title=Environment&article_title=Solar_Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The problem lies in the change of temperature and humidity near a solar panel; if the energy producing panels are kept non-centralized, they should not create the same local, mass temperature change that could have such bad effects on the environment.
  • An Introduction to Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ccs.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Socrates' Megaron House is a classic example of passive solar design.^ The Passive solar design and construction handbook.
  • Solar Energy (Science Tracer Bullet - Science Reference Services, Libraryof Congress 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The passive solar house.
  • Solar Energy (Science Tracer Bullet - Science Reference Services, Libraryof Congress 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Passive solar techniques include selecting materials with favorable thermal properties, designing spaces that naturally circulate air, and referencing the position of a building to the Sun.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

[20] .The most recent approaches to solar design use computer modeling tying together solar lighting, heating and ventilation systems in an integrated solar design package.^ Solar hot water systems use sunlight to heat water.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Solar heating systems .
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Solar hot water ; Solar combisystem Solar hot water systems use sunlight to heat water.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

[22] .Active solar equipment such as pumps, fans and switchable windows can complement passive design and improve system performance.^ Solar space heating systems can be classified as passive or active .
  • EIA Energy Kids - Solar 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Active solar systems are more complex than passive solar designs.
  • Energy Facts & Programs + Maryland Energy Administration 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.energy.state.md.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Passive solar design and construction handbook.
  • Solar Energy (Science Tracer Bullet - Science Reference Services, Libraryof Congress 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Urban heat islands (UHI) are metropolitan areas with higher temperatures than that of the surrounding environment.^ This is also where the "urban heat island" exists.

^ A depiction of the varying degree of the urban heat island effect as a function of land use.
  • Solar Energy - Business Exchange 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC bx.businessweek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The higher operating temperatures permit the plant to use higher-temperature dry heat exchangers for its thermal exhaust, reducing the plant's water use — critical in the deserts where large solar plants are practical.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The higher temperatures are a result of increased absorption of the Solar light by urban materials such as asphalt and concrete, which have lower albedos and higher heat capacities than those in the natural environment.^ Cheaper, More Efficient photonic crystals —A new type of material could allow solar cells to harvest far more light.

^ Solar energy technologies such as heat and light from the sun, along with solar-based resources like wind and wave power, as well as hydroelectricity account for most of the available renewable sources of energy today.
  • Solar Energy | Solar Power | Solar Products | Solar Panels | Photovoltaics Cells | Solar Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarenergy-solarpower.com [Source type: General]

^ Modeling heat and mass transport phenomena at higher temperatures in solar distillation systems – The Chilton–Colburn analogy Pages 308-317 P.T. Tsilingiris Preview Purchase PDF (710 K) .
  • ScienceDirect - Solar Energy, Volume 84, Issue 2, Pages 157-352 (February 2010) 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.sciencedirect.com [Source type: Academic]

.A straightforward method of counteracting the UHI effect is to paint buildings and roads white and plant trees.^ In climates with significant heating loads, deciduous trees should not be planted on the southern side of a building because they will interfere with winter solar availability.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

.Using these methods, a hypothetical "cool communities" program in Los Angeles has projected that urban temperatures could be reduced by approximately 3 °C at an estimated cost of US$1 billion, giving estimated total annual benefits of US$530 million from reduced air-conditioning costs and healthcare savings.^ This saves the Air Force base an estimated $1 million USD annually in energy costs.
  • World’s 13 Biggest Solar Energy Plants, Photovoltaic : EcoWorldly 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC ecoworldly.com [Source type: News]

^ Typically, these cost under $5,000, and can reduce your monthly hot water heating bill between 50-100%."
  • Solar Energy - common, affordable, utilities, & water heaters 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.servicemagic.com [Source type: General]

^ Later this year, the Energy Department’s investment over 35 years of research on clean energy will exceed the total cost-adjusted for inflation, the Apollo program that sent Americans to the moon and the Manhattan Project , who developed the nuclear bomb: about 117 billion dollars altogether.

[23]

Agriculture and horticulture

Greenhouses like these in the Westland municipality of the Netherlands grow vegetables, fruits and flowers.
.Agriculture seeks to optimize the capture of solar energy in order to optimize the productivity of plants.^ Plants, on average, capture 0.1% of the solar energy reaching the Earth.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Solar energy production depends on the weather.
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar energy in agriculture.
  • Solar Energy (Science Tracer Bullet - Science Reference Services, Libraryof Congress 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Techniques such as timed planting cycles, tailored row orientation, staggered heights between rows and the mixing of plant varieties can improve crop yields.^ The complexity of variables such as plant type and energy-use-avoided are staggering.

^ Descriptors: solanaceae; protected-cultivation; air- temperature; greenhouses; energy-conservation; solar-radiation; insulation; plant-development; crop-yield; europe 153.
  • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[24][25] .While sunlight is generally considered a plentiful resource, the exceptions highlight the importance of solar energy to agriculture.^ Clearly, solar energy is a resource of the future.
  • An Introduction to Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ccs.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar energy in agriculture--Bibliography.
  • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Photovoltaic solar energy generation.
  • Solar Energy (Science Tracer Bullet - Science Reference Services, Libraryof Congress 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.During the short growing seasons of the Little Ice Age, French and English farmers employed fruit walls to maximize the collection of solar energy.^ Submissions for the collection: Solar Energy .
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The IREC declared that the most significant trend during the September 2008 - September 2009 period is a continued emphasis on solar energy in recent RPS adoptions and changes.

^ In some countries, for instance, specially designed solar ovens are employed for cooking, and solar energy is used to produce salt from seawater by evaporation.
  • solar energy -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.These walls acted as thermal masses and accelerated ripening by keeping plants warm.^ Sunlight warms a thermal mass .
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ During the ventilation cycle, sunlight stores heat in the thermal mass and warms the air channel causing circulation through vents at the top and bottom of the wall.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sunlight heats the air space during the day causing natural circulation through vents at the top and bottom of the wall and storing heat in the thermal mass .
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

.Early fruit walls were built perpendicular to the ground and facing south, but over time, sloping walls were developed to make better use of sunlight.^ These systems use mirrors or reflectors to focus sunlight to heat a fluid and make steam, which then is used to generate electricity.
  • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many technologies have been developed to make use of solar radiation.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Walls, roof, floor, windows, and doors all provide opportunity to make use of solar energy.

.In 1699, Nicolas Fatio de Duillier even suggested using a tracking mechanism which could pivot to follow the Sun.^ These systems use single-axis tracking to follow the sun.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ These systems use dual-axis tracking to follow the sun.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The concentrators must move to track the sun if they are to perform effectively; the devices used to achieve this are called heliostats.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] .Applications of solar energy in agriculture aside from growing crops include pumping water, drying crops, brooding chicks and drying chicken manure.^ Solar water pumping .
  • Solar power systems: Energy Matters 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.energymatters.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other applications for solar energy include hot water systems and solar powered pumping.
  • Solar power systems: Energy Matters 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.energymatters.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar energy in agriculture--Bibliography.
  • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[27][28] .More recently the technology has been embraced by vinters, who use the energy generated by solar panels to power grape presses.^ Use solar energy to power your home, your business, and your life!
  • Solar Energy Blogs 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.blogged.com [Source type: General]

^ Renewable energy and solar power.
  • Solar Energy Blogs 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.blogged.com [Source type: General]

^ Are there disadvantages to using solar energy ?
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29]
.Greenhouses convert solar light to heat, enabling year-round production and the growth (in enclosed environments) of specialty crops and other plants not naturally suited to the local climate.^ Central solar heating plant .
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Solar panels require light, not heat.
  • Solar Power and Renewable Home Energy - from ecomii 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ecomii.com [Source type: General]

^ Twice each year, the ambient clime and bi-regional commitments demands that we set sail, following the wise birds to where the climate suits our clothes.
  • Solar Power Alternative Energy News & Ecological Choices for Green Living 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.holysolar.com [Source type: General]

.Primitive greenhouses were first used during Roman times to produce cucumbers year-round for the Roman emperor Tiberius.^ In 1767, Swiss scientist Horace de Saussure built the world's first solar collector, which was used years later by Sir John Herschel to cook food during his South African expedition in the 1830s.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Your Sunroom / Solarium / Greenhouse is a great place for a year-round solar-heated swimming pool, swim spa, or hot tub.
  • "Passive Solar Energy Heating and Cooling Techniques Spectacular Solar Homes and Buildings that Cool and Heat Themselves from Free Abundant Natural Sources! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.passivesolarenergy.info [Source type: General]

^ Auguste Mouchout used a parabolic trough to produce steam for the first solar steam engine in 1866, and subsequent developments led to the use of concentrating solar-powered devices.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

[30] .The first modern greenhouses were built in Europe in the 16th century to keep exotic plants brought back from explorations abroad.^ In the late 19th century, inventors and entrepreneurs in Europe and the U.S. developed solar energy technology that would form the basis of modern designs.
  • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2006, the Arizona Public Service utility completed a 1 MW CSP power plant, the first parabolic power plant built in the U.S. in 20 years.
  • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Descriptors: solanaceae; protected-cultivation; air- temperature; greenhouses; energy-conservation; solar-radiation; insulation; plant-development; crop-yield; europe 153.
  • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[31] .Greenhouses remain an important part of horticulture today, and plastic transparent materials have also been used to similar effect in polytunnels and row covers.^ The flow of water through these can then be used to turn turbines and in effect produce electricity in similar way to other forms of renewable energy.

^ Following the initial discovery of the PV effect, scientists experimented with different materials in an attempt to find a practical use for PV systems.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Further important research involves nanotechnology approaches using nanoparticles of the above materials.

Solar lighting

Daylighting features such as this oculus at the top of the Pantheon, in Rome, Italy have been in use since antiquity.
.The history of lighting is dominated by the use of natural light.^ The use of natural light also offers physiological and psychological benefits, although this is difficult to quantify.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ There are thousands of people using solar power to heat their homes and provide natural lighting and electricity.
  • Solar Energy | Solar Power | Solar Products | Solar Panels | Photovoltaics Cells | Solar Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarenergy-solarpower.com [Source type: General]

^ Main articles: Daylighting and Light tube Solar lighting or daylighting is the use of natural light to provide illumination.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

.The Romans recognized a right to light as early as the 6th century and English law echoed these judgments with the Prescription Act of 1832.[32][33] In the 20th century artificial lighting became the main source of interior illumination but daylighting techniques and hybrid solar lighting solutions are ways to reduce energy consumption.^ Solar energy is easily scalable in this way.
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main articles: Daylighting and Light tube Solar lighting or daylighting is the use of natural light to provide illumination.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This is an active way of using solar energy.
  • Solar Energy | Solar Power | Solar Products | Solar Panels | Photovoltaics Cells | Solar Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarenergy-solarpower.com [Source type: General]

.Daylighting systems collect and distribute sunlight to provide interior illumination.^ Installing a solar energy system in your home or office is therefore a wonderful idea – provided you do get sufficient sunlight in these locations.
  • Alternative-Solar-Energy.com | Facts About Renewable Solar Energy For Your Home 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC alternative-solar-energy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Passive solar systems use non-mechanical techniques of capturing, converting and distributing sunlight into usable outputs such as heating, lighting or ventilation.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A multi drum heat storage vault system is a practical, efficient, method of collecting, storing and distributing large quantities of heat at low cost.

.This passive technology directly offsets energy use by replacing artificial lighting, and indirectly offsets non-solar energy use by reducing the need for air-conditioning.^ Producing solar cells need not use fossil fuel energy.
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use of solar energy for the agricultural greenhouses autonomous conditioning.
  • Solar Energy (Science Tracer Bullet - Science Reference Services, Libraryof Congress 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Are there disadvantages to using solar energy ?
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34] .Although difficult to quantify, the use of natural lighting also offers physiological and psychological benefits compared to artificial lighting.^ The use of natural light also offers physiological and psychological benefits, although this is difficult to quantify.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ There are huge benefits to be gained by saving on producing a resource by the slow use of a natural resource.
  • Solar Energy Age 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC solarenergyage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main articles: Daylighting and Light tube Solar lighting or daylighting is the use of natural light to provide illumination.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

[34] .Daylighting design implies careful selection of window types, sizes and orientation; exterior shading devices may be considered as well.^ Daylighting features include building orientation, window orientation , exterior shading, sawtooth roofs, clerestory windows , light shelves, skylights and light tubes .
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ As you size your PV system, be realistic and flexible, and select an experienced designer to assist you.
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The proportion and placement of thermal mass should consider several factors such as climate, daylighting, and shading conditions.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Individual features include sawtooth roofs, clerestory windows, light shelves, skylights and light tubes.^ Daylighting features include building orientation, window orientation , exterior shading, sawtooth roofs, clerestory windows , light shelves, skylights and light tubes .
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Clerestory windows, light shelves, skylights and light tubes can be used among other daylighting techniques to illuminate a building's interior.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Light is the most common way we take advantage of solar energy to light buildings via windows and skylights.
  • Solar Energy Initiatives Featured Penny Stock Profile 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.otcpicks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They may be incorporated into existing structures, but are most effective when integrated into a solar design package that accounts for factors such as glare, heat flux and time-of-use.^ They are often used for heating buildings.
  • EIA Energy Kids - Solar 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Solar central heating is usually not the most effective use of any solar energy harnessing device.
  • Solar Energy | Solartwin.com 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solartwin.com [Source type: General]

^ Solar energy technologies such as heat and light from the sun, along with solar-based resources like wind and wave power, as well as hydroelectricity account for most of the available renewable sources of energy today.
  • Solar Energy | Solar Power | Solar Products | Solar Panels | Photovoltaics Cells | Solar Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarenergy-solarpower.com [Source type: General]

.When daylighting features are properly implemented they can reduce lighting-related energy requirements by 25%.^ Featuring dark-sky friendly LED fixtures by BetaLED Lighting, the Carmanah solar lights are also designed to reduce light pollution.

^ Heater & Air Conditioner- By setting these appliances to only the minimum amount required to be comfortable, you can greatly reduce the energy they use.

^ I want to instal solar system in my remote land for TV, since i have already provide 3 lights 6V now they required my workers.
  • Solar Energy Heats Up in India 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ecoworld.com [Source type: General]

[35]
.Hybrid solar lighting is an active solar method of providing interior illumination.^ Passive solar refers to special siting, design or building materials that take advantage of the sun's position and availability to provide direct heating or lighting.
  • Solar Energy | ACORE: American Council On Renewable Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.acore.org [Source type: News]

^ Through this approach, consistent illumination can be provided at a lower cost than with conventional electric light.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Active solar energy systems employ devices that convert the sun's heat or light to another form of energy we use.
  • Solar Energy | ACORE: American Council On Renewable Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.acore.org [Source type: News]

.HSL systems collect sunlight using focusing mirrors that track the Sun and use optical fibers to transmit it inside the building to supplement conventional lighting.^ These systems use single-axis tracking to follow the sun.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ These systems use dual-axis tracking to follow the sun.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Completed in only four months, the system follows the sun's movements during the day, increasing sunlight capture by up to 25 percent over fixed-title systems, while reducing land use requirements.

.In single-story applications these systems are able to transmit 50% of the direct sunlight received.^ These systems use single-axis tracking to follow the sun.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Concentrating solar power systems direct sunlight through a magnifying lens, which increases the heat energy and drives a generator that produces electricity.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Installing a solar energy system in your home or office is therefore a wonderful idea – provided you do get sufficient sunlight in these locations.
  • Alternative-Solar-Energy.com | Facts About Renewable Solar Energy For Your Home 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC alternative-solar-energy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36]
.Solar lights that charge during the day and light up at dusk are a common sight along walkways.^ These cars could be charged by solar panels during the day, for example, while people are at work.
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar power, however, can only operate during the day-time.
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At each point on the planet's surface, solar energy taken on during the day is re-radiated into Space at night .
  • SunWind Solar Energy Education Notes and Links 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.sunwindsolar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although daylight saving time is promoted as a way to use sunlight to save energy, recent research has been limited and reports contradictory results: several studies report savings, but just as many suggest no effect or even a net loss, particularly when gasoline consumption is taken into account.^ This energy is saved for times in which the panels do not receive any sunlight, such as at night.
  • Solar Energy Age 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC solarenergyage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Energy from the sun can be used in many ways.
  • Solar Energy Initiatives Featured Penny Stock Profile 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.otcpicks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is an active way of using solar energy.
  • Solar Energy | Solar Power | Solar Products | Solar Panels | Photovoltaics Cells | Solar Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarenergy-solarpower.com [Source type: General]

.Electricity use is greatly affected by geography, climate and economics, making it hard to generalize from single studies.^ Concentrating Solar Power Plants generate electricity by using the heat from solar thermal collectors to heat a fluid which produces steam that is used to power the generator.
  • EIA Energy Kids - Solar 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Path followed by electrons from a power source (generator or battery) through an external line (including devices that use the electricity) and returning through another line to the source.
  • Big Frog Mountain- Solar Electric Glossary Of Terminology Used In Renewable Or Alternative Energy Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC bigfrogmountain.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These systems use mirrors or reflectors to focus sunlight to heat a fluid and make steam, which then is used to generate electricity.
  • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37]

Solar thermal

.Solar thermal technologies can be used for water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat generation.^ Solar panel Solar thermal panel heats water on your roof.
  • Solar Energy | Solartwin.com 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solartwin.com [Source type: General]

^ Thermal solar energy can be used for water heating, cooking, drying, water distillation, refrigeration, and space heating and cooling,” continued Nahar.
  • Solar Energy Heats Up in India 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ecoworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Solar energy is frequently used in residential homes to heat water.
  • An Introduction to Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ccs.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38]

Water heating

Solar water heaters facing the Sun to maximize gain.
.Solar hot water systems use sunlight to heat water.^ Solar energy is frequently used in residential homes to heat water.
  • An Introduction to Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ccs.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar hot water systems use sunlight to heat water.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Boiler, Hot Water Heating and Steam Fitting (for solar thermal systems) C-10.
  • Get a FREE Solar Energy Evaluation from local, reliable solar installers! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC solarenergychoice.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In low geographical latitudes (below 40 degrees) from 60 to 70% of the domestic hot water use with temperatures up to 60 °C can be provided by solar heating systems.^ Solar energy is frequently used in residential homes to heat water.
  • An Introduction to Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ccs.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In low geographical latitudes (below 40 degrees) from 60 to 70% of the domestic hot water use with temperatures up to 60 C can be provided by solar heating systems.The most common types of solar water heaters are evacuated tube collectors (44%) and glazed flat plate collectors (34%) generally used for domestic hot water; and unglazed plastic collectors (21%) used mainly to heat swimming pools.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Solar hot water systems use sunlight to heat water.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

[39] .The most common types of solar water heaters are evacuated tube collectors (44%) and glazed flat plate collectors (34%) generally used for domestic hot water; and unglazed plastic collectors (21%) used mainly to heat swimming pools.^ Where temperatures below about 95°C are sufficient, as for space heating, flat-plate collectors of the nonconcentrating type are generally used.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Low temperature collectors are flat plates generally used to heat swimming pools.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the more than one million solar collectors sold in the 1980s were used for heating hot tubs and swimming pools.
  • How Solar Energy Works | Union of Concerned Scientists 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ucsusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40]
.As of 2007, the total installed capacity of solar hot water systems is approximately 154 GW.^ Solar hot water systems use sunlight to heat water.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Solar hot water .

^ Solar hot water ; Solar combisystem Solar hot water systems use sunlight to heat water.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

[41] .China is the world leader in their deployment with 70 GW installed as of 2006 and a long term goal of 210 GW by 2020.[42] Israel and Cyprus are the per capita leaders in the use of solar hot water systems with over 90% of homes using them.^ Solar energy is frequently used in residential homes to heat water.
  • An Introduction to Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ccs.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many homes used solar water heaters.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar hot water systems use sunlight to heat water.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

[43 ] In the United States, Canada and Australia heating swimming pools is the dominant application of solar hot water with an installed capacity of 18 GW as of 2005.[18]

Heating, cooling and ventilation

Solar House #1 of Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the United States, built in 1939, used seasonal thermal storage for year-round heating.
.In the United States, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems account for 30% (4.65 EJ) of the energy used in commercial buildings and nearly 50% (10.1 EJ) of the energy used in residential buildings.^ In the United States, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems account for over 25 percent (4.75 EJ) of the energy used in commercial buildings and nearly half (10.1 EJ) of the energy used in residential buildings.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transpired solar collectors , or "solar walls," which use solar energy to preheat ventilation air for a building.
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the United States, HVACheating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems account for 30% (4.65 EJ) of the energy used in commercial buildings and nearly 50% (10.1 EJ) of the energy used in residential buildings.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

[35][44] .Solar heating, cooling and ventilation technologies can be used to offset a portion of this energy.^ Solar energy can be used for other things besides heating.
  • An Introduction to Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ccs.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar energy is frequently used in residential homes to heat water.
  • An Introduction to Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ccs.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar and wind heating and cooling .
  • Find Solar Installers Solar contractors: Solar cost estimate. Solar energy solar power analysis. Customer reviews of solar professionals pros. Local directory for solar electric water pool heat contractor. Findsolar 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: General]

.Thermal mass is any material that can be used to store heat—heat from the Sun in the case of solar energy.^ Thermal mass is any material that can be used to store heat—heat from the Sun in the case of solar energy.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Thermal mass systems can store solar energy in the form of heat at domestically useful temperatures for daily or seasonal thermal storeseasonal durations.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Solar energy can be used for other things besides heating.
  • An Introduction to Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ccs.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Common thermal mass materials include stone, cement and water.^ Common thermal mass materials include stone, cement and water.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Passive solar techniques include selecting materials with favorable thermal properties, designing spaces that naturally circulate air, and referencing the position of a building to the Sun.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Thermal mass is any material that can be used to store heat—heat from the Sun in the case of solar energy.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

.Historically they have been used in arid climates or warm temperate regions to keep buildings cool by absorbing solar energy during the day and radiating stored heat to the cooler atmosphere at night.^ Solar energy can be used for other things besides heating.
  • An Introduction to Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ccs.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar energy is frequently used in residential homes to heat water.
  • An Introduction to Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ccs.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar and wind heating and cooling .
  • Find Solar Installers Solar contractors: Solar cost estimate. Solar energy solar power analysis. Customer reviews of solar professionals pros. Local directory for solar electric water pool heat contractor. Findsolar 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: General]

.However they can be used in cold temperate areas to maintain warmth as well.^ However they can be used in cold temperate areas to maintain warmth as well.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It is most often used in remote locations, although it is becoming more popular in urban areas as well.

^ They are used in many recreational vehicle “propane refrigerators” today, which do NOT need electricity to keep your food cold.
  • "Passive Solar Energy Heating and Cooling Techniques Spectacular Solar Homes and Buildings that Cool and Heat Themselves from Free Abundant Natural Sources! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.passivesolarenergy.info [Source type: General]

.The size and placement of thermal mass depend on several factors such as climate, daylighting and shading conditions.^ The proportion and placement of thermal mass should consider several factors such as climate, daylighting, and shading conditions.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The size and placement of thermal mass depend on several factors such as climate, daylighting and shading conditions.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The efficiency of solar panels depends on several factors such as pollution, clouds, temperature and atmospheric humidity.

.When properly incorporated, thermal mass maintains space temperatures in a comfortable range and reduces the need for auxiliary heating and cooling equipment.^ When properly incorporated, thermal mass can passively maintain comfortable temperatures while reducing energy consumption.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When properly incorporated, thermal mass maintains space temperatures in a comfortable range and reduces the need for auxiliary heating and cooling equipment.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Photovoltaics space heating and cooling .
  • Find Solar Installers Solar contractors: Solar cost estimate. Solar energy solar power analysis. Customer reviews of solar professionals pros. Local directory for solar electric water pool heat contractor. Findsolar 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: General]

[45]
.A solar chimney (or thermal chimney, in this context) is a passive solar ventilation system composed of a vertical shaft connecting the interior and exterior of a building.^ A solar chimney (or thermal chimney) is a passive solar ventilation system composed of a hollow thermal mass connecting the interior and exterior of a building.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A solar chimney (or thermal chimney, in this context) is a passive solar ventilation system composed of a vertical shaft connecting the interior and exterior of a building.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

^ W solar electric system and a solar hot water (thermal) system, rounding out its complete on-site...
  • Solar Energy: News [Page 10] - Business Exchange 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC bx.businessweek.com [Source type: General]

.As the chimney warms, the air inside is heated causing an updraft that pulls air through the building.^ As the chimney warms, the air inside is heated causing an updraft that pulls air through the building.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

^ During the ventilation cycle, sunlight stores heat in the thermal mass and warms the air channel causing circulation through vents at the top and bottom of the wall.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sunlight heats the air space during the day causing natural circulation through vents at the top and bottom of the wall and storing heat in the thermal mass .
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

.Performance can be improved by using glazing and thermal mass materials in a way that mimics greenhouses.^ Performance can be improved by using glazing and thermal mass materials in a way that mimics greenhouses.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Performance and durability assessment: optical materials for solar thermal systems.
  • Solar Energy (Science Tracer Bullet - Science Reference Services, Libraryof Congress 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Thermal mass is any material that can be used to store heat—heat from the Sun in the case of solar energy.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

.Deciduous trees and plants have been promoted as a means of controlling solar heating and cooling.^ Solar and wind heating and cooling .
  • Find Solar Installers Solar contractors: Solar cost estimate. Solar energy solar power analysis. Customer reviews of solar professionals pros. Local directory for solar electric water pool heat contractor. Findsolar 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: General]

^ Deciduous trees and plants have been promoted as a means of controlling solar heating and cooling.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Central solar heating plant .
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

.When planted on the southern side of a building, their leaves provide shade during the summer, while the bare limbs allow light to pass during the winter.^ When planted on the southern side of a building, their leaves provide shade during the summer, while the bare limbs allow light to pass during the winter.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The leaves of deciduous trees provide natural shade during the summer while the bare limbs allow light and warmth into a building during the winter.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since bare, leafless trees shade 1/3 to 1/2 of incident solar radiation, there is a balance between the benefits of summer shading and the corresponding loss of winter heating.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

[46] .Since bare, leafless trees shade 1/3 to 1/2 of incident solar radiation, there is a balance between the benefits of summer shading and the corresponding loss of winter heating.^ What is radiant solar heating?

^ Since bare, leafless trees shade 1/3 to 1/2 of incident solar radiation, there is a balance between the benefits of summer shading and the corresponding loss of winter heating.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The leaves of deciduous trees provide natural shade during the summer while the bare limbs allow light and warmth into a building during the winter.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47] .In climates with significant heating loads, deciduous trees should not be planted on the southern side of a building because they will interfere with winter solar availability.^ Deciduous trees and plants have been promoted as a means of controlling solar heating and cooling.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

^ They are often used for heating buildings.
  • EIA Energy Kids - Solar 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ In climates with significant heating loads, deciduous trees should not be planted on the southern side of a building because they will interfere with winter solar availability.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

.They can, however, be used on the east and west sides to provide a degree of summer shading without appreciably affecting winter solar gain.^ They can, however, be used on the east and west sides to provide a degree of summer shading without appreciably affecting winter solar gain.
  • Solar Energy Systems | About Solar Energy and Solar Power Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: Reference]

^ By combining its new double-sided solar panels with a reflective roof membrane that provides 89% solar radiation...
  • Solar Energy: News [Page 10] - Business Exchange 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC bx.businessweek.com [Source type: General]

^ The leaves of deciduous trees provide natural shade during the summer while the bare limbs allow light and warmth into a building during the winter.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48]

Water treatment

Solar water disinfection in Indonesia
Small scale solar powered sewerage treatment plant.
.Solar distillation can be used to make saline or brackish water potable.^ Solar water purification is a great example of an efficient green technology, as it replaces a machine which everyone has a need for that would normally use standard electricity.
  • Solar Power Alternative Energy News & Ecological Choices for Green Living 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.holysolar.com [Source type: General]

^ In the 1760s, Horace de Saussure built an insulated rectangular box with a glass cover that became the prototype for solar collectors used to heat water.
  • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It requires a hot arid climate and large quantities of water (seawater may be used) but does not require the large glass house of the solar updraft tower.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

The first recorded instance of this was by 16th century Arab alchemists.[49] .A large-scale solar distillation project was first constructed in 1872 in the Chilean mining town of Las Salinas.^ OptiSolar - OptiSolar manufactures photovoltaic (PV) modules and produces power from their own large-scale solar farms.
  • Directory:Solar - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most powerful large-scale solar thermal technology, however, is concentrating solar power (CSP).
  • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Large scale utilization of solar energy in Cyprus.
  • How Solar Energy Works | Union of Concerned Scientists 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ucsusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50] .The plant, which had solar collection area of 4,700 m², could produce up to 22,700 L per day and operated for 40 years.^ In the 1970s, a serious effort began to produce PV panels that could provide cheaper solar power.
  • How Solar Energy Works | Union of Concerned Scientists 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ucsusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ REC Solar for Earth Day 2009 The Scoop Bakersfield, April 22, 2009 .
  • Solar Power for Homes and Businesses | Solar Panel Installation 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.recsolar.com [Source type: News]

^ Concentrating Solar Power Plants generate electricity by using the heat from solar thermal collectors to heat a fluid which produces steam that is used to power the generator.
  • EIA Energy Kids - Solar 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: Reference]

[50] Individual still designs include single-slope, double-slope (or greenhouse type), vertical, conical, inverted absorber, multi-wick, and multiple effect.[49] .These stills can operate in passive, active, or hybrid modes.^ Ranging from 14 to 80 megawatts and with a total capacity of 354 megawatts, each of these plants is still operating effectively.
  • How Solar Energy Works | Union of Concerned Scientists 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ucsusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Double-slope stills are the most economical for decentralized domestic purposes, while active multiple effect units are more suitable for large-scale applications.^ The most powerful large-scale solar thermal technology, however, is concentrating solar power (CSP).
  • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Storing heat is much more efficient than most forms of storing electricity, and does not require expensive equipment or large tracks of land.
  • Industry:Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wikinvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Large-scale development of solar collectors began in the United States in the mid-1970s under the Energy Research and Development Administration and continued under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy after 1976.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49]
.Solar water disinfection (SODIS) involves exposing water-filled plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles to sunlight for several hours.^ Solar water disinfection, also known as SODIS, is a simple method of disinfecting water using only sunlight and plastic PET bottles.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 1998 to 2005, the solar water heating market produced about the thermal equivalent of 124,000 megawatt-hours (MWh) annually.
  • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now imagine the difference if many of those homes had utilized solar panels during those peak sunlight hours.

[51] .Exposure times vary depending on weather and climate from a minimum of six hours to two days during fully overcast conditions.^ It depends on location, time of day, time of year, and weather conditions.
  • EIA Energy Kids - Solar 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Depending upon latitude, season and time of day this angle will vary.
  • solar energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC earthsci.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The amount of thermal mass one needs varies somewhat based on climate and application, but generally, the exposed area of thermal mass should be about six times the area of glass that receives direct sunlight.

[52] .It is recommended by the World Health Organization as a viable method for household water treatment and safe storage.^ SODIS is a cheap and effective method for decentralized water treatment, usually applied at the household level and is recommended by the World Health Organization as a viable method for household water treatment and safe storage.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to a 2007 World Health Organization report, over one billion people around the globe lack access to a purified water supply.

^ June) Paper presented at the IDA and WRPC World Conference on Desalination and Water Treatment, November 1993, Yokoama, Japan.
  • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[53] .Over two million people in developing countries use this method for their daily drinking water.^ Solar cells that use the researchers method could become practical in two to three years, said Klimov.

^ In developing countries, the key barriers to wider use are the need for financing and for electric distribution networks.
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A two-dimensional finite difference model was developed and used to simulate the performance of IFHDS system cross-sections.
  • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[52]
.Solar energy may be used in a water stabilisation pond to treat waste water without chemicals or electricity.^ Are there disadvantages to using solar energy ?
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: Are there disadvantages to using solar energy ?
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A solar still uses solar energy to distill water.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A further environmental advantage is that algae grow in such ponds and consume carbon dioxide in photosynthesis, although algae may produce toxic chemicals that make the water unusable.^ A solar water purifier makes it possible to produce pure drinking water that is healthy for all with a minimum of input.
  • Solar Power Alternative Energy News & Ecological Choices for Green Living 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.holysolar.com [Source type: General]

^ Other substances such as hemp, algae, and fungus can also be used to produce the base materials used to create biodiesel power.
  • Alternative Energy Power Solar Wind Geothermal Biodiesel 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC altpowerenergy.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Although there may be economical, political, or environmental reasons for investigation, human curiosity will remain the source of those new ideas.
  • Alternative Energy Power Solar Wind Geothermal Biodiesel 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC altpowerenergy.com [Source type: Reference]

[54][55]

Cooking

The Solar Bowl in Auroville, India, concentrates sunlight on a movable receiver to produce steam for cooking.
.Solar cookers use sunlight for cooking, drying and pasteurization.^ Solar cookers use sunlight for cooking, drying and pasteurization .
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Concentrating solar cookers use reflectors to concentrate light on a cooking container.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar cooker: A solar cooker is a cooking utensil that uses absolutely no fuel for cooking.

.They can be grouped into three broad categories: box cookers, panel cookers and reflector cookers.^ Essentially solar panels are built and they absorb energy from the sun which is then converted into electrical energy.

[56] .The simplest solar cooker is the box cooker first built by Horace de Saussure in 1767.[57] A basic box cooker consists of an insulated container with a transparent lid.^ The simplest type of solar cooker is the box cooker first built by Horace de Saussure in 1767.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A basic box cooker consists of an insulated container with a transparent lid.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first known western solar oven is attributed to Horace de Saussure in 1767, which impressed Sir John Herschel enough to build one for cooking meals on his astronomical expedition to the Cape of Good Hope in Africa in 1830.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

.It can be used effectively with partially overcast skies and will typically reach temperatures of 90–150 °C.[58] Panel cookers use a reflective panel to direct sunlight onto an insulated container and reach temperatures comparable to box cookers.^ These cookers can be used effectively with partially overcast skies and will typically reach temperatures of 50-100 °C. [13] [14] .
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A basic box cooker consists of an insulated container with a transparent lid.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sunlight which is not reflected provides direct lighting.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

.Reflector cookers use various concentrating geometries (dish, trough, Fresnel mirrors) to focus light on a cooking container.^ Concentrating solar cookers use reflectors to concentrate light on a cooking container.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The mirrors focus light on a central tower.
  • Mega Solar: the World’s 13 Biggest Solar Thermal Energy Projects : EcoWorldly 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC ecoworldly.com [Source type: General]

^ This relatively new technology uses mirrors to concentrate sunlight onto a single point, heating water to drive turbines.

.These cookers reach temperatures of 315 °C and above but require direct light to function properly and must be repositioned to track the Sun.^ These designs cook faster and at higher temperatures (up to 350 °C) but require direct light to function properly.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Passive solar refers to special siting, design or building materials that take advantage of the sun's position and availability to provide direct heating or lighting.
  • Solar Energy | ACORE: American Council On Renewable Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.acore.org [Source type: News]

^ These systems use single-axis tracking to follow the sun.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

[59]
.The solar bowl is a concentrating technology employed by the Solar Kitchen in Auroville, Pondicherry, India, where a stationary spherical reflector focuses light along a line perpendicular to the sphere's interior surface, and a computer control system moves the receiver to intersect this line.^ Concentrating solar cookers use reflectors to concentrate light on a cooking container.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Contrary to conventional tracking reflector/fixed receiver systems, the solar bowl uses a fixed spherical reflector with a receiver which tracks the focus of light as the Sun moves across the sky.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Solar Kitchen in Auroville , India uses a unique concentrating technology known as the solar bowl.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Steam is produced in the receiver at temperatures reaching 150 °C and then used for process heat in the kitchen.^ The solar bowl's receiver reaches temperature of 150 °C that are used to produce steam that helps cook 2,000 daily meals.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heating water is fairly efficient but the amount of storage per liter is fairly small since it is difficult to heat beyond boiling temperatures and still use a simple storage tank.
  • Alternative Energy Power Solar Wind Geothermal Biodiesel 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC altpowerenergy.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The higher operating temperatures permit the plant to use higher-temperature dry heat exchangers for its thermal exhaust, reducing the plant's water use — critical in the deserts where large solar plants are practical.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[60]
.A reflector developed by Wolfgang Scheffler in 1986 is used in many solar kitchens.^ This technology was first developed by Wolfgang Scheffler in 1986.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many technologies have been developed to make use of solar radiation.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Many other solar kitchen in India use another unique concentrating technology known as the Scheffler reflector.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Scheffler reflectors are flexible parabolic dishes that combine aspects of trough and power tower concentrators.^ Parabolic trough concentrators.
  • How Solar Energy Works | Union of Concerned Scientists 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ucsusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The concentrating collector can be a trough collector, parabolic collector, or power tower.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Various methods exist to concentrate the solar radiation, including parabolic troughs , power towers with mirrors that track the Sun ( heliostats ), parabolic dishes , and Fresnel reflectors .
  • Mega Solar: the World’s 13 Biggest Solar Thermal Energy Projects : EcoWorldly 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC ecoworldly.com [Source type: General]

.Polar tracking is used to follow the Sun's daily course and the curvature of the reflector is adjusted for seasonal variations in the incident angle of sunlight.^ A Scheffler reflector is a parabolic dish that uses single axis tracking to follow the Sun's daily course.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These reflectors have a flexible reflective surface that is able to change its curvature to adjust to seasonal variations in the incident angle of sunlight.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These systems use single-axis tracking to follow the sun.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

.These reflectors can reach temperatures of 450–650 °C and have a fixed focal point, which simplifies cooking.^ Scheffler reflectors have the advantage of having a fixed focal point which improves the ease of cooking and are able to reach temperatures of 450-650 °C. [16] Built in 1999, the world's largest Scheffler reflector system in Abu Road, Rajasthan India is capable of cooking up to 35,000 meals a day.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These cookers can be used effectively with partially overcast skies and will typically reach temperatures of 50-100 °C. [13] [14] .
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These designs cook faster and at higher temperatures (up to 350 °C) but require direct light to function properly.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[61] .The world's largest Scheffler reflector system in Abu Road, Rajasthan, India is capable of cooking up to 35,000 meals a day.^ Scheffler reflectors have the advantage of having a fixed focal point which improves the ease of cooking and are able to reach temperatures of 450-650 °C. [16] Built in 1999, the world's largest Scheffler reflector system in Abu Road, Rajasthan India is capable of cooking up to 35,000 meals a day.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Described as the largest unit of its kind in the UAE and in the region, the solar system is expected to be capable of supplying 1.3 million litres/day of hot water for domestic use for the 25,000-odd residents who will be staying in the 48 buildings to be located in ...
  • UAE - The Official Web Site - News 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.uaeinteract.com [Source type: News]

^ We offer installation services for both commercial and residential solar systems in the Southestern US. Over 35,000 satisfied customers served since 1986!
  • The Energy Supermarket by Solar Direct featuring Solar Panels, Solar Electricity, Solar Water Heaters, Solar Pool Heaters, Solar Heating, Solar Energy, DIY Solar and More! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC shop.solardirect.com [Source type: General]

[62] .As of 2008, over 2,000 large Scheffler cookers had been built worldwide.^ By early 2008, over 2000 large cookers of the Scheffler design had been built worldwide.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[63]

Process heat

STEP parabolic dishes used for steam production and electrical generation.
.Solar concentrating technologies such as parabolic dish, trough and Scheffler reflectors can provide process heat for commercial and industrial applications.^ History and overview of solar heat technologies.
  • Solar Energy (Science Tracer Bullet - Science Reference Services, Libraryof Congress 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Concentrated solar power plant using parabolic trough design.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A parabolic solar dish concentrating the sun's rays on the heating element of a Stirling engine .
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first commercial system was the Solar Total Energy Project (STEP) in Shenandoah, Georgia, USA where a field of 114 parabolic dishes provided 50% of the process heating, air conditioning and electrical requirements for a clothing factory.^ Solar Energy Engineering Processes and Systems 2009 .
  • Find Solar Installers Solar contractors: Solar cost estimate. Solar energy solar power analysis. Customer reviews of solar professionals pros. Local directory for solar electric water pool heat contractor. Findsolar 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: General]

^ Conversion rates from solar energy to electrical energy .
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ohio Air Guard officials expand solar energy field .
  • Solar Energy News - Topix 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: News]
  • Solar Energy News - Topix 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: News]

.This grid-connected cogeneration system provided 400 kW of electricity plus thermal energy in the form of 401 kW steam and 468 kW chilled water, and had a one hour peak load thermal storage.^ Electric grid: Is solar energy compatible with electric grids?
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thermal and electrical storage .
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Storage is for one hour.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[64]
.Evaporation ponds are shallow pools that concentrate dissolved solids through evaporation.^ Evaporation ponds are shallow ponds that concentrate dissolved solids through evaporation .
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Modern uses include concentrating brine solutions used in leach mining and removing dissolved solids from waste streams.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The use of evaporation ponds to obtain salt from sea water is one of the oldest applications of solar energy.^ Pictures of solar energy used in public .
  • Find Solar Installers Solar contractors: Solar cost estimate. Solar energy solar power analysis. Customer reviews of solar professionals pros. Local directory for solar electric water pool heat contractor. Findsolar 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solar-estimate.org [Source type: General]

^ Altogether, evaporation ponds represent one of the largest commercial applications of solar energy in use today.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of evaporation ponds to obtain salt from sea water is one of the oldest applications of solar energy.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Modern uses include concentrating brine solutions used in leach mining and removing dissolved solids from waste streams.^ Modern uses include concentrating brine solutions used in leach mining and removing dissolved solids from waste streams.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free of solids in suspension or solution, the water vapor condenses on top and drips down to the side, where it is collected and removed.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Evaporation ponds are shallow ponds that concentrate dissolved solids through evaporation .
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[65]
.Clothes lines, clotheshorses, and clothes racks dry clothes through evaporation by wind and sunlight without consuming electricity or gas.^ In cone solar stills, impure water is inserted into the container, where it is evaporated by sunlight coming through clear plastic.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Concentrating solar power systems direct sunlight through a magnifying lens, which increases the heat energy and drives a generator that produces electricity.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An instance of alternative energy (solar) is drying clothes on a clothesline while solar power generation of electricity needed to run a clothes drier is an example of alternative power.
  • Alternative Energy Power Solar Wind Geothermal Biodiesel 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC altpowerenergy.com [Source type: Reference]

.In some states of the United States legislation protects the "right to dry" clothes.^ E.P.A. grants $ 5 million for methane-cutting projects worldwide : The United States Environmental Protection Agency will release $5 million .

[66]
.Unglazed transpired collectors (UTC) are perforated sun-facing walls used for preheating ventilation air.^ Transpired solar collectors , or "solar walls," which use solar energy to preheat ventilation air for a building.
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A transpired collector is an active solar heating and ventilation system consisting of a perforated sun-facing wall which acts as a solar thermal collector .
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ We use cool roofing, interior radiant barriers, and ventilation with replacement air that is COOLER AND DRIER than outside summer air.
  • "Passive Solar Energy Heating and Cooling Techniques Spectacular Solar Homes and Buildings that Cool and Heat Themselves from Free Abundant Natural Sources! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.passivesolarenergy.info [Source type: General]

.UTCs can raise the incoming air temperature up to 22 °C and deliver outlet temperatures of 45–60 °C.[67] The short payback period of transpired collectors (3 to 12 years) makes them a more cost-effective alternative than glazed collection systems.^ This makes its collection more difficult and expensive.
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 2008 - "Is it possible that solar power will be more cost effective than coal in 12 years?
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The recovery/payback period can be very short.
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[67] .As of 2003, over 80 systems with a combined collector area of 35,000  had been installed worldwide, including an 860 m² collector in Costa Rica used for drying coffee beans and a 1,300 m² collector in Coimbatore, India used for drying marigolds.^ Homes in remote areas can use PV systems for lighting, home appliances and other electrical needs, saving the cost of extending power lines to a remote location.
  • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Descriptors: kilns; solar-drying; solar-energy; lumber; solar-collectors Abstract : A solar timber kiln with the capacity to season 3.24 m3 of lumber was designed, constructed and used for seasoning commercial sawnwood.
  • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ There are currently more than 3,000 BIPV systems installed in Germany, and Japan has a program that plans to build 70,000 new BIPV buildings.
  • Solar Energy Heats Up in India 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ecoworld.com [Source type: General]

[28]

Electrical generation

.Sunlight can be converted into electricity using photovoltaics (PV), concentrating solar power (CSP), and various experimental technologies.^ Q: Why should I use photovoltaics (PV) ?
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: When will I be able to buy a solar electric or PV-powered car ?
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Photovoltaic solar cells convert solar radiation, or sunlight, directly into electrical power.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.PV has mainly been used to power small and medium-sized applications, from the calculator powered by a single solar cell to off-grid homes powered by a photovoltaic array.^ Q: Why should I use photovoltaics (PV) ?
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the 1960s, photovoltaic cells were used to power U.S. space satellites.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: Can I use photovoltaics (PV) to power my business ?
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For large-scale generation, CSP plants like SEGS have been the norm but recently multi-megawatt PV plants are becoming common.^ The PV plant has a 12.7 megawatt output.
  • World’s 13 Biggest Solar Energy Plants, Photovoltaic : EcoWorldly 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC ecoworldly.com [Source type: News]

^ The other record holder for large PV plants is in the same country, in Beneixama, Alicante, Spain .
  • World’s 13 Biggest Solar Energy Plants, Photovoltaic : EcoWorldly 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC ecoworldly.com [Source type: News]

^ OptiSolar - OptiSolar manufactures photovoltaic (PV) modules and produces power from their own large-scale solar farms.
  • Directory:Solar - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Completed in 2007, the 14 MW power station in Clark County, Nevada, United States and the 20 MW site in Beneixama, Spain are characteristic of the trend toward larger photovoltaic power stations in the United States and Europe.^ Currently, the state of Florida receives half of its power from natural gas and another 20% from nuclear.
  • Mega Solar: the World’s 13 Biggest Solar Thermal Energy Projects : EcoWorldly 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC ecoworldly.com [Source type: General]

^ Such an approach, if enacted, would push the United States a step closer to the feed-in tariff approach so common in Europe.
  • Solar Energy Age 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC solarenergyage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How much space would be needed for photovoltaic systems to meet the entire electrical needs of the United States ?
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[68] .As an intermittent power source, solar power requires a backup supply, which can partially be complemented with wind power.^ Solar power is intermittent so must be stored.
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moreover, solar is weather dependent and intermittent, requiring storage or back-up systems to supplement during times of weak generation.
  • Industry:Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wikinvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar power generates energy by using the natural resources around us, and there are man made sources so that the solar power can be attracted to these sources and saved.
  • Solar Energy Age 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC solarenergyage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Local backup usually is done with batteries, while utilities normally use pumped-hydro storage.^ These two silicon modules are rated at approximately 50 W each and provide power for a street light using 12  V battery storage.
  • solar energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC earthsci.org [Source type: Reference]

^ PV is ideal (and often used) for water pumping , because water can be pumped into a storage tank during daylight hours and then distributed by gravity whenever it is needed.
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Grid-connected" systems - those systems that use an inverter to connect to the utility grid instead of relying on batteries - now make up the largest part of the market.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

.The Institute for Solar Energy Supply Technology of the University of Kassel in Germany pilot-tested a combined power plant linking solar, wind, biogas and hydrostorage to provide load-following power around the clock, entirely from renewable sources.^ Solar energy is renewable.
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar energy is the cleanest, most abundant, renewable energy source available.
  • Solar Energy | ACORE: American Council On Renewable Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.acore.org [Source type: News]

^ It is quite undeniable that solar energy and wind energy are a renewable types of energy.
  • Solar Energy Age 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC solarenergyage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[69]

Experimental solar power

Solar Evaporation Ponds in the Atacama Desert, South America
.A solar pond is a pool of salt water (usually 1–2 m deep) that collects and stores solar energy.^ "MIT researchers split water to store solar energy".
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A solar pond is simply a pool of water which collects and stores solar energy.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Submissions for the collection: Solar Energy .
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Solar ponds were first proposed by Dr. Rudolph Bloch in 1948 after he came across reports of a lake in Hungary in which the temperature increased with depth. .This effect was due to salts in the lake's water, which created a "density gradient" that prevented convection currents.^ The layers have different densities due to their different salt content, and this prevents the development of convection currents which would otherwise transfer the heat to the surface and then to the air above.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ NAL Call No.: TJ810.A1S6 Effects of halobacteria and selected chemicals on radiation transmission in salt water.
  • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ An intermediate insulating layer with a salt gradient, which sets up a density gradient that prevents heat exchange by natural convection in the water.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

A prototype was constructed in 1958 on the shores of the Dead Sea near Jerusalem.[70] .The pond consisted of layers of water that successively increased from a weak salt solution at the top to a high salt solution at the bottom.^ The principle is to fill a pond with 3 layers of water: .
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A top layer with a low salt content.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It is driven by spraying water at the top of the tower, evaporation of water causes a downdraft by cooling the air thereby increasing its density, driving wind turbines at the bottom of the tower.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

.This solar pond was capable of producing temperatures of 90 °C in its bottom layer and had an estimated solar-to-electric efficiency of two percent.^ Solar water purification is a great example of an efficient green technology, as it replaces a machine which everyone has a need for that would normally use standard electricity.
  • Solar Power Alternative Energy News & Ecological Choices for Green Living 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.holysolar.com [Source type: General]

^ They also consume an estimated 100 times less silicon to produce the same amount of electricity compared to standard solar cells .

^ Main article: Solar thermal energy Solar thermal energy can be focused on a heat exchanger , and converted in a heat engine to produce electric power or applied to other industrial processes.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

.Thermoelectric, or "thermovoltaic" devices convert a temperature difference between dissimilar materials into an electric current.^ Solar power is used interchangeably with solar energy, but refers more specifically to the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either by photovoltaics and concentrating solar thermal devices, or by one of several experimental technologies such as thermoelectric converters, solar chimneys or solar ponds.
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such a device achieves significantly greater overall conversion of incident sunlight into electricity.
  • Big Frog Mountain- Solar Electric Glossary Of Terminology Used In Renewable Or Alternative Energy Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC bigfrogmountain.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Any material that has a limited capacity for conducting an electric current.
  • Big Frog Mountain- Solar Electric Glossary Of Terminology Used In Renewable Or Alternative Energy Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC bigfrogmountain.com [Source type: Reference]

.First proposed as a method to store solar energy by solar pioneer Mouchout in the 1800s,[71] thermoelectrics reemerged in the Soviet Union during the 1930s.^ NAL Call No.: TJ810.A1S6 New proposal for photovoltaic-thermal solar energy utilization method.
  • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Wider use of solar electric cars (or other electrics) probably depends on the availability of inexpensive, lightweight, compact energy storage methods.
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Watch out for the first major corporation to announce 10% of energy to be procured from solar sources-- this might be a good company to watch for negative exposure to the rise of solar.
  • Industry:Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wikinvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Under the direction of Soviet scientist Abram Ioffe a concentrating system was used to thermoelectrically generate power for a 1 hp engine.^ Today, advanced solar-energy systems provide electricity to pump water, power communications equipment and increasingly generate electricity on a commercial scale.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A: PV (solar electric) systems are generating clean electric power all over the world , both here and abroad.
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar PV generated power could provide 10,000 times more energy than the world currently uses."
  • Solar and Renewable Energy Products: Solar Power, Wind Power, Alternative Energy, Photovoltaics, Off Line, Water Heating, Solar Pool Heating, Solar Energy Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ecomall.com [Source type: News]

[72] .Thermogenerators were later used in the US space program as an energy conversion technology for powering deep space missions such as Cassini, Galileo and Viking.^ Power is the rate of using energy to do work.
  • solar energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC earthsci.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Similarly, the nature of many businesses is such that wind or photovoltaic power is not practical on the small area available, in line with leases, or inexpensive enough to justify the conversion.
  • Solar Power Alternative Energy News & Ecological Choices for Green Living 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.holysolar.com [Source type: General]

^ This means that using water as a medium for storage of excess solar power limits its later use to more passive applications – such as heating homes or other passive solar energy tasks.
  • Alternative Energy Power Solar Wind Geothermal Biodiesel 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC altpowerenergy.com [Source type: Reference]

.Research in this area is focused on raising the efficiency of these devices from 7–8% to 15–20%.^ These numerous grain boundaries reduce the device efficiency.
  • Big Frog Mountain- Solar Electric Glossary Of Terminology Used In Renewable Or Alternative Energy Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC bigfrogmountain.com [Source type: Reference]

^ SunPower Corporation has produced a world-record, full-sized solar panel with a 20.4 percent total area efficiency.
  • SOLAR ENERGY EXPO: Solar Cells, Modules, Process Equipment Manufacturers, Assemblers, Installers, Dealers, Distributors 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarbuzz.com [Source type: News]

^ Both NREL and the national labs have also devoted a lot of research funds into these technologies over the last 20- 30 years.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[73]

Solar chemical

.Solar chemical processes use solar energy to drive chemical reactions.^ Are there disadvantages to using solar energy ?
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: Are there disadvantages to using solar energy ?
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vegetation uses photosynthesis to convert solar energy to chemical energy .
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

.These processes offset energy that would otherwise come from an alternate source and can convert solar energy into storable and transportable fuels.^ This is different from solar photovoltaics , which convert solar energy directly into electricity.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Algae converts solar energy into biodiesel.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The greatest challenge the U.S. solar market faces is scaling up production and distribution of solar energy technology to drive the price down to be on par with traditional fossil fuel sources.
  • Solar Energy | ACORE: American Council On Renewable Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.acore.org [Source type: News]

.Solar induced chemical reactions can be divided into thermochemical or photochemical.^ Solar technology is currently divided into two categories, thermal and photovoltaic.
  • Solar Energy Heats Up in India 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ecoworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Solar chemical is any process that harnesses solar energy by absorbing sunlight in a chemical reaction in a way similar to photosynthesis in plants but without using living organisms.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Dow Chemical today unveiled its line of DOW POWERHOUSE™ Solar Shingle, revolutionary photovoltaic solar panels in the form of solar shingles that can be integrated into rooftops with standard asphalt shingle materials.
  • SOLAR ENERGY EXPO: Solar Cells, Modules, Process Equipment Manufacturers, Assemblers, Installers, Dealers, Distributors 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarbuzz.com [Source type: News]

[74]
.Hydrogen production technologies been a significant area of solar chemical research since the 1970s.^ Creative Energy Technologies - Solar & Wind Powered Products and Appliances Online Courses - Solar Energy International (SEI), a solar energy training and education provider since 1991, is now offering PV Design Online and Solar Home Design courses online, commencing Sept.
  • Directory:Solar - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cyrium Technologies - Developing a photovoltaic solar cell technology using semiconductor quantum dot NanoTechnology to increase photovoltaic solar cell efficiency by 40% above the state-of-the-art products.
  • Directory:Solar - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (PV) solar cell technology that could adapt glass windows to generate electricity from sunlight, without losing significant transparency.
  • Directory:Solar - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Aside from electrolysis driven by photovoltaic or photochemical cells, several thermochemical processes have also been explored.^ Several different technologies are used; perhaps the one that most people have heard of is the solar panel, made from photovoltaic cells called PV. .

^ A photovoltaic panel consists of several connected 0.6-V dc PV cells, which are made out of a semiconducting material, generally mono- or multi-crystalline silicon.
  • Solar Energy Heats Up in India 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ecoworld.com [Source type: General]

^ On a large scale, and as a means of generating power, CSP has several advantages over photovoltaic cells.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One such route uses concentrators to split water into oxygen and hydrogen at high temperatures (2300-2600 °C).^ Solar power is used interchangeably with solar energy, but refers more specifically to the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either by photovoltaics and concentrating solar thermal devices, or by one of several experimental technologies such as thermoelectric converters, solar chimneys or solar ponds.
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heating water is fairly efficient but the amount of storage per liter is fairly small since it is difficult to heat beyond boiling temperatures and still use a simple storage tank.
  • Alternative Energy Power Solar Wind Geothermal Biodiesel 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC altpowerenergy.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The idea is to mimic photosynthesis--by using captured energy from a photovoltaic cell to split water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen, using a broad range of water sources.

[75] .Another approach uses the heat from solar concentrators to drive the steam reformation of natural gas thereby increasing the overall hydrogen yield compared to conventional reforming methods.^ "Passive Solar heating" Passive Solar Energy Water Heating is another easy-to-implement concept in most of the U.S. (where solar energy is plentiful much of the time).
  • "Passive Solar Energy Heating and Cooling Techniques Spectacular Solar Homes and Buildings that Cool and Heat Themselves from Free Abundant Natural Sources! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.passivesolarenergy.info [Source type: General]

^ NAL Call No.: 80-Ac82 An approach to the passive solar heating of greenhouses.
  • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The heat created there is used to generate steam.
  • Solar - Sunlight to Energy | Greenpeace International 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.greenpeace.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[76] .Thermochemical cycles characterized by the decomposition and regeneration of reactants present another avenue for hydrogen production.^ NAL Call No.: TJ810.A54 Preparation and characterization of noble metal loaded/unloaded fullerenes (photocatalyst) for the visible light induced hydrogen production.
  • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ NAL Call No.: TJ810.A54 Static and small signal characterization of silicon photoelectrochemical cathodes for hydrogen production.
  • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The Solzinc process under development at the Weizmann Institute uses a 1 MW solar furnace to decompose zinc oxide (ZnO) at temperatures above 1200 °C. This initial reaction produces pure zinc, which can subsequently be reacted with water to produce hydrogen.^ Moreover, hydrocarbons can be produced from pure hydrogen, e.g.
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The idea is to mimic photosynthesis--by using captured energy from a photovoltaic cell to split water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen, using a broad range of water sources.

^ Featured : Solar / Storage > Magnesium Energy Cycle for fossil fuel replacement - Professor Yabe of Tokyo Tech is heading the development of a process that combines magnesium and water to produce high energy steam and hydrogen, which is burned to produce additional high energy steam to power an engine with no harmful emissions.
  • Directory:Solar - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[77]
.Sandia's Sunshine to Petrol (S2P) technology uses the high temperatures generated by concentrating sunlight along with a zirconia/ferrite catalyst to break down atmospheric carbon dioxide into oxygen and carbon monoxide (CO).^ High temperature collectors concentrate sunlight using mirrors or lenses and are generally used for electric power production.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Concentrators can be used to generate extremely high temperatures, making solar furnaces possible.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The idea is to mimic photosynthesis--by using captured energy from a photovoltaic cell to split water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen, using a broad range of water sources.

.The carbon monoxide can then be used to synthesize conventional fuels such as methanol, gasoline and jet fuel.^ Is the manufacture of solar cells carbon neutral or does it involve the use of many fossil fuels?
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It would also enable the widespread use of proven technologies (such as alkaline fuel cells) that are not useful with carbon-containing fuels.

^ Its use is spreading as awareness increases about the environmental costs and limited supply of other power sources such as fossil fuels.
  • Directory:Solar - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[78]
.A photogalvanic device is a type of battery in which the cell solution (or equivalent) forms energy-rich chemical intermediates when illuminated.^ I recall having a solar-powered calculator back in the 1990s, so their proliferation is as much a function as reducing the energy drain of the device as increasing the capability of the cell.

^ The efficiency of a solar cell is a measure of its ability to convert the energy that falls on it in the form of EM radiation into electrical energy, expressed as a percent.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this transferred and stored form the energy will run any appliance or device that uses 12 volt powder or that has a plug that fits into a vehicle cigarette lighter.
  • Solar Energy Age 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC solarenergyage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These energy-rich intermediates can potentially be stored and subsequently reacted at the electrodes to produce an electric potential.^ Main article: Solar thermal energy Solar thermal energy can be focused on a heat exchanger , and converted in a heat engine to produce electric power or applied to other industrial processes.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This engine is later used in the dish/Stirling system, a solar thermal electric technology that concentrates the sun's thermal energy to produce electric power.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And on sunny days, when a home is not using all the energy the panels are producing, the energy is dumped into the grid for other electric customers to use.
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The ferric-thionine chemical cell is an example of this technology.[79]
.Photoelectrochemical cells or PECs consist of a semiconductor, typically titanium dioxide or related titanates, immersed in an electrolyte.^ NAL Call No.: TJ810.A1S6 Photoelectrochemical cells consisting of phenosafranin- EDTA and different redox couples with illuminated semiconductor electrode.
  • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A typical solar cell is made from a substance called silicon.  Silicon is known as a semiconductor.
  • solar energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC earthsci.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A typical solar cell consists of a cover glass or other encapsulant, an anti-reflective layer, a front contact to allow the electrons to enter a circuit and a back contact to allow them to complete thecircuit, and the semiconductor layers where the electrons begin and complete their voyages.
  • solar energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC earthsci.org [Source type: Reference]

When the semiconductor is illuminated an electrical potential develops. .There are two types of photoelectrochemical cells: photoelectric cells that convert light into electricity and photochemical cells that use light to drive chemical reactions such as electrolysis.^ Photovoltaic cells (PV) are used worldwide to convert sunlight into electricity.
  • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Photovoltaic or solar cells convert solar power directly into electrical power.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The idea is to mimic photosynthesis--by using captured energy from a photovoltaic cell to split water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen, using a broad range of water sources.

[80]

Solar vehicles

Australia hosts the World Solar Challenge where solar cars like the Nuna3 race through a 3,021 km (1,877 mi) course from Darwin to Adelaide.
.Development of a solar powered car has been an engineering goal since the 1980s.^ Development & deployment of solar power .
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Development of a practical solar powered car has been an engineering goal for 20 years.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The center of this development is the World Solar Challenge , a biannual solar powered car race over 3021 km (1877mi) through central Australia from Darwin to Adelaide .
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

.The World Solar Challenge is a biannual solar-powered car race, where teams from universities and enterprises compete over 3,021 kilometres (1,877 mi) across central Australia from Darwin to Adelaide.^ World Solar Challenge, an international solar car/vehicle race .
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Teams from universities and enterprises participate.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The center of this development is the World Solar Challenge , a biannual solar powered car race over 3021 km (1877mi) through central Australia from Darwin to Adelaide .
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

.In 1987, when it was founded, the winner's average speed was 67 kilometres per hour (42 mph) and by 2007 the winner's average speed had improved to 90.87 kilometres per hour (56.46 mph).^ In 1987 when it was founded, the winner's average speed was 67 km/h (42 mph).
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Sun Run, however, says its average customer pays about 24 cents per kilowatt-hour for grid-supplied electricity.
  • Shedding Light on Solar - WSJ.com 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

^ Texas’ average residential retail price for electricity was more than 12 cents per kWh in 2006 and 2007.
  • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[81] .The North American Solar Challenge and the planned South African Solar Challenge are comparable competitions that reflect an international interest in the engineering and development of solar powered vehicles.^ Development & deployment of solar power .
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ World Solar Challenge, an international solar car/vehicle race .
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American Solar Challenge (formerly Sunrayce).
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[82][83]
.Some vehicles use solar panels for auxiliary power, such as for air conditioning, to keep the interior cool, thus reducing fuel consumption.^ I recall having a solar-powered calculator back in the 1990s, so their proliferation is as much a function as reducing the energy drain of the device as increasing the capability of the cell.

^ By using Zero Energy Design TM Advanced Passive Solar Energy Cooling Technology, peak loads can be greatly reduced, which will dramatically reduce the need to build new dirty highly-polluting electric power generation systems, improve our environment and human health worldwide.
  • "Passive Solar Energy Heating and Cooling Techniques Spectacular Solar Homes and Buildings that Cool and Heat Themselves from Free Abundant Natural Sources! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.passivesolarenergy.info [Source type: General]

^ Unlike natural gas , coal , or nuclear power, solar power requires no fuel, works without polluting the air or leaving behind dangerous radioactive waste, and is extremely plentiful.
  • Solar Energy Heats Up in India 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ecoworld.com [Source type: General]

[84][85]
.In 1975, the first practical solar boat was constructed in England.^ The modular solar dish (but also solar photovoltaic and wind power ) have the advantage that electricity production starts after first construction.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the late nineteenth century, scientists discovered that the metal selenium was particularly sensitive to sunlight, and during the 1880 s Charles Fritts constructed the first selenium solar cell.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mouchet constructed the first solar-powered steam engine.
  • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[86] .By 1995, passenger boats incorporating PV panels began appearing and are now used extensively.^ Photovoltaic Breeder and Hydrogen Production Proposal - Company uses the electricity from PV panels to electrolyse and then crystalize more silicon to make more PV panels.
  • Directory:Solar - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Typically, an array is incorporated into the roof or walls of a building, and roof tiles with integrated PV cells can now be purchased.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One issue that has often raised concerns is the use of cadmium in Cadmium telluride (CdTe) modules (CdTe is only used in a few types of PV panels).
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[87] In 1996, Kenichi Horie made the first solar powered crossing of the Pacific Ocean, and the sun21 catamaran made the first solar powered crossing of the Atlantic Ocean in the winter of 2006–2007.[88] There are plans to circumnavigate the globe in 2010.[89]
Helios UAV in solar powered flight.
.In 1974, the unmanned AstroFlight Sunrise plane made the first solar flight.^ This Dutch-made prototype is billed as " the world's first solar speedboat ," which has reached speeds of up to 30 knots.
  • solar energy posts - Crave - CNET 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ First Manned Solar Plane Takes First Test...Hop .
  • Solar Energy // Current 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 29 April 1979, the Solar Riser made the first flight in a solar powered, fully controlled, man carrying flying machine, reaching an altitude of 40 feet (12 m).^ Solar power generates energy by using the natural resources around us, and there are man made sources so that the solar power can be attracted to these sources and saved.
  • Solar Energy Age 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC solarenergyage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As solar reaches "critical mass," these economies of scale should offer a powerful lever to drive down solar costs.
  • Industry:Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wikinvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This Dutch-made prototype is billed as " the world's first solar speedboat ," which has reached speeds of up to 30 knots.
  • solar energy posts - Crave - CNET 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

.In 1980, the Gossamer Penguin made the first piloted flights powered solely by photovoltaics.^ The first practical application of photovoltaics was to power orbiting satellites and other spacecraft and pocket calculators , but today the majority of photovoltaic modules are used for grid connected power generation.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The modular solar dish (but also solar photovoltaic and wind power ) have the advantage that electricity production starts after first construction.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was quickly followed by the Solar Challenger which crossed the English Channel in July 1981. In 1990 Eric Raymond in 21 hops flew from California to North Carolina using solar power.^ The center of this development is the World Solar Challenge , a biannual solar powered car race over 3021 km (1877mi) through central Australia from Darwin to Adelaide .
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Solar power generates energy by using the natural resources around us, and there are man made sources so that the solar power can be attracted to these sources and saved.
  • Solar Energy Age 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC solarenergyage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar Water Heating Most solar water heaters use photovoltaic cells to power the pump that moves the water through the pipe.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

[90] Developments then turned back to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) with the Pathfinder (1997) and subsequent designs, culminating in the Helios which set the altitude record for a non-rocket-propelled aircraft at 29,524 metres (96,860 ft) in 2001.[91] The Zephyr, developed by BAE Systems, is the latest in a line of record-breaking solar aircraft, making a 54-hour flight in 2007, and month-long flights are envisioned by 2010.[92]
A solar balloon is a black balloon that is filled with ordinary air. .As sunlight shines on the balloon, the air inside is heated and expands causing an upward buoyancy force, much like an artificially heated hot air balloon.^ During the ventilation cycle, sunlight stores heat in the thermal mass and warms the air channel causing circulation through vents at the top and bottom of the wall.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sunlight heats the air space during the day causing natural circulation through vents at the top and bottom of the wall and storing heat in the thermal mass .
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The heat causes the fluid to expand against a piston or turbine to produce mechanical power.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some solar balloons are large enough for human flight, but usage is generally limited to the toy market as the surface-area to payload-weight ratio is relatively high.^ By the late twentieth century, solar energy had become practical and affordable enough to warrant its broad-scale marketing as one of the primary energy sources of the future.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coming to the volts, generally household uses more and less 110 volt (AC) power and that is where we have converters, as it easily turns 12 volts to 110 volts, which is pretty enough for home usage.
  • Solar Energy Age 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC solarenergyage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chevron Corporation has entered the solar market; its Chevron Energy Solutions arm has 87 large, active projects under the umbrella of the California Solar Initiative.
  • Industry:Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wikinvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[93]
.Solar sails are a proposed form of spacecraft propulsion using large membrane mirrors to exploit radiation pressure from the Sun.^ Solar power is the most direct form of using the sun's energy.
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The higher operating temperatures permit the plant to use higher-temperature dry heat exchangers for its thermal exhaust, reducing the plant's water use — critical in the deserts where large solar plants are practical.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The efficiency of a solar cell is a measure of its ability to convert the energy that falls on it in the form of EM radiation into electrical energy, expressed as a percent.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unlike rockets, solar sails require no fuel.^ Unlike natural gas , coal , or nuclear power, solar power requires no fuel, works without polluting the air or leaving behind dangerous radioactive waste, and is extremely plentiful.
  • Solar Energy Heats Up in India 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ecoworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Unlike gasoline-powered generators, PV systems do not require fuel deliveries and are clean and quiet to operate.
  • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike carbon-based fuels and other non-renewable energy resources, solar energy will never run out for humans.
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although the thrust is small compared to rockets, it continues as long as the Sun shines onto the deployed sail and in the vacuum of space significant speeds can eventually be achieved.^ Solar cars can travel the speed limit on normal highways, but only as long as the sun is shining or until their batteries run down.
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[94]
.The High-altitude airship (HAA) is an unmanned, long-duration, lighter-than-air vehicle using helium gas for lift, and thin-film solar cells for power.^ Thin film solar cells are typically less efficient than crystalline silicon solar cells.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thin-film solar cells: next generation photovoltaics and its applications.
  • Solar Energy (Science Tracer Bullet - Science Reference Services, Libraryof Congress 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Unlike natural gas , coal , or nuclear power, solar power requires no fuel, works without polluting the air or leaving behind dangerous radioactive waste, and is extremely plentiful.
  • Solar Energy Heats Up in India 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ecoworld.com [Source type: General]

.The United States Department of Defense Missile Defense Agency has contracted Lockheed Martin to construct it to enhance the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS).^ How much space would be needed for photovoltaic systems to meet the entire electrical needs of the United States ?
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Washington, D.C. : United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Engineering Staff.
  • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Q: How much space would be needed for photovoltaic systems to meet the entire electrical needs of the United States ?
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[95] .Airships have some advantages for solar-powered flight: they do not require power to remain aloft, and an airship's envelope presents a large area to the Sun.^ Advantages and disadvantages of solar power .
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Asia Shows Solar Power is Not Just for the Rich - Solar power does not require steep subsidies to be able to push aside environment-polluting fossil fuels, says proponents of large sun-powered projects in Laos and Bangladesh.
  • Directory:Solar - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, some individuals live in areas where the cost of extending power lines to their home is more expensive than buying a solar energy system.
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Energy storage methods

Solar Two's thermal storage system generated electricity during cloudy weather and at night.
.Solar energy is not available at night, and energy storage is an important issue because modern energy systems usually assume continuous availability of energy.^ Availability of solar energy .
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ SOLAR ENERGY (may be subdivided geographically) This heading may also be subdivided by specific topics, e.g., SOLAR ENERGY--CLIMATIC FACTORS; SOLAR ENEGERY--HYBRID SYSTEMS; SOLAR ENERGY--PASSIVE SYSTEMS; SOLAR ENERGY--RESEARCH. .
  • Solar Energy (Science Tracer Bullet - Science Reference Services, Libraryof Congress 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Wider use of solar electric cars (or other electrics) probably depends on the availability of inexpensive, lightweight, compact energy storage methods.
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[96]
.Thermal mass systems can store solar energy in the form of heat at domestically useful temperatures for daily or seasonal durations.^ Are there disadvantages to using solar energy ?
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: Are there disadvantages to using solar energy ?
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar thermal energy is a technology for harnessing solar energy for heat.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thermal storage systems generally use readily available materials with high specific heat capacities such as water, earth and stone.^ Common thermal mass materials include stone, cement, and water.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar hot water ; Solar combisystem Solar hot water systems use sunlight to heat water.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Moreover, solar is weather dependent and intermittent, requiring storage or back-up systems to supplement during times of weak generation.
  • Industry:Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wikinvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Well-designed systems can lower peak demand, shift time-of-use to off-peak hours and reduce overall heating and cooling requirements.^ By using Zero Energy Design TM Advanced Passive Solar Energy Cooling Technology, peak loads can be greatly reduced, which will dramatically reduce the need to build new dirty highly-polluting electric power generation systems, improve our environment and human health worldwide.
  • "Passive Solar Energy Heating and Cooling Techniques Spectacular Solar Homes and Buildings that Cool and Heat Themselves from Free Abundant Natural Sources! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.passivesolarenergy.info [Source type: General]

^ These features may be incorporated in existing structures but are most effective when integrated in a solar design package which accounts for factors such as glare , heat gain, heat loss and time-of-use.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ NAL Call No.: TJ810.A54 Outdoor tests of an evacuated-tube heat-pipe collector using a real-time storage/load simulator.
  • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[97][98]
.Phase change materials such as paraffin wax and Glauber's salt are another thermal storage media.^ NAL Call No.: TJ810.A1S6 Integrated solar collector storage system based on a salt-hydrate phase-change material.
  • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ NAL Call No.: TJ810.A1S6 Mathematical modeling and experimental studies on solar energy storage in a phase change material.
  • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptors: solar-energy; storage; mathematical- models; paraffin-wax 113.
  • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.These materials are inexpensive, readily available, and can deliver domestically useful temperatures (approximately 64 °C).^ Wider use of solar electric cars (or other electrics) probably depends on the availability of inexpensive, lightweight, compact energy storage methods.
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These two silicon modules are rated at approximately 50 W each and provide power for a street light using 12  V battery storage.
  • solar energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC earthsci.org [Source type: Reference]

^ These materials could be the key to cheaper solar cells and widespread use of solar energy, researchers in the study say.
  • Directory:Solar - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The "Dover House" (in Dover, Massachusetts) was the first to use a Glauber's salt heating system, in 1948.[99]
.Solar energy can be stored at high temperatures using molten salts.^ Are there disadvantages to using solar energy ?
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: Are there disadvantages to using solar energy ?
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stored energy becomes working energy when we use it.
  • Big Frog Mountain- Solar Electric Glossary Of Terminology Used In Renewable Or Alternative Energy Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC bigfrogmountain.com [Source type: Reference]

.Salts are an effective storage medium because they are low-cost, have a high specific heat capacity and can deliver heat at temperatures compatible with conventional power systems.^ Zero Energy Design TM has documented and demonstrated dozens of practical cost-effective solutions that both lower temperature AND humidity , WITHOUT the high operating cost of a conventional compressor-based air-conditioning system.
  • "Passive Solar Energy Heating and Cooling Techniques Spectacular Solar Homes and Buildings that Cool and Heat Themselves from Free Abundant Natural Sources! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.passivesolarenergy.info [Source type: General]

^ Low-temperature collectors 1.1 Heating, cooling and ventilation 1.2 Process heat 2 Medium-temperature collectors 2.1 Cooking 2.2 Disinfection and desalination 3 High-temperature collectors 3.1 System designs 3.1.1 Parabolic trough designs 3.1.2 Power tower designs 3.1.3 Dish designs 3.1.4 Fresnel reflectors 3.1.5 Fresnel lenses 3.1.6 MicroCSP 4 Heat storage 5 Conversion rates from solar energy to electrical energy 6 Levelized cost 7 History 8 See also 9 References 10 External links .
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar thermal collectors are characterized by the US Energy Information Agency as low, medium, or high temperature collectors.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Solar Two used this method of energy storage, allowing it to store 1.44 TJ in its 68  storage tank with an annual storage efficiency of about 99%.^ Are there disadvantages to using solar energy ?
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: Are there disadvantages to using solar energy ?
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stored energy becomes working energy when we use it.
  • Big Frog Mountain- Solar Electric Glossary Of Terminology Used In Renewable Or Alternative Energy Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC bigfrogmountain.com [Source type: Reference]

[100]
.Off-grid PV systems have traditionally used rechargeable batteries to store excess electricity.^ Where are photovoltaic (PV) systems being used ?
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In such off-grid circumstances batteries are usually used to store the electric power.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Systems off of the utility grid.
  • Big Frog Mountain- Solar Electric Glossary Of Terminology Used In Renewable Or Alternative Energy Systems 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC bigfrogmountain.com [Source type: Reference]

.With grid-tied systems, excess electricity can be sent to the transmission grid.^ They can be tied into the electric grid.
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Grid-tied* solar system .
  • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar electric systems can be tied into the electric grid.
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Net metering programs give these systems a credit for the electricity they deliver to the grid.^ They can be tied into the electric grid.
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some states, if a system produces more electricity than is required by the household, homeowners can use the surplus as a credit toward the cost of power purchased on cloudy days or at night, a process known as net metering.
  • Shedding Light on Solar - WSJ.com 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

^ When this happens, it means you’re actually feeding electrical power into the utility grid and getting credit for it on your bill!
  • Solar Energy Age 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC solarenergyage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This credit offsets electricity provided from the grid when the system cannot meet demand, effectively using the grid as a storage mechanism.^ In some states, if a system produces more electricity than is required by the household, homeowners can use the surplus as a credit toward the cost of power purchased on cloudy days or at night, a process known as net metering.
  • Shedding Light on Solar - WSJ.com 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

^ When this happens, it means you’re actually feeding electrical power into the utility grid and getting credit for it on your bill!
  • Solar Energy Age 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC solarenergyage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wider use of solar electric cars (or other electrics) probably depends on the availability of inexpensive, lightweight, compact energy storage methods.
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[101]
.Pumped-storage hydroelectricity stores energy in the form of water pumped when energy is available from a lower elevation reservoir to a higher elevation one.^ Wider use of solar electric cars (or other electrics) probably depends on the availability of inexpensive, lightweight, compact energy storage methods.
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the efficiency (percentage of sunlight converted to electrical energy) varies with different types of PV Modules available today, higher-efficiency modules typically cost more.
  • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, advanced solar-energy systems provide electricity to pump water, power communications equipment and increasingly generate electricity on a commercial scale.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The energy is recovered when demand is high by releasing the water to run through a hydroelectric power generator.^ Solar power generates energy by using the natural resources around us, and there are man made sources so that the solar power can be attracted to these sources and saved.
  • Solar Energy Age 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC solarenergyage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, advanced solar-energy systems provide electricity to pump water, power communications equipment and increasingly generate electricity on a commercial scale.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result of the high capital cost of solar, solar power generation experiences significant economies of scale-- as solar demand ramps up, and manufacturers of PV modules are able to increase their production, the cost at which they can produce PV modules declines, so the end-user cost of solar systems declines.
  • Industry:Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wikinvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[102]

Development, deployment and economics

Nellis Solar Power Plant in the United States, the largest photovoltaic power plant in North America.
.Beginning with the surge in coal use which accompanied the Industrial Revolution, energy consumption has steadily transitioned from wood and biomass to fossil fuels.^ Producing solar cells need not use fossil fuel energy.
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It would provide more solar bang for the buck, and put the city on a path away from fossil fuels and towards sustainable, renewable energy.
  • San Francisco Solar Energy Incentive Program Info 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.sfsolarsubsidy.com [Source type: General]

^ However, due to scarcity and limited accessibility of fossil fuels, the use thereof had become very expensive.
  • Solar Energy Age 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC solarenergyage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The early development of solar technologies starting in the 1860s was driven by an expectation that coal would soon become scarce.^ The company's goal is to become the Florida leader in Solar and Wind Turbine research, development and installation for home and business use by 2010.
  • Directory:Solar - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the late 19th century, inventors and entrepreneurs in Europe and the U.S. developed solar energy technology that would form the basis of modern designs.
  • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cyrium Technologies - Developing a photovoltaic solar cell technology using semiconductor quantum dot NanoTechnology to increase photovoltaic solar cell efficiency by 40% above the state-of-the-art products.
  • Directory:Solar - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However development of solar technologies stagnated in the early 20th century in the face of the increasing availability, economy, and utility of coal and petroleum.^ Solar energy investments in a developing economy.
  • Solar Energy (Science Tracer Bullet - Science Reference Services, Libraryof Congress 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In the late 19th century, inventors and entrepreneurs in Europe and the U.S. developed solar energy technology that would form the basis of modern designs.
  • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar energy has been used in many traditional technologies for centuries and has come into widespread use where other power supplies are absent, such as in remote locations and in space .
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

[103]
.The 1973 oil embargo and 1979 energy crisis caused a reorganization of energy policies around the world and brought renewed attention to developing solar technologies.^ Solar energy is renewable.
  • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The solar energy industry is developing rapidly.
  • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Laird, Frank N. Solar energy, technology policy, and institutional values.
  • Solar Energy (Science Tracer Bullet - Science Reference Services, Libraryof Congress 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

[104][105] .Deployment strategies focused on incentive programs such as the Federal Photovoltaic Utilization Program in the US and the Sunshine Program in Japan.^ Federal facilities may also qualify for state or utility incentive programs for using renewable energy.
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Utility Incentives – These allow federal facilities to participate in utility incentive programs to finance projects.
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other efforts included the formation of research facilities in the US (SERI, now NREL), Japan ( NEDO), and Germany (Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE).^ NREL continues to research and develop solar energy technology.
  • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar Innovations > 37.6% – European Record Efficiency for Solar Cells from Fraunhofer ISE - Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems have set the European record for converting sunlight into electrical energy using multi-junction solar cells made out of III-V semiconductors .
  • Directory:Solar - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Research scientists also are working on a new generation of solar cells that include nanomaterials, multijunction cells and various other research efforts that may produce “leapfrog” technologies, offering considerably higher efficiency at a lower cost.
  • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[106]
.Commercial solar water heaters began appearing in the United States in the 1890s.^ In 2004, water heating in the residential sector consumed about 23% of all residential natural gas use, 8% of all residential electricity use, and about 12% of total residential energy expenditures.3 Nationwide, about 8% of all end-use natural gas is used to heat water in commercial and residential buildings In the 1890s, solar water heaters were being used all over the United States.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, advanced solar-energy systems provide electricity to pump water, power communications equipment and increasingly generate electricity on a commercial scale.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The aim of the project is to bring solar energy to schools across the United States.
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[107] .These systems saw increasing use until the 1920s but were gradually replaced by cheaper and more reliable heating fuels.^ These systems use single-axis tracking to follow the sun.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Concentrating solar power systems direct sunlight through a magnifying lens, which increases the heat energy and drives a generator that produces electricity.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a direct solar water heater the water heated in the collector is used in the domestic water system.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

[108] .As with photovoltaics, solar water heating attracted renewed attention as a result of the oil crises in the 1970s but interest subsided in the 1980s due to falling petroleum prices.^ In the 1760s, Horace de Saussure built an insulated rectangular box with a glass cover that became the prototype for solar collectors used to heat water.
  • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The oil shocks and energy crises of the 1970s restored the appeal and policy support for solar-water heating in the United States, which expanded significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 1998 to 2005, the solar water heating market produced about the thermal equivalent of 124,000 megawatt-hours (MWh) annually.
  • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Development in the solar water heating sector progressed steadily throughout the 1990s and growth rates have averaged 20% per year since 1999.[41] Although generally underestimated, solar water heating is by far the most widely deployed solar technology with an estimated capacity of 154 GW as of 2007.[41]

ISO Standards

.The International Organization for Standardization has established a number of standards relating to solar energy equipment.^ Peak sun hours is defined as the equivalent number of hours per day, with solar irradiance equaling 1,000 w/m 2 , that gives the same energy received from sunrise to sundown.
  • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solar Panels Are Vanishing, Only to Reappear on the Internet - Solar power, with its promise of emissions-free renewable energy, boasts a growing number of fans.
  • Directory:Solar - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recently, the number of private equity firms and venture capitalists investing in the solar energy sector has grown rapidly.
  • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, ISO 9050 relates to glass in building while ISO 10217 relates to the materials used in solar water heaters.^ Passive solar water heaters use a thermosiphon to circulate fluid.
  • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Many homes used solar water heaters.
  • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Build and integral passive solar water heater - A snap to build, install, and use.
  • Directory:Solar - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

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  100. ^ "Advantages of Using Molten Salt". Sandia National Laboratory. http://www.sandia.gov/Renewable_Energy/solarthermal/NSTTF/salt.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-29.  
  101. ^ "PV Systems and Net Metering". Department of Energy. http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/net_metering.html. Retrieved 2008-07-31.  
  102. ^ "Pumped Hydro Storage". Electricity Storage Association. http://www.electricitystorage.org/tech/technologies_technologies_pumpedhydro.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-31.  
  103. ^ Butti and Perlin (1981), p. 63, 77, 101
  104. ^ Butti and Perlin (1981), p. 249
  105. ^ Yergin (1991), p. 634, 653-673
  106. ^ "Chronicle of Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft". Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft. http://www.fraunhofer.de/EN/company/profile/chronicle/1972-1982.jsp. Retrieved 2007-11-04.  
  107. ^ Butti and Perlin (1981), p. 117
  108. ^ Butti and Perlin (1981), p. 139

References

  • Agrafiotis, C.; Roeb, M.; Konstandopoulos, A.G.; Nalbandian, L.; Zaspalis, V.T.; Sattler, C.; Stobbe, P.; Steele, A.M. (2005). ."Solar water splitting for hydrogen production with monolithic reactors". Solar Energy 79 (4): 409–421. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2005.02.026.  
  • Anderson, Lorraine; Palkovic, Rick (1994).^ From 1998 to 2005, the solar water heating market produced about the thermal equivalent of 124,000 megawatt-hours (MWh) annually.
    • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A promising approach is to use focused sunlight to provide the energy needed to split water into its constituent hydrogen and oxygen in the presence of a metallic catalyst such as zinc .
    • About Solar Energy - SolarHarvest.org 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.solarharvest.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Simple and widely used applications of solar thermal energy include solar water heating, swimming pool heating and agricultural drying.
    • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Cooking with Sunshine (The Complete Guide to Solar Cuisine with 150 Easy Sun-Cooked Recipes).^ NAL Call No.: TJ163/3.A57-- 1994 The Real Goods solar living sourcebook : the complete guide to renewable energy technologies and sustainable living.
    • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The easy guide to solar electric.
    • Solar Energy (Science Tracer Bullet - Science Reference Services, Libraryof Congress 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Solar Panel Guides For Beginners - Easy to understand introduction to Solar Energy for amateurs.
    • Directory:Solar - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Marlowe & Company. ISBN 156924300X.  
  • Balcomb, J. Douglas (1992). .Passive Solar Buildings.^ Profiting from sunshine: passive solar building in the mountains.
    • Solar Energy (Science Tracer Bullet - Science Reference Services, Libraryof Congress 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Rabah, K. Development of energy-efficient passive solar building design in Nicosia Cyprus.
    • Solar Energy (Science Tracer Bullet - Science Reference Services, Libraryof Congress 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A solar chimney (or thermal chimney) is a passive solar ventilation system composed of a hollow thermal mass connecting the interior and exterior of a building.
    • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ISBN 0262023415.
     
  • Bénard, C.; Gobin, D.; Gutierrez, M. (1981). ."Experimental Results of a Latent-Heat Solar-Roof, Used for Breeding Chickens". Solar Energy 26 (4): 347–359. doi:10.1016/0038-092X(81)90181-X.  
  • Bolton, James (1977).^ Descriptors: greenhouses; heating; solar-radiation; energy-requirements; heating-systems; structure; thermal- efficiency; greece 249.
    • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Producing solar cells need not use fossil fuel energy.
    • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Solar power generates energy by using the natural resources around us, and there are man made sources so that the solar power can be attracted to these sources and saved.
    • Solar Energy Age 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC solarenergyage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Solar Power and Fuels.^ Since a solar power plant does not use any fuel, the cost consists mostly of capital cost with minor operational and maintenance cost.
    • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "Solar NOT Nuclear" - "Centralised generation of electricity in conventional power stations wastes 70 per cent of the fuel's primary energy.
    • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hydrogen Fuel Cell Cars Photovoltaic Panels Solar Thermal Power Contact .
    • Solar Energy Heats Up in India 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ecoworld.com [Source type: General]

    Academic Press, Inc.. .ISBN 0121123502.  
  • Bradford, Travis (2006).^ Travis Bradford, Solar Revolution: The Economic Transformation of the Global Energy Industry (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2006), p.
    • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Solar Revolution: The Economic Transformation of the Global Energy Industry.^ Solar Energy Centre Solar Energy Industries Association Southern Sustainable Resources (SSR) Sustainable Buildings Industry Council (SBIC) .
    • Solar Energy Exchange -- Alternative Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.thinkenergy.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Edit ] Should plans to fight global warming prioritize solar energy?
    • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ May 2002 "Solar Revolution: The Economic Transformation of the Global Energy Industry".
    • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    MIT Press. ISBN 026202604X.  
  • Butti, Ken; Perlin, John (1981). .A Golden Thread (2500 Years of Solar Architecture and Technology).^ This ratio; the energy it will produce in its lifetime, compared to the amount of energy input to manufacture and maintain an energy system, has doubled in the last 20 years for most solar technologies.
    • Solar Energy Heats Up in India 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ecoworld.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Private and government research and development in solar energy technologies have led to continuing innovation over the last 30 years.
    • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Life-cycle analyses of the energy intensity of typical solar photovoltaic technologies in year 2000 find that the typical energy payback is around 7 years.
    • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Van Nostrand Reinhold. ISBN 0442240058.
     
  • Carr, Donald E. (1976). Energy & the Earth Machine. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0393064077.  
  • Daniels, Farrington (1964). .Direct Use of the Sun's Energy.^ Power From the Sun URL: http://www.powerfromthesun.net A continuously updated site; a useful resource in learning about solar energy.
    • Solar Energy (Science Tracer Bullet - Science Reference Services, Libraryof Congress 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This engine is later used in the dish/Stirling system, a solar thermal electric technology that concentrates the sun's thermal energy to produce electric power.
    • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Heat travels in all directions from the Sun and is the ultimate source of all energy on Earth.
    • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Ballantine Books. ISBN 0345259386.
     
  • Halacy, Daniel (1973). .The Coming Age of Solar Energy.^ Solar Energy Age .
    • Solar Energy Age 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC solarenergyage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In the last 20 years, the cost of conventional power has been going up, and the cost of solar energy has been coming down.” .
    • Solar Energy Heats Up in India 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ecoworld.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Solar Energy Age Home About .
    • Solar Energy Age 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC solarenergyage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Harper and Row. ISBN 0380002337.
     
  • Hunt, V. Daniel (1979). Energy Dictionary. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. ISBN 0442273959.  
  • Karan, Kaul; Greer, Edith; Kasperbauer, Michael; Mahl, Catherine (2001). "Row Orientation Affects Fruit Yield in Field-Grown Okra". Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 17 (2/3): 169–174. doi:10.1300/J064v17n02_14.  
  • Leon, M.; Kumar, S. (2007). ."Mathematical modeling and thermal performance analysis of unglazed transpired solar collectors". Solar Energy 81 (1): 62–75. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2006.06.017.  
  • Lieth, Helmut; Whittaker, Robert (1975).^ Performance and durability assessment: optical materials for solar thermal systems.
    • Solar Energy (Science Tracer Bullet - Science Reference Services, Libraryof Congress 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy Páginas en español .
    • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Solar thermal collectors are characterized by the US Energy Information Agency as low, medium, or high temperature collectors.
    • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Primary Productivity of the Biosphere. Springer-Verlag1. ISBN 0387070834.  
  • Martin, Christopher L.; Goswami, D. Yogi (2005). .Solar Energy Pocket Reference.^ Solar energy refers to the utilization of the radiant energy from the Sun.
    • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ URL: http://Oregon.gov/ENERGY/RENEW/Solar/docs/PVGuide06.pdf Includes bibliographical references.
    • Solar Energy (Science Tracer Bullet - Science Reference Services, Libraryof Congress 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Active solar energy refers to storing and converting this energy for other uses, either as photovoltaic (PV) electricity or thermal energy.
    • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .International Solar Energy Society.^ The American Solar Energy Society - ASES is a national organization dedicated to advancing the use of solar energy for the benefit of US citizens and the global environment.
    • Directory:Solar - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ NAL Call No.: TJ809.2.I573-1991 1991 Solar World Congress : proceedings of the biennial Congress of the International Solar Energy Society, Denver, Colorado, USA, 19- 23 August 1991.
    • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ IPPSO Sesci - Solar Energy Society of Canada Inc.
    • Solar Energy Exchange -- Alternative Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.thinkenergy.com [Source type: Reference]

    ISBN 0977128202.
     
  • Mazria, Edward (1979). .The Passive Solar Energy Book.^ In fact, whether by design or coincidence, passive solar technology reduces winter time energy consumption for heating everywhere on earth.
    • Solar Energy - a knol by William Pentland 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ NAL Call No.: TJ810.A1S6 Design and operation of a low energy consumption passive solar agricultural greenhouse.
    • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Descriptors: greenhouses; heat-exchangers; pipes; energy-conservation; cooling; heat-exchange; solar-energy; solar- heating; air-temperature; earth-to-air-heat-exchangers; underground-pipes; passive-solar-greenhouses 248.
    • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    Rondale Press. ISBN 0878572384.
     
  • Meier, Anton; Bonaldi, Enrico; Cella, Gian Mario; Lipinski, Wojciech; Wuillemin, Daniel (2005). ."Solar chemical reactor technology for industrial production of lime". Solar Energy 80 (10): 1355–1362. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2005.05.017.  
  • Mills, David (2004).^ Can solar energy generally supply massive quantities of electricity and replace significant quantities of coal production as well as other dirty forms of electricity production?
    • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cory Tags: All Sorts , Electricity , Energy Production , Energy Resource , Energy Source , Heating Water , Modern Technology , Natural Resource , New Resources , Power Supply , Risk , Scientists , Solar Power , Teaching Children , Warmth Posted in Environment .
    • Solar Energy Age 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC solarenergyage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A & M Compillers A Charis and Partners Ltd A New Direction A to Z Variety A-Net Energy A.M.P.S. Alternate Mobile Power Systems AAA Solar/Semco AAE Technologies Ltd.
    • Solar Energy Exchange -- Alternative Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.thinkenergy.com [Source type: Reference]

    ."Advances in solar thermal electricity technology". Solar Energy 76 (1-3): 19–31. doi:10.1016/S0038-092X(03)00102-6.  
  • Müller, Reto; Steinfeld, A. (2007).^ NAL Call No.: TJ810.A1S6 New proposal for photovoltaic-thermal solar energy utilization method.
    • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Descriptors: greenhouses; heating; solar-radiation; energy-requirements; heating-systems; structure; thermal- efficiency; greece 249.
    • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ B-K Lighting Installing Solar Electric System Madera Tribune, April 11, 2007 .
    • Solar Power for Homes and Businesses | Solar Panel Installation 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.recsolar.com [Source type: News]

    ."Band-approximated radiative heat transfer analysis of a solar chemical reactor for the thermal dissociation of zinc oxide". Solar Energy 81 (10): 1285–1294. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2006.12.006.  
  • Perlin, John (1999).^ Solar thermal energy is a technology for harnessing solar energy for heat.
    • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ NAL Call No.: TJ810.A1S6 New proposal for photovoltaic-thermal solar energy utilization method.
    • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ From 1998 to 2005, the solar water heating market produced about the thermal equivalent of 124,000 megawatt-hours (MWh) annually.
    • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .From Space to Earth (The Story of Solar Electricity).^ Solar water heating and space heating devices are “stand-alone” systems that are not connected to the electric grid.
    • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ From space to earth: the story of solar electricity .
    • Solar Energy (Science Tracer Bullet - Science Reference Services, Libraryof Congress 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .Harvard University Press.^ Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 2002.
    • Solar Energy (Science Tracer Bullet - Science Reference Services, Libraryof Congress 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0674010132.  
  • Bartlett, Robert (1998). .Solution Mining: Leaching and Fluid Recovery of Materials.^ Modern uses include concentrating brine solutions used in leach mining and removing dissolved solids from waste streams.
    • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Routledge. ISBN 9056996339.
     
  • Scheer, Hermann (2002). .The Solar Economy (Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Global Future).^ So as you may or may not know, the city of San Francisco was a winner of the “solar cities” grant, where (I think) 13 cities got about $2M a piece to use to promote renewable energy.
    • San Francisco Solar Energy Incentive Program Info 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.sfsolarsubsidy.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It would provide more solar bang for the buck, and put the city on a path away from fossil fuels and towards sustainable, renewable energy.
    • San Francisco Solar Energy Incentive Program Info 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.sfsolarsubsidy.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Descriptors: Solar-energy-Handbooks,-manuals,-etc; Renewable-energy-sources-Handbooks,-manuals,-etc; Simplicity- Handbooks,-manuals,-etc; Conservation-of-natural-resources- Handbooks,-manuals,-etc 160.
    • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    Earthscan Publications Ltd. ISBN 1844070751. .http://www.hermannscheer.de/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=33&Itemid=7.  
  • Schittich, Christian (2003).^ Retrieved from " http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Solar " Categories : Solar .
    • Directory:Solar - PESWiki 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Retrieved from " http://wiki.idebate.org/en/index.php/Debate:_Solar_energy " Categories : Energy .
    • Debate: Solar energy - Debatepedia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wiki.idebate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Their contact information can be found here: http://www.sfgov.org/site/bdsupvrs_index.asp?id=7271 .
    • San Francisco Solar Energy Incentive Program Info 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.sfsolarsubsidy.com [Source type: General]

    Solar Architecture (Strategies Visions Concepts). Architektur-Dokumentation GmbH & Co. KG. ISBN 3764307471.  
  • Smil, Vaclav (1991). General Energetics: Energy in the Biosphere and Civilization. Wiley. pp. 369. ISBN 0471629057.  
  • Smil, Vaclav (2003). Energy at the Crossroads: Global Perspectives and Uncertainties. MIT Press. pp. 443. ISBN 0262194929.  
  • Smil, Vaclav (2006-05-17) (PDF). Energy at the Crossroads. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. ISBN 0262194929. .http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/52/25/36760950.pdf.^ San Diego Regional Energy Office, “Cost of a Residential PV System,” http://www.sdenergy.org/contentpage.asp?ContentID=136.
    • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Solar Energy Industries Association, Our Solar Power Future: The U.S. Photovoltaic Industry Roadmap Through 2030 and Beyond (Washington, D.C., September 2004), http://www.seia.org/roadmap.pdf.
    • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ American Solar Energy Society URL: http://www.ases.org The American Solar Energy Society (ASES) is the U. S. section of the International Solar Energy Society.
    • Solar Energy (Science Tracer Bullet - Science Reference Services, Libraryof Congress 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    Retrieved 2007-09-29
    .
     
  • Tabor, H. Z.; Doron, B. (1990). ."The Beith Ha'Arava 5 MW(e) Solar Pond Power Plant (SPPP)--Progress Report". Solar Energy 45 (4): 247–253. doi:10.1016/0038-092X(90)90093-R.  
  • Tiwari, G. N.; Singh, H. N.; Tripathi, R. (2003).^ Finally, some individuals live in areas where the cost of extending power lines to their home is more expensive than buying a solar energy system.
    • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Solar Tres power plant in Spain is expected to be the first commercial solar thermal power plant to utilize molten salt for heat storage and nighttime generation.
    • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This allows the use of solar power for baseload generation as well as peak power generation, with the potential of displacing both coal and natural gas fired power plants.
    • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ."Present status of solar distillation". Solar Energy 75 (5): 367–373. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2003.07.005.  
  • Tritt, T.; Böttner, H.; Chen, L. (2008).^ Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy Páginas en español .
    • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Presently, mass-produced solar cells have an efficiency of little over 10%.
    • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The surface of the Earth receives an amount of solar energy equivalent to roughly 10,000 times the world energy demand,” wrote Erik Lysen in the January 2003 issue of Renewable Energy World magazine.
    • Solar Energy Heats Up in India 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ecoworld.com [Source type: General]

    ."Thermoelectrics: Direct Solar Thermal Energy Conversion".^ NAL Call No.: TJ810.A1S6 New proposal for photovoltaic-thermal solar energy utilization method.
    • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Descriptors: greenhouses; heating; solar-radiation; energy-requirements; heating-systems; structure; thermal- efficiency; greece 249.
    • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Solar thermal collectors are characterized by the US Energy Information Agency as low, medium, or high temperature collectors.
    • Solar Power 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC howardhallfarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    MRS Bulletin 33 (4): 355–372. .http://www.mrs.org/s_mrs/bin.asp?CID=12527&DID=208641.  
  • Tzempelikos, Athanassios; Athienitis, Andreas K. (2007).^ San Diego Regional Energy Office, “Cost of a Residential PV System,” http://www.sdenergy.org/contentpage.asp?ContentID=136.
    • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Electricity from Non-hydroelectric Renewable Energy Sources,” http://www.epa.gov/cgi-bin/epaprintonly.cgi.
    • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ American Solar Energy Society URL: http://www.ases.org The American Solar Energy Society (ASES) is the U. S. section of the International Solar Energy Society.
    • Solar Energy (Science Tracer Bullet - Science Reference Services, Libraryof Congress 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ."The impact of shading design and control on building cooling and lighting demand". Solar Energy 81 (3): 369–382. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2006.06.015.  
  • Vecchia, A.; Formisano, W.; Rosselli, V; Ruggi, D. (1981).^ Solar Energy Centre Solar Energy Industries Association Southern Sustainable Resources (SSR) Sustainable Buildings Industry Council (SBIC) .
    • Solar Energy Exchange -- Alternative Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.thinkenergy.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Other Resources: To find a solar energy system designer or installer in your area, please visit our solar yellow pages for a list of sources of solar professionals.
    • Solar Energy Technologies Program: Solar FAQs — Photovoltaics 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC apps1.eere.energy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Descriptors: buildings; solar-heating; design; computer-simulation; optimization; belgium 7.
    • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ."Possibilities for the Application of Solar Energy in the European Community Agriculture". Solar Energy 26 (6): 479–489. doi:10.1016/0038-092X(81)90158-4.  
  • Yergin, Daniel (1991).^ Boer, K. W.; Piprek, J. Proc-annu-conf-Am-Solar-Energy- Soc p.22-26.
    • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy Páginas en español .
    • Chapter 10 - Energy Report - Solar Energy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.window.state.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Paper presented at the "1991 International Summer Meeting sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers," June 23-26, 1992, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
    • Solar Energy Alternatives for Agriculture, QB 96-06 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.nalusda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power.^ T. The power of light: the epic story of man’s quest to harness the sun.
    • Solar Energy (Science Tracer Bullet - Science Reference Services, Libraryof Congress 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    Simon & Schuster. pp. 885. ISBN 0671799329.  
  • Zedtwitz, P.v.; Petrasch, J.; Trommer, D.; Steinfeld, A. (2006). "Hydrogen production via the solar thermal decarbonization of fossil fuels". Solar Energy 80 (10): 1333–1337. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2005.06.007.  

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