# Encyclopedia

.Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a liquid solvent to form a homogeneous solution.^ We say that we dissolve the solute into the solvent.
• CHEMTUTOR SOLUTIONS 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.chemtutor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not all substances will dissolve in all solvents.
• Solubility Tutorial 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.chem.lsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solubility is the ability of a substance to dissolve.
• Relating Solubility and Ksp - ChemWiki 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC chemwiki.ucdavis.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The solubility of a substance strongly depends on the used solvent as well as on temperature and pressure.^ The solubility of a given solute in a given solvent typically depends on temperature.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The solubility of a gas depends directly on the gas pressure.
• Solubility of gases in liquids, Henry's law 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.800mainstreet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The units on "k" depend on the units used for concentration and pressure.
• Solubility of gases in liquids, Henry's law 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.800mainstreet.com [Source type: Academic]

.The pressure also affects the solution whether it is gas or liquid, like temperature.^ An increase in pressure increases of solubility of a gas in a liquid.
• SOLUBILITY-FACTORS AFFECTING SOLUBILITY 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.citycollegiate.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If the solute is a gas and the solvent is a liquid then pressure DOES affect solubility (Henry's Law).

^ Increase the gas pressure on the liquid.
• CHEMTUTOR SOLUTIONS 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.chemtutor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.So, in definition of solubility we always mention the pressure and temperature "fixed". The extent of the solubility of a substance in a specific solvent is measured as the saturation concentration where adding more solute does not increase the concentration of the solution.^ A solution is saturated when no more solute will dissolve in it.
• S-Cool | Solubility product 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.s-cool.co.uk [Source type: Reference]

^ The solubility of a substance is defined as the maximum amount of the substance, which can be dissolved in a definite amount of solvent at a certain temperature.
• Solubility of Salts - A study of teh solubility of potassium nitrate with temperature 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.cod.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The solubility of solids in aqueous solution, generally increases with the temperature of the solution.
• SparkNotes: Solubility: Introduction and Summary 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: General]

.The solvent is generally a liquid, which can be a pure substance or a mixture.^ The solvent is often a solid, which can be a pure substance or a mixture.

^ The solubility of a substance B can be related to the square of the difference between the solubility parameters for supercooled liquid B and solvent at a given temperature, with appropriate allowances for entropy of mixing.
• IUPAC Gold Book - solubility parameter, δ 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC goldbook.iupac.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A special case where it may be found helpful is to locate mixtures of solvents suitable for NMR analyses, such that a sample can be dissolved suitably, where it could not be in any of the useful pure NMR solvents alone.
• Charles M. Hansen ::: The Official Hansen Solubility Parameters Website 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC hansen-solubility.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] One also speaks of solid solution, but rarely of solution in a gas (see vapor-liquid equilibrium instead)
.The extent of solubility ranges widely, from infinitely soluble (fully miscible[2] ) such as ethanol in water, to poorly soluble, such as silver chloride in water.^ Poorly soluble in water .

^ Solubilities range widely, from infinitely soluble such as ethanol in water, to poorly soluble, such as silver chloride in water.

^ So, the solubility of silver chloride can be related to its solubility product by: .
• S-Cool | Solubility product 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.s-cool.co.uk [Source type: Reference]

.The term insoluble is often applied to poorly or very poorly soluble compounds.^ The term insoluble is often applied to poorly soluble compounds, although in some cases insolubility means that a compound is very poorly soluble.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The terms soluble and insoluble are relative.
• http://genchem.chem.wisc.edu/sstutorial/Text11/Tx112/tx112.html 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC genchem.chem.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A basic knowledge of which compounds are soluble in aqueous solutions is essential for predicting whether a given reaction might involve formation of a precipitate (an insoluble compound).
• Solubility rules! Guidelines for chemical compound solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.chem.sc.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Under certain conditions the equilibrium solubility can be exceeded to give a so-called supersaturated solution, which is metastable.^ Under certain conditions the equilibrium solubility can be exceeded to give a so-called supersaturated solution, which is metastable .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Solution reaches its equilibrium in given conditions and is called a saturated solution .
• SOLUBILITY OF IONS, SALTS in SolubilityOFthings | Solubility of things 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.solubilityofthings.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under various conditions, the equilibrium solubility can be exceeded to give a so-called supersaturated solution, which is metastable.

[3]

## Molecular view

.Solubility occurs under dynamic equilibrium, which means that solubility results from the simultaneous and opposing processes of dissolution and phase separation (e.g.^ The solubility equilibrium occurs when the two processes proceed at a constant rate.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Solubility occurs under dynamic equilibrium, which means that solubility results from the simultaneous and opposing processes of dissolution and precipitation .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Chapter 5: Phase equilibrium studies on ionic liquid systems for industrial separation processes of complex organic mixtures (P. Reddy, T.M. Letcher).
• Thermodynamics, Solubility and Environmental Issues - Elsevier 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.elsevier.com [Source type: Academic]

precipitation of solids). .The solubility equilibrium occurs when the two processes proceed at a constant rate.^ We can write an equilibrium constant for this process, and the larger it is the greater the solubility.

^ Solubility equilibrium constant of strengite.
• On the Solubility Constant of Strengite -- Iuliano et al. 71 (4): 1137 -- Soil Science Society of America Journal 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC soil.scijournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The solubility process reaches a dynamic equilibrium described by an equilibrium constant.

.The term solubility is also used in some fields where the solute is altered by solvolysis.^ In some cases, the introduction of ionizable groups also helps increasing solubility and can be useful to target solubility at the desired pH-value.

^ This term is often used in the field of metallurgy to refer to the extent that an alloying element will dissolve into the base metal without forming a separate phase.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In some cases, solubility equilibria can take a long time to establish (hours, days, months, or many years; depending on the nature of the solute and other factors).
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.For example, many metals and their oxides are said to be "soluble in hydrochloric acid," whereas the aqueous acid degrades the solid to irreversibly give soluble products.^ Metal phosphate minerals and their solubility products .
• Use of Diammonium Phosphate to Reduce Heavy Metal Solubility and Transport in Smelter-Contaminated Soil -- McGowen et al. 30 (2): 493 -- Journal of Environmental Quality 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC jeq.scijournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The other reaction products, including the magnesium bromide, will remain in the aqueous layer, clearly showing that separation based on solubility is achieved.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The solubility of solids in aqueous solution, generally increases with the temperature of the solution.
• SparkNotes: Solubility: Introduction and Summary 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: General]

.It is also true that most ionic solids are degraded by polar solvents, but such processes are reversible.^ Ionic compounds tend to dissolve in polar solvents such as water.
• S-Cool | Solubility product 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.s-cool.co.uk [Source type: Reference]

^ Description Polar solvents dissolve polar and ionic solids, and nonpolar solvents generally dissolve nonpolar solids.

^ For the fluorides the converse is true; this is due to the hydrogen bonding of the water solvent with the fluoride ion, a process that increases order and thus decreases the entropy.

.In those cases where the solute is not recovered upon evaporation of the solvent the process is referred to as solvolysis.^ According to this definition, an almost-dry or slightly swollen resin film comprises a solution of a liquid (the solute) in a resin (the solvent), even though conventionally the liquid is usually referred to as the solvent, and the resin as the solute.

^ Freezing also plays a role (depending upon whether the solute is soluble both in the liquid and solid phases of the solvent.

^ NRTL-SAC has been demonstrated through the case study on Cimetidine as a valuable aid to solubility data assessment and targeted solvent selection for crystallization process design.
• Solubility and Prediction Modelling in Early Stage Pharmaceutical Process Development | Pharma QbD 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.pharmaqbd.com [Source type: Academic]

.The thermodynamic concept of solubility does not apply straightforwardly to solvolysis.^ This title takes an interdisciplinary approach to the central role of solubility in pathological biomineralisation, ranging from traditional thermodynamics and kinetics to unusual concepts such as the PILP process.
• Wiley::Biomineralization: Medical Aspects of Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC eu.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Calculated unsteady flow fields show that the formation of the tip clearance vortex is intermittent and the concept of vortex breakdown from steady flow analysis does not seem to apply in the current flow field.
• Daily 99-01 RSS Feed 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.sti.nasa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Apply Solubility Theory for Process Improvements Mar 01, 2004; For solid compounds that dissolve in solvents but do not ionize, the thermodynamics of solubility can provide valuable...
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.When a solute dissolves, it may form several species in the solution.^ When a solute dissolves, it may form several species in the solution.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Able to dissolve or form a solution.
• Contractor School Online® - Contractor Glossary of Terms 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.contractorreferral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amount of a substance (called the solute) that dissolves in a unit volume of a liquid substance (called the solvent ) to form a saturated solution under specified conditions of temperature and pressure .

.For example, an aqueous suspension of ferrous hydroxide, Fe(OH)2, will contain the series [Fe(H2O)6 − x(OH)x](2 − x)+ as well as other oligomeric species.^ For example, an aqueous suspension of ferrous hydroxide , , will contain the series [] (2−x)+ as well as other oligomeric species.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ FIG. 3 contains XRPD patterns of a stable composition comprising zafirlukast and HPC prepared by non-aqueous granulation, from Example 12.
• SOLUBILITY-ENHANCED PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITIONS COMPRISING ZAFIRLUKAST - Patent application 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The advantage of expressing solubility in this manner is its simplicity, while the disadvantage is that it can strongly depend on the presence of other species in the solvent (for example, the common ion effect).
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.Furthermore, the solubility of ferrous hydroxide and the composition of its soluble components depends on pH.^ Furthermore, the solubility of ferrous hydroxide and the composition of its soluble components depends on pH .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Corrosion of composite tube air-ports in kraft recovery boiler: Cr2O3, Fe2O3, NiO solubility in molten hydroxide .
• Browsing SMARTech - Georgia Tech's Institutional Repository 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC smartech.gatech.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In practice then, the result is a composite curve for base solubility as a function of pH comprising 2 parts separated by a sharp discontinuity.
• The Composite Solubility Versus pH Profile and Its Role in Intestinal Absorption Prediction 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.aapsj.org [Source type: Academic]

.In general, solubility in the solvent phase can be given only for a specific solute which is thermodynamically stable, and the value of the solubility will include all the species in the solution (in the example above, all the iron-containing complexes).^ The solubility of a given solute in a given solvent typically depends on temperature.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Each solvent and solute pair has a characteristic solubility at a given temperature.
• CHEMTUTOR SOLUTIONS 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.chemtutor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, sugar is a solute and water is a solvent.
• Relating Solubility and Ksp - ChemWiki 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC chemwiki.ucdavis.edu [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

## Factors affecting solubility

.Solubility is defined for specific phases.^ Solubility is defined for specific phases .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ More specifically, compound solubility can be defined as unbuffered, buffered, and intrinsic solubility.
• Biopharmaceutical classification system, Aqueous Solubility of class I,class II ,class IV drugs | Pharmainfo.net 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.pharmainfo.net [Source type: Academic]

^ In general, solubility in the solvent phase can be given only for a specific solute which is thermodynamically stable, and the value of the solubility will include all the species in the solution (in the example above, all the iron-containing complexes).
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.For example, the solubility of aragonite and calcite in water are expected to differ, even though they are both polymorphs of calcium carbonate and have the same chemical formula.^ For example, the solubility of aragonite and calcite in water are expected to differ, even though they are both polymorphs of calcium carbonate , and have the same chemical formula .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Is carbon tetrachloride, CCl 4 , soluble in water?
• Solubility Tutorial 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.chem.lsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Calcium carbonate gives the solubility equilibrium .

.The solubility of one substance in another is determined by the balance of intermolecular forces between the solvent and solute, and the entropy change that accompanies the solvation.^ A. Determining Solubility How is the solubility of a substance determined?
• http://genchem.chem.wisc.edu/sstutorial/Text11/Tx112/tx112.html 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC genchem.chem.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ C. Factors Affecting Solubility Many factors affect the solubility of one substance in another.
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^ The solubility of one substance dissolving in another is determined by the balance of intermolecular forces between the solvent and solute, and the entropy change that accompanies the solvation.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.Factors such as temperature and pressure will alter this balance, thus changing the solubility.^ Why does solubility change with temperature?
• General Chemistry Online: FAQ: Solutions: Why does the solubility of gases usually increase as temperature goes down? 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC antoine.frostburg.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Factors such as temperature and pressure will alter this balance, thus changing the solubility.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The change in K with temperature at constant pressure reflects a change in m s , .
• SOLUBILITY AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC web.njit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Solubility may also strongly depend on the presence of other species dissolved in the solvent, for example, complex-forming anions (ligands) in liquids.^ Solvent is the liquid that something is dissolving in or not.
• ScholarNET | Online Learning 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.mathsonline.co.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The advantage of expressing solubility in this manner is its simplicity, while the disadvantage is that it can strongly depend on the presence of other species in the solvent (for example, the common ion effect).
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When a solute dissolves, it may form several species in the solution.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.Solubility will also depend on the excess or deficiency of a common ion in the solution, a phenomenon known as the common-ion effect.^ Solubility will also depend on the excess or deficiency of a common ion in the solution, a phenomenon known as the common-ion effect .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Solubility depends on three factors - temperature, pH and common ion.
• Advanced Projects in Chemistry - Solubility and Solubility Product Determination 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: Academic]

^ SO 4 -2 -common ion effect field.
• Solubility Calculator - Product Constant 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC home.c2i.net [Source type: Academic]

.To a lesser extent, solubility will depend on the ionic strength of solutions.^ To a lesser extent, solubility will depend on the ionic strength of liquid solutions.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The solubility of solutes is dependent on temperature.
• Temperature/Pressure on Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.elmhurst.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In some cases, solubility equilibria can take a long time to establish (hours, days, months, or many years; depending on the nature of the solute and other factors).
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.The last two effects can be quantified using the equation for solubility equilibrium.^ The last two effects can be quantified using the equation for solubility equilibrium .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The advantage of modification of LBG was illustrated by difference in dissolution profiles of their SD. Effect of polymer concentration and methods of preparation on solubility enhancement were studied using solubility and dissolution studies, respectively.
• Solubility Enhancement of Lovastatin by Modified Locust Bean Gum Using Solid Dispersion Techniques 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.pharmagateway.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Write equations that describe the relationship between the solubility of CaF 2 and the equilibrium concentrations of the Ca 2+ and F - ions in a saturated solution as a first step toward evaluating its use as a fluoridating agent.

.For a solid that dissolves in a redox reaction, solubility is expected to depend on the potential (within the range of potentials under which the solid remains the thermodynamically stable phase).^ In this case, the solubility of albite is expected to depend on the solid-to-solvent ratio.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Soluble: Dissolve - Do NOT form a solid precipitate.

^ The solubility of solids also depends on the temperature of the solvent.

.For example, solubility of gold in high-temperature water is observed to be almost an order of magnitude higher when the redox potential is controlled using a highly-oxidizing Fe3O4-Fe2O3 redox buffer than with a moderately-oxidizing Ni-NiO buffer.^ The solubility of the salt can then be determined at a temperature higher and lower than the ambient temperature.
• Advanced Projects in Chemistry - Solubility and Solubility Product Determination 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, oxygen is more soluble in cold water than in hot water.
• General Chemistry Online: FAQ: Solutions: Why does the solubility of gases usually increase as temperature goes down? 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC antoine.frostburg.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This, then, can be used to predict the solubility at other temperatures.

[4]
.Solubility (metastable) also depends on the physical size of the crystal or droplet of solute (or, strictly speaking, on the specific or molar surface area of the solute).^ Solubility (metastable) also depends on the physical size of the crystal or droplet of solute (or, strictly speaking, on the specific or molar surface area of the solute).
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ How does solubility vary with the surface area of the solute?

^ The solubility of solutes is dependent on temperature.
• Temperature/Pressure on Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.elmhurst.edu [Source type: Reference]

.For quantification, see the equation in the article on solubility equilibrium.^ For quantification, see the equation in the article on solubility equilibrium .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Referring to the dissolution equation, removing Ag + ions will shift the equilibrium to the right, hence increasing the solubility of CH 3 COOAg.

.For highly defective crystals, solubility may increase with the increasing degree of disorder.^ For highly defective crystals, solubility may increase with the increasing degree of disorder.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The increased dissolution rate may be due to the higher solubility of PVP in dissolution medium and better wettability of Terbinafine hydrochloride in the formulation.
• Development, characterization and solubility study of solid dispersion of terbinafine hydrochloride by solvent evaporation method Kumar N, Jain AK, Singh C, Kumar R - Asian J Pharm 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.asiapharmaceutics.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Solubility enhancement of piroxicam might be the consequence of increase in the pH of the solution by the highly basic dendrimer.
• Dendrimers - Reflections on host-guest interaction mechanism towards solubility enhancement Jain NK, Prajapati RN, Agarwal A, Gupta U, Asthana A - Asian J Pharm 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.asiapharmaceutics.info [Source type: Academic]

.Both of these effects occur because of the dependence of solubility constant on the Gibbs energy of the crystal.^ Both of these effects occur because of the dependence of solubility constant on the Gibbs energy of the crystal.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This finding is intriguing because these drugs exhibit Class I behavior as their absorption does not seem to be dissolution or solubility limited.
• The “High Solubility” Definition of the Current FDA Guidance on Biopharmaceutical Classification System May Be Too Strict for Acidic Drugs 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.pharmagateway.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Solubility (metastable) also depends on the physical size of the crystal or droplet of solute (or, strictly speaking, on the specific or molar surface area of the solute).
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.The last two effects, although often difficult to measure, are of practical importance.^ It has been common practice in the industry to make a single high-pH measurement, but it is shown here that the result is often greatly influenced by the low pH solubility too.
• The Composite Solubility Versus pH Profile and Its Role in Intestinal Absorption Prediction 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.aapsj.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The solubility is often (although not always) measured as the mass of salt which would saturate 100 grams of water at a particular temperature.
• solid-liquid phase diagrams: salt solution 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.chemguide.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.July 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] For example, they provide the driving force for precipitate aging (the crystal size spontaneously increasing with time).^ For example, they provide the driving force for precipitate aging (the crystal size spontaneously increasing with time).
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ EXAMPLES [0042] The following examples are provided to illustrate certain embodiments of this invention and are not intended, nor are they to be construed, to limit its scope in any manner whatsoever.
• COMPOUNDS AND METHODS FOR ENHANCING SOLUBILITY OF FLORFENICOL AND STRUCTURALLY-RELATED ANTIBIOTICS USING CYCLODEXTRINS - Patent application 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This reaction lowers [Ag + ], and hence forces the equilibrium to the right, increasing the solubility of CH 3 COOAg.

### Temperature

.The solubility of a given solute in a given solvent typically depends on temperature.^ The solubility of a given solute in a given solvent typically depends on temperature.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In this saturated solution, the amount of solute is the solubility of that substance at that temperature in that solvent.
• http://genchem.chem.wisc.edu/sstutorial/Text11/Tx112/tx112.html 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC genchem.chem.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each solvent and solute pair has a characteristic solubility at a given temperature.
• CHEMTUTOR SOLUTIONS 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.chemtutor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For many solids dissolved in liquid water, the solubility increases with temperature up to 100 °C.[5] In liquid water at high temperatures, (e.g., that approaching the critical temperature), the solubility of ionic solutes tends to decrease due to the change of properties and structure of liquid water; the lower dielectric constant results in a less polar solvent.^ The solubility of a given solute in a given solvent typically depends on temperature.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Ionic solute; polar solvent: So why does sodium chloride dissolve in water?
• Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.thechemguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The solubility of a solution is a measure of how much of the solute can be dissolved into the solvent.
• CHEMTUTOR SOLUTIONS 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.chemtutor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gaseous solutes exhibit more complex behavior with temperature.^ Gaseous solutes exhibit more complex behavior with temperature.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ As you might expect, the more solute there is in the solution, the lower the vapor pressure and thus the higher the boiling temperature required.
• Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.thechemguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More gas is present in a solution with a lower temperature compared to a solution with a higher temperature.
• Temperature/Pressure on Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.elmhurst.edu [Source type: Reference]

.As the temperature is raised, gases usually become less soluble in water (to minimum which is below 120 °C for most permanent gases[6]), but more soluble in organic solvents.^ Nearly every gas becomes less soluble with increasing temperature.
• SparkNotes: Solubility: Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The solubility is less at the lower temperatures.
• SOLUBILITY AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC web.njit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Try to predict how the solubility of gases will change as the temperature is raised.
• Temperature and Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC dwb4.unl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]
.The chart shows solubility curves for some typical solid inorganic salts (temperature is in degrees celcius).^ Two typical solubility curves .
• solid-liquid phase diagrams: salt solution 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.chemguide.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The solubility product of a salt is constant at constant temperature.
• Advanced Projects in Chemistry - Solubility and Solubility Product Determination 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some compounds, however, show a decrease in solubility with increased temperature.

[7] .Many salts behave like barium nitrate and disodium hydrogen arsenate, and show a large increase in solubility with temperature.^ Would the solubility of the salt increase or decrease?.

^ Solubility is expected to increase when temperature rises.
• General Chemistry Online: FAQ: Solutions: Why does the solubility of gases usually increase as temperature goes down? 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC antoine.frostburg.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The solubility product of a salt is constant at constant temperature.
• Advanced Projects in Chemistry - Solubility and Solubility Product Determination 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: Academic]

Some solutes (e.g. .NaCl in water) exhibit solubility which is fairly independent of temperature.^ NaCl in water) exhibit solubility which is fairly independent of temperature.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ There are two broad cases to be considered - very soluble salts such as NaCl which dissociate 100% upon addition to water .
• Chemical Equilibrium - Solubility Products - Technical Tutoring 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.hyper-ad.com [Source type: General]

^ Aqueous Solubility is the maximum concentration of a chemical that will dissolve in pure water at a reference temperature.
• Solubility definition - Environmental Dictionary of popular environmental terms 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.ecomii.com [Source type: General]

.A few, such as cerium(III) sulfate, become less soluble in water as temperature increases.^ Nearly every gas becomes less soluble with increasing temperature.
• SparkNotes: Solubility: Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gases become less soluble as the temperature is raised.
• Temperature and Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC dwb4.unl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solubility is expected to increase when temperature rises.
• General Chemistry Online: FAQ: Solutions: Why does the solubility of gases usually increase as temperature goes down? 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC antoine.frostburg.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This temperature dependence is sometimes referred to as "retrograde" or "inverse" solubility.^ The solubility of solutes is dependent on temperature.
• Temperature/Pressure on Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.elmhurst.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The solubility of a given solute in a given solvent typically depends on temperature.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The solubility of ibuprofen in the dendrimer solution was directly proportional to the dendrimer concentration and inversely proportional to the temperature.
• Dendrimers - Reflections on host-guest interaction mechanism towards solubility enhancement Jain NK, Prajapati RN, Agarwal A, Gupta U, Asthana A - Asian J Pharm 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.asiapharmaceutics.info [Source type: Academic]

.Occasionally, a more complex pattern is observed, as with sodium sulfate, where the less soluble decahydrate crystal loses water of crystallization at 32 °C to form a more soluble anhydrous phase.^ Occasionally, a more complex pattern is observed, as with sodium sulfate , where the less soluble deca hydrate crystal loses water of crystallization at 32 °C to form a more soluble anhydrous phase.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These patterns form the solubility rules.
• ScholarNET | Online Learning 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.mathsonline.co.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, it is more soluble in hot water.
• Benzoic Acid Solubility - Ask.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.The solubility of organic compounds nearly always increases with temperature.^ Nearly every gas becomes less soluble with increasing temperature.
• SparkNotes: Solubility: Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solubility of organic compounds .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Solubility is expected to increase when temperature rises.
• General Chemistry Online: FAQ: Solutions: Why does the solubility of gases usually increase as temperature goes down? 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC antoine.frostburg.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The technique of recrystallization, used for purification of solids, depends on a solute's different solubilities in hot and cold solvent.^ The solubility of a given solute in a given solvent typically depends on temperature.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In this case, the solubility of albite is expected to depend on the solid-to-solvent ratio.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ How is a solution different than a solvent?
• Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.thechemguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A few exceptions exist, such as certain cyclodextrins.[8]

### Pressure

.For condensed phases (solids and liquids), the pressure dependence of solubility is typically weak and usually neglected in practice.^ Usually solid, occasionally liquid or gas.
• ScholarNET | Online Learning 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.mathsonline.co.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For condensed phases (solids and liquids), the pressure dependence of solubility is typically weak and usually neglected in practice.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ And considering that most solutes that are soluble in a liquid solvent are (usually) not soluble in the solid phase of the solvent.

Assuming an ideal solution, the dependence can be quantified as:
$\left(\frac{\partial \ln N_i}{\partial P} \right)_T = -\frac{V_{i,aq}-V_{i,cr}} {RT}$
where the index i iterates the components, .Ni is the mole fraction of the ith component in the solution, P is the pressure, the index T refers to constant temperature, Vi,aq is the partial molar volume of the ith component in the solution, Vi,cr is the partial molar volume of the ith component in the dissolving solid, and R is the universal gas constant[9].^ Assuming an ideal solution, the dependence can be quantified as: left(frac{partial ln N_i}{partial P} right)_T = -frac{V_{i,aq}-V_{i,cr}} {RT} where the index i iterates the components, N i is the mole fraction of the i th component in the solution, P is the pressure, the index T refers to constant temperature, V i,aq is the partial molar volume of the i th component in the solution, V i,cr is the partial molar volume of the i th component in the dissolving solid, and R is the universal gas constant .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If the partial pressure of a gas increases, more gas enters into solution.
• WOW | Curricula | Teacher | The Chemistry of Oxygen Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC waterontheweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The species that dissolves, the solute, can be a gas, another liquid, or a solid.
• Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: News]
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.The pressure dependence of solubility does occasionally have practical significance.^ In practice, it means that the amount of solute in a solution is not always determined by its thermodynamic solubility, but may depend on kinetics of dissolution (or precipitation).
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If C is taken to be the solubility then one must say that the solubility depends on pressure.

^ Liquids and solids exhibit practically no change of solubility with changes in pressure.
• Temperature/Pressure on Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.elmhurst.edu [Source type: Reference]

.For example, precipitation fouling of oil fields and wells by calcium sulfate (which decreases its solubility with decreasing pressure) can result in decreased productivity with time.^ For example, the solubility of aragonite and calcite in water are expected to differ, even though they are both polymorphs of calcium carbonate , and have the same chemical formula .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Most soluble minerals are nitrates , borates , some carbonates , some sulfates and some phosphates as well as some organic minerals.
• Mineral Gallery - Parting and Other Properties of Minerals 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.galleries.com [Source type: Original source]
• Mineral Gallery - Parting and Other Properties of Minerals 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.galleries.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Solubility occurs under dynamic equilibrium, which means that solubility results from the simultaneous and opposing processes of dissolution and precipitation .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

## Solubility of gases

.Henry's law is used to quantify the solubility of gases in solvents.^ Henry's law is used to quantify the solubility of gases in solvents.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A binary green solvent system, which has much enhanced solubility over the original solvent used in the lab, was chosen for scale-up.
• Solubility and Prediction Modelling in Early Stage Pharmaceutical Process Development | Pharma QbD 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.pharmaqbd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It can also be used to predict which of two substances is likely to be more soluble in water and which of two substances is likely to be more soluble in a nonpolar solvent, such as hexane: Polar substances are likely to dissolve in polar solvents.
• Entropy and Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.mpcfaculty.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The solubility of a gas in a solvent is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas above the solvent.^ The solubility of a gas in a solvent is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas above the solvent.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Henry's law is given below in , C stands for the concentration of the dissolved gas and P represents the partial pressure of the gas above the solution.
• SparkNotes: Solubility: Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Henry's Law describes the effect of pressure on the solubility of a gas in a liquid.
• WOW | Curricula | Teacher | The Chemistry of Oxygen Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC waterontheweb.org [Source type: Academic]

This relationship is written as:
$p = kc \,$
where k is a temperature-dependent constant .(for example, 769.2 Latm/mol for dioxygen (O2) in water at 298 K), p is the partial pressure (atm), and c is the concentration of the dissolved gas in the liquid (mol/L).^ An unopened can of soda feels very solid because of the more than 3 volumes of dissolved carbon dioxide gas creating a pressure of about 55 PSI above the liquid.
• Gas Solubility Demonstration ("The Baby Bottle Experiment") at Educational Innovations 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.teachersource.com [Source type: General]

^ AgCl form when 1 mL of 0.1 mol/L AgNO 3 is added to a beaker containing 1 L of tap water with a Cl - ion concentration of 1.0 x 10 -5 mol/L? [Cl - ] = 1.0 x 10 -5 mol/L .
• AP Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www2.ucdsb.on.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Explain the roles that pressure and temperature play in altering the concentration of gases in water.
• WOW | Curricula | Teacher | The Chemistry of Oxygen Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC waterontheweb.org [Source type: Academic]

## Polarity

.A popular aphorism used for predicting solubility is "like dissolves like".[10] This statement indicates that a solute will dissolve best in a solvent that has a similar polarity to itself.^ It can also be used to predict which of two substances is likely to be more soluble in water and which of two substances is likely to be more soluble in a nonpolar solvent, such as hexane: Polar substances are likely to dissolve in polar solvents.
• Entropy and Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.mpcfaculty.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar solvents are useful for dissolving nonpolar solutes.

^ Polar substances are not likely to dissolve to a significant degree in nonpolar solvents.
• Entropy and Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.mpcfaculty.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This view is rather simplistic, since it ignores many solvent-solute interactions, but it is a useful rule of thumb.^ This is a rather simplistic view, since it ignores many solvent-solute interactions, but it is a useful rule-of-thumb.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ However, if the solute and solvent interactions are of differing strength (i.e., polar with nonpolar), then the energetics of steps 1 and 2 are much greater than the energetics of step 3.

^ In addition, if the system involves a polymer, the conformation of polymer chains also plays a role in solute-solvent interactions.
• Synergistic Effect of PEG-400 and Cyclodextrin to Enhance Solubility of Progesterone 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.aapspharmscitech.org [Source type: Academic]

.For example, a very polar (hydrophilic) solute such as urea is very soluble in highly polar water, less soluble in fairly polar methanol, and practically insoluble in non-polar solvents such as benzene.^ Practically insoluble in water .

^ Polar solute; Polar solvent: This combination, such as glucose (simple sugar) and water, are almost always soluble.
• Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.thechemguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Very soluble in water .

.In contrast, a non-polar or lipophilic solute such as naphthalene is insoluble in water, fairly soluble in methanol, and highly soluble in non-polar benzene.^ In contrast, a non-polar or lipophilic solute such as naphthalene is insoluble in water, fairly soluble in methanol, and highly soluble in non-polar benzene.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, a very polar ( hydrophilic ) solute such as urea is very soluble in highly polar water, less soluble in fairly polar methanol , and practically insoluble in non-polar solvents such as benzene .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Most solubility measurements are done either in water or in buffer solutions that maintain a specific pH, but those fluids are quite different from the fluid environments found inside the body.

[11]
.Liquid solubilities also generally follow this rule.^ Liquid solubilities also generally follow this rule.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Because the solubility of solids and liquids generally increases with temperature, solids and liquids are often dissolved in warm solvents.
• http://genchem.chem.wisc.edu/sstutorial/Text11/Tx112/tx112.html 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC genchem.chem.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Table 1: General solubility of inorganic salts in liquid ammonia as a function of the counter ion.
• Liquid Ammonia as a Solvent 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC cnx.org [Source type: General]

.Lipophilic plant oils, such as olive oil and palm oil, dissolve in non-polar solvents such as alkanes, but are less soluble in polar liquids such as water.^ Oil is non-polar and water is polar, so they won't mix together, they won't dissolve.
• ScholarNET | Online Learning 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.mathsonline.co.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soluble describes something that dissolves in that solvent.
• ScholarNET | Online Learning 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.mathsonline.co.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usually we consider solids dissolved in liquids, such as salt dissolved in water.
• Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.thechemguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Synthetic chemists often exploit differences in solubilities to separate and purify compounds from reaction mixtures, using the technique of liquid-liquid extraction.^ This process, known as liquid-liquid extraction , is an important technique in synthetic chemistry .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Solubility of a substance is useful when separating mixtures.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Synthetic chemists often exploit differences in solubilities to separate and purify compounds from reaction mixtures, using the technique of liquid-liquid extraction .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.Insolubility and spontaneous phase separation does not mean that dissolution is disfavored by enthalpy.^ Therefore, the dissolution does not occur spontaneously.

^ The small enthalpy change ( D H),together with the positive entropy change for the process ( D S), result in a negative free energy change ( D G= D H-T D S) for the process; hence, the dissolution occurs spontaneously.

^ The small enthalpy change ( D H), together with the positive entropy change for the process ( D S), result in a negative free energy change ( D G= D H-T D S) for the process; hence, the dissolution occurs spontaneously.

.Quite the contrary, in the case of water and hydrophobic substances, hydrophobic hydration is reasonably exothermic and enthalpy alone should favor it.^ From this it is clear that the differences between the lattice enthalpy and the hydration enthalpies of the gaseous ions are very small in the case of the sodium halides, but much larger in the case of the silver halides.

^ These substances mix easily with water for the same reason that ethanol mixes easily with water.
• Entropy and Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.mpcfaculty.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Essentially, if the hydration enthalpies of the gaseous ions are more exothermic than the negative of the lattice enthalpy, then the enthalpy of solution will be negative and the substance will dissolve.

.It appears that entropic factors — the reduced freedom of movement of water molecules around hydrophobic molecules — lead to an overall hydrophobic effect.^ These results indicate that an unstirred water layer capable of restricting the transport of highly hydrophobic molecules is probably present on the corneal interface.
• Effect of Hydroxypropyl Beta Cyclodextrin Complexation on Aqueous Solubility, Stability, and Corneal Permeation of Acyl Ester Prodrugs of Ganciclovir 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.aapspharmscitech.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is important to remember this tendency of water to exclude nonpolar molecules and groups, since it is a factor in the structure and behavior of many complex molecular systems.
• Supplemental Topics 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.cem.msu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The octanol–water partition coefficient (log P), characterizing molecule hydrophobicity, is probably the single most important parameter influencing solubility.
• Biopharmaceutical classification system, Aqueous Solubility of class I,class II ,class IV drugs | Pharmainfo.net 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.pharmainfo.net [Source type: Academic]

## Rate of dissolution

.Dissolution is not always an instantaneous process.^ Dissolution is not always an instantaneous process.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.It is fast when salt and sugar dissolve in water but much slower for a tablet of aspirin or a large crystal of hydrated copper(II) sulfate.^ It is fast when salt and sugar dissolve in water but much slower for a tablet of aspirin or a large crystal of hydrated copper(II) sulfate .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Occasionally, a more complex pattern is observed, as with sodium sulfate , where the less soluble deca hydrate crystal loses water of crystallization at 32 °C to form a more soluble anhydrous phase.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The same line of reasoning can be used with any salt that dissolves in water, even if it dissolves only a very small amount.

.These observations are the consequence of two factors: the rate of solubilization is related to the solubility product and the surface area of the material.^ Inorganic fertilizer materials and related products.
• Use of Diammonium Phosphate to Reduce Heavy Metal Solubility and Transport in Smelter-Contaminated Soil -- McGowen et al. 30 (2): 493 -- Journal of Environmental Quality 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC jeq.scijournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Solubility (metastable) also depends on the physical size of the crystal or droplet of solute (or, strictly speaking, on the specific or molar surface area of the solute).
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The authors pointed out that generation size, pH of the solution, concentration of the dendrimer, and surface area played a significant role in the nicotinic acid solubility.
• Dendrimers - Reflections on host-guest interaction mechanism towards solubility enhancement Jain NK, Prajapati RN, Agarwal A, Gupta U, Asthana A - Asian J Pharm 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.asiapharmaceutics.info [Source type: Academic]

.The speed at which a solid dissolves may depend on its crystallinity or lack thereof in the case of amorphous solids and the surface area (crystallite size) and the presence of polymorphism.^ The speed at which a solid dissolves may depend on its crystalline properties (i.e.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Expose the surface area of the solid to more solid and the solute will dissolve faster.
• CHEMTUTOR SOLUTIONS 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.chemtutor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Increase surface area of solid by decreasing the size of particle.
• CHEMTUTOR SOLUTIONS 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.chemtutor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many practical systems illustrate this effect, for example in designing methods for controlled drug delivery.^ This is important in many practical systems, for example in designing methods for controlled drug delivery .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The host-guest complexes were stable and considered as potential drug delivery systems.
• Dendrimers - Reflections on host-guest interaction mechanism towards solubility enhancement Jain NK, Prajapati RN, Agarwal A, Gupta U, Asthana A - Asian J Pharm 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.asiapharmaceutics.info [Source type: Academic]

^ Passive absorption is also a diffusion-controlled process, and the permeability of the drug varies as a function of surface area to volume ratio and regional pH effects on ionization.
• The Composite Solubility Versus pH Profile and Its Role in Intestinal Absorption Prediction 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.aapsj.org [Source type: Academic]

.Critically, the dissolution rate depends on the presence of mixing and other factors that determine the degree of undersaturation in the liquid solvent film immediately adjacent to the solid solute crystal.^ Critically, the dissolution rate depends on the presence of mixing and other factors that determine the degree of undersaturation in the liquid solvent film immediately adjacent to the solid solute crystal.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The solute is usually a solid that dissolves in the solvent.

^ The solute may be a solid, liquid or gas as can be the solvent.
• Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.thechemguy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some cases, solubility equilibria can take a long time to establish (hours, days, months, or many years; depending on the nature of the solute and other factors).^ In some cases, solubility equilibria can take a long time to establish (hours, days, months, or many years; depending on the nature of the solute and other factors).
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Solubility (metastable) also depends on the physical size of the crystal or droplet of solute (or, strictly speaking, on the specific or molar surface area of the solute).
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Critically, the dissolution rate depends on the presence of mixing and other factors that determine the degree of undersaturation in the liquid solvent film immediately adjacent to the solid solute crystal.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.In practice, it means that the amount of solute in a solution is not always determined by its thermodynamic solubility, but may depend on kinetics of dissolution (or precipitation).^ In practice, it means that the amount of solute in a solution is not always determined by its thermodynamic solubility, but may depend on kinetics of dissolution (or precipitation).
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Thermodynamic and kinetic solubility .
• http://www.iir-events.com/IIR-conf/LifeSciences/EventView.aspx?EventID=2442 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.iir-events.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Experimental determination of the solubility of small organic molecules in H₂O and D₂O and the application of the scaled particle theory to aqueous and nonaqueous solutions .
• Browsing SMARTech - Georgia Tech's Institutional Repository 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC smartech.gatech.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The rate of dissolution and solubility should not be confused as they are different concepts, kinetic and thermodynamic, respectively.^ Thermodynamic and kinetic solubility .
• http://www.iir-events.com/IIR-conf/LifeSciences/EventView.aspx?EventID=2442 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.iir-events.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The rate of dissolution and solubility should not be confused as they are different concepts, kinetic and thermodynamic, respectively.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, the solubility of aragonite and calcite in water are expected to differ, even though they are both polymorphs of calcium carbonate , and have the same chemical formula .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.The solubilization kinetics, as well as apparent solubility can be improved after complexation of an active ingredient with cyclodextrin.^ Among the approaches that can be used to improve the solubility and dissolution properties of poorly soluble active ingredients, in order to overcome the problem of poor absorption, include forming inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins.
• SOLUBILITY-ENHANCED PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITIONS COMPRISING ZAFIRLUKAST - Patent application 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A number of solubilisation approaches, including micronisation, complexation, salt and prodrugs formation are available to enhance their solubility.
• Solubility of compound: Pivotal for drug devpt - Features 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.pharmabiz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Cyclodextrin complexation leads to increased solubility because the apolar ester substituent is included within the cavity forming a PD-CD complex.
• Effect of Hydroxypropyl Beta Cyclodextrin Complexation on Aqueous Solubility, Stability, and Corneal Permeation of Acyl Ester Prodrugs of Ganciclovir 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.aapspharmscitech.org [Source type: Academic]

.This can be used in the case of drug with poor solubility.^ The drug concentration in the filtrate is quantitated by UV absorption, and solubility is calculated using a calibration curve.
• Biopharmaceutical classification system, Aqueous Solubility of class I,class II ,class IV drugs | Pharmainfo.net 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.pharmainfo.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Poor solubility of a pharma compound is a challenging issue in drug discovery and development.
• Solubility of compound: Pivotal for drug devpt - Features 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.pharmabiz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Phase solubility analysis is one of the methods used to determine a drug:CD binding constant and its consequences on the drug solubility have been extensively described in the literature by Higuchi and Connors.
• COMPOUNDS AND METHODS FOR ENHANCING SOLUBILITY OF FLORFENICOL AND STRUCTURALLY-RELATED ANTIBIOTICS USING CYCLODEXTRINS - Patent application 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

[12]

## Quantification of solubility

.Solubility is commonly expressed as a concentration, either by mass (g of solute per kg of solvent, g per dL (100 mL) of solvent), molarity, molality, mole fraction or other similar descriptions of concentration.^ Molality is concentration in mols of solute per kilogram of solvent.
• CHEMTUTOR SOLUTIONS 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.chemtutor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The concentration of a saturated solution is often expressed in grams of solute per 100 grams of solvent.
• Solubility of Salts - A study of teh solubility of potassium nitrate with temperature 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.cod.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Solubility is commonly expressed as a concentration, either by mass (g of solute per kg of solvent, g per dL (100 mL) of solvent), molarity , molality , mole fraction or other similar descriptions of concentration.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.The maximum equilibrium amount of solute that can dissolve per amount of solvent is the solubility of that solute in that solvent under the specified conditions.^ We say that we dissolve the solute into the solvent.
• CHEMTUTOR SOLUTIONS 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.chemtutor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The solubility of a substance is defined as the maximum amount of the substance, which can be dissolved in a definite amount of solvent at a certain temperature.
• Solubility of Salts - A study of teh solubility of potassium nitrate with temperature 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.cod.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The solubility of a solution is a measure of how much of the solute can be dissolved into the solvent.
• CHEMTUTOR SOLUTIONS 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.chemtutor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The advantage of expressing solubility in this manner is its simplicity, while the disadvantage is that it can strongly depend on the presence of other species in the solvent (for example, the common ion effect).^ Solubility will also depend on the excess or deficiency of a common ion in the solution, a phenomenon known as the common-ion effect .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The advantage of expressing solubility in this manner is its simplicity, while the disadvantage is that it can strongly depend on the presence of other species in the solvent (for example, the common ion effect).
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Solubility may also strongly depend on the presence of other species dissolved in the solvent, for example, complex-forming anions ( ligands ) in liquids.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.Solubility constants are used to describe saturated solutions of ionic compounds of relatively low solubility (see solubility equilibrium).^ Solubility of ionic compounds in water .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Solubility equilibrium constant of strengite.
• On the Solubility Constant of Strengite -- Iuliano et al. 71 (4): 1137 -- Soil Science Society of America Journal 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC soil.scijournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The solubility process reaches a dynamic equilibrium described by an equilibrium constant.

.The solubility constant is a special case of an equilibrium constant.^ The solubility constant is a special case of an equilibrium constant .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Solubility equilibrium constant of strengite.
• On the Solubility Constant of Strengite -- Iuliano et al. 71 (4): 1137 -- Soil Science Society of America Journal 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC soil.scijournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The solubility product constant K sp is just one more version of the standard equilibrium constant expression .

.It describes the balance between dissolved ions from the salt and undissolved salt.^ It describes the balance between dissolved ions from the salt and undissolved salt.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ We will use the symbol C s to describe the amount of a salt that dissolves in water.

^ The solubility of one substance dissolving in another is determined by the balance of intermolecular forces between the solvent and solute, and the entropy change that accompanies the solvation.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

The solubility constant is also "applicable" (i.e. useful) to precipitation, the reverse of the dissolving reaction. .As with other equilibrium constants, temperature can affect the numerical value of solubility constant.^ Solubility equilibrium constant of strengite.
• On the Solubility Constant of Strengite -- Iuliano et al. 71 (4): 1137 -- Soil Science Society of America Journal 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC soil.scijournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As with other equilibrium constants, temperature can affect the numerical value of solubility constant.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The solubility constant is a special case of an equilibrium constant .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.The solubility constant is not as simple as solubility, however the value of this constant is generally independent of the presence of other species in the solvent.^ As with other equilibrium constants, temperature can affect the numerical value of solubility constant.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The solubility constant is a special case of an equilibrium constant .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The solubility constant is not as simple as solubility, however the value of this constant is generally independent of the presence of other species in the solvent.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.The Flory-Huggins solution theory is a theoretical model describing the solubility of polymers.^ The Flory-Huggins solution theory is a theoretical model describing the solubility of polymers.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Experimental determination of the solubility of small organic molecules in H₂O and D₂O and the application of the scaled particle theory to aqueous and nonaqueous solutions .
• Browsing SMARTech - Georgia Tech's Institutional Repository 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC smartech.gatech.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Applying Donnan theory to explain lignin solubility during caustic extractions with barium chloride solutions .
• Browsing SMARTech - Georgia Tech's Institutional Repository 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC smartech.gatech.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The Hansen Solubility Parameters and the Hildebrand solubility parameters are empirical methods for the prediction of solubility.^ The Hansen Solubility Parameters and the Hildebrand solubility parameters are empirical methods for the prediction of solubility.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Hildebrand or total solubility parameter.
• Charles M. Hansen ::: The Official Hansen Solubility Parameters Website 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC hansen-solubility.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Summary of the Hansen solubility parameters (HSP) concept emphasizing that the energy of evaporation must be accounted for, no more or no less, and is indeed accounted for quantitatively by the three HSP parameters.
• Charles M. Hansen ::: The Official Hansen Solubility Parameters Website 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC hansen-solubility.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is also possible to predict solubility from other physical constants such as the enthalpy of fusion.^ It is also possible to predict solubility from other physical constants such as the enthalpy of fusion .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In titrating from low to high pH, a nearly constant solubility is predicted until the pH of the discontinuity (the intersection), the solubility of the salt form.
• The Composite Solubility Versus pH Profile and Its Role in Intestinal Absorption Prediction 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.aapsj.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As with other equilibrium constants, temperature can affect the numerical value of solubility constant.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.The partition coefficient (Log P) is a measure of differential solubility of a compound in a hydrophobic solvent (octanol) and a hydrophilic solvent (water).^ The partition coefficient ( Log P ) is a measure of differential solubility of a compound in a hydrophobic solvent ( octanol ) and a hydrophilic solvent ( water ).
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Isnard P, Lambert S. Aqueous solubility and n-octanol/water partition coefficient correlations.
• Biopharmaceutical classification system, Aqueous Solubility of class I,class II ,class IV drugs | Pharmainfo.net 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.pharmainfo.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Solubility of ionic compounds in water .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.The logarithm of these two values enables compounds to be ranked in terms of hydrophilicity (or hydrophobicity).^ The logarithm of these two values enables compounds to be ranked in terms of hydrophilicity (or hydrophobicity).
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The partition coefficient ( Log P ) is a measure of differential solubility of a compound in a hydrophobic solvent ( octanol ) and a hydrophilic solvent ( water ).
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The absolute difference between these two pixel values is calculated and used as an address in a lookup table.
• Daily 99-01 RSS Feed 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.sti.nasa.gov [Source type: Academic]

## Applications

.Solubility is of fundamental importance in a large number of scientific disciplines and practical applications, ranging from ore processing, to the use of medicines, and the transport of pollutants.^ Solubility is of fundamental importance in a large number of scientific disciplines and practical applications, ranging from ore processing, to the use of medicines, and the transport of pollutants.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Predictive models based on molecular forms also help understanding what feature(s) limits solubility and can thus provide useful information to medicinal chemists.
• Biopharmaceutical classification system, Aqueous Solubility of class I,class II ,class IV drugs | Pharmainfo.net 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.pharmainfo.net [Source type: Academic]

^ In fact, for a large number of dissolution reactions, the entropic effect (the change in randomness) is more important than the enthalpic effect (the change in energy) in determining the spontaneity of the process.

.Solubility is often said to be one of the "characteristic properties of a substance," which means that solubility is commonly used to describe the substance, to indicate a substance's polarity, to help to distinguish it from other substances, and as a guide to applications of the substance.^ To indicate Δ G at other than 25 o C we use Δ G'.
• AP Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www2.ucdsb.on.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Solubility of a substance is useful when separating mixtures.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Solubility is often said to be one of the "characteristic properties of a substance," which means that solubility is commonly used to describe the substance, to indicate a substance's polarity, to help to distinguish it from other substances, and as a guide to applications of the substance.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

For example, indigo is described as "insoluble in water, alcohol, or ether but soluble in chloroform, nitrobenzene, or concentrated sulfuric acid".[citation needed]
.Solubility of a substance is useful when separating mixtures.^ Solubility of a substance is useful when separating mixtures.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The solubility behavior can be determined using a phase diagram by plotting the total substance concentration versus the total ligand concentration.
• COMPOUNDS AND METHODS FOR ENHANCING SOLUBILITY OF FLORFENICOL AND STRUCTURALLY-RELATED ANTIBIOTICS USING CYCLODEXTRINS - Patent application 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If 1.00 mol of each substance (CaCO 3 and CaF 2 ) were dissolved separately in 1.00 L of water, which solution would have the greater concentration of calcium ions (i.e., which substance is more soluble)?

.For example, a mixture of salt (sodium chloride) and silica may be separated by dissolving the salt in water, and filtering off the undissolved silica.^ For example, a mixture of salt ( sodium chloride ) and silica may be separated by dissolving the salt in water, and filtering off the undissolved silica.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It is fast when salt and sugar dissolve in water but much slower for a tablet of aspirin or a large crystal of hydrated copper(II) sulfate .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ AgCl (s) overrightarrow{leftarrow} Ag + (aq) + Cl − (aq) However, there is a limit to how much salt can be dissolved in a given volume of water.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.The synthesis of chemical compounds, by the milligram in a laboratory, or by the ton in industry, both make use of the relative solubilities of the desired product, as well as unreacted starting materials, byproducts, and side products to achieve separation.^ Solubility of a substance is useful when separating mixtures.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The synthesis of chemical compounds, by the milligram in a laboratory, or by the ton in industry, both make use of the relative solubilities of the desired product, as well as unreacted starting materials, byproducts, and side products to achieve separation.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ ALOGPS interactive calculation of aqueous solubility of compounds at Virtual Computational Chemistry Laboratory using several algorithms ACD/Solubility DB aqueous solubility prediction Simulations Plus - S+Sw an aqueous solubility prediction model References .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.Another example of this is the synthesis of benzoic acid from phenylmagnesium bromide and dry ice.^ Another example of this is the synthesis of benzoic acid from phenylmagnesium bromide and dry ice .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.Benzoic acid is more soluble in an organic solvent such as dichloromethane or diethyl ether, and when shaken with this organic solvent in a separatory funnel, will preferentially dissolve in the organic layer.^ Soluble describes something that dissolves in that solvent.
• ScholarNET | Online Learning 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.mathsonline.co.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Benzoic acid is more soluble in an organic solvent such as dichloromethane or diethyl ether , and when shaken with this organic solvent in a separatory funnel , will preferentially dissolve in the organic layer.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Solubility of butadiene and isobutylene in organic solvents ...

.The other reaction products, including the magnesium bromide, will remain in the aqueous layer, clearly showing that separation based on solubility is achieved.^ We then write the solubility product expression for this reaction.

^ Calculate the solubility product constant of magnesium hydroxide at this temperature.

^ There remains a need for soluble forms of zafirlukast that can be readily formulated for use in various modes of administration, including parenteral and oral administration.
• SOLUBILITY-ENHANCED PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITIONS COMPRISING ZAFIRLUKAST - Patent application 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.This process, known as liquid-liquid extraction, is an important technique in synthetic chemistry.^ This process, known as liquid-liquid extraction , is an important technique in synthetic chemistry .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Synthetic chemists often exploit differences in solubilities to separate and purify compounds from reaction mixtures, using the technique of liquid-liquid extraction .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

## Solubility of ionic compounds in water

.Some ionic compounds (salts) dissolve in water, which arises because of the attraction between positive and negative charges (see: solvation).^ There are patterns for which ionic compounds dissolve in water or not.
• ScholarNET | Online Learning 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.mathsonline.co.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solubility of ionic compounds in water .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Some ionic compounds ( salts ) dissolve in water, which arises because of the attraction between positive and negative charges (see: solvation ).
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.For example, the salt's positive ions (e.g.^ This value depends on the type of salt (AgCl vs. NaI, for example), temperature, and the common ion effect .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The techniques used in the preceding practice problems are also valid for salts that contain more positive ions than negative ions.

^ For example, the salt's positive ions (i.e.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.Ag+) attract the partially-negative oxygens in H2O. Likewise, the salt's negative ions (e.g.^ Cl − ) attract the partially-positive hydrogens in H 2 O. Note: oxygen is partially-negative because it is more electronegative than hydrogen, and vice-versa (see: chemical polarity ).
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The techniques used in the preceding practice problems are also valid for salts that contain more positive ions than negative ions.

^ The reaction of a strong acid with an ionic salt containing the negative ion of a very weak acid produces the weak acid and goes essentially to completion.
• AP Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www2.ucdsb.on.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Cl) attract the partially-positive hydrogens in H2O. Note: oxygen is partially-negative because it is more electronegative than hydrogen, and vice-versa (see: chemical polarity).^ Cl − ) attract the partially-positive hydrogens in H 2 O. Note: oxygen is partially-negative because it is more electronegative than hydrogen, and vice-versa (see: chemical polarity ).
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When a hydrogen atom is part of a polar covalent bond to a more electronegative atom such as oxygen, its small size allows the positive end of the bond dipole (the hydrogen) to approach neighboring nucleophilic or basic sites more closely than can components of other polar bonds.
• Supplemental Topics 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.cem.msu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Hydrogen forms polar covalent bonds to more electronegative atoms such as oxygen, and because a hydrogen atom is quite small, the positive end of the bond dipole (the hydrogen) can approach neighboring nucleophilic or basic sites more closely than can other polar bonds.
• Supplemental Topics 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.cem.msu.edu [Source type: Reference]

AgCl(s) $\overrightarrow{\leftarrow}$ Ag+(aq) + Cl(aq)
.However, there is a limit to how much salt can be dissolved in a given volume of water.^ AgCl (s) overrightarrow{leftarrow} Ag + (aq) + Cl − (aq) However, there is a limit to how much salt can be dissolved in a given volume of water.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It is fast when salt and sugar dissolve in water but much slower for a tablet of aspirin or a large crystal of hydrated copper(II) sulfate .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ There are patterns for which ionic compounds dissolve in water or not.
• ScholarNET | Online Learning 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.mathsonline.co.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This amount is given by the solubility product, Ksp.^ This amount is given by the solubility product , K sp .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Common ion effect solubility product - 2 reference results Solubility Solubility is the characteristic physical property referring to the ability of a given substance, the solute , to dissolve in a solvent .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Furthermore, the combined action of cyclodextrin and the solvent in enhancing the florfenicol solubility may be used to reduce the amount of cyclodextrin in the formulation, thus limiting the overall cost of the product.
• COMPOUNDS AND METHODS FOR ENHANCING SOLUBILITY OF FLORFENICOL AND STRUCTURALLY-RELATED ANTIBIOTICS USING CYCLODEXTRINS - Patent application 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

This value depends on the type of salt (AgCl vs. NaCl, for example), temperature, and the common ion effect.
.One can calculate the amount of AgCl that will dissolve in 1 liter of water, some algebra is required.^ The ions Ag + and Cl - react together on a 1:1 basis therefore any AgCl that does dissolve will product 'x' amount of each of the ions.
• AP Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www2.ucdsb.on.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Weigh out 2.00 grams of NaOH. (b) Dissolve the solid in a small amount of water in a suitable volumetric device.
• CHEMTUTOR SOLUTIONS 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.chemtutor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We will use the symbol C s to describe the amount of a salt that dissolves in water.

Ksp = [Ag+] × [Cl] (definition of solubility product)
Ksp = 1.8 × 10−10 (from a table of solubility products)
[Ag+] = [Cl], in the absence of other silver or chloride salts,
[Ag+]2 = 1.8 × 10−10
[Ag+] = 1.34 × 10−5
.The result: 1 liter of water can dissolve 1.34 × 10−5 moles of AgCl(s) at room temperature.^ Temperature was maintained at 34°C (temperature of rabbit cornea) by circulating water through the jacketed chambers of the diffusion apparatus.
• Effect of Hydroxypropyl Beta Cyclodextrin Complexation on Aqueous Solubility, Stability, and Corneal Permeation of Acyl Ester Prodrugs of Ganciclovir 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.aapspharmscitech.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The [AgCl] term has to be translated quite literally as the number of moles of AgCl in a liter of solid AgCl.

^ The pale lavender resulting product was washed by decantation at frequent intervals for 4 d with 0.1 mol L 1 H 3 PO 4 to remove soluble matter and very fine particles, then washed with water and air dried at room temperature.
• On the Solubility Constant of Strengite -- Iuliano et al. 71 (4): 1137 -- Soil Science Society of America Journal 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC soil.scijournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Compared with other types of salts, AgCl is poorly soluble in water.^ Poorly soluble in water .

^ Compared with other types of salts, AgCl is poorly soluble in water.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Properties of solutions Other types of mixture Concentration Dissolving solids into liquids Dissolving gases into liquids Liquids in liquids Solubility Colligative properties of solutions Concentration math in stoichiometry Math problems in concentration and solution-making .
• CHEMTUTOR SOLUTIONS 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.chemtutor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In contrast, table salt (NaCl) has a higher Ksp and is, therefore, more soluble.^ Also state which is the more soluble salt of each pair.

^ Therefore Fe(OH) 2 is the more soluble salt.

^ In contrast, table salt (NaCl) has a higher K sp and is, therefore, more soluble.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

Soluble Insoluble
Group I and NH4+ compounds Carbonates (Except Group I, NH4+ and uranyl compounds)
Nitrates Sulfites (Except Group I and NH4+ compounds)
Acetates (Ethanoates) (Except Ag+ compounds) Phosphates (Except Group I and NH4+ compounds)
Chlorides, bromides and iodides (Except Ag+, Pb2+, Cu+ and Hg22+) Hydroxides and oxides (Except Group I, NH4+, Ba2+, Sr2+ and Tl+)
Sulfates (Except Ag+, Pb2+, Ba2+, Sr2+ and Ca2+) Sulfides (Except Group I, Group II and NH4+ compounds)

## Solubility of organic compounds

.The principle outlined above under polarity, that like dissolves like, is the usual guide to solubility with organic systems.^ The solubility of organic molecules is often summarized by the phrase, " like dissolves like ."

^ The principle outlined above under polarity , that like dissolves like, is the usual guide to solubility with organic systems.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Benzoic acid is more soluble in an organic solvent such as dichloromethane or diethyl ether , and when shaken with this organic solvent in a separatory funnel , will preferentially dissolve in the organic layer.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

For example, petroleum jelly will dissolve in gasoline because both petroleum jelly and gasoline are hydrocarbons. .It will not, on the other hand, dissolve in alcohol or water, since the polarity of these solvents is too high.^ It will not, on the other hand, dissolve in alcohol or water, since the polarity of these solvents is too high.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The important thing in each of these methods is to include a sufficient number of test solvents and most certainly a sufficient number with relatively high P-parameter.
• Charles M. Hansen ::: The Official Hansen Solubility Parameters Website 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC hansen-solubility.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solubility may also strongly depend on the presence of other species dissolved in the solvent, for example, complex-forming anions ( ligands ) in liquids.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.Sugar will not dissolve in gasoline, since sugar is too polar in comparison with gasoline.^ Sugar will not dissolve in gasoline, since sugar is too polar in comparison with gasoline.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It will not, on the other hand, dissolve in alcohol or water, since the polarity of these solvents is too high.
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

A mixture of gasoline and sugar can therefore be separated by filtration, or extraction with water.

## Solubility in non-aqueous solvents

.Most publicly available solubility values are those for solubility in water.^ A dextrin are characterized by its solubility in water, viscosity, color, pH, moisture, reducing sugar value, molecular weight distribution, and many other measurements.

^ Organic compounds that are water soluble, such as most of those listed in the above table, generally have hydrogen bond acceptor and donor groups.
• Supplemental Topics 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.cem.msu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The good solvents are those with solubility greater than the so-called theoretical value.
• Charles M. Hansen ::: The Official Hansen Solubility Parameters Website 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC hansen-solubility.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] .The reference also lists some for non-aqueous solvents.^ In some preferred aspects of the invention, the florfenicol is present in an aqueous formulation, a solvent formulation, an aqueous/solvent formulation, a powder, granules or a lyophilized power/cake.
• COMPOUNDS AND METHODS FOR ENHANCING SOLUBILITY OF FLORFENICOL AND STRUCTURALLY-RELATED ANTIBIOTICS USING CYCLODEXTRINS - Patent application 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Further, a wet granulation method may be conducted using either aqueous or non-aqueous solvents.
• SOLUBILITY-ENHANCED PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITIONS COMPRISING ZAFIRLUKAST - Patent application 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Solubility data for non-aqueous solvents is currently being collected via an open notebook science crowdsourcing project.^ Postflight data are currently being collected from 2 ISS crewmembers.
• Daily 99-01 RSS Feed 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.sti.nasa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, a very polar ( hydrophilic ) solute such as urea is very soluble in highly polar water, less soluble in fairly polar methanol , and practically insoluble in non-polar solvents such as benzene .
• Solubility product encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Despite the availability of a number of methods to measure solubility, it remains a challenge to collect homogenous, high quality data in an appropriate format.
• Biopharmaceutical classification system, Aqueous Solubility of class I,class II ,class IV drugs | Pharmainfo.net 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.pharmainfo.net [Source type: Academic]

[14][15]

## Solid solution

.This term is often used in the field of metallurgy to refer to the extent that an alloying element will dissolve into the base metal without forming a separate phase.^ Long-term geochemical stability of the solid phases formed by chemical immobilization should be evaluated to determine the potential long-term effectiveness of such treatments.
• Use of Diammonium Phosphate to Reduce Heavy Metal Solubility and Transport in Smelter-Contaminated Soil -- McGowen et al. 30 (2): 493 -- Journal of Environmental Quality 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC jeq.scijournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, the pressure vessel assembly may be submerged into an electro-forming solution and negative electric potential applied to the metal coated membrane using an insulated wire.
• Daily 99-01 RSS Feed 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.sti.nasa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In one aspect, the present invention provides a thermoelectric composition comprising a plurality of nanoparticles each of which includes an alloy matrix formed of a Group IV element and Group VI element and a metallic dopant distributed within the matrix.
• Daily 99-01 RSS Feed 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.sti.nasa.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The solubility line (or curve) is the line (or lines) on a phase diagram which give the limits of solute addition.^ FIG. 7 is a phase solubility diagram for florfenicol in HP-β cyclodextrin.
• COMPOUNDS AND METHODS FOR ENHANCING SOLUBILITY OF FLORFENICOL AND STRUCTURALLY-RELATED ANTIBIOTICS USING CYCLODEXTRINS - Patent application 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ FIG. 8 is a phase solubility diagram for florfenicol in Captisol (a type of sulfoalkylether cyclodextrin).
• COMPOUNDS AND METHODS FOR ENHANCING SOLUBILITY OF FLORFENICOL AND STRUCTURALLY-RELATED ANTIBIOTICS USING CYCLODEXTRINS - Patent application 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The results of these studies are reported in Tables I, II, III, IV and V below, and the phase solubility diagrams are reported in FIGS. 5, 6, 7 and 8.
• COMPOUNDS AND METHODS FOR ENHANCING SOLUBILITY OF FLORFENICOL AND STRUCTURALLY-RELATED ANTIBIOTICS USING CYCLODEXTRINS - Patent application 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.That is, the lines show the maximum amount of a component that can be added to another component and still be in solid solution.^ Certain of the products are considered to have the nature of solid solutions, in which the initial components are dispersed on a molecular level.
• SOLUBILITY-ENHANCED PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITIONS COMPRISING ZAFIRLUKAST - Patent application 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In the solution method, the drug, either as a solid or in a solution, is added to a solution containing an excess amount of cyclodextrin.
• SOLUBILITY-ENHANCED PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITIONS COMPRISING ZAFIRLUKAST - Patent application 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The solution shows a decrease in melting point as the amount of solute is increased.
• CHEMTUTOR SOLUTIONS 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.chemtutor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the solid's crystalline structure, the 'solute' element can either take the place of the matrix within the lattice (a substitutional position, for example: chromium in iron) or can take a place in a space between the lattice points (an interstitial position, for example: carbon in iron).^ The solvent particles must separate enough to make space for the solute molecules to come between them.

^ Teflon filters (0.45 µm) were placed between the soil matrix and end caps on each end of the column to prevent loss of fines from the soil column.
• Use of Diammonium Phosphate to Reduce Heavy Metal Solubility and Transport in Smelter-Contaminated Soil -- McGowen et al. 30 (2): 493 -- Journal of Environmental Quality 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC jeq.scijournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the solution method, the drug, either as a solid or in a solution, is added to a solution containing an excess amount of cyclodextrin.
• SOLUBILITY-ENHANCED PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITIONS COMPRISING ZAFIRLUKAST - Patent application 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.In microelectronic fabrication, solid solubility refers to the maximum concentration of impurities one can place into the substrate.^ For salts (ionic solids) that dissociate into ions in water, such as the compounds containing the dietary minerals, a solubility product (K sp ) is typically given.

^ Properties of solutions Other types of mixture Concentration Dissolving solids into liquids Dissolving gases into liquids Liquids in liquids Solubility Colligative properties of solutions Concentration math in stoichiometry Math problems in concentration and solution-making .
• CHEMTUTOR SOLUTIONS 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.chemtutor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 2 intersecting concentration curves, the base solubility curve and the salt solubility curve, are combined such that the minimum at any one pH is taken to be the solubility.
• The Composite Solubility Versus pH Profile and Its Role in Intestinal Absorption Prediction 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.aapsj.org [Source type: Academic]

## Incongruent dissolution

.Many substances dissolve congruently, i.e., the composition of the solid and the dissolved solute stoichiometrically match.^ Properties of solutions Other types of mixture Concentration Dissolving solids into liquids Dissolving gases into liquids Liquids in liquids Solubility Colligative properties of solutions Concentration math in stoichiometry Math problems in concentration and solution-making .
• CHEMTUTOR SOLUTIONS 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.chemtutor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the best view of solubility, we will use the examples of a solid solute dissolved into a liquid solvent.
• CHEMTUTOR SOLUTIONS 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.chemtutor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The act of dissolving a solid into a liquid is a process that happens on the surface of the particles of the solute.
• CHEMTUTOR SOLUTIONS 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.chemtutor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, some substances may dissolve incongruently, whereby the composition of the solute in solution does not match that of the solid.^ Further, immediate release compositions may be conventional, dispersible, chewable, mouth dissolving, or flash melt preparations, and modified release compositions that may comprise hydrophilic or hydrophobic, or combinations of hydrophilic and hydrophobic, release rate controlling substances to form matrix or reservoir or combination of matrix and reservoir systems.
• SOLUBILITY-ENHANCED PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITIONS COMPRISING ZAFIRLUKAST - Patent application 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Properties of solutions Other types of mixture Concentration Dissolving solids into liquids Dissolving gases into liquids Liquids in liquids Solubility Colligative properties of solutions Concentration math in stoichiometry Math problems in concentration and solution-making .
• CHEMTUTOR SOLUTIONS 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.chemtutor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the best view of solubility, we will use the examples of a solid solute dissolved into a liquid solvent.
• CHEMTUTOR SOLUTIONS 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.chemtutor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This solubilization is accompanied by alteration of the "primary solid" and possibly formation of a secondary solid phase.^ The chemistry of lead and cadmium in soil: Solid phase formation.
• Use of Diammonium Phosphate to Reduce Heavy Metal Solubility and Transport in Smelter-Contaminated Soil -- McGowen et al. 30 (2): 493 -- Journal of Environmental Quality 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC jeq.scijournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, generally, some primary solid also remains and a complex solubility equilibrium establishes.^ Le Châtelier's Principle indicates that it should be possible to vary the solubility of a solid by varying the concentration of the ions at equilibrium.
• AP Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www2.ucdsb.on.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Besides the dilution method, there are 5 ways which reduce the [] of an ion in equilibrium with a slightly soluble solid.
• AP Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www2.ucdsb.on.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Applying Le Châtelier's Principle to a solubility equilibrium indicated that a slightly soluble solid can be dissolved by decreasing the [ ] of one or more of the ions in equilibrium with the solid.
• AP Solubility 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www2.ucdsb.on.ca [Source type: Academic]

.For example, dissolution of albite may result in formation of gibbsite.^ And also during the manufacturing process or during storage conditions, zafirlukast may be prone to various degradation reactions, resulting in the formation of impurities.
• SOLUBILITY-ENHANCED PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITIONS COMPRISING ZAFIRLUKAST - Patent application 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

[16]
NaAlSi3O8(s) + H+ + 7H2O = Na+ + Al(OH)3(s) + 3H4SiO4.
.In this case, the solubility of albite is expected to depend on the solid-to-solvent ratio.^ GracinS,BrinckT,RasmusonAC.Prediction of solubility of solid organic compounds in solvents by UNIFAC. Ind Eng Chem Res .2002;41:5114-5124.
• Solubility Prediction in Octanol: A Technical Note 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.aapspharmscitech.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Otherwise, a solvent in which the complex has minimal solubility, typically an organic solvent, is used to precipitate the solid complex.
• SOLUBILITY-ENHANCED PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITIONS COMPRISING ZAFIRLUKAST - Patent application 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For the best view of solubility, we will use the examples of a solid solute dissolved into a liquid solvent.
• CHEMTUTOR SOLUTIONS 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.chemtutor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This kind of solubility is of great importance in geology, where it results in formation of metamorphic rocks.

.
• VCClab.org, "ALOGPS" free interactive calculation of aqueous solubility of compounds at Virtual Computational Chemistry Laboratory using several algorithms.
• ACDlabs.com?^ The use of experimental entropies of melting resulted in only a slight improvement in predicting octanol solubilities for 68 compounds having melting points above ambient temperature.
• Solubility Prediction in Octanol: A Technical Note 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.aapspharmscitech.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The solubility product is the equilibrium constant for the dissociation reaction of the compound into ions in aqueous solution.

^ As stated above, the calculations of the crossover pHs using Equation 5 assume that the 2 individually measured solubilities are on either side of the crossover point.
• The Composite Solubility Versus pH Profile and Its Role in Intestinal Absorption Prediction 25 January 2010 6:35 UTC www.aapsj.org [Source type: Academic]

ACD/Solubility DB aqueous solubility prediction
• Simulations-plus.com, S+Sw, an aqueous solubility prediction model.

## References

1. ^ Yuen, C. (2003), Element, Compound and Mixture
2. ^ Clugston M. and Fleming R. (2000), p.108
3. ^ Cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk: from Online Medical Dictionary, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne.
4. ^ I.Y. Nekrasov, "Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Genesis of Gold Deposits", Taylor & Francis, 1996, p.135-136 Books.Google.com.
5. ^ a b John W. Hill, Ralph H. Petrucci, General Chemistry, 2nd edition, Prentice Hall, 1999.
6. ^ P. Cohen (editor), "The ASME handbook on Water Technology for Thermal Power Systems", The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1989, page 442.
7. ^ Data taken from the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 27th edition, Chemical Rubber Publishing Co., Cleveland, Ohio, 1943.
8. ^ Salvatore Filippone, Frank Heimanna and André Rassat (2002). "A highly water-soluble 2+1 b-cyclodextrin–fullerene conjugate". Chem. Commun. 2002: 1508–1509. doi:10.1039/b202410a.
9. ^ E.M.Gutman, "Mechanochemistry of Solid Surfaces", World Scientific Publishing Co., 1994.
10. ^ Kenneth J. Williamson, Macroscale and Microscale Organic Experiments, p40, 2nd edition, D. C, Heath, Lexington, Mass., 1994.
11. ^ Data taken from the Merck Index, 7th edition, Merck & Co., 1960.
12. ^ Gil A, Chamayou A, Leverd E, Bougaret J, Baron M, Couarraze G (2004). "Evolution of the interaction of a new chemical entity, eflucimibe, with gamma-cyclodextrin during kneading process". Eur. J. Pharm. Sciences, 23, 123-129.
13. ^ NIST solubility database
14. ^ ONS Solubility challenge
15. ^ Solubility of Vanillin in various non-aqueous solvents
16. ^ O.M.Saether & P. de Caritat (ed.) "Geochemical processes, weathering and groundwater recharge in catchments", Taylor & Francis, Rotterdam, 1997, page 6.

# Simple English

The English Wiktionary has dictionary definitions (meanings of a word) for:

Solubility means the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent.[1]

It is measured in terms of the maximum amount of solute dissolved in a solvent at equilibrium. The resulting solution is called a saturated solution. Certain substances are soluble in all proportions with a given solvent. An example of this is ethanol in water. This property is more correctly described as miscible.

## References

1. Atkins' Physical Chemistry, 7th Ed. by Julio De Paula, P.W. Atkins ISBN 0-19-879285-9

# Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 29, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Solubility, which are similar to those in the above article.