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Federal Republic of Somalia
Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya
جمهورية الصومال
Jumhūriyyat as-Sūmāl
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemSoomaaliyeey Toosoow
Somalia, Wake Up
Capital
(and largest city)
Mogadishu
2°02′N 45°21′E / 2.033°N 45.35°E / 2.033; 45.35
Official language(s) Somali, Arabic[1][2]
Demonym Somali
Government Coalition Government
 -  President Sharif Ahmed
 -  Prime Minister Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke
Independence
 -  from United Kingdom 26 June 1960 
 -  from Italy 1 July 1960 
Area
 -  Total 637,661 km2 (41st)
246,201 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.6
Population
 -  2009 estimate 9,133,000[3] (85th)
 -  Density 14.3/km2 (198th)
37.1/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $7.599 billion (153rd)
 -  Per capita $795[4] (222nd)
HDI (2009) N/A (Not Ranked)
Currency Somali shilling (SOS)
Time zone EAT (UTC+3)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+3)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .so (currently not operating)
Calling code 252
2 BBC News[5]
3 Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic
.Somalia (pronounced /soʊˈmɑːliə/ soh-MAH-lee-ə; Somali: Soomaaliya; Arabic: الصومالaṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Republic of Somalia (Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya, Arabic: جمهورية الصومالJumhūriyyat aṣ-Ṣūmāl) and formerly known as the Somali Democratic Republic under communist rule, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.^ The Horn of Africa, at whose core Somalia lies, is newly oil-rich.
  • Somalia Update II | The Agonist 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC agonist.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The patrols often intercepted pirated ships before the rise of the Islamists, who lessened crime in the Horn of Africa country during their six-month rule based on Islamic (Sharia) law.
  • Somalia Update II | The Agonist 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC agonist.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Jan 27, Muhammad Siad Barre, the dictator of the Somali Democratic Republic since 1969, fled Mogadishu as rebels overran his palace and captured the Somali capital.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.It is bordered by Djibouti to the northwest, Kenya to the southwest, the Gulf of Aden with Yemen to the north, the Indian Ocean to the east, and Ethiopia to the west.^ A Malaysian military helicopter saved an Indian tanker from being hijacked in the new year's first attacks by pirates in the dangerous Gulf of Aden.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ A Somali politician says a major conference has been held in a town near Somalia's border with Kenya and Ethiopia to develop a plan to establish a regional government in southern Somalia.

^ Kismayo, a scenic harbor town along the Indian Ocean that was once part of the fabled East African spice empire, had been spared the fighting so far.
  • Somalia Update II | The Agonist 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC agonist.org [Source type: Original source]

In antiquity, Somalia was an important center for commerce with the rest of the ancient world. .Its sailors and merchants were the main suppliers of frankincense, myrrh and spices, items which were considered valuable luxuries by the Ancient Egyptians, Phoenicians, Mycenaeans and Babylonians with whom the Somali people traded.^ Moreover, the Habar Awal merchants who financed Egal's administration practically control all trade and main port of Berbera .

[6][7] According to most scholars, Somalia is also where the ancient Kingdom of Punt was situated.[8][9][10][11] The ancient Puntites were a nation of people that had close relations with Pharaonic Egypt during the times of Pharaoh Sahure and Queen Hatshepsut. The pyramidal structures, temples and ancient houses of dressed stone littered around Somalia are said to date from this period.[12] In the classical era, several ancient city-states such as Opone, Mosyllon and Malao that competed with the Sabaeans, Parthians and Axumites for the wealthy Indo-Greco-Roman trade also flourished in Somalia.[13]
.The birth of Islam on the opposite side of Somalia's Red Sea coast meant that Somali merchants, sailors and expatriates living in the Arabian Peninsula gradually came under the influence of the new religion through their converted Arab Muslim trading partners.^ One of the most visible leaders of an Al Qaeda-affiliated terrorist militia in Somalia spent a year in Toronto ingratiating himself into the Somali immigrant community as a convert to Islam.
  • Terror Free Somalia Foundation 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC terrorfreesomalia.blogspot.com [Source type: News]
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ Shaded Green areas are new areas of Muslim influence .

^ News from afar Disseminating Somali news through Web site is brothers' mission By San Diego Tribune .
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

.With the migration of fleeing Muslim families from the Islamic world to Somalia in the early centuries of Islam and the peaceful conversion of the Somali population by Somali Muslim scholars in the following centuries, the ancient city-states eventually transformed into Islamic Mogadishu, Berbera, Zeila, Barawa and Merca, which were part of the Berberi civilization.^ Islamic forces flee Somali capital * State of emergency in Somalia .
  • Somalia Update II | The Agonist 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC agonist.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Shukri Harbi, a freshman in political science, fled Somalia with her family for the peace and safety of Utah at the height of the African nation’s civil war in 1993.
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ The Courts now control all of Southern Somalia, from the Kenyan border to Mogadishu up to the central Somali town of Galcaio.
  • Somalia Update II | The Agonist 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC agonist.org [Source type: Original source]

.The city of Mogadishu came to be known as the City of Islam,[14] and controlled the East African gold trade for several centuries.^ (AP, 4/5/08) 2008 Apr 6, In Somalia 4 people were killed in Mogadishu in separate attacks overnight, as violence raged in the shattered east African nation.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[15]
.In the Middle Ages, several powerful Somali empires dominated the regional trade including the Ajuuraan State, which excelled in hydraulic engineering and fortress building,[16] the Sultanate of Adal, whose general Ahmed Gurey was the first African commander in history to use cannon warfare on the continent during Adal's conquest of the Ethiopian Empire,[17] and the Gobroon Dynasty, whose military dominance forced governors of the Omani empire north of the city of Lamu to pay tribute to the Somali Sultan Ahmed Yusuf.^ According to Sheikh Shuriye Afrah Sabriye, the group’s regional governor of Hiiraan region bordering with Ethiopia, Islamist forces are ready for a big war against Ethiopia, saying the attacks inside Ethiopia are imminent in the next few days, “Ethiopia is responsible for attacks on positions belonging to our forces outside the city of Beledweyn and in retaliation we will attack Ethiopian army bases inside Ethiopian territories, we are committed to do that” he said He said that in the past several weeks there have been attacks on Islamist positions near the border accusing Ethiopian military of helping the Somali government forces who carried out those attacks on Islamist positions in the region.

^ Last week, a newly powerful Somali government retook Mogadishu, with the help of Ethiopian troops.
  • Somalia Update II | The Agonist 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC agonist.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (AP, 11/17/06) 2006 Nov 19, In Somalia Islamic fighters used land mines and ambushed an 80-vehicle Ethiopian military convoy headed to Baidoa killing 6 soldiers and injuring 20.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[18] .In the late 19th century after the Berlin conference had ended, European empires sailed with their armies to the Horn of Africa.^ Abdullahi Yusuf ended with the premier's resignation, throwing the government of the war-battered Horn of Africa nation into disarray.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.The imperial clouds wavering over Somalia alarmed the Dervish leader Muhammad Abdullah Hassan, who gathered Somali soldiers from across the Horn of Africa and began one of the longest colonial resistance wars ever.^ Fought against a backdrop of shifting Cold War alliances, Ethiopia's army crushed Somali troops who tried to lay claim to the Ogaden region with the vision of recapturing ethnically Somali territories outside Somalia.
  • Somalia Update II | The Agonist 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC agonist.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the most visible leaders of an Al Qaeda-affiliated terrorist militia in Somalia spent a year in Toronto ingratiating himself into the Somali immigrant community as a convert to Islam.
  • Terror Free Somalia Foundation 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC terrorfreesomalia.blogspot.com [Source type: News]
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ Somali pirates had already seized at least 80 ships off the Horn of Africa this year.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.Somalia was never formally colonized.^ I never said Somalia must be colonized and I never will”, he added.
  • Somalia Update II | The Agonist 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC agonist.org [Source type: Original source]

[19][20][21] .The Dervish State successfully repulsed the British empire four times and forced it to retreat to the coastal region.^ On Wednesday, the US state department said the country has forces off the coast of Somalia and is working with other countries in the region to ensure that Islamists linked to terrorism are not able to flee the country.
  • Somalia Update II | The Agonist 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC agonist.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Troops Re-Enter Gedo Region of Jubbaland State of Somalia , Al Shabaab jehadist Retreat Bare Adan shire an interview with bbc ..

^ The international community has time and again been skeptical about the role and the involvement of the police and coastal security forces in the hijackings.

[22] .As a result of its fame in the Middle East and Europe, the Dervish state was recognized as an ally by the Ottoman Empire and the German empire,[23][24] and remained throughout World War I the only independent Muslim power on the continent.^ A foiled bid by a Nigerian to blow up a U.S. airliner is reframing the delicate debate about racial profiling in the United States, where men from the Middle East...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

.After a quarter of a century holding the British at bay, the Dervishes were finally defeated in 1920 when Britain for the first time in Africa used aeroplanes when it bombed the Dervish capital of Taleex.^ Muslim Somali Chief, Ahmed Gran, uses firearms against the Ethiopians for the first time.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.As a result of this bombardment, former Dervish territories were turned into a protectorate of Britain.^ According to witnesses, the warplanes bombarded several towns while Ethiopian tanks pushed aggressively into territory that had been controlled by Somalia’s Islamist forces.
  • Somalia Update II | The Agonist 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC agonist.org [Source type: Original source]

.Italy similarly faced the same opposition from Somali Sultans and armies and did not acquire full control of parts of modern Somalia until the Fascist era in late 1927. This occupation lasted till 1941 and was replaced by a British military administration.^ The Courts now control all of Southern Somalia, from the Kenyan border to Mogadishu up to the central Somali town of Galcaio.
  • Somalia Update II | The Agonist 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC agonist.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Somali interim Government and its Ethiopian allies have said they aim to crush the Islamic movement, which took control of much of southern Somalia.
  • Somalia Update II | The Agonist 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC agonist.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For more than 10 years, he had thousands of militiamen under his control, keeping an iron grip on the southern part of Somalia's seaside capital.
  • Somalia Update II | The Agonist 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC agonist.org [Source type: Original source]

.Northern Somalia would remain a protectorate while southern Somalia became a trusteeship.^ On Monday, the information official for al-Shabab in the Juba region, Hassan Yacqub Ali, declared it would be impossible for anyone to challenge al-Shabab's power in southern Somalia.

.The Union of the two regions in 1960 formed the Somali Democratic Republic.^ (HN, 2/26/98) 1960 Jun 26, British Somaliland became independent and five days later was united with Italian Somaliland as the Somali Republic.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Jan 27, Muhammad Siad Barre, the dictator of the Somali Democratic Republic since 1969, fled Mogadishu as rebels overran his palace and captured the Somali capital.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (SFC, 4/10/96, A-5) 1960 Jul 1, French and Italian Somaliland gained independence and united with the Somali Republic.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Due to its longstanding ties with the Arab world, Somalia was accepted in 1974 as a member of the Arab League. .To strengthen its relationship with the rest of the African continent, Somalia joined other African nations when it founded the African Union, and began to support the ANC in South Africa against the apartheid regime[25] and the Eritrean secessionists in Ethiopia during the Eritrean War of Independence.^ Shukri Harbi, a freshman in political science, fled Somalia with her family for the peace and safety of Utah at the height of the African nation’s civil war in 1993.
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ Ethiopia, which fought two wars against Somalia in the 1960s and 1970s and which accuses the Islamists of being terrorists, is even more widely reviled.
  • Somalia Update II | The Agonist 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC agonist.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The African Union's new representative for Somalia said he expected more peacekeepers to arrive starting this month.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[26] .A Muslim country, Somalia is one of the founding members of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference and is also a member of the UN and NAM.^ The UN envoy to Somalia said the UN should create a Baghdad-style Green Zone in the African country so he can base all his aid workers there.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ A closer look at a young Islamic extremist group in Somalia that has been actively recruiting young American members...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ Hawiye, the largest by number, are historically based in central Somalia and the capital, Mogadishu, though, like most clans, can be found all over the country.
  • Somalia Update II | The Agonist 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC agonist.org [Source type: Original source]

.Despite suffering from civil strife and instability, Somalia has also managed to sustain a free market economy which, according to the UN, outperforms those of many other countries in Africa.^ Shabab has many other sources of weapons, both in the domestic market, and, remember, Somalia has one of the largest small weapons markets in Mogadishu itself,” he said.

^ World/Africa/2010/0106/UN-suspends-food-aid-to-southern-Somalia Posted by Terror Free Somalia Foundation at 8:21 PM 0 comments Links to this post .

^ If these clan-based secessionists are granted statehood, it will set an unprecedented step towards the integration of the countries in the Horn and many others in Africa, Asia and even Europe .

[27]

Contents

History

History of Somalia
.
Ancient
Laas Geel Culture
Kingdom of Punt
Malaoites  · Oponeans
Mosyllonians
Medieval
Kingdom of Ifat
Adal Sultanate
Ajuuraan Empire
Gobroon Dynasty
Gerad Dynasty
Modern
Sultanate of Hobyo
Dervish State
Italian Somaliland
British Somaliland
Aden Adde Administration
Shermarke Administration
Communist rule
Recent History
Somali maritime history

Prehistory

Ancient rock art depicting a camel.
Somalia has been inhabited by man since the Paleolithic period. .Cave paintings dating back as far as 9000 BC have been found in northern Somalia.^ (AP, 11/5/06) 2006 Nov 6, In northern Somalia Islamic fighters clashed with government militia backed by Ethiopian forces.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

The most famous of these is the Laas Geel complex, which contains some of the earliest known rock art on the African continent. Inscriptions have been found beneath each of the rock paintings, but archaeologists have so far been unable to decipher this form of ancient writing.[28] During the Stone age, the Doian culture and the Hargeisan culture flourished here with their respective industries and factories.
.The oldest evidence of burial customs in the Horn of Africa comes from cemeteries in Somalia dating back to the 4th millennium BC.^ Torrential rains have pounded the Horn of Africa this month, bringing misery to large parts of Kenya, Somalia, Ethiopia, Sudan and Eritrea.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The asylum seeker from Somalia hung his head as an immigration judge grilled him about his treacherous journey from the Horn of Africa .

^ Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia .
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

.The stone implements from the Jalelo site in northern Somalia are said to be the most important link in evidence of the universality in Paleolithic times between the East and the West.^ The West has helped to create in Somalia the very thing it feared the most .
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ Witnesses said a radical Islamic militia controlled most of Somalia's third-largest city after three days of fighting in which some 70 people died.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ A long-time buffer zone between Ethiopia and Somalia, the politically and economically marginalized Ogaden region has transformed into a hotspot entangled .
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

[29]

Antiquity & the Classical era

The Silk Road extending from southern Europe through Arabia, Somalia, Egypt, Persia, India and Java until it reaches China.
.Ancient pyramidal structures, tombs, ruined cities and stone walls such as the Wargaade Wall littered in Somalia are evidence of an ancient sophisticated civilization that once thrived in the Somali peninsula.^ The Somalis managed to reach the walled city of Harer, a center for Islam in Ethiopia.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Somali PEN Workshop on The impact of the Civil war in Somalia on the Writer’s Freedom and Career .
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

[30] .The findings of archaeological excavations and research in Somalia show that this civilization had an ancient writing system that remains undeciphered,[31] and enjoyed a lucrative trading relationship with Ancient Egypt and Mycenaean Greece since at least the second millennium BC, which supports the view of Somalia being the ancient Kingdom of Punt.^ The double hijacking late Monday shows that, a year after an international naval armada began deploying off Somalia to protect shipping, piracy remains a problem.

^ DATES and times of the Suufi family’s escape from Somalia are sketchy, but that is a result of being on the run from a raging civil war and murderous thieves.
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ Gravely concerned about findings that Eritrea had provided support to armed groups undermining peace and reconciliation in Somalia and that it had not withdrawn its .
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

[32]
.The Puntites "traded not only in their own produce of incense, ebony and short-horned cattle, but also in goods from other neighbouring regions, including gold, ivory and animal skins."[33] According to the temple reliefs at Deir el-Bahri, the Land of Punt was ruled at that time by King Parahu and Queen Ati.^ On the other hand, the Djibouti case is different because of time, cold war effect and superpowers interests in the Red Sea and the Horn of Africa area.

[34]
Ancient Somalis domesticated the camel somewhere between the third millennium and second millennium BC from where it spread to Ancient Egypt and North Africa.[35] In the classical period, the city states of Mossylon, Opone, Malao, Mundus and Tabae in Somalia developed a lucrative trade network connecting with merchants from Phoenicia, Ptolemaic Egypt, Greece, Parthian Persia, Saba, Nabataea and the Roman Empire. .They used the ancient Somali maritime vessel known as the beden to transport their cargo.^ Somali pirates told Reuters late on Monday they had hijacked another vessel but did not give any details.

^ Speaking to clan elders in the Somali capital Mogadishu, Robow said the only flag which they accept will be the black flag that is known to their group.

^ A crew of the French warship "PM L'Her" dispatch boat intercepted two speedboats carrying 8 Somali pirates as they were preparing to board a Panamanian cargo ship.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Ruins of Qa’ableh.
.After the Roman conquest of the Nabataean Empire and the Roman naval presence at Aden to curb piracy, a mutual agreement by Arab and Somali merchants barred Indian ships from trading in the free port cities of the Arabian peninsula because of the nearby Romans.^ Moreover, the Habar Awal merchants who financed Egal's administration practically control all trade and main port of Berbera .

^ John Harbour, the spokesman for the European Union's anti-piracy force, said the seizures were likely only a coincidence and not coordinated because several pirate bands operate in the Indian Ocean and Gulf of Aden ...more .

^ The pirates also were paid "a reward" of $100,000 by two Somali businessmen for freeing the aid ship.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[36] .However, they continued to trade in the port cities of the Somali peninsula, which was free from any Roman threat or spies.^ They hung out at a Somali restaurant in "Little Mogadishu" in the northwest corner of the city, played basketball together, and worshipped at a North York mosque.
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

[37] .The reason for barring Indian ships from entering the wealthy Arabian port cities was to protect and hide the exploitative trade practices of the Somali and Arab merchants in the extremely lucrative ancient Red SeaMediterranean Sea commerce.^ Moreover, the Habar Awal merchants who financed Egal's administration practically control all trade and main port of Berbera .

^ They are now operating in the Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea and in the Indian Ocean," he said.National oil conglomerate Kuwait Petroleum Corp.

^ (AP, 6/2/08) 2008 Jun 2, Foreign ships gained UN authorization to enter Somali waters when fighting piracy and armed robbery.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[38]
.The Indian merchants for centuries brought large quantities of cinnamon from Ceylon and the Far East to Somalia and Arabia.^ (AP, 5/26/09) 2009 May 28, The Indian navy thwarted a pirate attack on a merchant ship in the Gulf of Aden off the coast of Somalia.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

This is said to have been the best kept secret of the Arab and Somali merchants in their trade with the Roman and Greek world. .The Romans and Greeks believed the source of cinnamon to have been the Somali peninsula but in reality, the highly valued product was brought to Somalia by way of Indian ships.^ (AP, 5/26/09) 2009 May 28, The Indian navy thwarted a pirate attack on a merchant ship in the Gulf of Aden off the coast of Somalia.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Somali Pirates Seize 2 Ships , Hold 45 Crew Members ‎ Posted by Terror Free Somalia Foundation at 7:03 AM 0 comments Links to this post .

^ Terrorism analysts had said the arrest in Somalia could prove highly valuable to the U.S. investigation.Somali Police Commissioner Gen.

[39] .Through Somali and Arab traders, Indian/Chinese cinnamon was also exported for far higher prices to North Africa, the Near East and Europe, which made the cinnamon trade a very profitable revenue generator, especially for the Somali merchants through whose hands large quantities were shipped across ancient sea and land routes.^ (HN, 12/16/98) 1941 Feb 26, British took the Somali capital in East Africa.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The Somali national had terrorist intent and was close to the radical Somali Shebab movement and leaders of Al-Qaeda in East Africa, the internal security service ...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ Authorities also said that dozens of Africans, most of whom were Somalis, were arrested fighting the army in support of the Houthi insurgents in the far north.

Birth of Islam & the Middle Ages

Ruins of the Sultanate of Adal in Zeila, Somalia.
The history of Islam in the Horn of Africa is as old as the religion itself. .The early persecuted Muslims fled to the Axumite port city of Zeila in modern day Somalia to seek protection from the Quraysh at the court of the Axumite Emperor in present day Ethiopia.^ Witnesses said a radical Islamic militia controlled most of Somalia's third-largest city after three days of fighting in which some 70 people died.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.Some of the Muslims that were granted protection are said to have settled in several parts of the Horn of Africa to promote the religion.^ SAN DIEGO -- Several Muslim families invited to a service at Skyline Church in La Mesa said they received the insult of their lives, 10News reported....
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ Torrential rains have pounded the Horn of Africa this month, bringing misery to large parts of Kenya, Somalia, Ethiopia, Sudan and Eritrea.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.The victory of the Muslims over the Quraysh in the 7th century had a significant impact on Somalia's merchants and sailors, as their Arab trading partners had then all adopted Islam, and the major trading routes in the Mediterranean and the Red Sea came under the sway of the Muslim Caliphs.^ Moreover, the Habar Awal merchants who financed Egal's administration practically control all trade and main port of Berbera .

^ North Americans like to criticize Muslim-majority Iran as a country where sectarian religion holds too much sway over public life, pitting conservatives against ...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ The US Navy helped free the fifth ship in a week hijacked by Somalia pirates, attempting to bring security to crucial shipping routes between the Red Sea and Indian Ocean.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.Through commerce, Islam spread amongst the Somali population in the coastal cities of Somalia.^ The Somalis managed to reach the walled city of Harer, a center for Islam in Ethiopia.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ It was the city's first triple homicide in nearly six years and the latest in a string of slayings among the city's Somali population.

.Instability in the Arabian peninsula saw several migrations of Arab families to Somalia's coastal cities, who then contributed another significant element to the growing popularity of Islam in the Somali peninsula.^ The Somalis managed to reach the walled city of Harer, a center for Islam in Ethiopia.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Burundi peacekeepers in Somalia were killed and another 20 injured in a suicide attack by a Somali contractor who delivered supplies and had easy access to the base.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Its prime minister said the government was ready to launch an offensive against the rebels, who are causing growing concerns due to their ability to team up with their counterparts in the Arabian Peninsula and perpetrate attacks.

13th century Fakr ad-Din mosque
.Mogadishu became the center of Islam on the East African coast, and Somali merchants established a colony in Mozambique to extract gold from the Monomopatan mines in Sofala.^ (AP, 4/5/08) 2008 Apr 6, In Somalia 4 people were killed in Mogadishu in separate attacks overnight, as violence raged in the shattered east African nation.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The Somalis managed to reach the walled city of Harer, a center for Islam in Ethiopia.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 11/22/08) 2008 Sep 29, Somali Islamist insurgents attacked government forces and African Union peacekeepers overnight in Mogadishu.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.In northern Somalia, Adal was in its early stages a small trading community established by the newly converted Horn African Muslim merchants, who were predominantly Somali according to Arab and Somali chronicles.^ University of Michigan researchers find discrimination, bad experiences led to adverse health effects among large, well-established Arab community ....
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ A Somali politician says a major conference has been held in a town near Somalia's border with Kenya and Ethiopia to develop a plan to establish a regional government in southern Somalia.

^ One of the most visible leaders of an Al Qaeda-affiliated terrorist militia in Somalia spent a year in Toronto ingratiating himself into the Somali immigrant community as a convert to Islam.
  • Terror Free Somalia Foundation 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC terrorfreesomalia.blogspot.com [Source type: News]
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

The century between 1150 and 1250 marked a decisive turn in the role of Islam in Somali history. .Yaqut Al-Hamawi and later ibn Said noted that the Berbers (Somalis) were a prosperous Muslim nation during that period.^ The Somali government said Al-Qaeda has named Aden Hashi Ayro, a ruthless Islamist commander, as its leader in Mogadishu.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 3/31/07)(AFP, 4/1/07) 2007 Mar-2000 Apr, Ethiopia later said that during this period it killed at least a thousand Shabab fighters, the armed wing of Islamic courts in Somalia.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

The Adal Sultanate was now the center of a commercial empire stretching from Cape Guardafui to Hadiya. The Adalites then came under the influence of the expanding Horn African Kingdom of Ifat, and prospered under its patronage.
.The capital of the Ifat was Zeila, situated in in northern present-day Somalia, from where the Ifat army marched to conquer the ancient Kingdom of Shoa in 1270. This conquest ignited a rivalry for supremacy between the Christian Solomonids and the Muslim Ifatites that resulted in several devastating wars, and ultimately ended in a Solomonic victory over the Kingdom of Ifat after the death of the popular Sultan Sa'ad ad-Din II in Zeila by Dawit II.^ DATES and times of the Suufi family’s escape from Somalia are sketchy, but that is a result of being on the run from a raging civil war and murderous thieves.
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 9/5/02) 2002 Oct 4, In central Somalia heavy fighting between the Sa'ad subclan and the Majerten clan killed at least 10 people and injured 25 others.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The incursion provoked a declaration of holy war by Somalia’s Muslim hard-liners against their neighboring Christian nation, and, more broadly, the United States for its perceived support of the invasion.

.Sa'ad ad-Din II's family was subsequently given safe haven at the court of the King of Yemen, where his sons regrouped and planned their revenge on the Solomonids.^ Yemen: a new safe haven for al-Qaida .

Model of a medieval Mogadishan ship.
During the Age of the Ajuuraans, the sultanates and republics of Merca, Mogadishu, Barawa, Hobyo and their respective ports flourished and had a lucrative foreign commerce with ships sailing to and coming from Arabia, India, Venetia,[40] Persia, Egypt, Portugal and as far away as China. Vasco da Gama, who passed by Mogadishu in the 15th century, noted that it was a large city with houses of four or five storeys high and big palaces in its centre in addition to many mosques with cylindrical minarets.[41]
In the 1500s, Duarte Barbosa noted that many ships from the Kingdom of Cambaya in modern-day India sailed to Mogadishu with cloth and spices, for which they in return received gold, wax and ivory. Barbosa also highlighted the abundance of meat, wheat, barley, horses, and fruit on the coastal markets, which generated enormous wealth for the merchants.[42] Mogadishu, the center of a thriving weaving industry known as toob benadir (specialized for the markets in Egypt and Syria[43]), together with Merca and Barawa, also served as a transit stop for Swahili merchants from Mombasa and Malindi and for the gold trade from Kilwa.[44] .Jewish merchants from the Hormuz brought their Indian textile and fruit to the Somali coast in exchange for grain and wood.^ (AP, 5/26/09) 2009 May 28, The Indian navy thwarted a pirate attack on a merchant ship in the Gulf of Aden off the coast of Somalia.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[45]
Trading relations were established with Malacca in the 15th century[46] with cloth, ambergris and porcelain being the main commodities of the trade.[47] .Giraffes, zebras and incense were exported to the Ming Empire of China, which established Somali merchants as leaders in the commerce between the Asia and Africa[48] and influenced the Chinese language with the Somali language in the process.^ The Somali national had terrorist intent and was close to the radical Somali Shebab movement and leaders of Al-Qaeda in East Africa, the internal security service ...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

.Hindu merchants from Surat and Southeast African merchants from Pate, seeking to bypass both the Portuguese blockade and Omani meddling, used the Somali ports of Merca and Barawa (which were out of the two powers' jurisdiction) to conduct their trade in safety and without interference.^ Many merchants from Togdher, Sool and Sanag are alternatively using the port of Bosaso , which offers them courteous services and far less duties.

[49]

Early modern era & the Scramble for Africa

17th century mosque in Hafun, Somalia.
In the early modern period, successor states of the Adal and Ajuuraan empires began to flourish in Somalia. These were the Gerad Dynasty, the Bari Dynasties and the Gobroon Dynasty. They continued the tradition of castle-building and seaborne trade established by previous Somali empires.
Sultan Yusuf Mahamud Ibrahim, the third Sultan of the House of Gobroon, started the Golden age of the Gobroon Dynasty. His army came out victorious during the Bardheere Jihad, which restored stability in the region and revitalized the East African ivory trade. He also received presents from and had cordial relations with the rulers of neighbouring and distant kingdoms such as the Omani, Witu and Yemeni Sultans.
Sultan Ibrahim's son Ahmed Yusuf succeeded him and was one of the most important figures in 19th century East Africa, receiving tribute from Omani governors and creating alliances with important Muslim families on the East African coast. In northern Somalia, the Gerad Dynasty conducted trade with Yemen and Persia and competed with the merchants of the Bari Dynasty. The Gerads and the Bari Sultans built impressive palaces, castles and fortresses and had close relations with many different empires in the Near East.
Somali soldiers board a British naval batilla.
.In the late 19th century, after the Berlin conference, European powers began the Scramble for Africa, which inspired the Dervish leader Muhammad Abdullah Hassan to rally support from across the Horn of Africa and begin one of the longest colonial resistance wars ever.^ On the other hand, the Djibouti case is different because of time, cold war effect and superpowers interests in the Red Sea and the Horn of Africa area.

^ Abdullahi Yusuf ended with the premier's resignation, throwing the government of the war-battered Horn of Africa nation into disarray.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The Lehmann Timber was one of two ships hijacked on May 30 off the Horn of Africa.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.In several of his poems and speeches, Hassan emphasized that the British infidels "have destroyed our religion and made our children their children" and that the Christian Ethiopians in league with the British were bent upon plundering the political and religious freedom of the Somali nation.^ The Educational Underachievement of Somali Children in British Schools .
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

.He soon emerged as "a champion of his country's political and religious freedom, defending it against all Christian invaders."^ The state chapter of the country’s largest Muslim civil rights group on Thursday asked religious and political leaders to condemn anti-Muslim fliers that were ...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

.Hassan issued a religious ordinance stipulating that any Somali national who did not accept the goal of unity of Somalia and would not fight under his leadership would be considered as kafir or gaal.^ Burundi peacekeepers in Somalia were killed and another 20 injured in a suicide attack by a Somali contractor who delivered supplies and had easy access to the base.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Rival Islamists Fight for Town in Somalia,Battle for Somali town kills at least 11: residents‎ .

^ He hoped the TFG leadership would assist in maintaining the unity of Ahlu Sum to enable it to co-operate with the TFG more effectively.

.He soon acquired weapons from Turkey, Sudan, and other Islamic and/or Arabian countries, and appointed ministers and advisers to administer different areas or sectors of Somalia.^ (AP, 6/17/06) 2006 Jun 22, Somalia's largely powerless government and the Islamic fighters who control the country's capital agreed to stop military action and recognize each other.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 10/6/06) 2006 Oct 7, In Somalia dozens of people protested against an Islamic militia that has seized much of southern Somalia, a day after the group appointed a new administration in Kismayo, the country's third largest city.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Shabab has many other sources of weapons, both in the domestic market, and, remember, Somalia has one of the largest small weapons markets in Mogadishu itself,” he said.

In addition, he gave a clarion call for Somali unity and independence, in the process organizing his forces.
Hassan's Dervish movement had an essentially military character, and the Dervish state was fashioned on the model of a Salihiya brotherhood. It was characterized by a rigid hierarchy and centralization. .Though Hassan threatened to drive the Christians into the sea, he executed the first attack by launching his first major military offensive with his 1500 Dervish equipped with 20 modem rifles on the British soldiers stationed in the region.^ A Malaysian military helicopter saved an Indian tanker from being hijacked in the new year's first attacks by pirates in the dangerous Gulf of Aden.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ And the concern that the FBI has is that the situation will morph into one in which the kids come back and decide to launch some sort of terrorist attack here.

^ Jan 2, The Somali National Movement (SNM) launched its first military operation against the Somali government.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Taleex was the capital of the Dervish State.
He repulsed the British in four expeditions and had relations with the central powers of the Ottomans and the Germans. In 1920, the Dervish state collapsed after intensive aerial bombardments by Britain, and Dervish territories were subsequently turned into a protectorate.
.The dawn of fascism in the early 1920s heralded a change of strategy for Italy, as the north-eastern sultanates were soon to be forced within the boundaries of La Grande Somalia according to the plan of Fascist Italy.^ Nairobi - Somalia's government called on Saturday for an international peace plan like President Barack Obama's new Afghan strategy, saying it would be more ....
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

With the arrival of Governor Cesare Maria De Vecchi on 15 December 1923, things began to change for that part of Somaliland known as Italian Somaliland. .Italy had access to these areas under the successive protection treaties, but not direct rule.^ The case was filed under the Torture Victim Protection Act.The Supreme Court will rule on the plaintiffs’ right to pursue a civil lawsuit against Samantar.

.The Fascist government had direct rule only over the Benadir territory.^ But in January 2009, the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals reinstated the case, ruling that this immunity applies not to individuals but only to governments and their agencies.

Fascist Italy, under Benito Mussolini, attacked Abyssinia (Ethiopia) in 1935, with an aim to colonize it. The invasion was condemned by the League of Nations, but little was done to stop it or to liberate occupied Ethiopia. .On August 3, 1940, Italian troops, including Somali colonial units, crossed from Ethiopia to invade British Somaliland, and by August 14, succeeded in taking Berbera from the British.^ (HN, 2/26/98) 1960 Jun 26, British Somaliland became independent and five days later was united with Italian Somaliland as the Somali Republic.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (SFC, 4/10/96, A-5) 1960 Jul 1, French and Italian Somaliland gained independence and united with the Somali Republic.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (HN, 2/18/98) 1940 Dec 16, British carried out an air raid on Italian Somalia.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.A British force, including troops from several African countries, launched the campaign in January 1941 from Kenya to liberate British Somaliland and Italian-occupied Ethiopia and conquer Italian Somaliland.^ Nigeria and other African countries have contributed troops to the African Union Peacekeeping Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) as part of efforts to tackle piracy....
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ (HN, 2/26/98) 1960 Jun 26, British Somaliland became independent and five days later was united with Italian Somaliland as the Somali Republic.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 2/28/07) 2007 Mar 1, An advance team of an African peacekeeping force to Somalia arrived unannounced into the country.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.By February, most of Italian Somaliland was captured and in March, British Somaliland was retaken from the sea.^ (HN, 2/26/98) 1960 Jun 26, British Somaliland became independent and five days later was united with Italian Somaliland as the Somali Republic.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.The British Empire forces operating in Somaliland comprised three divisions of South African, West and East African troops.^ (AP, 2/5/09) 2009 Feb 8, In Somalia at least three civilians were killed when insurgents attacked African Union forces and government troops in the strife-torn capital Mogadishu.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.They were assisted by Somali forces led by Abdulahi Hassan with Somalis of the Isaaq, Dhulbahante, and Warsangali clans prominently participating.^ Speaking to clan elders in the Somali capital Mogadishu, Robow said the only flag which they accept will be the black flag that is known to their group.

After World War II, the number of the Italian colonists started to decrease; their numbers had dwindled to less than 10,000 in 1960.[50]

The State of Somalia

.Following World War II, although Somalis aided the Allied powers in their struggle against the Axis powers, Britain retained control of both British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland as protectorates.^ (AP, 11/1/07) 2007 Oct 29, A long-brewing power struggle between the Somali PM Ali Mohamed Gedi and Pres.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (HN, 2/26/98) 1960 Jun 26, British Somaliland became independent and five days later was united with Italian Somaliland as the Somali Republic.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (SFC, 4/10/96, A-5) 1960 Jul 1, French and Italian Somaliland gained independence and united with the Somali Republic.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.In November 1949, the United Nations granted Italy trusteeship of Italian Somaliland, but only under close supervision and on the condition—first proposed by the Somali Youth League (SYL) and other nascent Somali political organizations, such as Hizbia Digil Mirifle Somali (HDMS) (which later became Hizbia Dastur Mustaqbal Somali) and the Somali National League (SNL), that were then agitating for independence—that Somalia achieve independence within ten years.^ (HN, 2/26/98) 1960 Jun 26, British Somaliland became independent and five days later was united with Italian Somaliland as the Somali Republic.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ A group of Somali refugees in Randfontein are facing homelessness and growing uncertainty, while government and the United Nations pass the buck on ...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ The United Nations Security Council imposed sanctions on Eritrea last week for arming and supporting Islamist insurgents in Somalia.

[51][52] British Somaliland remained a protectorate of Britain until 1960.[53]
.To the extent that Italy held the territory by UN mandate, the trusteeship provisions gave the Somalis the opportunity to gain experience in political education and self-government.^ (AP, 6/2/08) 2008 Jun 2, Foreign ships gained UN authorization to enter Somali waters when fighting piracy and armed robbery.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

These were advantages that British Somaliland, which was to be incorporated into the new Somali state, did not have. .Although in the 1950s British colonial officials attempted, through various development efforts, to make up for past neglect, the protectorate stagnated.^ (Bloomberg) -- The U.S. and U.K. governments will increase counter-terrorism efforts in Yemen and Somalia as they respond to a failed attempt to blow up an airplane over Detroit.

.The disparity between the two territories in economic development and political experience would cause serious difficulties when it came time to integrate the two parts.^ A long-time buffer zone between Ethiopia and Somalia, the politically and economically marginalized Ogaden region has transformed into a hotspot entangled .
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

[54]
.Meanwhile, in 1948, under pressure from their World War II allies and to the dismay of the Somalis,[55] the British "returned" the Haud (an important Somali grazing area that was presumably 'protected' by British treaties with the Somalis in 1884 and 1886) and the Ogaden to Ethiopia, based on a treaty they signed in 1897 in which the British ceded Somali territory to the Ethiopian Emperor Menelik in exchange for his help against plundering by Somali clans.^ According to Sheikh Shuriye Afrah Sabriye, the group’s regional governor of Hiiraan region bordering with Ethiopia, Islamist forces are ready for a big war against Ethiopia, saying the attacks inside Ethiopia are imminent in the next few days, “Ethiopia is responsible for attacks on positions belonging to our forces outside the city of Beledweyn and in retaliation we will attack Ethiopian army bases inside Ethiopian territories, we are committed to do that” he said He said that in the past several weeks there have been attacks on Islamist positions near the border accusing Ethiopian military of helping the Somali government forces who carried out those attacks on Islamist positions in the region.

^ (AP, 2/16/07) 2007 Feb 18, Fierce inter-clan fighting killed at least 43 people in Ethiopia's southeastern Ogaden region, inhabited mainly by ethnic Somalis.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Somali clans vow to defend Kenya against Al-Shabaab .

[56]
.Britain included the proviso that the Somali nomads would retain their autonomy, but Ethiopia immediately claimed sovereignty over them.^ Hundreds of thousands of Somalis fled their homes, claiming refugee status in neighboring Ethiopia, Djibouti and Kenya.

[51] .This prompted an unsuccessful bid by Britain in 1956 to buy back the Somali lands it had turned over.^ Communal Groups Back Somali in Bid To Block Israel...

^ Communal Groups Back Somali in Bid To Block Israel Lawsuits .
  • Terror Free Somalia Foundation 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC terrorfreesomalia.blogspot.com [Source type: News]
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

[51] .Britain also granted administration of the almost exclusively Somali-inhabited[57] Northern Frontier District (NFD) to Kenyan nationalists despite an informal plebiscite demonstrating the overwhelming desire of the region's population to join the newly formed Somali Republic.^ As mentioned before, Sool and Sanag joined the regional administration of Puntland.

^ In 1998, the northern Somali region of Puntland declared autonomy from south-central Somalia after a series of failed attempts at national reconciliation.

[58]
.A referendum was held in neighbouring Djibouti (then known as French Somaliland) in 1958, on the eve of Somalia's independence in 1960, to decide whether or not to join the Somali Republic or to remain with France.^ (SFC, 4/10/96, A-5) 1960 Jul 1, French and Italian Somaliland gained independence and united with the Somali Republic.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (HN, 2/26/98) 1960 Jun 26, British Somaliland became independent and five days later was united with Italian Somaliland as the Somali Republic.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Somaliland in north-western Somalia, however, declared its independence from the rest of Somalia in May 1991, but remains without international recognition.

The referendum turned out in favour of a continued association with France, largely due to a combined yes vote by the sizable Afar ethnic group and resident Europeans. .However, the majority of those who voted no were Somalis who were strongly in favour of joining a united Somalia as had been proposed by Mahmoud Harbi, Vice President of the Government Council.^ Nairobi - Somalia's government called on Saturday for an international peace plan like President Barack Obama's new Afghan strategy, saying it would be more ....
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ Burundi peacekeepers in Somalia were killed and another 20 injured in a suicide attack by a Somali contractor who delivered supplies and had easy access to the base.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ They will also back proposals at the United Nations Security Council for a larger peacekeeping force in Somalia, the statement said.Al-Qaeda’s Yemen-based branch claimed responsibility for the Dec.

Harbi was killed in a plane crash two years later. .Djibouti finally gained its independence from France in 1977 and Hassan Gouled Aptidon, a French-groomed Somali who campaigned for a yes vote in the referendum of 1958, eventually wound up as Djibouti's first president (1977–1991).^ (SFC, 4/10/96, A-5) 1960 Jul 1, French and Italian Somaliland gained independence and united with the Somali Republic.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Somalia was torn apart by factional fighting after the overthrow of the country's Honourable Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre, in 1991.

[59]
.British Somaliland became independent on June 26, 1960, and the former Italian Somaliland followed suit five days later.^ (HN, 2/26/98) 1960 Jun 26, British Somaliland became independent and five days later was united with Italian Somaliland as the Somali Republic.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (SFC, 4/10/96, A-5) 1960 Jul 1, French and Italian Somaliland gained independence and united with the Somali Republic.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Is it the former British Protectorate of Somaliland as the Isaq claim?

[60] .On July 1, 1960, the two territories united to form the Somali Republic, albeit within boundaries drawn up by Italy and Britain.^ (HN, 2/26/98) 1960 Jun 26, British Somaliland became independent and five days later was united with Italian Somaliland as the Somali Republic.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (SFC, 4/10/96, A-5) 1960 Jul 1, French and Italian Somaliland gained independence and united with the Somali Republic.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Wretched, jobless, invisible: are Britain’s Somalis the enemy within?
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

[61][62][63] .A government was formed by Abdullahi Issa with Aden Abdullah Osman Daar as President,[64][65][66] and Abdirashid Ali Shermarke as Prime Minister, later to become President (from 1967–1969).^ Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke faced the task of uniting a fractious government besieged by Islamic insurgents that control most of the country.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Somalia's Minister of Health, Dr. Qamar Aden Ali, was among those killed in Thursday's terrorist attack in Mogadishu.
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ But the coalition government of President Mwai Kibaki and opposition leader turned prime minister Raila Odinga has remained entrenched in the divisive tribal politics that led to the ethnic violence.

On July 20, 1961 and through a popular referendum, the Somali people ratified a new constitution, which was first drafted in 1960.[67]
However, inter-clan rivalry persisted.[62][68][69][70] In 1967, Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal became Prime Minister, a position to which he was appointed by Shermarke. .Egal would later become the President of the autonomous Somaliland region in northwestern Somalia.^ Nairobi - Somalia's government called on Saturday for an international peace plan like President Barack Obama's new Afghan strategy, saying it would be more ....
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ NAIROBI, 16 December 2009 (IRIN) - The number of reported rapes in camps for internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Bosasso, in Somalia's self-declared autonomous region of Puntland, is increasing and rape has become ...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ On Monday, the information official for al-Shabab in the Juba region, Hassan Yacqub Ali, declared it would be impossible for anyone to challenge al-Shabab's power in southern Somalia.

.In late 1969, following the assassination of President Shermarke, a military government assumed power in a coup d'état led by Major General Salaad Gabeyre Kediye, General Siad Barre and Chief of Police Jama Korshel.^ Jan 27, Muhammad Siad Barre, the dictator of the Somali Democratic Republic since 1969, fled Mogadishu as rebels overran his palace and captured the Somali capital.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The African leaders also called for dialogue between Zimbabwe's political foes and a national unity government following President Robert Mugabe's widely discredited reelection.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (SFC, 6/2/09, p.A2) 2009 Jun 4, Ethiopia charged 46 people, most of them ex-military, of plotting to assassinate government officials.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Barre became President and Korshel vice-president. The revolutionary army established large-scale public works programmes and successfully implemented an urban and rural literacy campaign, which helped dramatically increase the literacy rate from 5% to 55% by the mid-1980s. However, struggles continued during Barre's rule. .At one point he assassinated a major figure in his cabinet, Major General Gabeyre, and two other officials.^ The statement was accompanied by photos of the suspect."The claim at this point appears valid," said one U.S. counterterrorism official.

^ He pointed out the movement’s primary goal was for the different communities in Somalia to live in peaceful coexistence without any one group imposing its will on others.

The old parliament building in Mogadishu.
It was in July 1976 when the real dictatorship of the Somali military commenced with the founding of the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party (Xisbiga Hantiwadaagga Kacaanka Soomaaliyeed, XHKS). .This party ruled Somalia until the fall of the military government in December 1990–January 1991. It was violently overthrown by the combined armed revolt of the Somali Salvation Democratic Front (Jabhadda Diimuqraadiga Badbaadinta Soomaaliyeed, SSDF), United Somali Congress (USC), Somali National Movement (SNM), and the Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM) together with the non-violent political oppositions of the Somali Democratic Movement (SDM), the Somali Democratic Alliance (SDA) and the Somali Manifesto Group (SMG).^ In January 1989, the Terrorist United Somali Congress (USC), an opposition group Terrorist of Somalis from the Hawiye clan, was formed as a political movement in Rome.

^ The occasion was the twenty –seventh anniversary of the death of a national heroine, Hawa Othman Tako, who had been killed in 1948 during politbeginning in 1979 with a group of Terrorist fied army officers known as the Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF).Mr Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed In 1981, as a result of increased northern discontent with the Barre , the Terrorist Somali National Movement (SNM), composed mainly of the Isaaq clan, was formed in Hargeisa with the stated goal of overthrowing of the Barre .

^ Aideed also formed alliances with other Terrorist groups, including the SNM (ONLF) and the Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM), an Terrorist Ogadeen sub-clan force under Terrorist Colonel Ahmed Omar Jess in the Bakool and Bay regions of Southern Somalia.

The country was renamed the Somali Democratic Republic.
.In 1977 and 1978, Somalia invaded its neighbour Ethiopia in the Ogaden War, in which Somalia aimed to unite the Somali lands that had been partitioned by the former colonial powers, and to win the right of self-determination for ethnic Somalis in those territories.^ Samantar , in which a group of Somalis is seeking financial damages from Mohamed Ali Samantar, Somalia’s former defense minister.

^ A Somali politician says a major conference has been held in a town near Somalia's border with Kenya and Ethiopia to develop a plan to establish a regional government in southern Somalia.

^ They disgracefully claim that they are not ethnic Somalis, but migrants from Arabia and therefore, have to break away from Somalia .

.Somalia first engaged Kenya and Ethiopia diplomatically, but this failed.^ A Somali politician says a major conference has been held in a town near Somalia's border with Kenya and Ethiopia to develop a plan to establish a regional government in southern Somalia.

.Somalia, already preparing for war, created the Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF, then called the Western Somali Liberation Front, WSLF) and eventually sought to capture Ogaden.^ In 2007 and 2008, al-Shabab, a militant group with ties to al-Qaida, rallied Somalis with calls for nationalism and consolidated vast amount of territory in southern and central Somalia and large areas of Mogadishu.

.Somalia acted unilaterally without consulting the international community, which was generally opposed to redrawing colonial boundaries, while the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact countries refused to help Somalia, and instead, backed Communist Ethiopia.^ Sheikh "shaytan" Mahamud emphasized that Ethiopia could help towards the fulfillment of the common objectives of all Somalis and assist the international community to understand more clearly where its own interests lie.

^ Somaliland in north-western Somalia, however, declared its independence from the rest of Somalia in May 1991, but remains without international recognition.

^ Nigeria and other African countries have contributed troops to the African Union Peacekeeping Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) as part of efforts to tackle piracy....
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Still the USSR, finding itself supplying both sides of a war, attempted to mediate a ceasefire.
.In the first week of the conflict Somali armed forces took southern and central Ogaden and for most of the war, the Somali army scored continues victories on the Ethiopian army and followed them as far as Sidamo.^ By the end of the 1980s, armed opposition to Barre’s government, fully operational in the northern regions, had spread to the central and southern regions.

^ Authorities also said that dozens of Africans, most of whom were Somalis, were arrested fighting the army in support of the Houthi insurgents in the far north.

.By September 1977, Somalia controlled 90% of the Ogaden and captured strategic cities such as Jijiga and put heavy pressure on Dire Dawa, threatening the train route from the latter city to Djibouti.^ A l-Shabab insurgents control much of southern Somalia, including the city of Kismayo.

After the siege of Harar, a massive unprecedented Soviet intervention consisting of 20 thousand Cuban forces and several thousands Soviet experts came to the aid of Ethiopia. .The Somali Army was forced to withdraw and consequently Somalia sought the help of the United States.^ The illusion of this divisive force is to create a clan-based state in the 21st century, where countries of mutual or economic interests are uniting and world is becoming a global village.

^ Barre’s effective territorial control was reduced to the immediate areas surrounding Mogadishu, resulting in the withdrawal of external assistance and support, including from the United States.

^ In Iran, Somali FM pleads with Muslim states to help .
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Although the Carter Administration had expressed interest in helping Somalia, it later declined, as did American allies in the Middle East and Asia.
.
The Somali-Soviet friendship and later partnership with the United States enabled Somalia to build the largest army in Africa.
^ At one of the largest mosques in the United States, Muslim leaders are trying to create a safe haven for young people to learn Islam's lessons about peace.
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^ Honourable Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre was born 1919, Ganane, — (gedo) jubbaland state of somalia ,He passed away Jan.

^ Bronwyn Bruton argues that United States goverment must change its Somalia policy and fast.
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[71]
By 1978, the moral authority of the Somali government had collapsed. .Many Somalis had become disillusioned with life under military dictatorship and the regime was weakened further in the 1980s as the Cold War drew to a close and Somalia's strategic importance was diminished.^ Somali PEN Workshop on The impact of the Civil war in Somalia on the Writer’s Freedom and Career .
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.The government became increasingly totalitarian, and resistance movements, encouraged by Ethiopia, sprang up across the country, eventually leading to the Somali Civil War.^ Hezbal Islam an Islamist rebel movement fighting the Somali government vowed on Thursday to carry out attacks inside Ethiopia targeting military bases and government buildings.

^ Somali Region is one of the four least developed regions of the country, Ethiopia.
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^ According to the Eritrean government, the sanctions were drummed up by the country's arch foe, Ethiopia, and the United States, whose aid workers were expelled from the country in 2005.

.During 1990, in the capital city of Mogadishu, the residents were prohibited from gathering publicly in groups greater than three or four.^ Speaking to clan elders in the Somali capital Mogadishu, Robow said the only flag which they accept will be the black flag that is known to their group.

Fuel shortages caused long lines of cars at petrol stations. Inflation had driven the price of pasta, (ordinary dry Italian noodles, a staple at that time), to five U.S. dollars per kilogram. The price of khat, imported daily from Kenya, was also five U.S. dollars per standard bunch. Paper currency notes were of such low value that several bundles were needed to pay for simple restaurant meals. Coins were scattered on the ground throughout the city being too low in value to be used.
A thriving black market existed in the centre of the city as banks experienced shortages of local currency for exchange. At night, the city of Mogadishu lay in darkness. The generators used to provide electricity to the city had been sold off by the government. Close monitoring of all visiting foreigners was in effect. Harsh exchange control regulations were introduced to prevent export of foreign currency and access to it was restricted to official banks, or one of three government-operated hotels.
Although no travel restrictions were placed on foreigners, photographing many locations was banned. .During the day in Mogadishu, the appearance of any government military force was extremely rare.^ For the past several days I have been in Mogadishu for consultations with Hezbal Islam’s commanders and we will soon invade on Ethiopia” he stated during Thursday’s press conference in Mogadishu.

^ Top officials of Al-shabab had lectured to the Islamist fighters at Maslah camp in Mogadishu saying that the forces will fight with the transitional government troops and AMISOM. .

^ Mogadishu -- Somalia’s transitional government fired its police and military commanders following a suicide- bomb attack last week that killed four Cabinet...
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Alleged late-night operations by government authorities, however, included 'disappearances' of individuals from their homes.

The Somali Civil War

1991 saw great changes in Somalia. .President Barre was ousted by combined northern and southern clan-based forces all of whom were backed and armed by Ethiopia.^ The illusion of this divisive force is to create a clan-based state in the 21st century, where countries of mutual or economic interests are uniting and world is becoming a global village.

^ By the end of the 1980s, armed opposition to Barre’s government, fully operational in the northern regions, had spread to the central and southern regions.

^ Observers say if the conference attracted as many delegates as claimed, it underscores the growing sense of frustration among various clan-based communities in southern Somalia.

.And following a meeting of the Somali National Movement and northern clans' elders, the northern former British portion of the country declared its independence as Somaliland in May 1991; although de facto independent and relatively stable compared to the tumultuous south, it has not been recognised by any foreign government.^ Since it declared its secession from Somalia in May 1991, the one-clan-based secessionist enclave in NW Somalia, calling itself Somaliland, has been vying to lay its hands by hook or by crook on our three northern regions of Sool, Sanaag and Cayn (SSC) which consider themselves as part and parcel of .
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^ A group of Somali refugees in Randfontein are facing homelessness and growing uncertainty, while government and the United Nations pass the buck on ...
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^ The Somali national had terrorist intent and was close to the radical Somali Shebab movement and leaders of Al-Qaeda in East Africa, the internal security service ...
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[72][73]
In January 1991, President Ali Mahdi Muhammad was selected by the manifesto group as an interim state president until a conference between all stakeholders to be held in Djibouti the following month to select a national leader. .However, United Somali Congress military leader General Mohamed Farrah Aidid, the Somali National Movement leader Abdirahman Ahmed Ali Tuur and the Somali Patriotic Movement leader Col Jess refused to recognize Mahdi as president.^ Honourable Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre with general Mohamad Ali samater .

^ A group of Somali refugees in Randfontein are facing homelessness and growing uncertainty, while government and the United Nations pass the buck on ...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ Samantar , in which a group of Somalis is seeking financial damages from Mohamed Ali Samantar, Somalia’s former defense minister.

.This caused a split between the SNM, USC and SPM and the armed groups Manifesto, Somali Democratic Movement (SDM) and Somali National Alliance (SNA) on the one hand and within the USC forces.^ Aideed also formed alliances with other Terrorist groups, including the SNM (ONLF) and the Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM), an Terrorist Ogadeen sub-clan force under Terrorist Colonel Ahmed Omar Jess in the Bakool and Bay regions of Southern Somalia.

^ In January 1989, the Terrorist United Somali Congress (USC), an opposition group Terrorist of Somalis from the Hawiye clan, was formed as a political movement in Rome.

.This led efforts to remove Barre who still claimed to be the legitimate president of Somalia.^ Honourable Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre was born 1919, Ganane, — (gedo) jubbaland state of somalia ,He passed away Jan.

^ Somalia was torn apart by factional fighting after the overthrow of the country's Honourable Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre, in 1991.

.He and his armed supporters remained in the south of the country until mid 1992, causing further escalation in violence, especially in the Gedo, Bay, Bakool, Lower Shabelle, Lower Juba, and Middle Juba regions.^ According to southern Somali politician Aden Mohamed Nur "Saransoor," 200 delegates gathered in the Somali border town of Dolow in the Gedo region three days ago to discuss the way forward for liberating southern Somalia from Islamist radicals and for creating a regional state The politician says the objective of the conference was to find a way to establish a semi-autonomous state encompassing six regions - Gedo, Bay, Bakool, Lower and Middle Juba and Lower Shabelle.

^ Middle juba, Gedo state of Southwest Somali, shabaab hardline groups imposing a strict version of Islamic law traditionally shunned by many Somalis.

^ But violence and insecurity have risen in recent months and the region is also a major base for pirates who have been causing havoc to shipping off the Horn of Africa.

The armed conflict within the USC devastated the Mogadishu area.
.The civil war disrupted agriculture and food distribution in southern Somalia.^ Shukri Harbi, a freshman in political science, fled Somalia with her family for the peace and safety of Utah at the height of the African nation’s civil war in 1993.
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^ DATES and times of the Suufi family’s escape from Somalia are sketchy, but that is a result of being on the run from a raging civil war and murderous thieves.
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^ Before he turned 18, he'd lost his entire family during a deadly civil war in Somalia.
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.The basis of most of the conflicts was clan allegiances and competition for resources between the warring clans.^ The sectarian war between Ahlu-Sunna and al-Shabab is just one of several conflicts raging between and among Islamist groups in Somalia.

.James Bishop, the United States last ambassador to Somalia, explained that there is "competition for water, pasturage, and...^ The United Nations Security Council imposed sanctions on Eritrea last week for arming and supporting Islamist insurgents in Somalia.

^ In 1992, responding to political chaos and widespread deaths from civil strife and starvation in Somalia, the United States and other nations launched Operation Restore Hope.

cattle. It is a competition that used to be fought out with arrows and sabers... Now it is fought out with AK-47s."[74] .The resulting famine (about 300,000 dead) caused the United Nations Security Council in 1992 to authorise the limited peacekeeping operation United Nations Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM I).^ December 2009 – The top United Nations envoy to Somalia today welcomed the announcement of a meeting tomorrow of over 30 countries, ....
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^ UNITED NATIONS, December 8 -- Mirroring the chaos of the Transitional Federal Government in Somalia, donors and vultures and purported helpers are all working .
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^ UNITED NATIONS, New York - U.N. Security Council members have agreed to impose an arms embargo on Eritrea this month, as well as travel bans and asset freezes...
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[75] UNOSOM's use of force was limited to self-defence and it was soon disregarded by the warring factions.
.In reaction to the continued violence and the humanitarian disaster, the United States organised a military coalition with the purpose of creating a secure environment in southern Somalia for the conduct of humanitarian operations.^ The illusion of this divisive force is to create a clan-based state in the 21st century, where countries of mutual or economic interests are uniting and world is becoming a global village.

^ 'Time for a new Somalia policy' Government troops conduct search operations in Mog...

^ I think Shabab controls much of southern Somalia at the present, and in the last week or so, they have had military celebrations in Mogadishu itself, to show the caliber of their troops and the size of their troops.

.This coalition, (Unified Task Force or UNITAF) entered Somalia in December 1992 on Operation Restore Hope and was successful in restoring order and alleviating the famine.^ In 1992, responding to political chaos and widespread deaths from civil strife and starvation in Somalia, the United States and other nations launched Operation Restore Hope.

^ Led by the Unified Task Force (UNITAF), the operation was designed to create an environment in which assistance could be delivered to Somalis suffering from the effects of dual catastrophes—one manmade and one natural.

^ UNITAF was followed by the United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM).

.In May 1993, most of the United States troops withdrew and UNITAF was replaced by the United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II).^ The incursion provoked a declaration of holy war by Somalia’s Muslim hard-liners against their neighboring Christian nation, and, more broadly, the United States for its perceived support of the invasion.

^ 'Time for a new Somalia policy' Government troops conduct search operations in Mog...

^ The United Nations Security Council imposed sanctions on Eritrea last week for arming and supporting Islamist insurgents in Somalia.

However, Mohamed Farrah Aidid saw UNOSOM II as a threat to his power and in June 1993 his militia attacked Pakistan Army troops, attached to UNOSOM II, (see Somalia (March 1992 to February 1996)) in Mogadishu inflicting over 80 casualties. .Fighting escalated until 19 American troops and more than 1,000 Somalis were killed in a raid in Mogadishu during October 1993. The UN withdrew Operation United Shield in 3 March 1995, having suffered significant casualties, and with the rule of government still not restored.^ FORWARD OPERATING BASE COBRA, Iraq (AP) The top U.S. commander in Iraq says things are still on track for American combat troops to leave the country by the end of August, despite Iraq's national elections being put-off until March.

^ The African Union, during its summit in Sirte, Libya last July, asked the UN to impose sanctions on Eritrea.Eritrea has repeatedly denied that it supports Al Shabaab militants fighting to topple the Somali government.

^ MOGADISHU, Somalia, December 24, 2009 (AP) — Witnesses in Somalia say fighting spurred by a land dispute has killed eight people.
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In August 1996, Aidid was killed in Mogadishu.
.A consequence of the collapse of governmental authority that accompanied the civil war has been the creation of a significant problem with piracy[76] off the coast of Somalia originating in coastal ports.^ Shukri Harbi, a freshman in political science, fled Somalia with her family for the peace and safety of Utah at the height of the African nation’s civil war in 1993.
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^ Somalia-based piracy remains an intractable problem .
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^ Just over six months ago, this Congress was abuzz with concern about piracy off Somalia’s coast.
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[77] Piracy arose as a response by local Somali fishermen from coastal towns such as Eyl, Kismayo and Harardhere to predatory fishing by foreign fishing trawlers that followed the collapse of Somali governmental authority.[78][79] .An upsurge in piracy off the coast has also been attributed to the effects of the December 26, 2004 tsunami that devastated coastal villages fishing fleets.^ Just over six months ago, this Congress was abuzz with concern about piracy off Somalia’s coast.
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

[80] .Piracy has been described as Somalia's "only booming economy" and as a "mainstay" of the Puntland economy.^ Piracy is a lucrative business in Puntland and already mansions and expensive Landcruisers bought with the ransoms are part of the economic boom!

[81][82][83]
From 1800 to 1890, between 25,000–50,000 Bantu slaves from Mozambique and Tanzania are thought to have been sold from the slave market of Zanzibar to the Somali coast.[84] Bantus are ethnically, physically, and culturally distinct from Somalis, and have remained marginalized ever since their arrival in Somalia.[85] .The number of Bantu in Somalia before the civil war is thought to be about 900,000.[86] Since 2003, more than 12,000 Bantu refugees have settled in the United States.^ Shukri Harbi, a freshman in political science, fled Somalia with her family for the peace and safety of Utah at the height of the African nation’s civil war in 1993.
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^ More than a month before, his father, a wealthy banker, has visited the U.S. Embassy in Nigeria, worried that his son has gone missing and may be hanging around with Yemeni- .
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^ DATES and times of the Suufi family’s escape from Somalia are sketchy, but that is a result of being on the run from a raging civil war and murderous thieves.
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

[87] The Tanzanian government has also begun granting Bantus citizenship and land in areas of Tanzania where their ancestors are known to have been removed from.[88]

Politics

Current situation in Somalia
.Following the civil war the Harti and Tanade clans declared a self-governing state in the northeast, which took the name Puntland, but maintained that it would participate in any Somali reconciliation to form a new central government.^ Nairobi - Somalia's government called on Saturday for an international peace plan like President Barack Obama's new Afghan strategy, saying it would be more ....
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ The New Yorker 's Jon Lee Anderson took a hazardous trip to no-man's land: the largely warlord-controlled failed state of Somalia.
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^ Government of Puntland State of Somalia signs agreement with Threat Management Group for the provision of advisory services in security sector.
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.Then in 2002, Southwestern Somalia, comprising Bay, Bakool, Jubbada Dhexe (Middle Juba), Gedo, Shabeellaha Hoose (Lower Shabele) and Jubbada Hoose (Lower Juba) regions of Somalia declared itself autonomous.^ According to southern Somali politician Aden Mohamed Nur "Saransoor," 200 delegates gathered in the Somali border town of Dolow in the Gedo region three days ago to discuss the way forward for liberating southern Somalia from Islamist radicals and for creating a regional state The politician says the objective of the conference was to find a way to establish a semi-autonomous state encompassing six regions - Gedo, Bay, Bakool, Lower and Middle Juba and Lower Shabelle.

^ Flanked by Sheikh Abdikhadir Ahmed, who is the chairman of the committee to protect Wamo region neighboring North-Eastern region of Kenya, Gure said they fully support the Transitional Federal Government.The leader said the lower Juba area of Somali bordering Kenya was considering seceding from the larger Somalia and declaring an autonomous federal state like Puntland.

^ On Monday, the information official for al-Shabab in the Juba region, Hassan Yacqub Ali, declared it would be impossible for anyone to challenge al-Shabab's power in southern Somalia.

Although initially the instigators of this, the Rahanweyn Resistance Army, which had been established in 1995, was only in full control of Bay, Bakool and parts of Gedo and Jubbada Dhexe, they quickly established the de facto autonomy of Southwestern Somalia.
Although conflict between Hasan Muhammad Nur Shatigadud and his two deputies weakened the Rahanweyn militarily from February 2006, the Southwest became central to the TFG based in the city of Baidoa. .Shatigadud became Finance Minister, his first deputy Adan Mohamed Nuur Madobe became Parliamentary Speaker and his second deputy Mohamed Ibrahim Habsade became Minister of Transport.^ Sheikh Abdulkadir Aden was elected as the speaker of the parliament and Sheikh Abdullahi Abdi Mohamed as the first deputy speaker.

^ Sheikh Ali Omar Hareed was also elected as the second deputy speaker of the Islamist, Sufi parliament.

Shatigadud also held the Chairmanship of the Rahanwein Traditional Elders' Court.
.In 2004, the TFG met in Nairobi, Kenya and published a charter for the government of the nation.^ NAIROBI, Kenya — In a devastating blow to Somalia’s fragile transitional government, a suicide bomber disguised as a veiled woman blew himself up at a college .
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ NAIROBI, Kenya — United Nations experts investigating whether Somali businessmen are funneling aid money to terrorist groups have recently received death threats .
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[89][90] The TFG capital is presently in Baidoa. .Meanwhile Somalia was one of the many countries affected by the tsunami which struck the Indian Ocean coast following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, destroying entire villages and killing an estimated 300 people.^ MOGADISHU, Somalia, December 24, 2009 (AP) — Witnesses in Somalia say fighting spurred by a land dispute has killed eight people.
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ A vicious suicide bombing in Mogadishu earlier this month that killed and wounded 60 people increased fears in Somalia and in the West that the country is on the verge of becoming a significant base for al-Qaida.

^ Shabab has many other sources of weapons, both in the domestic market, and, remember, Somalia has one of the largest small weapons markets in Mogadishu itself,” he said.

.In 2006, Somalia was deluged by torrential rains and flooding that struck the entire Horn of Africa affecting 350,000 people.^ The asylum seeker from Somalia hung his head as an immigration judge grilled him about his treacherous journey from the Horn of Africa .

^ Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia .
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[91] .The inter-clan rivalry continued in 2006 with the declaration of regional autonomy by the state of Jubaland, consisting of parts of Gedo, Jubbada Dhexe, and the whole of Jubbada Hoose.^ In 1998, the northern Somali region of Puntland declared autonomy from south-central Somalia after a series of failed attempts at national reconciliation.

^ Do these people have the right to say NO to the Isaq illusion of declaring the region as one of their own?Ethnically, Isaq belongs to the Dir clan family.

^ Troops Re-Enter Gedo Region of Jubbaland State of Somalia , Al Shabaab jehadist Retreat Bare Adan shire an interview with bbc ..

.Barre Adan Shire Hiiraale, chairman of the Juba Valley Alliance, who comes from Galguduud in central Somalia is the most powerful leader there.^ On Monday, the information official for al-Shabab in the Juba region, Hassan Yacqub Ali, declared it would be impossible for anyone to challenge al-Shabab's power in southern Somalia.

^ The Sufis who are fighting against al Shabaab militants control many towns in central Somalia.

^ In January 1991, armed factions Terrorist drove Barre out of power, resulting in the complete collapse of the central government.

.Like Puntland this regional government did not want full statehood, but some sort of federal autonomy.^ In 1998, the northern Somali region of Puntland declared autonomy from south-central Somalia after a series of failed attempts at national reconciliation.

.Conflict broke out again in early 2006 between an alliance of Mogadishu warlords known as the Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism (or "ARPCT") and a militia loyal to the Islamic Courts Union (or "I.C.U."), seeking to institute Sharia law in Somalia.^ "We arrived here to implement the Islamic law, and this is kind of extending our rule into more lands in Somalia.

^ Islamic Militancy in the History of Somalia Desperate Somalis seek 'back-door' route to US Somali Wannabe-terrorist, AlQaida testing, plottin...

^ (Bloomberg) -- The U.S. and U.K. governments will increase counter-terrorism efforts in Yemen and Somalia as they respond to a failed attempt to blow up an airplane over Detroit.

Social law changes, such as the forbidding of chewing khat,[92] were part of moves by the ICU to change behaviours and impose strict social morals. It was widely reported that soccer playing was being banned, as well as viewing of broadcasts of soccer games,[93] but there were also reports of the ICU itself denying any such bans.[94] .The Islamic Courts Union was led by Sheikh Sharif Ahmed.^ He accompanied the country's president, Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, who controls just ...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ Radicals from the Islamic Courts Union government reformed their forces and began a war of attrition with Ethiopia.

.When asked if the ICU plans to extend its control to the rest of Somalia, Sheikh Ahmed responded in an interview: "Land is not our priority.^ He accompanied the country's president, Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, who controls just ...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ "We arrived here to implement the Islamic law, and this is kind of extending our rule into more lands in Somalia.

^ The New Yorker 's Jon Lee Anderson took a hazardous trip to no-man's land: the largely warlord-controlled failed state of Somalia.
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

.Our priority is the people's peace, dignity and that they could live in liberty, that they could decide their own fate.^ That day they killed my hope and the future of our family… He and his friends did not deserve to die like that before they had even begun their lives.

That is our priority. Our priority is not land; the people are important to us."[95]
Somalia at the height of I.C.U. power, December 2006
Several hundred people, mostly civilians caught in the crossfire, died during this conflict. Mogadishu residents described it as the worst fighting in more than a decade. .The Islamic Courts Union accused the U.S. of funding the warlords through the Central Intelligence Agency and supplying them with arms in an effort to prevent the Islamic Courts Union from gaining power.^ Radicals from the Islamic Courts Union government reformed their forces and began a war of attrition with Ethiopia.

.The United States Department of State, while neither admitting nor denying this, said the U.S. had taken no action that violated the international arms embargo of Somalia.^ The State Department warns U.S. citizens of the risks of travel to Somalia and recommends that U.S. citizens avoid all travel to Somalia.
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ Uganda blasts Eritrea over Somalia militia, U.N. Security Council orders arms embargo on Eritrea‎ .

^ Bronwyn Bruton argues that United States goverment must change its Somalia policy and fast.
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

A few e-mails describing covert illegal operations by private military companies in breach of U.N. regulations have been reported[96] by the UK Sunday newspaper The Observer.
.By early June 2006 the Islamic Militia had control of Mogadishu, following the Second Battle of Mogadishu, and the last A.R.P.C.T. stronghold in southern Somalia, the town of Jowhar, then fell with little resistance.^ Somalia's foreign minister has called on Islamic states to assist his country as it tries to move toward lasting peace and stability.
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ The spokesman adds that many al-Shabab fighters were killed in the day-long battle and Ahlu-Sunna is still in control of the town in the Galgadud region, about 560 kilometers north of Mogadishu.

^ So they are already what they are, and they control what’s left of Somalia….small strips in south Mogadishu and a few other pockets.

The remaining A.R.P.C.T. forces fled to the east or across the border into Ethiopia and the alliance effectively collapsed.
.The Ethiopian-supported Transitional Government then called for intervention by a regional East African peacekeeping force.^ Top officials of Al-shabab had lectured to the Islamist fighters at Maslah camp in Mogadishu saying that the forces will fight with the transitional government troops and AMISOM. .

^ The U.S. called on Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi’s government to re-examine a law that limits foreign funding of human rights and pro-democracy groups, .
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

The I.C.U. meanwhile were fiercely opposed to foreign troops—particularly Ethiopians—in Somalia.[97] claiming that .Ethiopia, with its long history as an imperial power including the occupation of Ogaden, seeks to occupy Somalia, or rule it by proxy.^ Islamic Militancy in the History of Somalia Desperate Somalis seek 'back-door' route to US Somali Wannabe-terrorist, AlQaida testing, plottin...

^ A long-time buffer zone between Ethiopia and Somalia, the politically and economically marginalized Ogaden region has transformed into a hotspot entangled .
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

.Meanwhile the I.C.U. and their militia took control of much of the southern half of Somalia, normally through negotiation with local clan chiefs rather than by the use of force.^ A l-Shabab insurgents control much of southern Somalia, including the city of Kismayo.

^ I think Shabab controls much of southern Somalia at the present, and in the last week or so, they have had military celebrations in Mogadishu itself, to show the caliber of their troops and the size of their troops.

^ Observers say if the conference attracted as many delegates as claimed, it underscores the growing sense of frustration among various clan-based communities in southern Somalia.

.However, the Islamic militia stayed clear of areas close to the Ethiopian border, which had become a place of refuge for many Somalis including the Transitional Government itself, headquartered in the town of Baidoa.^ As many as six Somali-Americans are believed to have died after taking up arms with Al Shabab, the Al Qaeda-linked Islamist militants battling the transitional government in Somalia.

^ A Somali politician says a major conference has been held in a town near Somalia's border with Kenya and Ethiopia to develop a plan to establish a regional government in southern Somalia.

^ Many Somali people are against how al Shabaab interpreted the Islamic Sharia.

Ethiopia said it would protect Baidoa if threatened. .On September 25, 2006, the I.C.U. moved into the southern port of Kismayo, the last remaining port held by the transitional government.^ A Somali politician says a major conference has been held in a town near Somalia's border with Kenya and Ethiopia to develop a plan to establish a regional government in southern Somalia.

^ Mogadishu -- Somalia’s transitional government fired its police and military commanders following a suicide- bomb attack last week that killed four Cabinet...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ He said the boats carrying weapons from Yemen had docked in the southern port of Kismayu, which is under al Shabaab's control, last week.

[98] .Ethiopian troops entered Somalia and seized the town of Buur Hakaba on October 9, and later that day the I.C.U. issued a declaration of war against Ethiopia.^ A Somali politician says a major conference has been held in a town near Somalia's border with Kenya and Ethiopia to develop a plan to establish a regional government in southern Somalia.

^ The incursion provoked a declaration of holy war by Somalia’s Muslim hard-liners against their neighboring Christian nation, and, more broadly, the United States for its perceived support of the invasion.

^ The Sufis who are fighting against al Shabaab militants control many towns in central Somalia.

[99]
Kismayo, one of Somalia's leading ports.
On 1 November 2006, peace talks between the Transitional Government and the ICU broke down. .The international community feared an all-out civil war, with Ethiopian and rival Eritrean forces backing opposing sides in the power-struggle.^ Obama’s vision offers hope for all sides”, Opinion, Dec 3) marks a sea change in international support to troubled countries.
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ TEMPLE-RASTON: Well, essentially, it all started back in 2007, when there were some young men in the Somali community in Minneapolis who were getting together to talk about politics and the recent Ethiopian invasion of Somalia.

^ A similar development happened in Afghanistan and that country has been welcomed back to the international community.

[100] .Fighting erupted once again on 21 December 2006 when the leader of ICU, Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys said: "Somalia is in a state of war, and all Somalis should take part in this struggle against Ethiopia", and heavy fighting broke out between the Islamic militia on one side and the Somali Transitional Government allied with Ethiopian forces on the other.^ Al-Shabab is fighting the transitional government in Somalia right now.

^ Flanked by Sheikh Abdikhadir Ahmed, who is the chairman of the committee to protect Wamo region neighboring North-Eastern region of Kenya, Gure said they fully support the Transitional Federal Government.The leader said the lower Juba area of Somali bordering Kenya was considering seceding from the larger Somalia and declaring an autonomous federal state like Puntland.

^ According to Sheikh Shuriye Afrah Sabriye, the group’s regional governor of Hiiraan region bordering with Ethiopia, Islamist forces are ready for a big war against Ethiopia, saying the attacks inside Ethiopia are imminent in the next few days, “Ethiopia is responsible for attacks on positions belonging to our forces outside the city of Beledweyn and in retaliation we will attack Ethiopian army bases inside Ethiopian territories, we are committed to do that” he said He said that in the past several weeks there have been attacks on Islamist positions near the border accusing Ethiopian military of helping the Somali government forces who carried out those attacks on Islamist positions in the region.

[101]
.In late December 2006, Ethiopia launched airstrikes against Islamic troops and strong points across Somalia.^ Al-Shabaab, the Al-Qaeda linked Militant Islamic group out of Somalia, has now taken full control of all southern provinces from government troops.

.Ethiopian Information Minister Berhan Hailu stated that targets included the town of Buurhakaba, near the Transitional Government base in Baidoa.^ A Somali politician says a major conference has been held in a town near Somalia's border with Kenya and Ethiopia to develop a plan to establish a regional government in southern Somalia.

^ By the time the Ethiopians retreated, with the formation of a broadly based transitional Somali government, Al Shabab had taken over vast swaths of the south, and much of the nation’s capital, Mogadishu remains under Shabab control...more..

^ I think the project that the United States helped take part in in Djibouti, which ultimately produced the Transitional Federal Government was both illegitimate and incompetent.

An Ethiopian jet fighter strafed Mogadishu International Airport (now Aden Adde International Airport), without apparently causing serious damage but prompting the airport to be shut down. .Other Ethiopian jet fighters attacked a military airport west of Mogadishu.^ Mogadishu -- Somalia’s transitional government fired its police and military commanders following a suicide- bomb attack last week that killed four Cabinet...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

[102][103] .Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi then announced that his country was waging war against the ICU to protect his country's sovereignty.^ NAIROBI Kenya - Somali government troops are ready to launch a major offensive against insurgents and expect to drive them out of the capital by the end of this month, the country's prime minister told Reuters on Sunday.
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ The U.S. called on Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi’s government to re-examine a law that limits foreign funding of human rights and pro-democracy groups, .
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

"Ethiopian defence forces were forced to enter into war to the protect the sovereignty of the nation and to blunt repeated attacks by Islamic courts terrorists and anti-Ethiopian elements they are supporting," he said.[104][105]
.Days of heavy fighting followed as Ethiopian and government troops backed by tanks and jets pushed against Islamic forces between Baidoa and Mogadishu.^ Mogadishu -- Somalia’s transitional government fired its police and military commanders following a suicide- bomb attack last week that killed four Cabinet...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ MOGADISHU, Dec 20 (Reuters) - Artillery shelling between Islamist rebels and Somali government forces killed at least 14 people and wounded 28 others in Mogadishu...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

Both sides claimed to have inflicted hundreds of casualties, but the Islamic infantry and vehicle artillery were badly beaten and forced to retreat toward Mogadishu. On 28 December 2006, the allies entered Mogadishu after Islamic fighters fled the city. .Prime Minister Ali Mohammed Ghedi declared that Mogadishu had been secured, after meeting with local clan leaders to discuss the peaceful hand-over of the city.^ Somalia's Minister of Health, Dr. Qamar Aden Ali, was among those killed in Thursday's terrorist attack in Mogadishu.
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

[106] Yet as of April 2008, the Transitional Federal Government and its Ethiopian allies still face frequent attacks from an Islamic insurgency.
The Islamists retreated south, towards their stronghold in Kismayo, fighting rearguard actions in several towns. They abandoned Kismayo, too, without a fight, claiming that their flight was a strategic withdrawal to avoid civilian casualties, and entrenched around the small town of Ras Kamboni, at the southernmost tip of Somalia and on the border with Kenya. .In early January, the Ethiopians and the Somali government attacked, resulting in the Battle of Ras Kamboni, and capturing the Islamic positions and driving the surviving fighters into the hills and forests after several days of combat.^ Jijiga, January 5 (WIC) – Preparations have been finalized so as to colorfully celebrate the 12th Ethiopian Pastoralists’ Day (EPD) in Jijiga town, ...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ MINNEAPOLIS, November 25, 2009 (AP) — A man hosted a gathering for several young Somalis days before they left Minneapolis to fight with a terrorist group...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ MOGADISHU, Somalia, January 03, 2009 (AFP) — Somalia's radical Islamic Shebab group hailed Saturday the attack by a Somali on a Danish cartoonist reviled ...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

.On January 9, 2007, the United States openly intervened in Somalia by sending Lockheed AC-130 gunships to attack ICU positions in Ras Kamboni.^ Great Britain and the United States will strengthen their efforts against terrorism in Yemen and Somalia in the wake of the failed suicide attack on 25 December against a U.S. airliner, announced Sunday Downing Street.
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ Bronwyn Bruton argues that United States goverment must change its Somalia policy and fast.
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

Dozens were killed and by then the ICU were largely defeated. .During 2007 and 2008, new Islamic militant groups organized, and continued to fight against transitional government Somali and Ethiopian official troops.^ A group of Somali refugees in Randfontein are facing homelessness and growing uncertainty, while government and the United Nations pass the buck on ...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ Jewish groups have filed briefs siding with a former Somali official now living in Virginia ...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ Refugee Advice Group [Birmingham] in partnership with Kayd Somali Arts and Culture, and other Somali community organizations will facilitate the first Birmingham Somali Art and Culture Festival on 28th December 2009 ...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

They recovered effective control of large portions of the country. .Ethiopian forces retreated in 2009. The ICU no longer exists as an organized political group, and is now part of the Transitional Federal Government.^ Refugee Advice Group [Birmingham] in partnership with Kayd Somali Arts and Culture, and other Somali community organizations will facilitate the first Birmingham Somali Art and Culture Festival on 28th December 2009 ...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ UNITED NATIONS, December 8 -- Mirroring the chaos of the Transitional Federal Government in Somalia, donors and vultures and purported helpers are all working .
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

.On December 29, 2008, Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed announced before a united parliament in Baidoa his resignation as President of Somalia.^ Great Britain and the United States will strengthen their efforts against terrorism in Yemen and Somalia in the wake of the failed suicide attack on 25 December against a U.S. airliner, announced Sunday Downing Street.
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

In his speech, which was broadcast on national radio, Yusuf expressed regret at failing to end the country's seventeen year conflict as his government had mandated to do.[107] .He also blamed the international community for its failure to support the government, and said that the speaker of parliament, Aden "Madobe" Mohamed, would succeed him in office per the charter of the Transitional Federal Government.^ UNITED NATIONS, December 8 -- Mirroring the chaos of the Transitional Federal Government in Somalia, donors and vultures and purported helpers are all working .
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ (Xinhua) -- A UN-backed international meeting on Somalia has called on the world community to support initiatives aimed at stabilizing the ...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

[108] .On January 31, 2009, Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed was elected as president at the Kempinski hotel in Djibouti.^ He accompanied the country's president, Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, who controls just ...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

[109]
In 2009, the Islamic Courts Union was absorbed into the Transitional Federal Government, along with the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia, a collection of moderate Islamist groups. The Islamists were awarded with 200 seats in parliament. .Former Prime Minister Nur Hassan Hussein of the Transitional Federal Government and Sharif Sheikh Ahmed also signed a power sharing deal in Djibouti that was brokered by the United Nations.^ He accompanied the country's president, Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, who controls just ...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ A group of Somali refugees in Randfontein are facing homelessness and growing uncertainty, while government and the United Nations pass the buck on ...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ UNITED NATIONS, December 8 -- Mirroring the chaos of the Transitional Federal Government in Somalia, donors and vultures and purported helpers are all working .
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

According to the deal, Ethiopian troops were to withdraw from Somalia, giving their bases to the transitional government, African Union (AU) peacekeepers and moderate Islamist groups led by the ARS. Following the Ethiopian withdrawal, the transitional government expanded its parliament to include the opposition and elected Sheikh Ahmed as its new president on January 31, 2009. Sheikh Ahmed then appointed Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, the son of slain former President Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, as the nation's new Prime Minister.

Law

The legal structure in Somalia is divided along three lines: civil law, religious law, and traditional clan law.

Civil law

.While Somalia's formal judicial system was largely destroyed after the fall of the Siad Barre regime, it has been rebuilt and is now administered under different regional governments such as the autonomous Puntland and Somaliland macro-regions.^ NAIROBI, 16 December 2009 (IRIN) - The number of reported rapes in camps for internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Bosasso, in Somalia's self-declared autonomous region of Puntland, is increasing and rape has become ...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ But a border dispute between Puntland and Somaliland is now ...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ Galkayo is Somalia's third front, an issue associated with, but distinct from, the Islamic radical insurgency and the Somaliland-Puntland border dispute...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

In the case of the Transitional Federal Government, a new judicial structure was formed through various international conferences.
Despite some significant political differences between them, all of these administrations share similar legal structures, much of which are predicated on the judicial systems of previous Somali administrations. These similarities in civil law include:[110]
  • A charter which affirms the primacy of Muslim shari'a or religious law, although in practice shari'a is applied mainly to matters such as marriage, divorce, inheritance, and civil issues.
  • The charter guarantees respect for universal standards of human rights to all subjects of the law. It also assures the independence of the judiciary, which in turn is protected by a judicial committee.
  • The laws of the civilian government which were in effect prior to the military coup d'état that saw the Barre regime into power remain in force until the laws are amended.

Shari'a

Islamic shari'a has traditionally played a significant part in Somali society. In theory, it has served as the basis for all national legislation in every Somali constitution. In practice, however, it only applied to common civil cases such as marriage, divorce, inheritance and family matters. This changed after the start of the civil war when a number of new shari'a courts began to spring up in many different cities and towns across the country.[110]
These new shari'a courts serve three functions:
  • To pass rulings in both criminal and civil cases.
  • To organize a militia capable of arresting criminals.
  • To keep convicted prisoners incarcerated.
The shari'a courts, though structured along simple lines, feature a conventional hierarchy of a chairman, vice-chairman and four judges. .A police force that reports to the court enforces the judges' rulings, but also helps settle community disputes and apprehend suspected criminals.^ Stereotyping Somalis isn't going to help solve a string of killings among young Somali-Canadian males, say community representatives and police.
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

In addition, the courts manage detention centers where criminals are kept. An independent finance committee is also assigned the task of collecting and managing tax revenue levied on regional merchants by the local authorities.[110]
.In March 2009, Somalia's newly established coalition government announced that it would implement shari'a as the nation's official judicial system.^ Nairobi - Somalia's government called on Saturday for an international peace plan like President Barack Obama's new Afghan strategy, saying it would be more ....
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ December 2009 – The top United Nations envoy to Somalia today welcomed the announcement of a meeting tomorrow of over 30 countries, ....
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ MOGADISHU, Somalia, December 07, 2009 (AP) — Somalia's government is warning that militants plan to carry out suicide attacks against key installations in...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

[111]

Xeer

Somalis for centuries have practiced a form of customary law which they call Xeer. Xeer is a polycentric legal system where there is no monopolistic agent that determines what the law should be or how it should be interpreted.
The Xeer legal system is assumed to have developed exclusively in the Horn of Africa since approximately the 7th century. There is no evidence that it developed elsewhere or was greatly influenced by any foreign legal system. The fact that Somali legal terminology is practically devoid of loan words from foreign languages suggests that Xeer is truly indigenous.[112]
The Xeer legal system also requires a certain amount of specialization of different functions within the legal framework. Thus, one can find odayal (judges), xeer boggeyaal (jurists), guurtiyaal (detectives), garxajiyaal (attorneys), murkhaatiyal (witnesses) and waranle (police officers) to enforce the law.[113]
Xeer is defined by a few fundamental tenets that are immutable and which closely approximate the principle of jus cogens in international law:[110]
  • Payment of blood money (locally referred to as diya) for libel, theft, physical harm, rape and death, as well as supplying assistance to relatives.
  • Assuring good inter-clan relations by treating women justly, negotiating with "peace emissaries" in good faith, and sparing the lives of socially protected groups (e.g. children, women, the pious, poets and guests).
  • Family obligations such as the payment of dowry, and sanctions for eloping.
  • Rules pertaining to the management of resources such as the use of pasture land, water, and other natural resources.
  • Providing financial support to married female relatives and newlyweds.
  • Donating livestock and other assets to the poor.

Cities

Cities of the Republic of Somalia
Mogadishu
Mogadishu
Bosaso
Bosaso
Kismayo
Kismayo
Borama
Borama
Rank Core City Division Pop. Hargeisa
Hargeisa
Merka
Merka
Barawa
Barawa
Garowe
Garowe
1 Mogadishu Banadir Ca.2,500,000
2 Hargeisa W.Galbeed Ca. 1,800,000 [114]
3 Bosaso Bari Ca. 350,000
4 Borama Awdal Ca.300,000
5 Kismayo Jubbada Hoose Ca. 200,000
6 Burao Togdheer Ca. 150,000
7 Beledweyn Hiiraan Ca. 150,000
8 Gaalkacyo Mudug Ca. 100,000 [114]
9 Berbera W.Galbeed Ca. 100,000
10 Garowe Nugaal Ca. 86,000 [114]
11 Baidoa Bay Ca. 75,000 [114]
12 Bardera Gedo Ca. 75,000
13 Goldogob Mudug Ca. 40,000
14 Erigavo Sanaag Ca. 40,000
15 Merka Shabeellaha Hoose Ca. 40,000 [114]
16 Jowhar Shabeellaha Hoose Ca. 40,000 [114]
17 Qardho Bari Ca. 35,000 [114]

Regions and districts

Prior to the civil war, Somalia was divided into eighteen regions (gobollada, singular gobol), which were in turn subdivided into districts. The regions are:
  7 Gedo
  8 Hiiraan
  9 Jubbada Dhexe
10 Jubbada Hoose
11 Mudug
12 Nugaal
On a de facto basis, northern Somalia is now divided up among the quasi-independent states of Puntland, Somaliland, and Galmudug. The south is at least nominally controlled by the Transitional Federal Government, although it is in fact controlled by Islamist groups outside Mogadishu. Under the de facto arrangements there are now 27 regions.

Geography and climate

Overview of the Almadow Mountains in Maakhir, Somalia
Arabian horses colloquially referred to as Sunaari, seen here in the arid plains of Dhahar, Maakhir, Somalia
Africa's easternmost country, Somalia has a land area of 637,540 square kilometers. It occupies the tip of a region that, due to its resemblance on the map to a rhinoceros' horn, is commonly referred to as the Horn of Africa. Somalia has the longest coastline on the continent. Its terrain consists mainly of plateaus, plains, and highlands.
Cal Madow is a mountain range in the northeastern part of the country, extending from several kilometers west of the city of Bosaso to the northwest of Erigavo. The rugged east-west ranges of the Karkaar Mountains lie at varying distances from the Gulf of Aden coast.
Major climatic factors are a year-round hot climate, seasonal monsoon winds, and irregular rainfall. Mean daily maximum temperatures range from 30 °C (86 °F) to 40 °C (104 °F), except at higher elevations and along the east coast. Mean daily minimums usually vary from about 15 °C (59 °F) to 30 °C (86 °F).
The southwest monsoon, a sea breeze, makes the period from about May to October the mildest season in Mogadishu. The December to February period of the northeast monsoon is also relatively mild, although prevailing climatic conditions in Mogadishu are rarely pleasant. The tangambili periods that intervene between the two monsoons (October–November and March–May) are hot and humid.
Climate data for Somalia
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30
(86)
30
(86)
40
(104)
40
(104)
40
(104)
40
(104)
40
(104)
30
(86)
30
(86)
30
(86)
30
(86)
30
(86)
30
(86)
Average low °C (°F) 15
(59)
15
(59)
15
(59)
15
(59)
15
(59)
15
(59)
15
(59)
15
(59)
15
(59)
15
(59)
15
(59)
0
(32)
15
(59)
Precipitation mm (inches) 40
(1.57)
40
(1.57)
40
(1.57)
40
(1.57)
40
(1.57)
40
(1.57)
50
(1.97)
50
(1.97)
40
(1.57)
40
(1.57)
40
(1.57)
40
(1.57)
500
(19.69)
Source: Country Studies - Somalia[115] 2009-05-14

Health

Somalia has one of the lowest HIV infection rates in all of Africa. This is attributed to the Muslim nature of Somali society and adherence of Somalis to Islamic morals.[116] While the estimated HIV prevalence rate in Somalia in 1987 (the first case report year) was 1% of adults,[116] a more recent estimate from 2007 now places it at only 0.5% of the nation's adult population despite the ongoing civil strife.[2]

Education

The Ministry of Education is officially responsible for education in Somalia, with about 15% of the government's budget being spent on academic instruction. In 2006, the autonomous Puntland region in the northeast was the second territory in Somalia after the Somaliland region to introduce free primary schools, with teachers now receiving their salaries from the Puntland administration.[117]
From 2005/2006 to 2006/2007, there was a significant increase in the number of schools in Puntland, up 137 institutions from just one year prior. During the same period, the number of classes in the region increased by 504, with 762 more teachers also offering their services.[118]
Total student enrollment increased by 27% over the previous year, with girls lagging only slightly behind boys in attendance in most regions. The highest class enrollment was observed in the northernmost Bari region, and the lowest was observed in the under-populated Ayn region. The distribution of classrooms was almost evenly split between urban and rural areas, with marginally more pupils attending and instructors teaching classes in urban areas.[118]
Entrance to Amoud University in Borama, Somalia.
Higher education in Somalia is now largely private. Several universities in the country, including Mogadishu University, have been scored among the 100 best universities in Africa in spite of the harsh environment, which has been hailed as a triumph for grass-roots initiatives.[119] Other universities also offering higher education in the south include Benadir University, the Somalia National University, Kismayo University and the University of Gedo. In Puntland, higher education is provided by the Puntland State University and East Africa University. In Somaliland, it is provided by Amoud University, the University of Hargeisa, Somaliland University of Technology and Burao University.
Qu'ranic schools (also known as duqsi) remain the basic system of traditional religious instruction in Somalia. They provide Islamic education for children, thereby filling a clear religious and social role in the country. Known as the most stable local, non-formal system of education providing basic religious and moral instruction, their strength rests on community support and their use of locally made and widely available teaching materials. The Qu'ranic system, which teaches the greatest number of students relative to other educational sub-sectors, is oftentimes the only system accessible to Somalis in nomadic as compared to urban areas. A study from 1993 found, among other things, that about 40% of pupils in Qur'anic schools were girls. To address shortcomings in religious instruction, the Somali government on its own part also subsequently established the Ministry of Endowment and Islamic Affairs, under which Qur'anic education is now regulated.[120]

Economy

A shopping mall in downtown Hargeisa, Somalia.
Despite civil unrest, Somalia has maintained a healthy informal economy, based mainly on livestock, remittance/money transfer companies, and telecommunications.[121] According to a 2003 World Bank study, the private sector grew impressively, particularly in the areas of trade, commerce, transport, remittance and infrastructure services, in addition to the primary sectors, notably livestock, agriculture and fisheries.[122] In 2007, the United Nations reported that the country's service industry is also thriving.[123] Anthropologist Spencer Heath MacCallum attributes this increased economic activity to the Somali customary law, which provides a stable environment to conduct business in.[124]
Agriculture is the most important sector, with livestock accounting for about 40% of GDP and about 65% of export earnings.[121] Other principal exports include fish, charcoal, and bananas; sugar, sorghum, and maize are products for the domestic market.[121] At nearly 3 million heads of goat and sheep in 1999, the northern ports of Bosaso and Berbera accounted for 95% of all goat and 52% of all sheep exports of East Africa. The Somaliland region alone exported more than 180 million metric tons of livestock and more than 480 million metric tons of agricultural products.[125] Somalia is also a major world supplier of frankincense and myrrh.
Bosaso port.
The small industrial sector, based on the processing of agricultural products, accounts for 10% of GDP. According to a 2005 World Bank report, the "private airline business in Somalia is now thriving with more than five carriers and price wars between the companies."[126]
With the help of the Somali diaspora, mobile phone companies, internet cafés and radio stations have been established. In 2004, a new Coca-Cola bottling plant also opened in Mogadishu, representing a sign of growing business confidence.[127]
In addition, funds transfer services have become a large industry in the country, with an estimated $2 billion USD annually remitted to Somalia by Somalis in the diaspora via money transfer companies.[121] The largest of these informal value transfer system or hawala dealers is Dahabshiil, a Somali-owned firm employing more than 1000 people across 40 countries with branches in London and Dubai.[128]
American and Chinese oil companies are also excited about the prospect of oil and other natural resources in Somalia. An oil group listed in Sydney, Range Resources, anticipates that the Puntland province in the north has the potential to produce 5 billion to 10 billion barrels of oil.[129]

Media and telecommunications

In Somalia, dozens of private newspapers, radio and television stations mushroomed in the last decade, (Mogadishu has two fiercely competing TV stations), with private radio stations or newspapers in almost all of the major towns. Large media companies include the Shabelle Media Network, Radio Gaalkacyo and Radio Garowe.
Internet usage in Somalia increased 44,900% from 2000 to 2007, registering the highest growth rate in Africa.[130] Somali information technology companies currently compete for a market with more than 500,000 Internet users. The country has 22 established ISPs and 234 cyber cafes with a growth of 15.6% per year. Internet over the satellite services are also offered, especially in remote areas and cities that have no dialup or wireless Internet services. Major clients include UN, NGOs, financial institutions (particularly the remittance companies), and internet cafes. Currently, over 300 satellite terminals connected to various teleports in Europe and Asia are available throughout the country. This type of service has shown a stable growth of 10–15% per year.
Somalia has one of the best telecommunications systems on the continent: several companies such as Golis Telecom Group, Hormuud Telecom, Somafone, Nationlink, Netco, Telecom and Somali Telecom Group provide crystal-clear service, including international long distance, for about $10 USD a month. Dial up internet services in Somalia are the fastest growing internet services in Africa, as the nation enjoys landline growth of more than 12.5% per year compared to other countries in the Horn and eastern Africa at large, where landline is experiencing a serious decline due to vandalism and an increase in the cost of copper cables in the international market. Installation time for a landline is just three days in Somalia, while in neighboring Kenya waiting lists are many years long.

Military

Prior to the outbreak of the civil war in 1991 and the subsequent disintegration of the Armed Forces, Somalia's friendship with the Soviet Union and later partnership with the United States enabled it to build the largest army in Africa.[71] The creation of the Transitional Federal Government in 2004 saw the re-establishment of the Military of Somalia, which now maintains a force of 10,000 troops.
The Ministry of Defense is responsible for the Armed Forces. The Somali Navy is also being re-established, with 500 Marines currently training in Mogadishu out of an expected 5,000-strong force.[131] In addition, there are plans for the re-establishment of the Somali Air Force, with two combat planes already purchased. A new police force was also formed to maintain law and order, with the first police academy to be built in Somalia for several years opening on December 20, 2005 at Armo, 100 kilometres south of Bosaso.[132]

Environment

Overview of a residential area in the semi-desert of Hadaaftimo, an ancient town in the north-eastern Sanaag region of Somalia.
Somalia is a semi-arid country with about 2% arable land. The civil war had a huge impact on the country’s tropical forests by facilitating the production of charcoal with ever-present, recurring, but damaging droughts. From 1971 onwards, a massive tree-planting on a nationwide scale was introduced by the Siad Barre government to halt the progress of advancing sand dunes.
First environmental organizations were ECOTERRA Somalia and then the Somali Ecological Society, which created awareness about environmental concerns and mobilized environmental programmes in all governmental sectors as well as civil society. In 1986, the Wildlife Rescue, Research and Monitoring Centre was established by ECOTERRA Intl. The sensitization led in 1989 to the so-called "Somalia proposal" and a decision by the state parties to CITES, which established for the first time a worldwide ban on the trade of elephant ivory. Later, activist and Goldman Environmental Prize winner Fatima Jibrell created local initiatives in her home area Buran that organised local communities to protect the rural and coastal habitat.
Jibrell trained a team of young people to organise awareness campaigns about the irreversible damage of unrestricted charcoal production. She also joined the Buran rural institute that formed and organised the Camel Caravan program in which young people loaded tents and equipment on camels to walk for three weeks through a nomadic locale, and educate the people about the careful use of fragile resources, health care, livestock management and peace.
Environmentalist Fatima Jibrell.
Fatima Jibrell has consistently fought against the burning of charcoal, logging and other man-induced environmental degradation. Her efforts have born fruits to the local communities across Somalia and international recognition when she won the prestigious Environmental Goldman award from San Francisco. Jibrell is also the executive director of Horn Relief and Development Organisation.[133]
Following the massive tsunami of December 2004, there have also emerged allegations that after the outbreak of the Somali Civil War in the late 1980s, Somalia's long, remote shoreline was used as a dump site for the disposal of toxic waste. The huge waves which battered northern Somalia after the tsunami are believed to have stirred up tonnes of nuclear and toxic waste that was illegally dumped in the country by several European firms.
The European Green Party followed up these revelations by presenting before the press and the European Parliament in Strasbourg copies of contracts signed by two European companies—the Italian Swiss firm, Achair Partners, and an Italian waste broker, Progresso – and representatives of the then "President" of Somalia, the faction leader Ali Mahdi Mohamed, to accept 10 million tonnes of toxic waste in exchange for $80 million (then about £60 million).
According to reports by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the waste has resulted in far higher than normal cases of respiratory infections, mouth ulcers and bleeding, abdominal haemorrhages and unusual skin infections among many inhabitants of the areas around the northeastern towns of Hobyo and Benadir on the Indian Ocean coast—diseases consistent with radiation sickness. UNEP continues that the current situation along the Somali coastline poses a very serious environmental hazard not only in Somalia but also in the eastern Africa sub-region.[134]

Demographics

This 2002 CIA map shows population density throughout Somalia.
Somali girls in nomadic attire.
Somalia has a population of around 9,832,017 inhabitants, about 85% of whom are ethnic Somalis.[2] Civil strife in the early 1990s greatly increased the size of the Somali diaspora, as many of the best educated Somalis left for the Middle East, Europe and North America.
Non-Somali ethnic minority groups make up the remainder of the nation's population and include Benadiri, Bravanese, Bantus, Bajuni, Ethiopians, Indians, Persians, Italians, and Britons. Most Europeans left after independence.
There is little reliable statistical information on urbanization in Somalia. However, rough estimates have been made indicating an urbanization of 5% and 8% per annum, with many towns quickly growing into cities. Currently, 34% of the country's population live in towns and cities, with the percentage rapidly increasing.[135]

Languages

The Osmanya writing script.
The Somali language is the official language of Somalia. It is a member of the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family, and its nearest relatives are the Afar and Oromo languages. Somali is the best documented of the Cushitic languages,[136] with academic studies of it dating from before 1900.
Somali dialects are divided into three main groups: Northern, Benaadir and Maay. Northern Somali (or Northern-Central Somali) forms the basis for Standard Somali. Benaadir (also known as Coastal Somali) is spoken on the Benadir coast from Cadale to south of Merca, including Mogadishu, as well as in the immediate hinterland. The coastal dialects have additional phonemes which do not exist in Standard Somali. Maay is principally spoken by the Digil and Mirifle (Rahanweyn) clans in the southern areas of Somalia.
Since Somali had long lost its ancient script,[137] a number of writing systems have been used over the years for transcribing the language. Of these, the Somali alphabet is the most widely used, and has been the official writing script in Somalia since the government of former President of Somalia Siad Barre formally introduced it in October 1972.[138]
The script was developed by the Somali linguist Shire Jama Ahmed specifically for the Somali language, and uses all letters of the English Latin alphabet except p, v and z. Besides Ahmed's Latin script, other orthographies that have been used for centuries for writing Somali include the long-established Arabic script and Wadaad's writing. Indigenous writing systems developed in the twentieth century include the Osmanya, Borama and Kaddare scripts, which were invented by Osman Yusuf Kenadid, Sheikh Abdurahman Sheikh Nuur and Hussein Sheikh Ahmed Kaddare, respectively.[139]
In addition to Somali, Arabic is an official national language in Somalia.[1] Many Somalis speak it due to centuries-old ties with the Arab World, the far-reaching influence of the Arabic media, and religious education.
English is also widely used and taught. Italian used to be a major language, but its influence significantly diminished following independence. It is now most frequently heard among older generations. Other minority languages include Bravanese, a variant of Swahili that is spoken along the coast by the Bravanese people.

Religion

Eid celebrations at the Mosque of Islamic Solidarity in Mogadishu year 2006.
With few exceptions, Somalis are entirely Muslims,[140] the majority belonging to the Sunni branch of Islam and the Shafi`i school of Islamic jurisprudence, although some are also adherents of the Shia Muslim denomination.[141] The constitution of Somalia defines Islam as the religion of the Somali Republic, and Islamic sharia as the basic source for national legislation.[142]
Islam entered the region very early on, as a group of persecuted Muslims had, at Prophet Muhummad's urging, sought refuge across the Red Sea in the Horn of Africa. Islam may thus have been introduced into Somalia well before the faith even took root in its place of origin.[143]
In addition, the Somali community has produced numerous important Islamic figures over the centuries, many of whom have significantly shaped the course of Islamic learning and practice in the Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and well beyond. Among these Islamic scholars is the 14th century Somali theologian and jurist Uthman bin Ali Zayla'i of Zeila, who wrote the single most authoritative text on the Hanafi school of Islam, consisting of four volumes known as the Tabayin al-Haqa’iq li Sharh Kanz al-Daqa’iq.
Christianity is a minority religion in Somalia, with no more than 1,000 practitioners in a population of eight million inhabitants.[144] There is one diocese for the whole country, the Diocese of Mogadishu, which estimates that there were only about about 100 Catholic practitioners in Somalia in 2004.[145]
In 1913, during the early part of the colonial era, there were virtually no Christians in the Somali territories, with only about 100-200 followers coming from the schools and orphanages of the few Catholic missions in the British Somaliland protectorate.[146] There were also no known Catholic missions in Italian Somaliland during the same period.[147] In the 1970s, during the reign of Somalia's then Marxist government, church-run schools were closed and missionaries sent home. There has been no archbishop in the country since 1989, and the cathedral in Mogadishu was severely damaged during the civil war.
Some non-Somali ethnic minority groups also practice animism, the latter of which, in the case of the Bantu, represents religious traditions inherited from their ancestors in southeastern Africa.[148]

Culture

Cuisine

Various types of popular Somali dishes.
The cuisine of Somalia varies from region to region and consists of an exotic mixture of diverse culinary influences. It is the product of Somalia's rich tradition of trade and commerce. Despite the variety, there remains one thing that unites the various regional cuisines: all food is served halal. There are therefore no pork dishes, alcohol is not served, nothing that died on its own is eaten, and no blood is incorporated. Qaddo or lunch is often elaborate.
Varieties of bariis (rice), the most popular probably being basmati, usually serve as the main dish. Spices like cumin, cardamom, cloves, cinnamon and sage are used to aromatize these different rice dishes. Somalis serve dinner as late as 9 pm. During Ramadan, dinner is often served after Tarawih prayers – sometimes as late as 11 pm.
Xalwo or halva is a popular confection served during special occasions such as Eid celebrations or wedding receptions. It is made from sugar, cornstarch, cardamom powder, nutmeg powder, and ghee. Peanuts are also sometimes added to enhance texture and flavor.[149] After meals, homes are traditionally perfumed using frankincense (lubaan) or incense (cuunsi), which is prepared inside an incense burner referred to as a dabqaad.

Literature

Somali scholars have for centuries produced many notable examples of Islamic literature ranging from poetry to Hadith. With the adoption of the Latin alphabet in 1972 as the nation's standard orthography, numerous contemporary Somali authors have also released novels, some of which have gone on to receive worldwide acclaim. Of these modern writers, Nuruddin Farah is probably the most celebrated. Books such as From a Crooked Rib and Links are considered important literary achievements, works which have earned Farah, among other accolades, the 1998 Neustadt International Prize for Literature. Farah Mohamed Jama Awl is another prominent Somali writer who is perhaps best known for his Dervish era novel, Ignorance is the enemy of love.

Music

Somalia has a rich musical heritage centered on traditional Somali folklore. Most Somali songs are pentatonic; that is, they only use five pitches per octave in contrast to a heptatonic (seven note) scale such as the major scale. At first listen, Somali music might be mistaken for the sounds of nearby regions such as Ethiopia, Sudan or Arabia, but it is ultimately recognizable by its own unique tunes and styles. Somali songs are usually the product of collaboration between lyricists (midho), songwriters (lahan), and singers ('odka or "voice").[150]

See also

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  89. ^ "The Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic". Somalia.cc. February 2004. http://www.somalia.cc/article_read.asp?item=6. Retrieved 2007-01-02. 
  90. ^ "The Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic" (PDF). iss.co.za. February 2004. http://www.iss.co.za/AF/profiles/Somalia/charterfeb04.pdf. Retrieved 2007-01-02. 
  91. ^ ICRC (2006-12-11). "No end in sight for flood-stricken Somalia". Press release. http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900SID/YSAR-6WDSRM?OpenDocument. Retrieved 2007-01-02. 
  92. ^ "Regional court orders closure of khat kiosks". Garowe Online. 2006-11-22. 
  93. ^ Farah, Mohamed Abdi (2006-11-22). "Islamists put curfew on Bulo-Burde town after unrest". SomaliNet. http://somalinet.com/news/world/Somalia/5246. Retrieved 2007-01-02. 
  94. ^ World Cup ban in Mogadishu denied BBC News
  95. ^ Sheikh Sherif welcomes dialogue with Washington, ANN, 9 June 2006
  96. ^ Barnett, Antony; Patrick Smith (10 September 2006). "US accused of covert operations in Somalia". Observer. http://observer.guardian.co.uk/world/story/0,,1868920,00.html. Retrieved 2007-01-02. 
  97. ^ Somali Islamists to ask AU to end peace force plan, Reuters, 9 September 2006.
  98. ^ "Islamists seize Somalia port". CNN. 2006-09-25. 
  99. ^ Pflanz, Mike (2006-10-10). "Somalia Extremists Declare Jihad On Ethiopia". New York Sun, The Daily Telegraph. http://www.nysun.com/article/41275. Retrieved 2007-01-02. 
  100. ^ Gollust, David (2 November 2006). "US Concerned Somalia Conflict Could Spread". Voice of America. http://www.voanews.com/english/2006-11-02-voa65.cfm. Retrieved 2007-01-02. 
  101. ^ "Carnage as Somalia 'in state of war'". CNN. 22 December 2006. 
  102. ^ "Ethiopia attacks Somalia airports". BBC. 2006-12-25. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6208549.stm. Retrieved 2007-01-02. 
  103. ^ Gentleman, Jeffrey (2006-12-26). "Ethiopian Jets Strafe Mogadishu Airports". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/26/world/africa/26somalia.html?_r=1&th&emc=th&oref=slogin. Retrieved 2007-01-02. 
  104. ^ Yare, Hassan (2006-12-24). "Ethiopia says forced into war with Somali Islamists". Yahoo!, Reuters. 
  105. ^ "Ethiopia declares war on Somalia". Al Jazeera. December 25, 2006. 
  106. ^ Mohamed Olad, Hassan (2006-12-28). "Somali troops enter Mogadishu to cheers". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2007-01-09. http://web.archive.org/web/20070109102653/http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20061228/ap_on_re_af/somalia. Retrieved 2007-01-02. 
  107. ^ "Somalia's president quits office", BBC News, December 29, 2008.
  108. ^ "Somali President Yusuf resigns", Reuters (FT.com), December 29, 2008.
  109. ^ "Somalia swears in new president", Sapa-AFP (IOL), January 31, 2009.
  110. ^ a b c d Dr Andre Le Sage (2005-06-01). "Stateless Justice in Somalia". Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue. http://www.hdcentre.org/files/Somalia%20report.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-26. 
  111. ^ Shariah in Somalia – Arab News
  112. ^ http://www.mises.org/story/2701
  113. ^ http://www.hiiraan.com/op2/2008/oct/back_to_somali_roots.aspx
  114. ^ a b c d e f g World Gazetteer
  115. ^ "Somalia - Climate". Countrystudies.us. 14 may 2009. http://countrystudies.us/somalia/34.htm. 
  116. ^ a b Religious and cultural traits in HIV/AIDS epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa
  117. ^ Staff writer, Staff writer (2006 04 06). "Puntland (Somalia) to introduce free primary schools". Afrol News. http://www.afrol.com/articles/16083. Retrieved 2007-02-09. 
  118. ^ a b Basic education survey
  119. ^ The Role of Islamic NGOs and Charities in a Stateless Country: The Case of Somalia by Valeria Saggiomo.
  120. ^ Koranic School Project
  121. ^ a b c d CIA - The World Factbook - Somalia (2008)
  122. ^ "Country Re-Engagement Note". World Bank Advisory Committee for Somalia. 2003. http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2004/03/25/000112742_20040325090551/Rendered/PDF/282760Somalia0Country0reengagement0note.pdf. Retrieved 2005-11-04. 
  123. ^ "The Somali Democratic Republic". UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. http://www.irinnews.org/country.aspx?CountryCode=SO&RegionCode=HOA. Retrieved 2007-10-03. 
  124. ^ http://mises.org/story/2701
  125. ^ Benjamin Powell, Ryan Ford, Alex Nowrasteh (November 30, 2006). "Somalia After State Collapse: Chaos or Improvement?". http://www.independent.org/pdf/working_papers/64_somalia.pdf. 
  126. ^ "Africa Open for Business". The World Bank. 2005-03-18. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/AFRICAEXT/SOMALIAEXTN/0,,contentMDK:20398872~menuPK:367671~pagePK:141137~piPK:141127~theSitePK:367665,00.html. Retrieved 2007-10-03. 
  127. ^ Ferrett, Grant (6 July 2004). "Coca-Cola Makes Somalia Return". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3865595.stm. Retrieved 2007-01-02. 
  128. ^ Freeing Finance: If money makes the world go round, Dahabshiil CEO Abdirashid Duale makes sure it goes to the right people
  129. ^ "Exploration rights in Somalia for Chinese oil giant CNOOC". Oilmarketer.co.uk. http://www.oilmarketer.co.uk/2007/07/18/exploration-rights-in-somalia-for-chinese-oil-giant-cnooc/. Retrieved 2009-02-25. 
  130. ^ "Internet Usage Statistics for Africa". Internetworldstats.com. 2008-12-31. http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats1.htm#africa. Retrieved 2009-02-25. 
  131. ^ Somalia gets new navy force after years of absence
  132. ^ New Police Academy Opens in Somalia
  133. ^ "Fatima Jibrell: Nursing Nature". Worldpress. July 2002. http://www.worldpress.org/Africa/597.cfm. Retrieved 2007-03-16. 
  134. ^ "Somalia's secret dumps of toxic waste washed ashore by tsunami". Timesonline.co.uk. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article418665.ece. Retrieved 2009-02-25. 
  135. ^ An Urban Development Programme for the European Commission in Somalia
  136. ^ A software tool for research in linguistics and lexicography: Application to Somali
  137. ^ Ministry of Information and National Guidance, Somalia, The writing of the Somali language, (Ministry of Information and National Guidance: 1974), p.5
  138. ^ Economist Intelligence Unit (Great Britain), Middle East annual review, (1975), p.229
  139. ^ David D. Laitin, Politics, Language, and Thought: The Somali Experience, (University Of Chicago Press: 1977), pp.86-87
  140. ^ Middle East Policy Council - Muslim Populations Worldwide
  141. ^ Mohamed Diriye Abdullahi, Culture and Customs of Somalia, (Greenwood Press: 2001), p.1
  142. ^ The Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic, Article 8, p.6.
  143. ^ A Country Study: Somalia from The Library of Congress
  144. ^ "Almost expunged: Somalia's Embattled Christians". 2009-10-22. http://www.economist.com/world/middleeast-africa/displaystory.cfm?story_id=14707279. Retrieved 2009-10-22. 
  145. ^ Catholic Church in Somalia
  146. ^ Charles George Herbermann, The Catholic encyclopedia: an international work of reference on the constitution, doctrine, discipline, and history of the Catholic church, Volume 14, (Robert Appleton company: 1913), p.139.
  147. ^ Charles Henry Robinson, History of Christian Missions, (READ BOOKS: 2007), p. 356.
  148. ^ Refugees Vol. 3, No. 128, 2002 UNHCR Publication Refugees about the Somali Bantu
  149. ^ Barlin Ali, Somali Cuisine, (AuthorHouse: 2007), p.79
  150. ^ Diriye, pp.170-171

Bibliography

  • Hadden, Robert Lee. 2007. "The Geology of Somalia: A Selected Bibliography of Somalian Geology, Geography and Earth Science." Engineer Research and Development Laboratories, Topographic Engineering Center (now known as the Army Geospatial Center, US Army Corps of Engineers), in Alexandria, VA. Includes data and citations on the geology, water and transportation in Somalia.
  • Hess, Robert L. Italian Colonialism in Somalia. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1966. *Fitzgerald, Nina J. Somalia. New York: Nova Science, Inc., 2002.
  • Lewis. I.M. Pastoral Democracy: A study on Pastoralism and Politics among the Northern Somali clans. Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1958. ISBN 978-3825830847.
  • Mwakikagile, Godfrey. The Modern African State: Quest for Transformation, Chapter Four: Somalia: A Stateless State - What Next?, pp. 109–132, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., Huntington, New York, 2001.
  • Tripodi, Paolo. The Colonial Legacy in Somalia. New York: St. Martin's P Inc., 1999.

External links

Government
General information
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Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Africa : East Africa : Somalia
noframe
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:so-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Mogadishu
Government transitional, parliamentary national government
Currency Somali shilling (SOS)
Area 637,657 sq km
Population 7,753,310 (2002 estimate based on 1975 census)
Language Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, English
Religion Islam
Electricity 220V/50Hz (European plug)
Calling Code +252
Internet TLD .so
Time Zone UTC+3
Travel Warning
.WARNING: Aside from Somaliland, Somalia is not safe for independent travel or sightseeing.^ Somaliland declared itself independent from Somalia.
  • Somalia Somaliland on the Internet 19 September 2009 7:07 UTC www-sul.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1991, the Republic of Somaliland, which territorially approximates colonial British Somalia, declared full independence from the rest of the country.
  • Education Kits in Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In accordance with UN decisions, Italian Somaliland, renamed Somalia, was granted internal autonomy in 1956 and independence in 1960.
  • Somalia News - Breaking World Somalia News - The New York Times 19 September 2009 7:07 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • Somalia News - Breaking World Somalia News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • Somalia News - Breaking World Somalia News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.Those visiting for business, research, or international aid purposes should consult with their organization and seek expert guidance before planning a trip.^ The material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving it for research and educational purposes.
  • NomadNet 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.netnomad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am appealing to the international community and aid agencies to provide assistance to those people in the regions affected by the war and the flooding before that,'' Gedi added.
  • Somalia Update II | The Agonist 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC agonist.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What was to come was, again, predictable , and international aid organizations warned of what would almost certainly happen.
  • Somalia@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.If you must go, see War zone safety.^ Should we go to war with Denmark?", then you might stop in at the White House to discuss it.

^ IRIN film on Somalia you MUST see!

^ To see it, you must go to Bosaso, a port 300 miles east of Isse's cell.
  • NomadNet 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.netnomad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Somalia is on the Horn of Africa, and is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the north-west, and Kenya on its south-west.^ Numerous border clashes occurred between Somalia and Ethiopia, and between Somalia and Kenya.
  • Somalia – FREE Somalia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Somalia research 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Somalia borders Djibouti , Ethiopia , and Kenya .
  • Somalia@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It shares borders with Republic of Djibouti to the west, Federal Republic of Ethiopia to the south and Somalia to the east."
  • Somalia Somaliland on the Internet 19 September 2009 7:07 UTC www-sul.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

This is a country with a troubled past. .Civil war, military coups, border disputes and warlordism are the general course of events here.^ Since the outbreak of the civil war, the United States has consistently urged all parties to come together to resolve their dispute by peaceful means.

^ Just before the civil war broke out in 1988 there were rumours that it had made a significant oil discovery close to the Ethiopian border.

^ Eritrea denies the charge, though makes no secret of its hatred of Ethiopia over their still-unresolved border dispute, which led to a 1998-2000 war.
  • Somalia Update II | The Agonist 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC agonist.org [Source type: Original source]

.Things started to improve after the Ethiopian Army withdrew in 2007 after defeating an Islamist government, but since then violence has flared up again with the re-emergence of Islamist and other clan and warlord-affiliated militias.^ The Prime Minister told journalists that Somalia's infamous warlords and clan militias must also abide by the order to give up weapons, which comes into effect Tuesday.
  • Somalia Update II | The Agonist 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC agonist.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Islamists fled from Mogadishu, 260 miles north of Kismayo, on Thursday after being surrounded by Ethiopian troops and fighters loyal to the Somali government.
  • Somalia Update II | The Agonist 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC agonist.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, the government objected to the Islamists' seizure of additional territory since the June truce, and the UIC objected to the presence of Ethiopian forces in Somalia.
  • Somalia News - Breaking World Somalia News - The New York Times 19 September 2009 7:07 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • Somalia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Somalia News - Breaking World Somalia News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • Somalia News - Breaking World Somalia News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.The Transitional Federal Government (TFG), while nominally the legitimate government of Somalia, in reality has, apart from a few square blocks in Mogadishu, little control over any part of Somalia's territory or coastline and is completely unable to provide any kind of services for Somalis or visitors.^ Its leaders say the transitional government is not representative of Somali society and has little control over the country.

^ Head of state of Transitional Federal Government: .
  • Amnesty International Report 2008 • 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC archive.amnesty.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The TNG controls only parts of the Somali capital, Mogadishu, and pockets elsewhere in Somalia.

History

.The history of the Somali people dates back many centuries.^ The century between 1150 and 1250 marked a decisive turn in the role of Islam in Somali history.
  • SSA | Somalia: Culture,People,Language etc.. 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because piracy is the only way many Somali people can make a living, recruitment is high.
  • Think Progress » Bolton Calls Invading Somalia With A ‘Coalition Of The Willing’ ‘The Prudential Response’ To Piracy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the eighteenth century the Somalis had defeated the Oromo people, who had threatened both Muslims and Christians in Ethiopia and Somalia.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first time the word Somali was mentioned in a history book was 3500 years ago, when the queen of Egypt Hatshepsut sent a fleet of 5 large ships and a crew of 250 men to Somalia which the Egyptians called The Land of Punt.^ Somalia was known to the ancient Egyptians as the Land of Punt.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once known as the Land of Punt, SOMALIA has a rich and ancient history.
  • Somalia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For Eversmann, a five-year veteran from Natural Bridge, Va., leading men into combat for the first time, it was the beginning of the longest day of his life.
  • Philadelphia Online | Blackhawk Down 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC inquirer.philly.com [Source type: Original source]

.Punt means “the land of spices” from the aromatic plants that grow there.^ Somalia was known as the Land of Punt by ancient Egyptians, who came to Somalia's northern shores for incense and aromatic herbs.
  • Somalia – FREE Somalia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Somalia research 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Egyptians wanted to trade and they brought jewels and glass beads that they exchanged for gold, elephant tusks, myrrh, ostrich feathers, spices and different beads.^ Its sailors and merchants were the main suppliers of frankincense , myrrh and spices , items which were considered valuable luxuries by the Ancient Egyptians , Phoenicians , Mycenaean and Babylonians with whom the Somali people traded.
  • SSA | Somalia: Culture,People,Language etc.. 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1500s, Duarte Barbosa noted that many ships from the Kingdom of Cambaya sailed to Mogadishu with cloths and spices , for which they in return received gold , wax and ivory .
  • SSA | Somalia: Culture,People,Language etc.. 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some of these items, especially the aromatic ones, were used by the Egyptians in their religious festivals and celebrations.^ In many places throughout the site links are some text which, if you click one, take you to the noted item.
  • ZNet - Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

^ But no one is especially well liked in Mogadishu these days, not even the peacekeepers, who may have the most dangerous peacekeeping mission of all.
  • Somalia News - Breaking World Somalia News - The New York Times 19 September 2009 7:07 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ That would prompt the ruling clans to use every means to suppress these centrifugal forces… in the end all clans would fight with one another."

Between the 7th and 9th Cent. immigrant .Muslim Arabs and Persians established trading posts along the Somali coast.^ About this time, Arabs and Persians established settlements along the Indian Ocean coast.
  • Somalia – FREE Somalia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Somalia research 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between the 7th and 10th cent., immigrant Muslim Arabs and Persians established trading posts along Somalia's Gulf of Aden and Indian Ocean coasts; Mogadishu began its existence as a trading station.
  • Somalia News - Breaking World Somalia News - The New York Times 19 September 2009 7:07 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • Somalia News - Breaking World Somalia News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • Somalia News - Breaking World Somalia News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ The birth of Islam on the opposite side of Somalia's Red Sea coast meant that Somali merchants, sailors and expatriates living in the Arabian Peninsula gradually came under the influence of the new religion through their converted Arab Muslim trading partners.
  • Top20Somalia.com - Your Top20 Guide to Somalia! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.top20somalia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the 14th century Ibn Battuta, the great Berber traveller, visited Mogadishu and wrote about the people, their food and clothing and how they ruled themselves.^ How about a coalition to patrol the waters they travel within.
  • Think Progress » Bolton Calls Invading Somalia With A ‘Coalition Of The Willing’ ‘The Prudential Response’ To Piracy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1500s, Duarte Barbosa noted that many ships from the Kingdom of Cambaya sailed to Mogadishu with cloths and spices , for which they in return received gold , wax and ivory .
  • SSA | Somalia: Culture,People,Language etc.. 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They said we should spend more time talking about what works and how to measure it.
  • Somalia : Pictures, Videos, Breaking News 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

.In his book he mentioned that the people in the city were very fat and everybody ate as much as they could.^ Our priority is the people's peace, dignity and that they could live in liberty, that they could decide their own fate.
  • SSA | Somalia: Culture,People,Language etc.. 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Somali people have very strong connections to the numerous clans which they belong to.
  • Somalia@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Much of the city sustained very heavy damage and thousands of civilians were killed.
  • Somalia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Mogadishans wore very nice white clothes and turbans and their sultan was very powerful.
.Somalia was an unknown country for European explorers until the Portuguese explorers reached the coastal cities of Somalia on their way to India.^ Travelers from the Arabian Peninsula, Pakistan, India, and even China, called at the capital city hundreds of years before the Portuguese arrived early in the 16th century.
  • Somalia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Guerrilla warfare in the Ogaden continued until 1988, when Ethiopia and Somalia reached a peace accord.
  • Somalia News - Breaking World Somalia News - The New York Times 19 September 2009 7:07 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • Somalia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Somalia News - Breaking World Somalia News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • Somalia News - Breaking World Somalia News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ The programs broadcast over shortwave eventually reached every city and town in Somalia where UNITAF forces were located.
  • United States PSYOP in Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They called it Terra Incognita, which means the unknown land. .These new discoveries encouraged many other European navigators to sail on the Somali coasts.^ This sets Somalis apart from their immediate African neighbours, many of whom are either Christians (particularly the Amhara and others of Ethiopia) or adherents of indigenous faiths.
  • SSA | Somalia: Culture,People,Language etc.. 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wealthy Somalis, Europeans, and others may have traditional Western-style homes with tile roofs and walled courtyards.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the al-Qa'ida operatives who write in these documents were new to Somalia and were poorly equipped to understand the complexities of Somali clannism.
  • Combating Terrorism Center 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ctc.usma.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The colonial era

.British, Italian and French imperialism all played an active role in the region in the 19th century.^ British, French, and Italian imperialism all played an active role in the region in the 19th cent.
  • Somalia News - Breaking World Somalia News - The New York Times 19 September 2009 7:07 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • Somalia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is true that external factors, including the colonial legacy, the Cold War, and other foreign meddling in African affairs, have played a role in creating the region's problems.
  • The Somali Crisis: Time for an African Solution 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Exploration here dates from the turn of the century and was conducted in the former colony of British Somaliland and was conducted by British and Italian geologists.

.In 1884 at the European powers' conference in Berlin, Somalia was divided into five parts to dilute the homogeneity imposed by its language, religion, and race.^ Main article: Regions and Districts of Somalia Prior to the civil war, Somalia was divided into eighteen regions ( gobollada , singular gobol ), which were in turn subdivided into districts.
  • SSA | Somalia: Culture,People,Language etc.. 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prior to the civil war, Somalia was divided into eighteen regions ( gobollada , singular gobol ), which were in turn subdivided into districts.
  • Top20Somalia.com - Your Top20 Guide to Somalia! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.top20somalia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By JEFFREY GETTLEMAN The Sufi scholars are part of a broad, moderate Islamist movement that Western nations are counting on to repel Somalia’s increasingly powerful Islamist extremists.
  • Somalia News - Breaking World Somalia News - The New York Times 19 September 2009 7:07 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.The colonial powers divided Somalia into British Somaliland in the north, Italian Somalia in the south, the French Somali coast in Djibouti, Ogaden in the west and NFD. In the early 20th century a Somali resistance against these colonial powers started, led by Sayed Mohammed Abdullah Hassan, whom the British gave the nickname "Mad Mullah."^ Italian interest in the Somali coast developed in the late 19th century.
  • SOMALIA, 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Somali found themselves in five jurisdictions: British Somaliland, Italian Somaliland, Ethiopia (in the Ogaden), Kenya, and Djibouti.
  • The Somali Crisis: Time for an African Solution 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Somalia was formed in 1960 by the union of British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland.
  • Modern Rangers | Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.suasponte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He began his opposition after returning from Mecca and established his own army, which he called the Dervishes.^ Hasan and his army, called Dervishes, fought the Ethiopians and later the British from 1900 to 1920.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He recruited from the local people and built his own headquarters in Taleex.^ And that's when the case went from local law enforcement to the FBI. And the FBI was worried that it had a jihadi pipeline on its hands, essentially like an underground railroad of sorts that recruits people for jihad.

.In 1901 the fighting started between British and local Somali forces and it was the beginning of a long struggle that resulted in Somali independence.^ As of late 2005, the national armed forces had not been reconstituted, and the country was torn between the Republic of Somaliland declared by the Somali National Movement in the north and insurgent groups in the south.
  • Somalia – FREE Somalia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Somalia research 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (AP, 11/1/07) 2007 Oct 29, A long-brewing power struggle between the Somali PM Ali Mohamed Gedi and Pres.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (HN, 2/26/98) 1960 Jun 26, British Somaliland became independent and five days later was united with Italian Somaliland as the Somali Republic.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

King Ahmed Gurey
King Ahmed Gurey
  • Gedo
  • Somaliland - the most stable of the states with an ongoing effort to become independent
  • Puntland is not a place to be relied on for safety.
  • Galmudug - in the central region
  • Mogadishu - the capital, and generally considered the most lawless city in the world.
  • Hargeisa - the capital of Somaliland and, by Somalian standards, a fairly safe place.
  • Kismayo - a port city in the south of the country

Climate

Somalia is principally desert. .Major climatic factors are a year-round hot climate, seasonal monsoon winds, and irregular rainfall with recurring droughts.^ Major climatic factors are a year-round hot climate, seasonal monsoon winds, and irregular rainfall.
  • SSA | Somalia: Culture,People,Language etc.. 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The periodic winds, the southwest monsoon (June – September), and the northeast monsoon (December – March) influence temperature and rainfall.
  • Somalia – FREE Somalia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Somalia research 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Somalia is hot for much of the year, with two wet and two dry seasons.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mean daily maximum temperatures range from 30 °C to 40 °C (85–105 °F), except at higher elevations and along the east coast.^ Mean daily maximum temperatures range from 30 °C to 40 °C (85–105 °F), except at higher elevations and along the east coast.
  • SSA | Somalia: Culture,People,Language etc.. 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The rugged east-west ranges of the Karkaar Mountains lie at varying distances from the Gulf of Aden coast.
  • SSA | Somalia: Culture,People,Language etc.. 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the low areas, the mean temperature ranges from about 24 ° c to 31 ° c (75 ° to 88 ° f).
  • Somalia – FREE Somalia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Somalia research 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mean daily minimums usually vary from about 15 °C to 30 °C (60–85 °F).^ Mean daily minimums usually vary from about 15 °C to 30 °C (60–85 °F).
  • SSA | Somalia: Culture,People,Language etc.. 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mean daily maximum temperatures range from 30 °C to 40 °C (85–105 °F), except at higher elevations and along the east coast.
  • SSA | Somalia: Culture,People,Language etc.. 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The southwest monsoon, a sea breeze, makes the period from about May to October the mildest season at Mogadishu.^ The southwest monsoon, a sea breeze, makes the period from about May to October the mildest season at Mogadishu .
  • SSA | Somalia: Culture,People,Language etc.. 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The periodic winds, the southwest monsoon (June – September), and the northeast monsoon (December – March) influence temperature and rainfall.
  • Somalia – FREE Somalia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Somalia research 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Juba flows into the Indian Ocean near the port of Kismayu, and the Shebelli disappears into a marshland near the sea about 200 miles southwest of Mogadishu.
  • Somalia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The December-February period of the northeast monsoon is also relatively mild, although prevailing climatic conditions in Mogadishu are rarely pleasant.^ The December - February period of the northeast monsoon is also relatively mild, although prevailing climatic conditions in Mogadishu are rarely pleasant.
  • SSA | Somalia: Culture,People,Language etc.. 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Africa's easternmost country, Somalia has a land area of 637,540 prevailing climatic conditions in Mogadishu are rarely pleasant.
  • Top20Somalia.com - Your Top20 Guide to Somalia! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.top20somalia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The periodic winds, the southwest monsoon (June – September), and the northeast monsoon (December – March) influence temperature and rainfall.
  • Somalia – FREE Somalia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Somalia research 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The "tangambili" periods that intervene between the two monsoons (October–November and March–May) are hot and humid.^ The "tangambili" periods that intervene between the two monsoons (October–November and March–May) are hot and humid.
  • SSA | Somalia: Culture,People,Language etc.. 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (December to February), moderate temperatures in north and hot in south; southwest monsoon (May to October), torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons .
  • Somalia Facts 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.tet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After increasing tension and clashes between the two sides in November, the UIC demanded that Ethiopian troops leave or face attack.
  • Somalia News - Breaking World Somalia News - The New York Times 19 September 2009 7:07 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • Somalia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Somalia News - Breaking World Somalia News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • Somalia News - Breaking World Somalia News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

Get in

By plane

.There are two options regarding plane travel to/from Somalia, though operations may be spotty or non-existent due to the recent bombings of the airport by Ethiopian forces.^ This coalition, ( Unified Task Force or UNITAF) entered Somalia in December 1992 on Operation Restore Hope and was successful in restoring order and alleviating the famine.
  • SSA | Somalia: Culture,People,Language etc.. 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Radio Manta began broadcasting on 4 May 1993 following the handover of the international operation in Somalia from the US-led Unified Task Force (UNITAF) to the United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM).
  • United States PSYOP in Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dramatic Deterioration of the Humanitarian Crisis in Somalia Due to the recent Piracy Crisis, the ending Abyssinian occupation of part of the Somali territory, and the precipitated political military developments of the Somali Civil War, there is a tendency to forget the immense humanitarian crisis of Somalia.
  • Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
  • Daallo Airlines [1] is the only international carrier to fly to Somalia.^ The warning by Mr. Abdulmutallab's father should have been combined with information that could have been gleaned from airline personnel, such the suspect's purchase of his ticket with cash and his carrying only a backpack for an international flight.

    ^ The carrier's Web site calls it the national airline of Somalia's neighbor, Djibouti.

    .They operate 2-3 services per week from Djibouti using an Ilyushin-18 aircraft.
  • Jubba Airways [2] is a Somali airline that operates from Mogadishu to/from: Dubai, Bossaso and Jeddah.^ International air service has been provided by the state-owned Somali Airlines (among other carriers), which also has regular flights connecting Mogadishu with regional centers and with Kenya, Djibouti, Saudi Arabia, the Comoros, Yemen, the Persian Gulf states, Frankfurt, Cairo, and Rome.
    • Somalia – FREE Somalia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Somalia research 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Last week, a newly powerful Somali government retook Mogadishu, with the help of Ethiopian troops.
    • Somalia Update II | The Agonist 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC agonist.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In February 1993, two UN officials recommended that the operation use the Somali civilian staff with the addition of some UN employees as supervisors.
    • United States PSYOP in Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Flights also may be available to/from: Galkayo, Hargeisa and Sharjah. Their aircraft is also IL-18.
.Both Daallo Airlines and Jubba Airways use Aaden Cabdulle Cismaan International Airport which re-opened in August 2006. Prior to this, both airlines used an airport many miles from the Mogadishu due to security fears over the city's main airport.^ An Ethiopian jet fighter strafed Mogadishu International Airport anti-Ethiopian elements they are supporting," he said.
  • Top20Somalia.com - Your Top20 Guide to Somalia! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.top20somalia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also in June, TFG security forces opened fire on a crowd waiting for food aid in Mogadishu; at least five persons were killed, including a pregnant woman.
  • Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are few doctors and hospitals, and many unqualified persons practice a form of medicine at private facilities, especially in Mogadishu and other cities.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By car

Don't. .Though this may be possible if you wish to cross into Somaliland, borders are generally sealed, and always dangerous.^ Fees are lower on the Somali side of the cross-border trade than on the Kenyan side, indicating that rustling may be a more severe problem in Kenya than in Somalia.
  • Somalia – FREE Somalia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Somalia research 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That same month, tension and clashes between Somaliland and Puntland over the disputed border town of Los Anod erupted into significant fighting.
  • Somalia News - Breaking World Somalia News - The New York Times 19 September 2009 7:07 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • Somalia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Somalia News - Breaking World Somalia News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • Somalia News - Breaking World Somalia News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 5/18/09) 2009 May 19, In Somalia witnesses said that Ethiopian troops have crossed the border and appear to be stationing themselves at a strategic crossroads.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

By boat

.There are ports in Boosaaso, Berbera, Kismaayo, and Mogadishu.^ Somalia's largest cities are the ports of Mogadishu, Merca, Baraawe, and Kismayu on the Indian Ocean, and Berbera on the Gulf of Aden.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to Mogadishu, other important cities are Hargeisa , Berbera (the main northern port), and Kismayo (the principal port of the south).
  • Somalia News - Breaking World Somalia News - The New York Times 19 September 2009 7:07 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • Somalia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Somalia News - Breaking World Somalia News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • Somalia News - Breaking World Somalia News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ The ports of Mogadishu, Chisimayu, and Berbera are served by vessels from many parts of the world, as well as by Somali and Arab dhows.
  • Somalia – FREE Somalia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Somalia research 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The waters outside of Somalia, especially the Gulf of Aden, are unsafe due to pirates.^ Somalia has a long history of cultural, religious, and trade ties with the Arabs of the Arabian Peninsula, which lies across the Gulf of Aden.

^ In Somalia's case, it was Eritrea and Djibouti that bore the brunt of the impact, in addition to Ethiopia, and of course the infamous piracy in the oil-shipping lanes of the Gulf of Aden.
  • A short path, from Gaza to Somalia - Haaretz - Israel News 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.haaretz.com [Source type: News]

^ A Malaysian military helicopter saved an Indian tanker from being hijacked in the new year's first attacks by pirates in the dangerous Gulf of Aden.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

Get around

.Somalia has not had an effective government for 18 years; as one can imagine this has had a negative effect on the roads.^ Somalia has been without an effective government...
  • Somalia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Somalia has gone through 17 years of impoverishment, chaos, destruction and warlords, featuring 13 transitional governments - and is somehow still getting worse.
  • A short path, from Gaza to Somalia - Haaretz - Israel News 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.haaretz.com [Source type: News]

^ He had been gang-raped by government soldiers who belonged to one of Somalia's rival clans.
  • NomadNet 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.netnomad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are two different modes of public transportation that you can use in Somalia: buses and taxis.^ In Somalia there are many different factions that are attempting to gain power and this is making the process of creating a governmental structure very difficult.

^ There's a world of difference between the two positions.

^ Hi, You've probably seen on TV the pirate crisis off the coast of Somalia - but there is a whole other story that's not been told.
  • Piracy: Time to tackle the root causes 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.avaaz.org [Source type: News]

.The only rule of the road that seems to still be in force is that Somalians generally drive on the right or centre.^ The only role that seems fit for them right now is that of spoiler.
  • Somalia News - Breaking World Somalia News - The New York Times 19 September 2009 7:07 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

The Zeila Coast
The Zeila Coast
The Somali beach near Mogadishu is very beautiful. Families usually go on weekends. It is important to be aware that women must swim fully clothed, as Sharia law is prevalent and does not permit women to show much of their bodies or to mingle with men. It is not clear as what the situation is like currently. .In other circumstances, the beach would make for an ideal destination; however, the general threat of banditry, armed conflict and especially piracy along the coast make this, along with every other option in the country, risky.^ Maritime piracy and the kidnapping of crews, especially along the eastern and northeastern coasts, hampered humanitarian efforts to provide essential commodities to thousands of IDPs in the country (see section 1.g.
  • Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only way to end Somali piracy militarily would be to kill every last Somali citizen and leave the country a wasteland.
  • Think Progress » Bolton Calls Invading Somalia With A ‘Coalition Of The Willing’ ‘The Prudential Response’ To Piracy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Somalia is attempting to stabilize many of the internal conflicts that continue to prevail in the country along with attempting to create a political ideology and a foreign policy.

Mogadishu beach
Mogadishu beach
Somali Kids
Somali Kids

Talk

.Somali is the official language in Somalia.^ All Somalis speak Somali, the official language.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Peppercorn Books & Press Publishes Somali language dictionaries, grammers, phrasebooks, thesaurus, K-12 and teacher resources, books on Somalia's politics, culture, history.
  • Somalia Somaliland on the Internet 19 September 2009 7:07 UTC www-sul.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Merka is only 60 miles south of Mogadishu, Somalia ’s bullet-pocked capital, and Somali officials said the Islamists were now planning to lay siege to Mogadishu.
  • NomadNet 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.netnomad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, Arabic is spoken by many and represents a secondary language.^ However, Arabic, English, and Italian are all still widely spoken and understood.
  • Somalia – FREE Somalia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Somalia research 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arabic, the language of the Qur'an, is spoken and read for religious purposes.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arabic, the second official language, is spoken by many Somalis and is taught in the schools from early grades through high school.
  • Somalia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the Somalis are almost exclusively Sunni Muslims, Somali has borrowed much religious terminology from Arabic, although there are also Persian or Arabic loan words for everyday objects (e.g.^ Somalis also read Arabic religious classics.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Abdullah was defeated as much by rival Somali factions as by British forces, he was lauded as a popular hero and stands as a major figure of national identity to many Somalis.
  • Somalia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Xeer legal system is assumed to have developed exclusively in the Horn of Africa since approximately the 7 th legal terminology is practically devoid of loan words from foreign languages suggests that Xeer is truly indigenous.
  • Top20Somalia.com - Your Top20 Guide to Somalia! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.top20somalia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Somali albab-ka (the door), from the Arabic الباب al baab). .While the southern part of the country was a former protectorate and colony of Italy, it is unclear just how much Italian is still spoken.^ However, Arabic, English, and Italian are all still widely spoken and understood.
  • Somalia – FREE Somalia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Somalia research 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It comprises Italy's former Trust Territory of Somalia and the former British Protectorate of Somaliland (now seeking recognition as an independent state).
  • Somalia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Somaliland Cyberspace "Somaliland Republic, bordered to the east by Somalia, Ethiopia to the south, and Djibouti to the west, corresponds to the former colonial territory of British Somaliland Protectorate."
  • Somalia Somaliland on the Internet 19 September 2009 7:07 UTC www-sul.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Many Somalis speak English to communicate with the people who generally handle all of the menial jobs in their country.^ All Somalis speak Somali, the official language.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because piracy is the only way many Somali people can make a living, recruitment is high.
  • Think Progress » Bolton Calls Invading Somalia With A ‘Coalition Of The Willing’ ‘The Prudential Response’ To Piracy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Persons with HIV/AIDS continued to face discrimination and abuse in their local communities, and employers in all parts of the country.
  • Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If you can learn a few words of Somali, your hosts and any other locals that you may meet will be very impressed and appreciative.^ Locally established courts operate throughout Somalia under a combination of Somali customary and Islamic Shari'a law, some of which may be hostile towards foreigners.
  • Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under ZSoace, you can search members and Sustainers by locale and interest, useful for finding people to hook up with in your city...or creating a group page.
  • ZNet - Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

^ Wealthy Somalis, Europeans, and others may have traditional Western-style homes with tile roofs and walled courtyards.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Buy

.The currency used in Somalia is the Somali Shilling (sos).^ The currency is the Somali shilling , written So.
  • Somalia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Somali shilling is the unit of currency except in Somaliland, which uses the Somaliland shilling.
  • Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The currency is the Somali schilling (SOS), except in Somaliland, which uses the Somaliland schilling.
  • Somalia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.Currently only the 1000 shilling note is used, and doesn't go far...^ As of 1996, the Somali shilling was still widely in use despite the lack of a government to back the currency, which was holding its value because there were no new notes.
  • Somalia – FREE Somalia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Somalia research 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

a glass of (unpottable) water will cost 1000sos. The current exchange rate of 100 US dollars to Somali shilling is 3,300,000 as of May 2008. Much more useful is goods with which you could barter
.The Bakaara Market (Somali: Suuqa Bakaaraha) is a Mogadishu open market and the largest in Somalia.^ Mogadishu is Somalia's capital and largest city.
  • Somalia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Courts now control all of Southern Somalia, from the Kenyan border to Mogadishu up to the central Somali town of Galcaio.
  • Somalia Update II | The Agonist 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC agonist.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Somalia's largest cities are the ports of Mogadishu, Merca, Baraawe, and Kismayu on the Indian Ocean, and Berbera on the Gulf of Aden.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Bakaara Market in the heart of Mogadishu. .In the absence of government regulation, Somali marketplaces have thrived.The market was created in late 1972 during the reign of Siad Barre regime.^ The SIAD BARRE regime was ousted in January 1991; turmoil, factional fighting, and anarchy have followed in the years since.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In late 1969 following the assassination of President Shermarke, a military government assumed power in a coup d'état led by Major General Salaad Gabeyre Kediye, General Siad Barre and Chief of Police Jama Korshel .
  • SSA | Somalia: Culture,People,Language etc.. 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jan 27, Muhammad Siad Barre, the dictator of the Somali Democratic Republic since 1969, fled Mogadishu as rebels overran his palace and captured the Somali capital.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.Proprietors sold and still sell daily essentials (including staples such as maize, sorghum, beans, peanuts, sesame, wheat and rice), petrol and medicine.^ Other important crops include sorghum, corn, coconuts, rice, sesame seeds, and beans.
  • Somalia News - Breaking World Somalia News - The New York Times 19 September 2009 7:07 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • Somalia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Somalia News - Breaking World Somalia News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • Somalia News - Breaking World Somalia News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Corn, sorghum, beans, rice, vegetables, cotton, and sesame are grown by both methods.
  • Somalia – FREE Somalia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Somalia research 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Durra (a grain sorghum), honey, dates, rice, and tea are other food staples for nomads.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are many things to buy here but be wary of cheap pearls as they may not be real.^ According to the report, there is concern they may have been sent abroad to train for jihad.

^ Urban Somalis may use silverware when they dine, but many still enjoy eating with their fingers.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is concern they may have been sent abroad to train for jihad.

.There are many good tailors in Somalia and it is a good place to have clothes made to measure and copied.^ There are also links to specific videos in many places throughout the site.
  • ZNet - Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

^ Somalia is one of the world's poorest countries, and many gains made during the years after independence were lost in the destruction brought about by civil war in the 1990s.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UN agencies and NGOs have made intensive efforts to educate the population about the dangers of FGM, but there were no reliable statistics to measure the success of their programs.
  • Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Typical Somali cuisine
Typical Somali cuisine
.Somali meals are meat driven, vegetarianism is relatively rare.^ The Somalis settled in what is now Somalia in the relatively recent past, having replaced the Oromo, who had driven out the Bantu peoples.
  • Somalia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Goat, beef, lamb and sometimes chicken is fried in ghee, or grilled or broiled.^ Local meats include fair-to-good quality beef, camel, goat, and lamb.
  • Somalia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is spiced with turmeric, coriander, cumin and curry and eaten with basmati rice for lunch, dinner and sometimes breakfast.
Vegetables appear to largely be side dishes, and often are woven into a meat dish, such as combining potatoes, carrots and peas with meat and making a stew. Green peppers, spinach and garlic were also noted as the types of vegetables most commonly eaten. Bananas, dates, apples, oranges, pears and grapes are among some of the more popular fruits (a raw, sliced banana is often eaten with rice). .But in Somalia, Somalis had a much larger selection of fruits - like mango and guava - from which they would make fresh juice.^ The Somali interim Government and its Ethiopian allies have said they aim to crush the Islamic movement, which took control of much of southern Somalia.
  • Somalia Update II | The Agonist 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC agonist.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They cannot observe whether their operatives in Somalia are working hard to make alliances with problematic clan leaders or not.
  • Combating Terrorism Center 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ctc.usma.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They disgracefully claim that they are not ethnic Somalis, but migrants from Arabia and therefore, have to break away from Somalia .

Somali stores, therefore, carry among the widest selection of fruit juices, both Kern1s juices as well as imports from India and Canada. And there is also a selection of instant juice: frozen or available as a powder.
.The overriding characteristic of the Somali diet is that it consists of halal foods (Arabic for "allowable" as opposed to haram: "prohibited").^ One thing that unites the Somali food is its being Halal .
  • SSA | Somalia: Culture,People,Language etc.. 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Somalis are Muslims and under Islamic Law (or Shar'1ah), pork and alcohol are not allowed.^ Locally established courts operate throughout Somalia under a combination of Somali customary and Islamic Shari'a law, some of which may be hostile towards foreigners.
  • Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Islamic law ( Shari'a ) and Somali customary law ( heer ) were retained in many civil and interclan matters.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And their enforcement of Islamic religious laws, while unpopular among many Somalis, made Mogadishu safe to walk in for the first time in a generation.
  • NomadNet 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.netnomad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other common foods include a type of homemade bread called injera (like a large, spongy pancake) and sambusas (like the Indian samosas), which are deep-fried triangular-shaped pastries filled with meat or vegetables.
.The Cuisine of Somalia varies from region to region and consists of an exotic mixture of native Somali,Yemeni, Persian, Turkish, Indian and Italian influences.^ The cuisine of Somalia varies from region to region and encompasses different styles of cooking.
  • SSA | Somalia: Culture,People,Language etc.. 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cuisine of Somalia varies from region to region and encompasses country as a dinner meal.
  • Top20Somalia.com - Your Top20 Guide to Somalia! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.top20somalia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The nonindigenous population consists primarily of Arabs, Italians, Pakistanis, and Indians.
  • Somalia – FREE Somalia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Somalia research 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is the product of Somalia's rich tradition of trade and commerce.^ Foreign Trade Statistics Has Historical trade data by product categories (1996 + ) U.S. Trade Balance with the Somalia.
  • Somalia Somaliland on the Internet 19 September 2009 7:07 UTC www-sul.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ State intervention in trade, commerce, and markets by Africa's traditional rulers was the exception rather than the rule.
  • The Somali Crisis: Time for an African Solution 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: Original source]

.Despite the variety, there remains one thing that unites the various regional cuisines: all food is served halal.^ One thing that unites the Somali food is its being Halal .
  • SSA | Somalia: Culture,People,Language etc.. 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One poster that needs no translation is bright red, shows a skull and crossed bones, and pictures various mines and explosive all around the border.
  • United States PSYOP in Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Puntland Medical Association " founded in 1999, is a Professional association that unite all Puntland State Medical Doctors in one organization."
  • Somalia Somaliland on the Internet 19 September 2009 7:07 UTC www-sul.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

Drink

Somalis adore spiced tea. .A minority of Somalis drink a tea similar to Turkish tea which they brought from Middle eastern countries to their homeland.^ In 1994 a group of Somali women educated in Western countries returned to their homeland to help Somali women who were striving to rebuild the economy by starting their own businesses.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some mining and petroleum exploration has been done, with the help of Middle Eastern countries.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Islamic officials in the capital stressed that it is shame and misfortune that Somalia will again loss their security and peace in which they were brought from starting village, town, city and to country.
  • Somalia Update II | The Agonist 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC agonist.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, the majority drink a traditional and cultural tea known as Shah Hawaash because it is made of cardamom (in Somali, Xawaash or Hayle} and cinnamon bark (in Somali, Qoronfil).^ Interaction over the centuries led to the emergence of a Somali culture bound by common traditions, a single language, and the Islamic faith.
  • Somalia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Puntland clan elders resolved the majority of cases using traditional methods; those with no clan representation in Puntland, however, were subject to the administration's judicial system.
  • Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Egal’s move towards reconciliation with Ethiopia, which had been a traditional enemy of Somalia since the 16th century, made many Somalis furious, including the army.
  • Somalia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Islam forbids alcohol and Somalia follows this rather strictly. .If you do find some, don't show it or drink it in public, as there's a strong chance that you could offend, cause a scene and may even be punished!^ The almost constant wind and fine-blowing sand may cause some difficulty for contact lens wearers.
  • Somalia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The instructions will be more convenient there, where you need them, and for that reason we don't repeat them here.
  • ZNet - Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

^ If you don't find something that is quite old one way, try another....
  • ZNet - Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

As for the coffee (kahwa) itself, try mirra, made in the Somali style. Sometimes spiced with cardamom, it's strong and tastes great, particularly drunk with fresh dates. Tea (chai) usually comes with dollops of sugar and perhaps a few mint leaves (na'ana).

Sleep

Bosaso and Hargeisa have some Western-level hotels.

Stay safe

.At the risk of sounding like a broken record, the easiest method for staying safe in Somalia is not to go in the first place, as it is a dangerous country.^ Jamaame, Somalia: “These people have no other place to go” .

.Kidnappings and warlordism are all common in this country.^ Killings and kidnappings continue to occur in all areas of the country and there have been targeted assassinations of foreigners including journalists, human rights activists, and humanitarian workers.
  • Somalia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

Driving is on the right. While Somali drivers have something of a reputation for bad driving, the reality is slightly more nuanced. .Risks are taken, particularly in Mogadishu, which would not normally be taken in other places, but the locals expect this to happen and compensate accordingly.^ "The committee is working on establishing administrative structures for Mogadishu, they have identified local officials and would appoint a governor for Mogadishu," said Ashareh.
  • Somalia Update II | The Agonist 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC agonist.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We would really like to use your image of the 2 Somali women greeting each other in Mogadishu for our article on Somalia.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Events seemed to happen twice normal speed, but from inside his personal space, the place where he thought and reacted and watched, every second seemed a minute long.
  • Philadelphia Online | Blackhawk Down 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC inquirer.philly.com [Source type: Original source]

Stay healthy

Water is contaminated as a rule of thumb, stick to sealed, preferably non-Somalian bottled fluids.
Mogadishu Mosque
Mogadishu Mosque

Respect

This is a Muslim country. .As such, be sensitive about where you point your camera.^ You can quibble over a semantic point or you can talk about the real world.

^ "You can quibble over a semantic point or you can talk about the real world."

^ You're going about your daily life, trying to scrape by in hard times, when the missile hits.
  • ZNet - Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

.There are many great photo opportunities around every corner (the question is usually what to leave out of each image), but when photographing people, always ask first.^ The millions of people around the globe who practice Islam are called Muslims, but this new term has crept into the language without question or investigation....
  • ZNet - Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

^ There is an influence, but the direction is from the young people seeking folks out, as opposed to older guys recruiting them.”..more..

^ "There was a big explosion and I saw many people, mostly pedestrians and some security guards, thrown to the floor.
  • NomadNet 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.netnomad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Don't ever, ever try to take pictures of women, even if you're a woman yourself.^ Organizations will be trying to "scope out" where displaced populations are moving to, but, the official said that at the moment, "where they're going to go, people don't know...
  • Somalia Update II | The Agonist 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC agonist.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If you don't find something that is quite old one way, try another....
  • ZNet - Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

^ You're going about your daily life, trying to scrape by in hard times, when the missile hits.
  • ZNet - Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

.This is considered a great offense and can even result in more than a few harsh words.^ Unfortunately, the United Nations has become ever more deeply involved in trying to resolve the country's internal disputes, and its response has been even more violent than the actions of the Somali.
  • The Somali Crisis: Time for an African Solution 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He continues: "I have no doubt that even Saddam Hussein, Aideed, Arafat, Sayyaf, Hikmatyar, and Burhan have more manhood than they have.
  • Combating Terrorism Center 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ctc.usma.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some 18 people were killed and more than 37 injured in the resulting gunfight.

.Also don't try to take pictures of anything that looks as if it could be of any strategic importance (i.e., has at least one soldier, policeman or, more likely, armed militiaman guarding it).^ "So in August we tried one more time.

^ The highest number that I am aware of is 40, but I have at least six with unknown numbers, so there could be more than 40 standard airdropped leaflets.
  • United States PSYOP in Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Overnight, at least 8 civilians and one policeman died during a battle between Islamic insurgents and policemen.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.Respect the Islamic beliefs of Somali people: Women shouldn't wear tube tops or skimpy outfits.^ (AP, 1/31/07) 2007 Feb 2, In Somalia an explosion at an Islamic school for women and girls in Mogadishu wounded at least seven people.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Fighting between Somali government troops and Islamic insurgents killed 53 people in Mogadishu.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 3/3/08) 2008 Mar 5, In Somalia a firefight between Islamic insurgents and Somali police at a checkpoint outside the capital has left five people dead.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.It is absolutely acceptable for any nationality to wear the traditional Somali clothes.^ The nomadic Somali wears a two-piece cloth garment that resembles a toga.
  • Somalia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main political factions comprising the FTP are the National Salvation Council (NSC); the Somali Restoration and Reconciliation Council (SRRC); and various civil society and traditional leaders.
  • Somalia – FREE Somalia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Somalia research 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Do not eat in public during the holy month of Ramadan -- you may be fined or even go to jail.^ In September police in Belet-Weyne reportedly arrested and detained an estimated 15 persons found eating during the daytime at a local restaurant during Ramadan.
  • Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (AP, 8/30/08) 2008 Sep 3, In Somalia mortar shells slammed into Mogadishu as insurgents vowed to intensify attacks during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.The Al-Shabab Islamist militia can be found in many inhabited areas.^ As many as six Somali-Americans are believed to have died after taking up arms with Al Shabab, the Al Qaeda-linked Islamist militants battling the transitional government in Somalia.

^ Top officials of Al-shabab had lectured to the Islamist fighters at Maslah camp in Mogadishu saying that the forces will fight with the transitional government troops and AMISOM. .

^ Al Shabab is an offshoot of Islamists who ruled Somalia for six months, from July to Dec.

.They absolutely do not take kindly to any kind of violation of Sharia law and as they are not affiliated with any kind of government and do not have to abide by any kind of laws per se, they will feel free to punish any abberant behavior any way they please.^ In areas controlled they are quickly imposing Sharia Law in the strictest sense.

.Alcohol is prohibited in Somalia and possessing alcohol will get you into a lot of trouble -- and never drink and drive.^ Somalia is essentially Iraq lite.But it is the conflict you never hear about.

^ Take care to never forget where you come from and always look into learning more about our culture.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And, you know, this is 20 kids, which is a lot of kids to go and funnel towards Somalia.

.If you're dining with a Somali, don't expose the bottoms of your feet to him/her.^ PS- YOU never served, your KIDS DON’T STFU, scum.
  • Think Progress » Bolton Calls Invading Somalia With A ‘Coalition Of The Willing’ ‘The Prudential Response’ To Piracy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thanks 6 Nur Fiqi Apr 23, 2007 @ 7:19 pm Thank you for your effort to put in writing this short cut of Somali history.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CHICKEN HAWK SCUM Co-horts with you- all of PNAC, and take your kids while you’re at it, so we can perfrom some NEO- CON SCUM, EUGENICS. .
  • Think Progress » Bolton Calls Invading Somalia With A ‘Coalition Of The Willing’ ‘The Prudential Response’ To Piracy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Don't eat with your left hand either, since the left hand is seen as the 'dirty hand'. Similarly, don't attempt to shake hands or hand a package with your left hand.
.If your Somali friend insists on buying you something - a meal or a gift - let him!^ I am not trajan you and the your pot head loser friend chiroptera both think.
  • Think Progress » Bolton Calls Invading Somalia With A ‘Coalition Of The Willing’ ‘The Prudential Response’ To Piracy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Your early arrival on Somali soil ahead of the enemy America gave you an excellent opportunity to gain knowledge of the battleground .
  • Combating Terrorism Center 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ctc.usma.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thanks 6 Nur Fiqi Apr 23, 2007 @ 7:19 pm Thank you for your effort to put in writing this short cut of Somali history.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Somalis are extremely hospitable, and typically there are no strings attached.^ There was no data on military expenditures for 2005 or on the exact number of armed Somalis.
  • Somalia – FREE Somalia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Somalia research 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As of 1996, the Somali shilling was still widely in use despite the lack of a government to back the currency, which was holding its value because there were no new notes.
  • Somalia – FREE Somalia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Somalia research 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no benefit in continued war between Somalis, nothing but mounting difficulties for the Somali people.
  • United States PSYOP in Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is generally a custom to argue for the bill.
Never discuss religion from an atheistic or similar point of view. .Even highly-educated Somalis who studied abroad won't appreciate it and doors will close for you.^ Education: 6 May 08 Gothenburg University plans to introduce a course of study in the Somali language next fall.
  • Somalia - The Local 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.thelocal.se [Source type: News]

^ Islamic militants, who closed down a Somali radio station, allowed it back on the air so long as it does not play music or love songs.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Somali natives who have been educated abroad are returning to help with these endeavors.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also be aware that the Islamic "call to prayer" happens five times daily and can be heard loudly almost anywhere you go.^ Did you suddenly go to Somalia and suddenly withdraw, as happened in Afghanistan, without accomplishing any clear objective or follow up the victory and benefit from it to accomplish additional victories?
  • Combating Terrorism Center 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ctc.usma.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You're going about your daily life, trying to scrape by in hard times, when the missile hits.
  • ZNet - Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: General]

^ You go thera to thear calling me Trajan.
  • Think Progress » Bolton Calls Invading Somalia With A ‘Coalition Of The Willing’ ‘The Prudential Response’ To Piracy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Just understand that most Somali people are used to it and enjoy it as part of the cultural experience.^ The Somali people share a common language, Somali, and most are Muslims of the Sunni sect.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just a message to other Somalis reading this: If you go to cities in your country that are most populous with Somalis, you will find Somali stores that sell books about Somali culture, poetry, and history that are very entertaining and informative.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A leaflet the U.S. forces are using to win over the Somali people bears an almost incomprehensible message, muddled by at least three misspelled words, one word that does not exist and poor syntax the first word is the most noticeable error.
  • United States PSYOP in Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.psywarrior.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

If you aren't Muslim, it is not expected for you to participate, but you should always sit quietly and respectfully until the prayers end.
.Staring is quite common in Somalia; children, men and women are likely to stare at you simply for being a foreigner, especially if you travel off-season and in out-of-the-way places.^ Foreign and Canadian authorities may also require evidence that the adult has the consent of the parents, legal guardian, and/or the court to travel with the children.
  • Somalia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ The immigrants’ culture was being preserved at the expense of their women and children and to the detriment of the immigrants’ integration into Holland.” .
  • NomadNet 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.netnomad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She describes, quite persuasively, the attractions of fundamentalism and the growing appeal of groups like the Muslim Brotherhood in disintegrating societies like Somalia’s.
  • NomadNet 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.netnomad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is not meant as an insult; it rather shows an interest, and a friendly smile will leave the kids giggling and showing off, and the adults happily trying out their few English phrases.^ Even trying to channel Cheney, I can’t figure out anyway that the resources of Somalia would pay off the cost of the invasion.
  • Think Progress » Bolton Calls Invading Somalia With A ‘Coalition Of The Willing’ ‘The Prudential Response’ To Piracy 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Men

.Men wear western pants or a flowing plaid ma'awis (kilt} western shirts, and shawls.On their heads they may wrap a colorful turban or wear a koofiyad (embroidered cap).^ Impressive by their girth and the sumptuous cloth they wear, their spectacular success has been built on the sale of colorful textiles, most of which they import from the Netherlands.
  • The Somali Crisis: Time for an African Solution 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The men usually wear either Western dress or the colorful sarong-type garment called a ma'awis .
  • Somalia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Due to its Islamic heritage, many Somalis wear long dresses known in the Arab and Islamic worlds as khameez/thobe.^ Islamic law ( Shari'a ) and Somali customary law ( heer ) were retained in many civil and interclan matters.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many Somali people are against how al Shabaab interpreted the Islamic Sharia.

^ Many Somalis speak Arabic due to close ties with the Arab World , the far-reaching influence of the Arabic media, and religious education.
  • Top20Somalia.com - Your Top20 Guide to Somalia! 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.top20somalia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Recent years, many men in Somalia choose to wear suits and ties to look more modern.^ In fact, the ICU brought a high level of peace and stability to Somalia that hadn't been seen for more than sixteen years.
  • NomadNet 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.netnomad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For more than 10 years, he had thousands of militiamen under his control, keeping an iron grip on the southern part of Somalia's seaside capital.
  • Somalia Update II | The Agonist 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC agonist.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Somalia is one of the world's poorest countries, and many gains made during the years after independence were lost in the destruction brought about by civil war in the 1990s.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This western dress code is dominant amongst members of the Somali upper class and the government.^ (SFC, 8/2/00, p.A12) 2000 Aug 13, Over 2,000 Somali leaders gathered in Djibouti to form a central government with a new 225-member parliament.
  • Timeline Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Under the central government formed at independence, Somalia developed a Western-style judicial system, with a penal code, a code of criminal court procedures, and a four-tiered court system.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New Somali President Abdullahi YUSUF Ahmed has formed a new Transitional Federal Government (TFG) consisting of a 275-member parliament.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Homosexuality is punishable by death. It is common for Somali men to walk hand in hand as a sign of friendship, but it would be unwise for Western men to attempt the same.^ Militant group hails attempted attack on Danish cartoonist Some background on Somali Al- Shabaab vs cartoonist Somali cartoonist draws death threats .

^ Minneapolis — Police were looking for at least two suspects on Thursday after three Somali men were shot to death the previous night at a corner grocery in south Minneapolis.

^ That same year, Siad Barre extended formal recognition to the Western Somali Liberation Front in the Ogaden.
  • Somalia – FREE Somalia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Somalia research 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sharing a hotel room as a way of cutting costs is normal, but don't even think about asking for one bed for two.^ The collective Somali experience of the central state has not been a positive one and tends to produce "zero-sum" thinking about a revived state.
  • Combating Terrorism Center 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ctc.usma.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "How is it," one entry chides, "that military force is employed by order of civilians and the military commander doesn't even know about it?"
  • Combating Terrorism Center 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.ctc.usma.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Women

.Women usually wear one of the following dress: Direh, a long, billowing dress worn over petticoats; coantino, a four-yard cloth tied over shoulder and draped around the waist.^ Women wear dresses of lightweight fabrics, either sleeveless or with short sleeves, for business or other daytime activities.
  • Somalia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They began to implement some elements of Islamic Shari’a, such as the wearing of decent Islamic dress for women.

^ The women, who have considerably more freedom than those in many other Muslim countries, wear long, colorful dresses; sometimes young teenagers in town wear slacks.
  • Somalia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They also wear an abaya, a long and loose black robe.

Internet

.Wireless service and Internet cafés are available.^ Wireless service and Internet cafés are available.
  • SSA | Somalia: Culture,People,Language etc.. 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contact

.The public telecommunications system was almost completely destroyed or dismantled by the civil war factions.^ Telecommunication systems were largely destroyed during the civil war.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: Communications in Somalia Somalia's public telecommunications system has been almost completely destroyed or dismantled.
  • SSA | Somalia: Culture,People,Language etc.. 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mogadishu was largely destroyed in the fighting between clans during the civil war of the 1990s.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Local cellular telephone systems have been established in Mogadishu and in several other population centers.^ Mogadishu has an automatic, but capricious, telephone system.
  • Somalia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Highly centralized and intervention ist socialist systems were established by Nkrumah and other African leaders to spur development.
  • The Somali Crisis: Time for an African Solution 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mogadishu and in several other population centers international: country code - 252; international connections are available from Mogadishu by satellite .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.International connections are available from Mogadishu by satellite.^ Mogadishu and in several other population centers international: country code - 252; international connections are available from Mogadishu by satellite .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mogadishu and in several other population centers international: country code - 252; international connections are available from Mogadishu by satellite (2001) .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Somalia 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

International outgoing connections also work from the cellular infrastructure. .There is dialup internet access in Mogadishu, although visiting one of the internet cafes.^ There were reportedly eight FM radio stations and one short-wave station operating in Mogadishu.
  • Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two television broadcast stations in Mogadishu and one in Hargeisa.
  • Somalia (10/09) 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were no government restrictions on access to the Internet, but opposition elements in Mogadishu reportedly closely monitored Internet use and were believed to be the authors of anonymous e-mail threats to local journalists.
  • Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Somalia has the cheapest cellular calling rates on the continent, with some companies charging less than a cent per minute.^ Somalia has the cheapest cellular calling rates on the continent, with some companies charging less than a cent per minute.
  • SSA | Somalia: Culture,People,Language etc.. 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Telecommunication firms provide wireless services in most major cities and offer the lowest international call rates on the continent.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of the worst fighting to hit Somalia's capital city in recent months uprooted nearly 34,000 people in less than a week, according to a United Nations report released Monday.
  • Somalia: News & Videos about Somalia - CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

.Competing phone companies have agreed on interconnection standards, which were brokered by the United Nations funded Somali Telecom Association.^ Competing phone companies have agreed on interconnection standards, which were brokered by the United Nations funded Somali Telecom Association .
  • SSA | Somalia: Culture,People,Language etc.. 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A group of Somali refugees in Randfontein are facing homelessness and growing uncertainty, while government and the United Nations pass the buck on ...
  • Wardheernews (WDN); Somalia News; Horn of Africa News; Djibouti; Heeso; Qaraami; Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.wardheernews.com [Source type: News]

^ Unfortunately, the United Nations has become ever more deeply involved in trying to resolve the country's internal disputes, and its response has been even more violent than the actions of the Somali.
  • The Somali Crisis: Time for an African Solution 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: Original source]

.There are no embassies in Mogadishu nor Hargeisa; therefore, in most cases, there will be no governmental representative who will be able to assist if trouble arises.^ Therefore, there are no pork dishes, alcohol is not served, nothing that died on its own is eaten, and no blood is incorporated.
  • SSA | Somalia: Culture,People,Language etc.. 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There has been no Archbishop of the Catholic cathedral in the country since 1989; the cathedral in Mogadishu was severely damaged in the civil war of January-February 1992.
  • SSA | Somalia: Culture,People,Language etc.. 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were no developments in the 2006 or 2005 cases in which journalists were harassed or arrested.
  • Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The closest consular services for most countries are in neighboring Djibouti, Ethiopia or Nairobi, Kenya.^ Multiethnic countries such as Ethiopia , Eritrea , Kenya , South Africa and Nigeria may be immediately affected.

^ At the same time, most Somalis wanted to unite the regions outside of Somalia that were populated with many Somalis—the Ogaden, the NFD in Kenya, and Djibouti.
  • Culture of Somalia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 20 November 2009 23:023 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Digil and Rahanwein are usually found only between the Juba and Shebelli Rivers; those of the other major groups live throughout the country, and in Ethiopia, Djibouti, and Kenya.
  • Somalia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Somalia 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also Somália

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Somalia
Plural
-
Somalia
.
  1. Country in Eastern Africa.^ Somalia is located on the eastern coast of Africa and borders the countries Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya.
    • The Somalia Affair | CBC Archives 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC archives.cbc.ca [Source type: News]

    ^ Polio outbreaks were reported in several previously polio-free countries in Central, Eastern, and Western Africa beginning in 2003.
    • Health Information for Somalia | CDC Travelers' Health 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC wwwnc.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Somalia (s -m l - , -ml y ) KEY A country of extreme eastern Africa on the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean.
    • Somalia - Dictionary definition and pronunciation - Yahoo! Education 28 January 2010 0:52 UTC education.yahoo.com [Source type: Reference]

    Official name: Somali Republic.

Translations

See also


Finnish

Wikipedia-logo.png
Finnish Wikipedia has an article on:
Somalia
Wikipedia fi

Proper noun

Somalia
  1. Somalia

Declension


German

Wikipedia-logo.png
German Wikipedia has an article on:
Somalia
Wikipedia de

Proper noun

Somalia n.
  1. Somalia

Derived terms

  • Somalia-Schilling
  • Somalier
  • Somalierin
  • somalisch

Italian

Wikipedia-logo.png
Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Somalia
Wikipedia it

Proper noun

Somalia f.
  1. Somalia

Derived terms

Anagrams


Norwegian

Proper noun

Somalia
  1. Somalia

Related terms


Polish

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /sɔˈmalja/

Proper noun

Somalia f.
  1. Somalia

Declension

Singular only
Nominative Somalia
Genitive Somalii
Dative Somalii
Accusative Somalię
Instrumental Somalią
Locative Somalii
Vocative Somalio

Derived terms

  • Somalijczyk m., Somalijka f.
  • adjective: somalijski

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 02, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Somalia, which are similar to those in the above article.








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