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Songs in the Key of Life
Studio album by Stevie Wonder
Released September 28, 1976
Recorded 1975-1976
Crystal Sound Studios
(Hollywood, California)
The Hit Factory
(New York, New York)
Genre Soul, funk, pop
Length 85:21 (LPs)
18:02 (A Something's Extra EP)
103:23 (full album)
Label Tamla
Producer Stevie Wonder
Professional reviews
Stevie Wonder chronology
Fulfillingness' First Finale
(1974)
Songs in the Key of Life
(1976)
Looking Back - Anthology
(1977)
Singles from Songs in the key of life
  1. "I Wish"
    Released: December, 1976
  2. "Sir Duke"
    Released: March, 1977
  3. "Another Star"
    Released: August, 1977
  4. "As"
    Released: October, 1977

Songs in the Key of Life is an album by American musician Stevie Wonder, released on Motown on September 28, 1976 (see 1976 in music). It was the last of five consecutive albums widely hailed as his "classic period" along with Music of My Mind, Talking Book, Innervisions and Fulfillingness' First Finale. An ambitious double LP with a 4-song bonus EP,[11] Songs in the Key of Life became among the best-selling and most critically acclaimed albums of his career. In 2003, the album was ranked number 56 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of the 500 greatest albums of all time.

Contents

Conception

Background

By 1976 Stevie Wonder had become one of the most popular figures in R&B and pop music, not only in the United States but worldwide. Within a short space of time, the albums Talking Book, Innervisions and Fulfillingness' First Finale were all back-to-back top five successes, with the latter two winning Grammy Award for Album of the Year, in 1974 and 1975 respectively. By the end of 1975, Stevie Wonder became serious about quitting the music industry and to emigrate to Ghana working with handicapped children. Wonder had expressed his anger with the way that the United States Government was running the country. [12][13] A farewell concert was being considered as the best way to bring down the curtain on his career. Wonder changed his decision, when he signed a new contract with Motown on August 5, 1975, thinking he was better off making the most of his career. At the time, rivals such as Arista and Epic were also interested in him. The contract was laid out as a seven-year, seven LP, $37 million deal and gave him full artistic control, making this the largest deal ever made with a recording star up to that point.[12] Almost at the beginning Stevie took a year off from the music market, with a project for a double album to be released in 1976.[14] There was huge anticipation for the new album which was initially scheduled for release around October 1975. It was delayed on short notice when Wonder felt that further remixing was essential. According to Stevie Wonder, the marketing campaign at Motown decided to take advantage of the delay by producing "We're almost finished" t-shirts.[15]

Work on the new album continued into early 1976. A name was finally chosen for the album - Songs in the Key of Life. The title would represent the formula of a complex "key of life" and the proposals for indefinite success.[16] The album was finally released on September 28, 1976 after a two year wait as a double LP album with a four track seven-inch EP entitled "A Something's Extra" ('Saturn', 'Ebony Eyes', 'All Day Sucker' and 'Easy Goin' Evening (My Mama's Call)') and a 24-page lyric and credit booklet.[15][17]

Recording

The working title was Let's see life the way it is.[18] Recording sessions for the album were spilt between the Crystal Industries in Hollywood; The Record Plant, Los Angeles and Sausalito in California; and The Hit Factory in New York City.[19] Sessions on the latter were particularly memorable, as Songs in the Key of Life was the first album to be actually recorded at The Hit Factory, with Stevie Wonder becoming the first main client of Edward Germano, the studio's owner. Wonder initially booked a three-day session with Germano and ended up working there for nine months.[20] As a perfectionist, Wonder spent long hours in the studio for almost every track he recorded. He was "not eating or sleeping, while everyone around him struggled to keep up".[14] According to himself, "If my flow is goin', I keep on until I peak".

A total of 130 people worked on the album, but Wonder's preeminence during the album was evident. Among the people present during the sessions, there were legendary figures of R&B, soul and jazz music – Herbie Hancock played piano on "As", George Benson played guitar on "Another Star", and Minnie Riperton and Deniece Williams added backing vocals on "Ordinary Pain". Mike Sembello was a prominent personality throughout the album, playing guitar in several tracks and also co-writing "Saturn" with Wonder. Some of the most socially-conscious songs of the album were actually written by Wonder with other people – these included "Village Ghetto Land" and "Black Man" (co-written with Gary Byrd) and "Have a Talk With God" (co-written with Calvin Hardaway).

Reception

Commercial performance

Highly anticipated, the album surpassed all commercial expectations. Surprisingly, it debuted straight at number one on the Billboard Album Chart on October 8, 1976, becoming the third album in history to achieve that feat and the first by an American artist (following the albums Captain Fantastic and Rock of the Westies, both by British singer/composer Elton John in 1975). After debuting at number one, Songs in the Key of Life spent thirteen consecutive weeks at number one, eleven during 1976. It was the album with the most weeks at number one during the year. In those eleven weeks, Songs in the Key of Life managed to block four other albums from reaching the top – in order, Boz Scaggs's Silk Degrees, Earth, Wind & Fire's Spirit, the Led Zeppelin's soundtrack for The Song Remains the Same and Rod Stewart's A Night on the Town.[21] On January 15, 1977, the album finally dropped to number two behind Eagles Hotel California and the following week, it fell to number four but on January 29 it managed to spend a fourteenth and final week at the top. The album then began its final fall. It spent a total of thirty-five weeks inside the Top Ten and eighty weeks on the Billboard albums chart.

In all, Songs in the Key of Life became the second best-selling album of 1977 in the U.S., only behind Fleetwood Mac's blockbuster Rumours, and it was certified as a Diamond album by the RIAA, for sales of ten million copies in the U.S. alone.[22]

Songs in the Key of Life was also the most successful Stevie Wonder project in terms of singles. The lead-off, the upbeat "I Wish" was released in November 1976, over a month after the album was released. On January 15, 1977 it reached number one on the Billboard R&B chart, where it spent five weeks at the top. Seven days after, it also reached the summit of the Billboard Hot 100, although it spent only one week at number one. The track became an international Top 10 single, and also reached number five in the UK. "I Wish" became one of Stevie Wonder's standards and remained one of his most sampled songs. In 1999, Will Smith used "I Wish" as the base for his U.S. number one single "Wild Wild West". The song repeated the main melody of "I Wish" as a riff and some lyrics re-formed. The follow-up, the jazzy "Sir Duke" surpassed the commercial success of "I Wish". It was released on March 1977 and also reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 (spending three weeks at the top starting on May 21) and the R&B Charts (for one week starting on May 28). It also reached number two in the UK, where it was kept off the top spot by the song "Free" by Deniece Williams' who had provided backing vocals on the album.

As sales for the album began to decline during the second half of 1977, the two other singles from Songs in the Key of Life failed to achieve the commercial success of "I Wish" and "Sir Duke". "Another Star" was released in August and reached only #32 on the Hot 100 (#18 on the R&B charts, and #29 in the UK) and "As" came out two months later, peaking at #36 on both the Pop and R&B Charts. Though not released as a single (because, even when Motown requested Wonder to release it, Stevie refused to), "Isn't She Lovely" received wide airplay and became one of Wonder's more popular songs. It was soon released by David Parton as a single in 1977 and became a Top 10 hit in the UK.

Critical response

At the time of release, reporters and music critics, and everyone who had worked on the album, traveled to a farm in Connecticut for a press preview of the album. Stevie received everybody, autographed copies of the album and gave interviews. Critical reception was positive. The album was viewed as a guided tour through a wide range of musical styles as well as the life and feelings of the artist. It included recollections of childhood, of first love and lost love. It contained songs about faith and love among all peoples and songs about social justice for the poor and downtrodden.[23]

On February 19, 1977, Wonder was nominated for seven Grammy Awards, including Album of the Year, an award that he had already won twice, in 1974 and 1975, for Innervisions and Fulfilligness' First Finale.[17] Since 1973, Stevie's presence at the Grammy ceremonies had been consistent – he attended most of the ceremonies and also used to perform on stage. But in 1976, he did not attend as he wasn't nominated for any awards (as he hadn't released any new material during the past year). Paul Simon, who received the Grammy for Album of the Year in that occasion (for Still Crazy After All These Years) jokingly thanked Stevie "for not releasing an album" that year. A year after, Wonder was nominated for Songs in the Key of Life in that same category, and was widely favored by many critics to take the award. The other nominees were Breezin' by George Benson, Chicago X by Chicago, Silk Degrees by Boz Scaggs, and the other favourite, Peter Frampton's Frampton Comes Alive!, which was also a huge critical and commercial success. Again, Wonder was absent at the ceremony as he of late had had an interest in visiting Africa and on February had traveled to Nigeria for two weeks, primarily to explore his musical heritage, as he put it. A satellite hook-up was arranged so that Stevie could be awarded his Grammys from across the sea. Bette Midler announced the winning during the ceremony, and the audience was only able to see Stevie at a phone smiling and giving thanks[24]. The video signal was poor and the audio inaudible. Andy Williams went on to make a public blunder when he asked, "Stevie, can you see us?"[23] In all, Wonder won four out of seven nominations at the Grammys: Album of the Year, Grammy Award for Best Male Pop Vocal Performance, Best Male Rhythm and Blues Performer, and Producer of the Year.

Influence

With time, the album became a standard, and it is considered Stevie Wonder's signature album. Songs in the Key of Life is often cited as one of the greatest albums in popular music history.[25] It was voted as the best album of the year in The Village Voice's annual Pazz & Jop critics poll; in 2001 the TV network VH1 named it the seventh greatest album of all time; in 2003, the album was ranked number 56 on Rolling Stone Magazine's list of the 500 greatest albums of all time.

Many musicians have also remarked on the quality of the album and its influence on their own work. For example, Elton John said, in his notes for Stevie Wonder on the 2003 Rolling Stone's list of "The Immortals - The Greatest Artists of All Time" (in which Wonder was ranked number 15): "Let me put it this way: wherever I go in the world, I always take a copy of Songs in the Key of Life. For me, it's the best album ever made, and I'm always left in awe after I listen to it." [26] In an interview with Ebony magazine, Michael Jackson stated Songs in the Key of Life is his favorite Stevie Wonder album. George Michael cited the album as his favourite of all time[27] and with Mary J. Blige covered the track As for a 1999 hit single. R&B singers in particular have praised the album – Mariah Carey generally names the album as one of her favourites, and Whitney Houston also remarked on the influence of Songs in the Key of Life on her singing. (During the photoshoot for her Whitney: The Greatest Hits, as its seen on its respective home video, the album was played throughout the photo sessions at Houston's request.) The album's tracks have provided numerous samples for rap and hip-hop artists; for example, "Pastime Paradise," which itself drew on the first eight notes and four chords of J.S. Bach's Prelude No. 2 in C minor (BWV 847), was reworked by Coolio as "Gangsta's Paradise." In 1995, smooth jazz artist Najee recorded a cover album titled Najee Plays Songs from the Key of Life, which is based entirely on Wonder's album.

Also, the concept in the title of the album has been used by numerous artists for their own albums, as in the following examples:

In September 2008, the album was voted the "Top Album of All Time" by the Yahoo! Music Playlist Blog, using a formula that combined 4 parameters - "Album Staying Power Value + Sales Value + Critical Rating Value + Grammy Award Value".[28]

Track listing

Side one

  1. "Love's in Need of Love Today" (Wonder) – 7:06
  2. "Have a Talk with God" (Calvin Hardaway, Wonder) – 2:42
    • All Instruments Stevie Wonder
  3. "Village Ghetto Land" (Gary Byrd, Wonder) – 3:25
    • All Instruments Stevie Wonder
  4. "Contusion" (Wonder) – 3:46
    • Mike Sembello—Lead Guitar
    • Raymond Pounds—Drums
    • Nathan Watts—Bass
    • Ben Bridges—Rhythm Guitar
    • Gregory Phillinganes—Keyboard
    • All Other Instruments Stevie Wonder
    • Michael Gray, Josie James, Shirley Brewer, Artece May—Vocals
  5. "Sir Duke" (Wonder) – 3:52
    • Raymond Pounds—Drums
    • Nathan Watts—Bass
    • Mike Sembello—Lead Guitar
    • Ben Bridges—Rhythm Guitar
    • Hank Redd—Alto Saxophone
    • Raymond Maldonado—Trumpet
    • Trevor Laurence—Tenor Saxophone
    • Steve Madaio—Trumpet
    • All Other Instruments Stevie Wonder

Side two

  1. "I Wish" (Wonder) – 4:12
    • Nathan Watts—Bass
    • Hank Redd—Alto Saxophone
    • Raymond Maldonado—Trumpet
    • Trevor Laurence—Tenor Saxophone
    • Steve Madaio—Trumpet
    • All Other Instruments Stevie Wonder
  2. "Knocks Me Off My Feet" (Wonder) – 3:36
    • All Instruments Stevie Wonder
  3. "Pastime Paradise" (Wonder) – 3:27
    • Raymond Maldonado, Bobbye Hall—Percussion
    • All Other Instruments Stevie Wonder
    • Hare Krishna, West Angeles Church Choir—Background Vocals
  4. "Summer Soft" (Wonder) – 4:14
    • Ben Bridges—Rhythm Guitar
    • Ronnie Foster—Organ
    • Larry “Nastyee” Latimer—Percussion
    • All Other Instruments Stevie Wonder
  5. "Ordinary Pain" (Wonder) – 6:16
    • Mike Sembello—Lead Guitar
    • Hank Redd—Alto Saxophone
    • All Other Instruments Stevie Wonder
    • Minnie Riperton, Mary Lee Whitney, Deniece Williams, Syreeta Wright—Background Vocals
    • Shirley Brewer—Reply
    • Linda Lawrence, Terri Hendricks, Sundray Tucker, Charity McCrary, Madelaine Jones—Reply's Background Vocals

Side three

  1. "Isn't She Lovely?" (Wonder) – 6:34
    • Gregory Phillinganes—Keyboard
    • All Other Instruments Stevie Wonder
  2. "Joy Inside My Tears" (Wonder) – 6:30
    • Gregory Phillinganes—Keyboard
    • Susaye Green—Background vocals
    • All Other Instruments Stevie Wonder
  3. "Black Man" (Byrd/Wonder) – 8:27
    • Hank Redd—Alto Saxophone, Tenor Saxophone
    • Steve Madaio—Trumpet
    • George Bohanon—Trombone
    • Glen Ferris—Trombone

Side four

  1. "Ngiculela - Es Una Historia - I Am Singing" (Wonder) – 3:48
    • Charles Brewer, Shirley Brewer, Renee Hardaway, Nelson Hayes, Marietta Waters, Nathan Watts, John Fischbach, Amale Mathews, Josette Valentino—Background percussion
    • All Other Instruments Stevie Wonder
  2. "If It's Magic" (Wonder) – 3:12
  3. "As" (Wonder) – 7:08
    • Nathan Watts—Bass, Handclaps
    • Dean Parks—Guitar
    • Herbie Hancock—Keyboards, Handclaps
    • Greg Brown—Drums
    • All Other Instruments Stevie Wonder
    • Mary Lee Whitney—Background Vocals
    • Dave Hanson, Yolanda Simon, Josette Valentino—Handclaps
  4. "Another Star" (Wonder) – 8:08
    • Bobbi Humphrey—Flute
    • George Benson—Guitar & Background Vocals
    • Hank Redd—Alto Saxophone
    • Raymond Maldonado—Trumpet
    • Trevor Laurence—Tenor Saxophone
    • Steve Madaio—Trumpet
    • Nathan Alford, Jr.—Percussion
    • Carmello Hungria Garcia—Timbales
    • All Other Instruments Stevie Wonder
    • Josie James—Background Vocals

A Something's Extra

The "A Something's Extra" 7" EP was included with the special-edition version of the original LP. These tracks are also on most CD versions of the album, either split between both discs or appended to the end of the second disc.

Side one
  1. "Saturn" (Michael Sembello, Wonder) – 4:54
    • Mike Sembello—Lead Guitar
    • Ben Bridges—Rhythm Guitar
    • Gregory Phillinganes—Keyboard
    • All Other Instruments Stevie Wonder
  2. "Ebony Eyes" (Wonder) – 4:11
Side two
  1. "All Day Sucker" (Wonder) – 5:06
    • Ben Bridges—Rhythm Guitar
    • Mike Sembello—Rhythm Guitar
    • W. G. "Snuffy" Walden—Lead Guitar
    • All Other Instruments Stevie Wonder
    • Carolyn Denis—Background Vocals
  2. "Easy Goin' Evening (My Mama's Call)" (Wonder) – 3:55
    • Nathan Watts—Bass
    • All Other Instruments Stevie Wonder

Chart history

Album
Year Chart Position
1976 Billboard 200 1
1976 UK 2
1976 Norway 6 [29]
1976 Sweden 9
1976 Austria 15
1976 Netherlands 9
Singles
Year Title Chart Position
1976 Another Star Club Play Singles 2
1977 Sir Duke Adult Contemporary 3
1977 I Wish Adult Contemporary 23
1977 Isn't She Lovely Adult Contemporary 23
1977 Another Star Pop Singles 32
1977 I Wish Pop Singles 1
1977 Sir Duke Pop Singles 1
1977 Another Star Black Singles 18
1977 Another Star Adult Contemporary 29
1977 As Black Singles 36
1977 I Wish Black Singles 1
1977 Sir Duke Black Singles 1
1977 As Adult Contemporary 24
1978 As Pop Singles 36
Chart procession and succession
Preceded by
Frampton Comes Alive! by Peter Frampton
Wings over America by Wings
Billboard 200 number-one album
October 16, 1976 – January 14, 1977
January 29, 1977 – February 4, 1977
Succeeded by
Hotel California by Eagles
Hotel California by Eagles

Personnel

  • Stevie Wonder - Harmonica, Arranger, Keyboards, Programming, Vocals, Drums
  • Michael Sembello - Guitar
  • Sneaky Pete Kleinow - Pedal Steel
  • George Benson - Guitar, Vocals
  • Ronnie Foster - Organ
  • Herbie Hancock - Keyboards, Handclapping
  • Dean Parks - Guitar
  • Greg Phillinganes - Keyboards
  • W.G. "Snuffy" Walden - Guitar
  • Nathan Watts - Bass, Vocals, Handclapping
  • Greg Brown - Drums
  • Raymond Lee Pounds - Drums
  • Hank Redd - Sax (Alto), Sax (Tenor)
  • George Bohannon - Trombone
  • Ben Bridges - Guitar, Sitar
  • Dorothy Ashby - Harp
  • Bobbi Humphrey - Flute
  • Howard "Buzzy" Feiten - Guitar
  • Steve Madaio - Trumpet
  • Trevor Lawrence - Sax (Tenor)
  • Glen Ferris - Trombone
  • Jim Horn - Saxophone
  • Deniece Williams - Vocals
  • Minnie Riperton - Vocals
  • Gary Byrd - Vocals
  • Michael Wycoff - Vocals
  • Larry Scott - Sound Effects
  • Carol Cole - Percussion
  • Bobbye Hall - Percussion
  • Jay Boy Adams - Vocals
  • Nathan Alford, Jr. - Percussion
  • Henry America - Vocals
  • Linda America - Vocals
  • Baradras - Vocals
  • Brenda Barnett - Vocals
  • Khalif Bobatoon - Vocals
  • Starshemah Bobatoon - Vocals
  • Sudana Bobatoon - Vocals
  • Charles Brewer - Percussion, Programming, Vocals
  • Shirley Brewer - Percussion, Vocals, Speaking Part
  • Berry Briges - Vocals
  • Cecilia Brown - Vocals
  • Eddie "Bongo" Brown - Percussion
  • Jean Brown - Vocals
  • Rodney Brown - Vocals
  • Colleen Carleton - Percussion, Vocals
  • Addie Cox - Vocals
  • Agnideva Dasa - Vocals
  • Duryodhana Guru Dasa - Vocals
  • Jayasacinandana Dasa - Vocals
  • Jitamrtyi Dasa - Vocals
  • Vedavyasa Dasa - Vocals
  • Cinmayi Dasi - Vocals
  • Yogamaya Dasi - Vocals
  • Carolyn Dennis - Vocals
  • Bhakta Eddie - Vocals
  • Doe Rani Edwards - Vocals
  • Jacqueline F. English - Vocals
  • Ethel Enoex - Vocals
  • Al Jocko Fann - Vocals
  • Barbara Fann - Vocals
  • Melani Fann - Vocals
  • Shelley Fann - Vocals
  • Tracy Fann - Vocals
  • John Fischbach - Percussion, Programming, Vocals, Engineer
  • Susie Fuzzell - Vocals
  • Carmelo Garcia - Percussion, Timbales
  • Anthony Givens - Vocals
  • Audrey Givens - Vocals
  • Derrick Givens - Vocals
  • Mildred Givens - Vocals
  • Michael Lee Gray - Vocals
  • Mimi Green - Vocals
  • Susaye Greene Brown - Vocals
  • Bhakta Gregory - Vocals
  • Renee Hardaway - Percussion, Vocals
  • John Harris - Sound Effects
  • Jeania Harris - Vocals
  • John Harris - Programming
  • Troy Harris - Vocals
  • Nelson Hayes - Percussion, Sound Effects, Vocals
  • Terry Hendricks - Vocals
  • H. David Henson - Assistant Engineer
  • Don Hunter - Programming, Sound Effects
  • Adrian Janes - Vocals
  • Josie James - Vocals
  • Calvin Johnson - Vocals
  • Carol Johnson - Vocals
  • Patricia Johnson - Vocals
  • Madelaine Jones - Vocals
  • Bhakta Kevin - Vocals
  • Phillip Kimble - Vocals
  • James Lambert - Vocals
  • Linda Lawrence - Vocals,
  • Irma Leslie - Vocals
  • Kim Lewis - Vocals
  • Carl Lockhart - Vocals
  • Gail Lockhart - Vocals
  • Raymond Maldonado - Percussion, Trumpet
  • Carolyn Massenburg - Vocals
  • Artice May - Vocals
  • Charity McCrary - Vocals
  • Linda McCrary-Campbell - Vocals
  • Lonnie Morgan - Vocals
  • Kim Nixon - Vocals
  • Lisa Nixon - Vocals
  • Larri Nuckens - Vocals
  • Larry Latimer - Percussion, Vocals
  • Amale Mathews - Percussion, Vocals
  • Gary Olazabal - Engineer , Bass Sound
  • Edna Orso - Percussion, Vocals
  • Marietta Waters - Percussion, Vocals
  • Josette Valentino - Percussion, Vocals, Handclapping
  • Gwen Perry - Vocals
  • Gregory Rudd - Vocals
  • Rukmini - Vocals
  • Yolanda Simmons - Vocals, Handclapping
  • Keith Slaughter - Vocals
  • Rosona Starks - Vocals
  • Dennis Swindell - Vocals
  • Sundray Tucker - Vocals
  • Gary Veney - Vocals
  • Sheryl Walker - Vocals
  • Mary Lee Whitney - Vocals
  • Syreeta Wright - Vocals
  • Michael Gray - Vocals
  • Susaye Greene - Vocals
  • William Moore - Vocals
  • Fountain Jones - Programming
  • Aisha Wonder - Crying (on "Isn't She Lovely")

Notes

  1. ^ Bush, John. Review: Songs in the Key of Life. Allmusic. Retrieved on 2009-08-01.
  2. ^ Columnist. "Review: Songs in the Key of Life". Billboard: 85. October 9, 1976.
  3. ^ Christgau, Robert. Consumer Guide: Songs in the Key of Life. The Village Voice. Retrieved on 2009-08-01.
  4. ^ Kreicbergs, John. Review: Songs in the Key of Life. PopMatters. Retrieved on 2009-08-01.
  5. ^ Aletti, Vince. Review: Songs in the Key of Life. Rolling Stone. Retrieved on 2009-08-01.
  6. ^ Hoard, Christian. "Review: Songs in the Key of Life". Rolling Stone: 885–886. November 2, 2004.
  7. ^ Arp, Louis. Review: Songs in the Key of Life. Sputnikmusic. Retrieved on 2009-08-01.
  8. ^ Christgau, Robert. Review: Songs in the Key of Life. The Village Voice. Retrieved on 2009-08-01.
  9. ^ Larkin, Colin. "Review: Songs in the Key of Life". Virgin Encyclopedia of Popular Music: March 1, 2002.
  10. ^ Quaintance, John. Review: Songs in the Key of Life. Yahoo! Music. Retrieved on 2009-08-01.
  11. ^ Lundy, Zeth. Playing God: Songs in the Key of Life. Stylus Magazine. Retrieved on 2009-08-01.
  12. ^ a b Lundy, Zeth 33 1/3 Songs in the key of life, pp. 14/15.
  13. ^ Lundy, Zeth 33 1/3 Songs in the key of life, p.119.
  14. ^ a b "Songs in the Key of Life". Rolling Stone Magazine. http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/6597896/56_songs_in_the_key_of_life. 
  15. ^ a b Davis, Sharon Stevie Wonder: Rhythms of Wonder p.112.
  16. ^ Lundy, Zeth 33 1/3 Songs in the key of life, pp. 8/9.
  17. ^ a b Lundy, Zeth 33 1/3 Songs in the key of life, p.16.
  18. ^ Lundy, Zeth 33 1/3 Songs in the key of life , p.8.
  19. ^ Collins, Roger. "Stevie". Iomusic News. http://iomusic.com/. Retrieved 2008-12-29. 
  20. ^ http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/music/news/manhattans-hit-factory-ends-production-after-three-decades-of-legendary-music-making-531551.html/
  21. ^ http://freespace.virgin.net/sharon.persky/US%20number%20two%20albums.html
  22. ^ "Welcome Back, Wonder". RIAA. http://www.riaa.com/newsitem.php?news_year_filter=&resultpage=22&id=6C64F37A-5B25-BCC9-D60B-BB98B6363C4B. Retrieved 2007-11-11. 
  23. ^ a b http://www.steviewonder.org.uk/Biography/13_what_key_what_key.htm
  24. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9cpyVAXzqfY&feature=PlayList&p=A97FA6D6D6656FCF&playnext=1&playnext_from=PL&index=32
  25. ^ "Acclaimed Music - Songs in the Key of Life". Acclaimed Music. http://www.acclaimedmusic.net/Current/A363.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-11. 
  26. ^ http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/5939219/the_immortals__the_greatest_artists_of_all_time_15_stevie_wonder
  27. ^ BBC music reviews
  28. ^ http://new.music.yahoo.com/blogs/yradish/15499
  29. ^ http://norwegiancharts.com/showitem.asp?interpret=Stevie+Wonder&titel=Songs+In+The+Key+Of+Life&cat=a

References

External links








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