Sound: Wikis

  
  
  
  

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This page is about audible acoustic waves. For other uses see Sound (disambiguation)
Sound is created when the membrane of this drum vibrates
Sound is a travelling wave which is an oscillation of pressure transmitted through a solid, liquid, or gas, composed of frequencies within the range of hearing and of a level sufficiently strong to be heard, or the sensation stimulated in organs of hearing by such vibrations.[1]

Contents

Perception of sound

Human ear
For humans, hearing is normally limited to frequencies between about 12 Hz and 20,000 Hz (20 kHz)[2], although these limits are not definite. The upper limit generally decreases with age. Other species have a different range of hearing. For example, dogs can perceive vibrations higher than 20 kHz. As a signal perceived by one of the major senses, sound is used by many species for detecting danger, navigation, predation, and communication. Earth's atmosphere, water, and virtually any physical phenomenon, such as fire, rain, wind, surf, or earthquake, produces (and is characterized by) its unique sounds. Many species, such as frogs, birds, marine and terrestrial mammals, have also developed special organs to produce sound. In some species, these have evolved to produce song and speech. Furthermore, humans have developed culture and technology (such as music, telephone and radio) that allows them to generate, record, transmit, and broadcast sound.

Physics of sound

The mechanical vibrations that can be interpreted as sound are able to travel through all forms of matter: gases, liquids, solids, and plasmas. The matter that supports the sound is called the medium. Sound cannot travel through vacuum.

Longitudinal and transverse waves

Sinusoidal waves of various frequencies; the bottom waves have higher frequencies than those above. The horizontal axis represents time.
Sound is transmitted through gases, plasma, and liquids as longitudinal waves, also called compression waves. Through solids, however, it can be transmitted as both longitudinal and transverse waves. Longitudinal sound waves are waves of alternating pressure deviations from the equilibrium pressure, causing local regions of compression and rarefaction, while transverse waves (in solids) are waves of alternating shear stress at right angle to the direction of propagation.
Matter in the medium is periodically displaced by a sound wave, and thus oscillates. The energy carried by the sound wave converts back and forth between the potential energy of the extra compression (in case of longitudinal waves) or lateral displacement strain (in case of transverse waves) of the matter and the kinetic energy of the oscillations of the medium.

Sound wave properties and characteristics

Sound waves are characterized by the generic properties of waves, which are frequency, wavelength, period, amplitude, intensity, speed, and direction (sometimes speed and direction are combined as a velocity vector, or wavelength and direction are combined as a wave vector).
Transverse waves, also known as shear waves, have an additional property of polarization.
Sound characteristics can depend on the type of sound waves (longitudinal versus transverse) as well as on the physical properties of the transmission medium.

Speed of sound

U.S. Navy F/A-18 breaking the sound barrier. The white halo is formed by condensed water droplets which are thought to result from a drop in air pressure around the aircraft (see Prandtl-Glauert Singularity).[3][4]
The speed of sound depends on the medium through which the waves are passing, and is often quoted as a fundamental property of the material. In general, the speed of sound is proportional to the square root of the ratio of the elastic modulus (stiffness) of the medium to its density. Those physical properties and the speed of sound change with ambient conditions. For example, the speed of sound in gases depends on temperature. In 20 °C (68 °F) air at the sea level, the speed of sound is approximately 343 m/s (1,230 km/h; 767 mph) using the formula "v = (331 + 0.6T) m/s". In fresh water, also at 20 °C, the speed of sound is approximately 1,482 m/s (5,335 km/h; 3,315 mph). In steel, the speed of sound is about 5,960 m/s (21,460 km/h; 13,330 mph).[5] The speed of sound is also slightly sensitive (a second-order anharmonic effect) to the sound amplitude, which means that there are nonlinear propagation effects, such as the production of harmonics and mixed tones not present in the original sound (see parametric array).

Acoustics and noise

The scientific study of the propagation, absorption, and reflection of sound waves is called acoustics. Noise is a term often used to refer to an unwanted sound. In science and engineering, noise is an undesirable component that obscures a wanted signal.

Sound pressure level

Sound measurements
Sound pressure p
Particle velocity v
Particle velocity level (SVL)
   (Sound velocity level)
Particle displacement ξ
Sound intensity I
Sound intensity level (SIL)
Sound power Pac
Sound power level (SWL)
Sound energy density E
Sound energy flux q
Surface S
Acoustic impedance Z
Speed of sound c
Sound pressure is defined as the difference between the average local pressure of the medium outside of the sound wave in which it is traveling through (at a given point and a given time) and the pressure found within the sound wave itself within that same medium. A square of this difference (i.e. a square of the deviation from the equilibrium pressure) is usually averaged over time and/or space, and a square root of such average is taken to obtain a root mean square (RMS) value. For example, 1 Pa RMS sound pressure (94 dBSPL) in atmospheric air implies that the actual pressure in the sound wave oscillates between (1 atm -\sqrt{2} Pa) and (1 atm +\sqrt{2} Pa), that is between 101323.6 and 101326.4 Pa. Such a tiny (relative to atmospheric) variation in air pressure at an audio frequency will be perceived as quite a deafening sound, and can cause hearing damage, according to the table below.
As the human ear can detect sounds with a very wide range of amplitudes, sound pressure is often measured as a level on a logarithmic decibel scale. The sound pressure level (SPL) or Lp is defined as
 L_\mathrm{p}=10\, \log_{10}\left(\frac{{p}^2}{{p_\mathrm{ref}}^2}\right) =20\, \log_{10}\left(\frac{p}{p_\mathrm{ref}}\right)\mbox{ dB}
where p is the root-mean-square sound pressure and pref is a reference sound pressure. Commonly used reference sound pressures, defined in the standard ANSI S1.1-1994, are 20 µPa in air and 1 µPa in water. Without a specified reference sound pressure, a value expressed in decibels cannot represent a sound pressure level.
Since the human ear does not have a flat spectral response, sound pressures are often frequency weighted so that the measured level will match perceived levels more closely. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has defined several weighting schemes. A-weighting attempts to match the response of the human ear to noise and A-weighted sound pressure levels are labeled dBA. C-weighting is used to measure peak levels.

Examples of sound pressure and sound pressure levels

Source of sound RMS sound pressure sound pressure level
Pa dB re 20 µPa
Theoretical limit for undistorted sound at
1 atmosphere environmental pressure
101,325 191
1883 Krakatoa eruption approx 180 at 100 miles
Stun grenades 170-180
rocket launch equipment acoustic tests approx. 165
threshold of pain 100 134
hearing damage during short-term effect 20 approx. 120
jet engine, 100 m distant 6–200 110–140
jackhammer, 1 m distant / discotheque 2 approx. 100
hearing damage from long-term exposure 0.6 approx. 85
traffic noise on major road, 10 m distant 0.2–0.6 80–90
moving automobile, 10 m distant 0.02–0.2 60–80
TV set – typical home level, 1 m distant 0.02 approx. 60
normal talking, 1 m distant 0.002–0.02 40–60
very calm room 0.0002–0.0006 20–30
quiet rustling leaves, calm human breathing 0.00006 10
auditory threshold at 2 kHz – undamaged human ears 0.00002 0

Equipment for dealing with sound

Equipment for generating or using sound includes musical instruments, hearing aids, sonar systems and sound reproduction and broadcasting equipment. Many of these use electro-acoustic transducers such as microphones and loudspeakers.

References

  1. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2006. http://www.bartleby.com/61/65/S0576500.html.  
  2. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=RUDTFBbb7jAC&pg=PA248
  3. ^ APOD: 19 August 2007- A Sonic Boom
  4. ^ http://www.eng.vt.edu/fluids/msc/gallery/conden/mpegf14.htm
  5. ^ The Soundry: The Physics of Sound

Sound measurement

See also

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Sound is the vibration of matter, as perceived by the sense of hearing. Unwanted or annoying sound is often called noise.

Sourced

  • Which is more musical, a truck passing by a factory or a truck passing by a music school?
    • John Cage, "Communication", the third of the Composition as a Process lectures given in Darmstadt in 1958 and published in Silence. Many of Cage's works use sounds traditionally regarded as unmusical (radios not tuned to any particular station, for instance): he really did believe that the sound of a truck and the sounds made in a factory had just as much musical worth as the sounds made in a music school. There is also a suggestion expressed in the quote that in order to determine the artistic worth of something, it is necessary to examine the context in which it exists.
  • A sound does not view itself as thought, as ought, as needing another sound for its elucidation, as etc.; it has not time for any consideration--it is occupied with the performance of its characteristics: before it has died away it must have made perfectly exact its frequency, its loudness, its length, its overtone structure, the precise morphology of these and of itself.
    • John Cage (1955), quoted in Classic Essays on Twentieth-Century Music, ISBN 0028645812
  • Music has no subject beyond the combinations of notes we hear, for music speaks not only by means of sounds, it speaks nothing but sound.
    • Eduard Hanslick, quoted by Wolfgang Sandberger (1996) in the liner notes to the Juilliard String Quartet's Intimate Letters. Sony Classical SK 66840.
  • You know the sound of two hands clapping; tell me, what is the sound of one hand?
    • Hakuin Ekaku (1686-1769). The phrase is a Kōan, an irrational comment used in Zen Buddhism in order to assist practitioners in reaching enlightenment.
  • Could we not imagine that noise...is itself nothing more than the sum of a multitude of different sounds which are being heard simultaneously?
  • If a tree falls in a forest, and no-one is around to hear it, does it make a noise?
    • Source unknown, but apparently originating in the twentieth century; a 1910 physics book asks "When a tree falls in a lonely forest, and no animal is near by to hear it, does it make a sound? Why?" Charles Riborg Mann, George Ransom Twiss, Physics (1910), p. 235. See also: If a tree falls in a forest.

Unsourced

  • Noise proves nothing. Often a hen who has merely laid an egg cackles as if she has laid an asteroid

External links

Wikipedia
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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Wiktionary

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Etymology

From the common noun sound (strait, inlet).

Proper noun

Singular
the Sound
Plural
-
the Sound
  1. The strait that separates Zealand (an island of Denmark) from Scania (part of Sweden); also sometimes called by the Danish name, Øresund.

Translations


Simple English

Sound can also mean a body of water, like a bay or channel.

We can define a sound wave as a disturbance which travels through some medium. Sound is the term to describe what is heard when sound waves pass through a medium to the ear. All sounds are made by vibrations. For instance, when a drum or a cymbal is struck, the object vibrates. These vibrations make air molecules move. Sound waves move away from their source (where they came from), traveling on the air molecules. When the vibrating air molecules reach our ears, the eardrum vibrates, too. The bones of the ear vibrate in the same way that of the object that started the sound wave. These vibrations let you hear different sounds. Even music is a vibration. Irregular vibrations are noise.

Contents

Sound

Compression and rarefaction

Sound waves have two parts: compression and rarefaction. Compression is the part of the sound waves where the molecules of air are pushed (compressed) together. Rarefaction is the part of the waves where the molecules are far away from each other. Sound waves are a lot of compressions and rarefactions.

The speed of sound

Sound waves can travel through solids, liquids, and gases, but it cannot travel through a vacuum (a place with nothing in it). This is why astronauts can not talk to each other in space: they need a radio to hear each other. Sound can travel through water faster than through air; and they travel even faster in solids like stone, iron, and steel. Sound travels 1,100 feet per second in the air. [1]

Pitch and amplitude

Pitch is about the highness or lowness of sound. Pitch is determined by the number of vibrations per second. The highest key on a piano, for instance, vibrates 4,000 times per second. [1] The loudness of a sound is its amplitude. Striking a key harder will make it louder - so, it will increase the amplitude - but it will not change the pitch. [1]

Heard and not seen

Audible sound has frequencies between 20 Hz to 20 kHz. Human beings can hear audible sound. Sound waves with frequency above 20 kHz are called ultrasound waves. Sound waves with frequency below 20 Hz are called infrasound waves. Human beings cannot hear ultrasound waves and infrasound waves, but some animals, like bats and dolphins, use them.

Other pages

Light

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 The Earth and the Universe LIFEPAC Science, p. 33


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 24, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Sound, which are similar to those in the above article.








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