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For the album by The Jam, see Sound Affects.
.Sound effects or audio effects are artificially created or enhanced sounds, or sound processes used to emphasize artistic or other content of films, television shows, live performance, animation, video games, music, or other media.^ Its well suited for musicians, who make music, which involves heavy processing of Sound s, such as techno, trance, ambient, industrial etc.
  • Download Sound Effect Software: Space Effect Mac, Sound Effect Maker, Keyboard Sounder, ... 19 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.filebuzz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You can record your own music, voice or other Sound into MP3, OGG VOX or WAV files from microphone, music cassettes, CDs, LP's, games as well as...
  • Download Sound Effect Software: Space Effect Mac, Sound Effect Maker, Keyboard Sounder, ... 19 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.filebuzz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

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.In motion picture and television production, a sound effect is a sound recorded and presented to make a specific storytelling or creative point without the use of dialogue or music.^ Send me the latest products for Sound Effect .
  • Sound Effect Manufacturers & Suppliers 19 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An oscilloscope is used to display the waveforms of various musical instruments in order to show the effect of frequency and wave shape on the sound.
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An oscilloscope with microphone can be used to prove that there is a sound present.
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The term often refers to a process applied to a recording, without necessarily referring to the recording itself. .In professional motion picture and television production, dialogue, music, and sound effects recordings are treated as separate elements.^ Send me the latest products for Sound Effect .
  • Sound Effect Manufacturers & Suppliers 19 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An oscilloscope is used to display the waveforms of various musical instruments in order to show the effect of frequency and wave shape on the sound.
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is good news for people who collect recordings of sounds, such as music or audiobooks .
  • sound@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

Dialogue and music recordings are never referred to as sound effects, even though the processes applied to them, such as reverberation or flanging effects, often are called "sound effects".

Contents

Film

In the context of motion pictures and television, sound effects refers to an entire hierarchy of sound elements, whose production encompass many different disciplines, including:
.
  • Hard sound effects are common sounds that appear on screen, such as door slams, weapons firing, and cars driving by.
  • Background (or BG) sound effects are sounds that do not explicitly synchronize with the picture, but indicate setting to the audience, such as forest sounds, the buzzing of fluorescent lights, and car interiors.^ It supports the Sound Effect s such as chorus, compression, distortion, echo, flange, gargle, parametric equalizer, reverberation.
    • Download Sound Effect Software: Space Effect Mac, Sound Effect Maker, Keyboard Sounder, ... 19 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.filebuzz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In addition to the usual train whistle and car horn, the Doppler effect also occurs for electromagnetic waves, but since the velocity of light is much larger than the velocity of sound, the effect is much smaller for a given source velocity.
    • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The sound of people talking in the background is also considered a "BG," but only if the speaker is unintelligible and the language is unrecognizable (this is known as walla).^ We shall only consider one interesting case of sound diffraction which may be easily observed.

    ^ In this article, which covers the science of Acoustics , we shall consider only the physical aspect of sound, that is, the physical phenomena outside ourselves which excite our sense of hearing.

    .These background noises are also called ambience or atmos ("atmosphere").
  • Foley sound effects are sounds that synchronize on screen, and require the expertise of a Foley artist to record properly.^ These effects have been explained by Lord Rayleigh ( Sound, i.

    ^ Recordings of the Doppler effect can often be found on sound effect albums at record libraries or made quite easily with a tape recorder and automobile on a country road.
    • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Album Name: A Collection of Sounds and Something Like the Plague Artist: We Are the Willows Year/Label: 2009 / Amble Down Records [Buy at Amazon] [We Are The Willows on Emusic] .

    .Footsteps, the movement of hand props (e.g., a tea cup and saucer), and the rustling of cloth are common foley units.
  • Design sound effects are sounds that do not normally occur in nature, or are impossible to record in nature.^ Recordings of the Doppler effect can often be found on sound effect albums at record libraries or made quite easily with a tape recorder and automobile on a country road.
    • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Safety Glass with Good Sound Insulation Effect s, Suitable for Airports and Recording Studios .
    • Sound Effect Manufacturers & Suppliers 19 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    These sounds are used to suggest futuristic technology in a science fiction film, or are used in a musical fashion to create an emotional mood.
.Each of these sound effect categories are specialized, with sound editors known as specialists in an area of sound effects (e.g.^ These effects have been explained by Lord Rayleigh ( Sound, i.

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a "Car cutter" or "Guns cutter").
.The process can be separated into two steps: the recording of the effects, and the processing.^ When a wave of sound meets a surface separating two media it is in part reflected, travelling back from the surface into the first medium again with the velocity with which it approached.

.Sound effects are often custom recorded for each project.^ Recordings of the Doppler effect can often be found on sound effect albums at record libraries or made quite easily with a tape recorder and automobile on a country road.
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Safety Glass with Good Sound Insulation Effect s, Suitable for Airports and Recording Studios .
  • Sound Effect Manufacturers & Suppliers 19 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However if time and budget do not allow, the recording step can be replaced by using large libraries of pre-recorded commercial sound effects or stock sound effects (such as the famous Wilhelm scream).^ It supports the Sound Effect s such as chorus, compression, distortion, echo, flange, gargle, parametric equalizer, reverberation.
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^ But when the wind is steady its effect may be eliminated by " reciprocal " observations, that is, by observations of the time of passage of sound in each direction over the measured distance..

^ Artificial sounds and recordings are usually played using electric loudspeakers (a notable exception being the acoustic phonograph ).
  • sound@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although effects libraries may contain every effect a producer requires, for timing and aesthetic reasons custom recorded sound effects are often preferred.^ Our 890 Sound Effects CD - Commercial Use has 523 NEW Sounds re-recorded in STEREO SOUND .
  • Cartoon Sound Effects - Free Sound Downloads as WAV and MP3 files. Laugh,Howl, Dog, Lion, Snore, Sneeze, Fast Talk, Groan, Blink, Whistle, Split, Hammer,Phone, Door, Squeak 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC www.a1freesoundeffects.com [Source type: General]

^ But when the wind is steady its effect may be eliminated by " reciprocal " observations, that is, by observations of the time of passage of sound in each direction over the measured distance..

^ Recordings of the Doppler effect can often be found on sound effect albums at record libraries or made quite easily with a tape recorder and automobile on a country road.
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Foley is another method of adding sound effects.^ Sound Effect Maker Added: July 19, 2007 .
  • Download Sound Effect Software: Space Effect Mac, Sound Effect Maker, Keyboard Sounder, ... 19 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.filebuzz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Foley is more of a technique for creating sound effects than a type of sound effect, but it is often used for creating the incidental real world sounds that are very specific to what is going on onscreen, such as footsteps.^ It supports the Sound Effect s such as chorus, compression, distortion, echo, flange, gargle, parametric equalizer, reverberation.
  • Download Sound Effect Software: Space Effect Mac, Sound Effect Maker, Keyboard Sounder, ... 19 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.filebuzz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our 890 Sound Effects CD - Commercial Use has 523 NEW Sounds re-recorded in STEREO SOUND .
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^ A " sounding tube," say an inch in diameter, and somewhat more than twice the length of the jet tube, is then lowered over the flame, as in the figure.

With this technique the action onscreen is essentially recreated in order to try and match it as closely as possible. .If done correctly it is very hard for audiences to tell what sounds were added and what sounds were originally recorded (location sound).^ Visits: 305 HiFi Recorder is a mp3 recorder of getting the original Sound recorded, which can record Sound s from all kinds of Sound devices, eg, Microphone, Line In, System Sound .
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^ Visits: 1375 Kazi Sound Recorder is a very useful Sound recording tool.
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^ Kazi Sound Recorder Added: June 08, 2005 .
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.In the early days of film and radio, Foley artists would add sounds in realtime or pre-recorded sound effects would be played back from analogue discs in realtime (while watching the picture).^ Visits: 948 realtime video toaster with lots of video Effect s synced on Sound .
  • Download Sound Effect Software: Space Effect Mac, Sound Effect Maker, Keyboard Sounder, ... 19 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.filebuzz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

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  • Sound Effect ringtones (MP3)   19 September 2009 7:30 UTC www.monstertones.com [Source type: General]

^ Visits: 1319 Play 3D Sound Effect when a keyboard button or mouse key is pressed.
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Today, with effects held in digital format, it is easy to create any required sequence to be played in any desired timeline.

Video games

.The principles involved with modern video game sound effects (since the introduction of sample playback) are essentially the same as those of motion pictures.^ Visits: 948 realtime video toaster with lots of video Effect s synced on Sound .
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.Typically a game project requires two jobs to be completed: sounds must be recorded or selected from a library and a sound engine must be programmed so that those sounds can be incorporated into the game's interactive environment.^ You can record your own music, voice or other Sound into MP3, OGG VOX or WAV files from microphone, music cassettes, CDs, LP's, games as well as...
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^ Recordings of the Doppler effect can often be found on sound effect albums at record libraries or made quite easily with a tape recorder and automobile on a country road.
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In earlier computers and video game systems, sound effects were typically produced using sound synthesis.^ An oscilloscope is used to display the waveforms of various musical instruments in order to show the effect of frequency and wave shape on the sound.
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The demonstration can be performed using any two sound sources, but the effect is most striking if the the sources are sinusoidal and of equal intensities.
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the other, the waves produce a measurable effect on a vibrating system of the same frequency, and the amplitude in the waves can be deduced.

.In modern systems, the increases in storage capacity and playback quality has allowed sampled sound to be used.^ Our sound effect samples below are FREE Sound Effects Downloads of Stereo Sounds MP3 and Good Quality WAV audio for non-commercial use only.
  • Cartoon Sound Effects - Free Sound Downloads as WAV and MP3 files. Laugh,Howl, Dog, Lion, Snore, Sneeze, Fast Talk, Groan, Blink, Whistle, Split, Hammer,Phone, Door, Squeak 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC www.a1freesoundeffects.com [Source type: General]

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The modern systems also frequently utilize positional audio, often with hardware acceleration, and real-time audio post-processing, which can also be tied to the 3D graphics development. Based on the internal state of the game, multiple different calculations can be made. .This will allow for, for example, realistic sound dampening, echoes and doppler effect.^ Some curious examples of echo are given in Herschel's article on " Sound " in the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, but it appears that he is in error in one case.

^ Recordings of the Doppler effect can often be found on sound effect albums at record libraries or made quite easily with a tape recorder and automobile on a country road.
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many examples in nature of the Doppler effect.
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Historically the simplicity of game environments reduced the required number of sounds needed, and thus only one or two people were directly responsible for the sound recording and design.^ We shall only consider one interesting case of sound diffraction which may be easily observed.

^ Thus, an interval of one-third of a second elapses between two successive maxima or beats, and there are produced three beats per second.

^ The two waves, therefore, being in opposite phases, neutralize one another, and the result is a faint sound.

.As the video game business has grown and computer sound reproduction quality has increased, however, the team of sound designers dedicated to game projects has likewise grown and the demands placed on them may now approach those of mid-budget motion pictures.^ It may, however, be stated here that certain experiments of Helmholtz appear to show that the epoch of the harmonics has not much effect on the quality.

^ Thus, if a common glass - jar be struck so as to yield an audible sound, the existence of a motion of this kind may be felt by the finger lightly applied to the edge of the glass; and, on increasing the pressure so as to destroy this motion the sound forthwith ceases.

They can be used for doing things with on the games.

Recording

.The most realistic sound effects originate from original sources; the closest sound to machine-gun fire that we can replay is an original recording of actual machine guns.^ An obvi us method of determining the velocity of sound in air consists in starting some sound, say by firing a gun, and stationing an observer at some measured distance from the gun.

^ When the gun was fired, the circuit was broken, and the break was recorded on the paper.

Less realistic sound effects are digitally synthesized or sampled and sequenced (the same recording played repeatedly using a sequencer). .When the producer or content creator demands high-fidelity sound effects, the sound editor usually must augment his available library with new sound effects recorded in the field.^ Usually the pitch change is downward at low frequencies and upwards at high frequencies as the loudness increases, but the effect varies considerably with the individual[8].
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recordings of the Doppler effect can often be found on sound effect albums at record libraries or made quite easily with a tape recorder and automobile on a country road.
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another common source of sound above the audible range is an ultrasonic cleaner which usually consists of a vat of liquid with an ultrasonic transducer that creates sound waves in the liquid.
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the required sound effect is of a small subject, such as scissors cutting, cloth ripping, or footsteps, the sound effect is best recorded in a studio, under controlled conditions.^ In ordinary sound-waves the effect of the particle velocity in affecting the velocity of transmission must be very small.

^ Fourier's theorem can also be usefully applied to the disturbance of a source of sound under certain conditions.

^ Recordings of the Doppler effect can often be found on sound effect albums at record libraries or made quite easily with a tape recorder and automobile on a country road.
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Such small sounds are often delegated to a foley artist and foley editor. .Many sound effects cannot be recorded in a studio, such as explosions, gunfire, and automobile or aircraft maneuvers.^ It supports the Sound Effect s such as chorus, compression, distortion, echo, flange, gargle, parametric equalizer, reverberation.
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^ However, the reflex requires a few hundredths of a second to respond, and thus cannot be relied upon to protect the ear in the event of a short duration sound such as an explosion.
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recordings of the Doppler effect can often be found on sound effect albums at record libraries or made quite easily with a tape recorder and automobile on a country road.
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These effects must be recorded by a sound effects editor or a professional sound effects recordist.^ In ordinary sound-waves the effect of the particle velocity in affecting the velocity of transmission must be very small.

^ These effects have been explained by Lord Rayleigh ( Sound, i.

.When such "big" sounds are required, the recordist will begin contacting professionals or technicians in the same way a producer may arrange a crew; if the recordist needs an explosion, he may contact a demolition company to see if any buildings are scheduled to be destroyed with explosives in the near future.^ In order that the ear may be affected by a sounding body there must be continuous matter reaching all the way from the body to the ear.

^ These combination tones will in turn react on the pressure and produce new combination tones with the original tones, or with each other, and such tones may be termed of the second, third, &c., order.

^ In this way, any of the possible configurations may be easily produced.

If the recordist requires a volley of cannon fire, he may contact historical re-enactors or gun enthusiasts. People are often excited to participate in something that will be used in a motion picture, and love to help.
.Depending on the effect, recordists may use several DAT, hard disk, or Nagra recorders and a large number of microphones.^ The phonograph may be regarded as an instrument of this class, in that it records vibrations on a revolving drum or disk.

^ Experiments may be made with plane and curved mirrors to verify these laws, but it is necessary to use short waves, in order to diminish diffraction effects.

.During a cannon- and musket-fire recording session for the 2003 film The Alamo, conducted by Jon Johnson and Charles Maynes, two to three DAT machines were used.^ Cannons were fired at the two stations at intervals of five minutes.

.One machine was stationed near the cannon itself, so it could record the actual firing.^ Cannons were fired at the two stations at intervals of five minutes.

.Another was stationed several hundred yards away, below the trajectory of the ball, to record the sound of the cannonball passing by.^ The rotation causes air to pass over the reed producing a sound whose pitch wobbles up and down as the reed successively moves toward and then away from the observer.
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

When the crew recorded musket-fire, a set of microphones were arrayed close to the target (in this case a swine carcass) to record the musket-ball impacts.
A counter-example is the common technique for recording an automobile. For recording "Onboard" car sounds (which include the car interiors), a three-microphone technique is common. .Two microphones record the engine directly: one is taped to the underside of the hood, near the engine block.^ One can illustrate the effect verbally, but a tape recording of a train whistle or a car horn is more effective.
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The second microphone is covered in a wind screen and tightly attached to the rear bumper, within an inch or so of the tail pipe. The third microphone, which is often a stereo microphone, is stationed inside the car to get the car interior.
.Having all of these tracks at once gives a sound designer or mixer a great deal of control over how he wants the car to sound.^ Purchase All These Sounds On CD .
  • Cartoon Sound Effects - Free Sound Downloads as WAV and MP3 files. Laugh,Howl, Dog, Lion, Snore, Sneeze, Fast Talk, Groan, Blink, Whistle, Split, Hammer,Phone, Door, Squeak 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC www.a1freesoundeffects.com [Source type: General]

.In order to make the car more ominous or low, he can mix in more of the tailpipe recording; if he wants the car to sound like it is running full throttle, he can mix in more of the engine recording and reduce the interior perspective.^ One can illustrate the effect verbally, but a tape recording of a train whistle or a car horn is more effective.
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Various devices have been successfully employed for making sounds of determinate loudness in order to test the hearing of partially deaf people.

.In cartoons, a pencil being dragged down a washboard may be used to simulate the sound of a sputtering engine.^ If a microphone is being used, it should be turned off or placed on the side of the apparatus toward the audience to reduce the interference between the direct and amplified sounds.
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.What we would consider today to be the first recorded sound effect was of Big Ben striking 10:30, 10:45, and 11:00. It was recorded on a brown wax cylinder by technicians at Edison House in London.^ The gases are most conveniently breathed by first filling a balloon from a gas cylinder with a pressure regulator set to about 5-10 psi.
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The demonstration can be performed using any two sound sources, but the effect is most striking if the the sources are sinusoidal and of equal intensities.
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recordings of the Doppler effect can often be found on sound effect albums at record libraries or made quite easily with a tape recorder and automobile on a country road.
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It was recorded July 16, 1890. This recording is currently in the public domain.

Processing effects

.As the car example demonstrates, the ability to make multiple simultaneous recordings of the same subject—through the use of several DAT or multitrack recorders—has made sound recording into a sophisticated craft.^ This demonstration can be introduced with the old question of whether a tree falling in a deserted forest makes a sound.
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One can combine the two demonstrations by using two ropes with different mass densities under different tensions, but with the same ratio of tension to mass density.
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A freshly opened plastic bottle of carbonated beverage partially emersed in the liquid can be made to erupt and spray its contents several feet into the air.
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The sound effect can be shaped by the sound editor or sound designer, not just for realism, but for emotional effect.^ An oscilloscope is used to display the waveforms of various musical instruments in order to show the effect of frequency and wave shape on the sound.
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Once the sound effects are recorded or captured, they are usually loaded into a computer integrated with an audio non-linear editing system.^ Most microphones have low sensitivity to ultrasonic frequencies, but with a sensitive oscilloscope they can usually be made to indicate the presence of a sound.
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recordings of the Doppler effect can often be found on sound effect albums at record libraries or made quite easily with a tape recorder and automobile on a country road.
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

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This allows a sound editor or sound designer to heavily manipulate a sound to meet his or her needs.
.The most common sound design tool is the use of layering to create a new, interesting sound out of two or three old, average sounds.^ The beating of two identical organ pipes can be used to illustrate the variation of the velocity of sound with temperature[1].
  • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our 890 Sound Effects CD - Commercial Use has 523 NEW Sounds re-recorded in STEREO SOUND .
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^ The difference in loss in the two cases measured the energy given up to and sent out by the resonator as sound.

.For example, the sound of a bullet impact into a pig carcass may be mixed with the sound of a melon being gouged to add to the "stickiness" or "gore" of the effect.^ Sounds may be divided into noises and musical notes.

^ But when the wind is steady its effect may be eliminated by " reciprocal " observations, that is, by observations of the time of passage of sound in each direction over the measured distance..

^ Add to Cart Search your name and find your personalized ringtones Sound Effect ringtones (MP3)   .
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If the effect is featured in a close-up, the designer may also add an "impact sweetener" from his or her library. .The sweetener may simply be the sound of a hammer pounding hardwood, equalized so that only the low-end can be heard.^ We shall only consider one interesting case of sound diffraction which may be easily observed.

^ It may easily be heard when a double whistle with notes of different pitch is blown strongly, or when two gongs are loudly sounded close to the hearer.

^ At the other end of the scale with increasing frequency there is another limiting frequency somewhere about 20,000 per second, beyond which no sound is heard.

The low end gives the three sounds together added weight, so that the audience actually "feels" the weight of the bullet hit the victim.
.If the victim is the villain, and his death is climactic, the sound designer may add reverb to the impact, in order to enhance the dramatic beat.^ In order that the ear may be affected by a sounding body there must be continuous matter reaching all the way from the body to the ear.

.And then, as the victim falls over in slow motion, the sound editor may add the sound of a broom whooshing by a microphone, pitch-shifted down and time-expanded to further emphasize the death.^ It may easily be heard when a double whistle with notes of different pitch is blown strongly, or when two gongs are loudly sounded close to the hearer.

^ The rotation causes air to pass over the reed producing a sound whose pitch wobbles up and down as the reed successively moves toward and then away from the observer.
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^ But when the wind is steady its effect may be eliminated by " reciprocal " observations, that is, by observations of the time of passage of sound in each direction over the measured distance..

If the film is science-fiction, the designer may phaser the "whoosh" to give it a more sci-fi feel. .(For a list of many sound effects processes available to a sound designer, see the bottom of this article.^ Purchase All The Listed Sound Effects On CD or Sound Download....890 Sound Effects.
  • Cartoon Sound Effects - Free Sound Downloads as WAV and MP3 files. Laugh,Howl, Dog, Lion, Snore, Sneeze, Fast Talk, Groan, Blink, Whistle, Split, Hammer,Phone, Door, Squeak 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC www.a1freesoundeffects.com [Source type: General]

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)

Aesthetics

When creating sound effects for films, sound recordists and editors do not generally concern themselves with the verisimilitude or accuracy of the sounds they present. .The sound of a bullet entering a person from a close distance may sound nothing like the sound designed in the above example, but since very few people are aware of how such a thing actually sounds, the job of designing the effect is mainly an issue of creating a conjectural sound which feeds the audience's expectations while still suspending disbelief.^ Add to Cart Search your name and find your personalized ringtones Sound Effect ringtones (MP3)   .
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^ Unless the demonstration is designed very carefully, the sound intensity required to break a beaker can damage one's hearing.
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In the previous example, the phased 'whoosh' of the victim's fall has no analogue in real life experience, but it is emotionally immediate. .If a sound editor uses such sounds in the context of emotional climax or a character's subjective experience, they can add to the drama of a situation in a way visuals simply cannot.^ John Tyndall, Sound (5th ed., 1893), originally delivered as lectures, treats the subject descriptively, and is illustrated by a large number of excellent experiments.

^ In an experiment described by Rayleigh such a wheel provided with four armatures was used to determine the exact frequency of a driving fork known to have a frequency near 32.

^ But the apparatus was used in such a way that this could be neglected.

If a visual effects artist were to do something similar to the 'whooshing fall' example, it would probably look ridiculous or at least excessively melodramatic.
The "Conjectural Sound" principle applies even to happenstance sounds, such as tires squealing, doorknobs turning or people walking. .If the sound editor wants to communicate that a driver is in a hurry to leave, he will cut the sound of tires squealing when the car accelerates from a stop; even if the car is on a dirt road, the effect will work if the audience is dramatically engaged.^ Recordings of the Doppler effect can often be found on sound effect albums at record libraries or made quite easily with a tape recorder and automobile on a country road.
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.If a character is afraid of someone on the other side of a door, the turning of the doorknob can take a second or more, and the mechanism of the knob can possess dozens of clicking parts.^ These combination tones will in turn react on the pressure and produce new combination tones with the original tones, or with each other, and such tones may be termed of the second, third, &c., order.

A skillful Foley artist can make someone walking calmly across the screen seem terrified simply by giving the actor a different gait.

Techniques

In music and film/television production, typical effects used in recording and amplified performances are:
  • echo - to simulate the effect of reverberation in a large hall or cavern, one or several delayed signals are added to the original signal. To be perceived as echo, the delay has to be of order 50 milliseconds or above. .Short of actually playing a sound in the desired environment, the effect of echo can be implemented using either digital or analog methods.^ An oscilloscope is used to display the waveforms of various musical instruments in order to show the effect of frequency and wave shape on the sound.
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    ^ The demonstration can be performed using any two sound sources, but the effect is most striking if the the sources are sinusoidal and of equal intensities.
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    ^ Experiments may be made with plane and curved mirrors to verify these laws, but it is necessary to use short waves, in order to diminish diffraction effects.

    Analog echo effects are implemented using tape delays and/or spring reverbs. .When large numbers of delayed signals are mixed over several seconds, the resulting sound has the effect of being presented in a large room, and it is more commonly called reverberation or reverb for short.
  • flanger - to create an unusual sound, a delayed signal is added to the original signal with a continuously-variable delay (usually smaller than 10 ms).^ If the difference of phase be varied gradually from zero to - X, the resulting sound will 2 gradually decrease from a maximum to a minimum.

    ^ For instance, a ticking watch may be put at the focus of a large concave metallic mirror , which sends a parallel " beam " of sound to a second concave mirror facing the first.

    ^ The sound travelled to and fro in the pipes several times before the signals died away, and he found that the velocity decreased with the intensity, tending to a limit for very feeble sounds, the limit being the same whatever the source.

    .This effect is now done electronically using DSP, but originally the effect was created by playing the same recording on two synchronized tape players, and then mixing the signals together.^ It is evident that the pressure condition will be fulfilled only if the motions in the two tubes are in the same direction at the same time, closing into and opening out from the nodes together.

    .As long as the machines were synchronized, the mix would sound more-or-less normal, but if the operator placed his finger on the flange of one of the players (hence "flanger"), that machine would slow down and its signal would fall out-of-phase with its partner, producing a phasing effect.^ The most will be cut off in the position of the lines corresponding to the furthest swing out, then less and less till the furthest swing in, then more and more till the furthest swing out, when the appearance will be exactly as at first.

    ^ Meanwhile the waves are spreading out and the value of u is falling in inverse proportion to the distance from the source, so that very soon its effect must become negligible.

    ^ A variation of the demonstration, in which one places a battery inside the bell jar to operate the bell, is not recommended since the battery may explode when exposed suddenly to a vacuum.
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    Once the operator took his finger off, the player would speed up until its tachometer was back in phase with the master, and as this happened, the phasing effect would appear to slide up the frequency spectrum. .This phasing up-and-down the register can be performed rhythmically.
  • phaser - another way of creating an unusual sound; the signal is split, a portion is filtered with an all-pass filter to produce a phase-shift, and then the unfiltered and filtered signals are mixed.^ In order that the ear may be affected by a sounding body there must be continuous matter reaching all the way from the body to the ear.

    ^ The flame rises up from the burner in a long thin column, but when an appropriate note is sounded it suddenly drops down and thickens.

    The phaser effect was originally a simpler implementation of the flanger effect since delays were difficult to implement with analog equipment. .Phasers are often used to give a "synthesized" or electronic effect to natural sounds, such as human speech.^ Any sound (such as that of the human voice) transmitting its rays into the reflector, and communicating vibratory motion to the membrane, will cause the feather to trace a sinuous line on the paper.

    The voice of C-3PO from Star Wars was created by taking the actor's voice and treating it with a phaser.
  • chorus - a delayed signal is added to the original signal with a constant delay. The delay has to be short in order not to be perceived as echo, but above 5 ms to be audible. .If the delay is too short, it will destructively interfere with the un-delayed signal and create a flanging effect.^ If the amplitudes of vibration which thus mutually interfere are moreover equal, the effect is the total mutual destruction of the vibratory motion.

    .Often, the delayed signals will be slightly pitch shifted to more realistically convey the effect of multiple voices.
  • equalization - different frequency bands are attenuated or boosted to produce desired spectral characteristics.^ Two sound sources of nearly equal frequencies and amplitudes are made to exhibit beats if the frequency difference is less than about 10 Hertz.
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    ^ Various instruments have been devised which produce any desired note, and which are provided with methods of counting the frequency of vibration.

    ^ Though a musical note has definite pitch or frequency, notes of the same pitch emitted by different instruments have quite different quality or timbre.

    .Moderate use of equalization (often abbreviated as "EQ") can be used to "fine-tune" the tone quality of a recording; extreme use of equalization, such as heavily cutting a certain frequency can create more unusual effects.
  • filtering - Equalization is a form of filtering.^ The cleanest effect results from using two sine wave generators of equal amplitude connected to the same loudspeaker, in which case the amplitude varies from zero to twice the amplitude of each source[1-4].
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    ^ Using the term " note " for the sound produced by a periodic disturbance, there is no doubt that a well-trained ear can resolve a note into pure tones of frequencies equal to those of the fundamental and its harmonics.

    ^ The demonstration can be performed using any two sound sources, but the effect is most striking if the the sources are sinusoidal and of equal intensities.
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    .In the general sense, frequency ranges can be emphasized or attenuated using low-pass, high-pass, band-pass or band-stop filters.^ Usually the pitch change is downward at low frequencies and upwards at high frequencies as the loudness increases, but the effect varies considerably with the individual[8].
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    ^ This can be illustrated by using two frequencies above the audible range of hearing but adjusted so that the beat frequency is within the audible range.
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    ^ A high-pass filter between the microphone and oscilloscope is of considerable help.
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    .Band-pass filtering of voice can simulate the effect of a telephone because telephones use band-pass filters.
  • overdrive effects such as the use of a fuzz box can be used to produce distorted sounds, such as for imitating robotic voices or to simulate distorted radiotelephone traffic (e.g., the radio chatter between starfighter pilots in the science fiction film Star Wars).^ The vocal tract acts as a filter for the sounds produced by the vocal cords in a manner similar to the treble and bass controls on a stereo.
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    ^ A high-pass filter between the microphone and oscilloscope is of considerable help.
    • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Any sound (such as that of the human voice) transmitting its rays into the reflector, and communicating vibratory motion to the membrane, will cause the feather to trace a sinuous line on the paper.

    .The most basic overdrive effect involves clipping the signal when its absolute value exceeds a certain threshold.
  • pitch shift - similar to pitch correction, this effect shifts a signal up or down in pitch.^ A reed mounted on the end of a rotating arm produces a tone whose pitch wobbles up and down as the arm rotates.
    • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The rotation causes air to pass over the reed producing a sound whose pitch wobbles up and down as the reed successively moves toward and then away from the observer.
    • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    For example, a signal may be shifted an octave up or down. This is usually applied to the entire signal, and not to each note separately. One application of pitch shifting is pitch correction. Here a musical signal is tuned to the correct pitch using digital signal processing techniques. This effect is ubiquitous in karaoke machines and is often used to assist pop singers who sing out of tune. .It is also used intentionally for aesthetic effect in such pop songs as Cher's Believe and Madonna's Die Another Day.
  • time stretching - the opposite of pitch shift, that is, the process of changing the speed of an audio signal without affecting its pitch.
  • resonators - emphasize harmonic frequency content on specified frequencies.
  • robotic voice effects are used to make an actor's voice sound like a synthesized human voice.
  • synthesizer - generate artificially almost any sound by either imitating natural sounds or creating completely new sounds.
  • modulation - to change the frequency or amplitude of a carrier signal in relation to a predefined signal.^ The first overtone of the second will beat 64 times per second with the third of the first, and at such height in the scale this frequency will be unpleasant.

    ^ The Q is also a measure the amplitude which an oscillator driven at its resonant frequency will acquire.
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    ^ The cleanest effect results from using two sine wave generators of equal amplitude connected to the same loudspeaker, in which case the amplitude varies from zero to twice the amplitude of each source[1-4].
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    .Ring modulation, also known as amplitude modulation, is an effect made famous by Doctor Who's Daleks and commonly used throughout sci-fi.
  • compression - the reduction of the dynamic range of a sound to avoid unintentional fluctuation in the dynamics.^ The cleanest effect results from using two sine wave generators of equal amplitude connected to the same loudspeaker, in which case the amplitude varies from zero to twice the amplitude of each source[1-4].
    • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Two sound sources of nearly equal frequencies and amplitudes are made to exhibit beats if the frequency difference is less than about 10 Hertz.
    • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Experiments may be made with plane and curved mirrors to verify these laws, but it is necessary to use short waves, in order to diminish diffraction effects.

    .Level compression is not to be confused with audio data compression, where the amount of data is reduced without affecting the amplitude of the sound it represents.
  • 3D audio effects - place sounds outside the stereo basis
  • reverse echo - a swelling effect created by reversing an audio signal and recording echo and/or delay whilst the signal runs in reverse.^ Recordings of the Doppler effect can often be found on sound effect albums at record libraries or made quite easily with a tape recorder and automobile on a country road.
    • Physics Demonstrations - Sound 9 January 2010 17:17 UTC sprott.physics.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In ordinary sound-waves the effect of the particle velocity in affecting the velocity of transmission must be very small.

    ^ If a microphone is being used, it should be turned off or placed on the side of the apparatus toward the audience to reduce the interference between the direct and amplified sounds.
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    .When played back forward the last echos are heard before the effected sound creating a rush like swell preceding and during playback.^ When two tones are sounded together with frequencies not very different, " beats " or swellings-out of the sound are heard of frequency equal to the difference of frequencies of the two tones (see below).

    [1]

See also

References

  1. ^ Jimmy Page of Led Zeppelin used this effect in the bridge of Whole Lotta Love.

External links


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 25, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Sound, which are similar to those in the above article.








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