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Punctuation

apostrophe ( ' )
brackets ( [ ], ( ), { }, ⟨ ⟩ )
colon ( : )
comma ( , )
dashes ( , , , )
ellipses ( , ... )
exclamation mark ( ! )
full stop/period ( . )
guillemets ( « » )
hyphen ( -, )
question mark ( ? )
quotation marks ( ‘ ’, “ ” )
semicolon ( ; )
slash/stroke ( / )
solidus ( )
Word dividers
spaces ( ) () () ( ) () () ()
interpunct ( · )
General typography
ampersand ( & )
at sign ( @ )
asterisk ( * )
backslash ( \ )
bullet ( )
caret ( ^ )
copyright symbol ( © )
currency generic: ( ¤ )
specific: ฿, ¢, $, , ƒ, , , , £, , ¥, , ,
daggers ( , )
degree ( ° )
ditto mark ( )
inverted exclamation mark ( ¡ )
inverted question mark ( ¿ )
number sign/pound/hash ( # )
numero sign ( )
ordinal indicator (º, ª)
percent (etc.) ( %, ‰, )
pilcrow ( )
prime ( )
registered trademark ( ® )
section sign ( § )
service mark ( )
sound recording copyright symbol ( )
tilde ( ~ )
trademark ( )
underscore/understrike ( _ )
vertical/broken bar, pipe ( |, ¦ )
Uncommon typography
asterism ( )
falsum ( )
index/fist ( )
therefore sign ( )
because sign ( )
interrobang ( )
irony mark/percontation point ( ؟ )
lozenge ( )
reference mark ( )
tie ( )

The symbol, a circled P, is the copyright symbol used to provide notice of copyright in a sound recording (phonogram). The use of the symbol is described by United States copyright law,[1] and, internationally, by the Convention for the Protection of Producers of Phonograms Against Unauthorized Duplication of Their Phonograms.[2]

The P stands for phonogram, the legal term used in most countries to refer to works that are known in U.S. copyright law as "sound recordings."[3]

A sound recording has a separate copyright that is distinct from that of the underlying work (i.e.the musical notation and lyrics). It is to the aural copyright that the sound recording copyright notice pertains. In countries respecting the Berne convention, copyright may be asserted over the underlying work beyond that indicated by the sound recording copyright symbol.

The sound recording copyright notice consists of three elements:

  1. the symbol;
  2. the year of first publication of the sound recording; and
  3. an identification of the owner of the copyright, either by name, abbreviation of other designation by which it is generally known. The identification can be omitted if the owner is the sound recording's producer, and the producer is identified on associated packaging.[1]

The character is mapped in Unicode under position U+2117.[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b 17 U.S.C. § 402
  2. ^ Convention for the Protection of Producers of Phonograms Against Unauthorized Duplication of Their Phonograms, done at Geneva, October 19, 1971, Article 5
  3. ^ Statement of Marybeth Peters, United States Register of Copyrights, before the Subcommittee on Courts, the Internet, and Intellectual Property, Committee on the Judiciary (July 31, 2007)
  4. ^ http://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U2100.pdf
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