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Flag Coat of arms
Motto!ke e: ǀxarra ǁke  (ǀXam)
"Unity In Diversity"
AnthemNational anthem of South Africa
Capital Pretoria (executive)
Bloemfontein (judicial)
Cape Town (legislative)
Largest city Johannesburg (2006) [2]
Official language(s)
Ethnic groups  79.3% Black
9.1% White
9.0% Coloured
2.6% Asian[4]
Demonym South African
Government Constitutional democracy
 -  President Jacob Zuma
 -  Deputy President Kgalema Motlanthe
 -  NCOP Chairman M. J. Mahlangu
 -  National Assembly Speaker Max Sisulu
 -  Chief Justice Sandile Ngcobo
Independence from the United Kingdom 
 -  Union 31 May 1910 
 -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931 
 -  Republic 31 May 1961 
Area
 -  Total 1 221 037 km2 (25th)
471 443 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) Negligible
Population
 -  2009 estimate 49,320,000[4] (25th)
 -  2001 census 44 819 778[5] 
 -  Density 41/km2 (170th)
106.2/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $493.490 billion[6] (25th)
 -  Per capita $10,136[6] (79th)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $276.764 billion[6] (32nd)
 -  Per capita $5,684[6] (76th)
Gini (2000) 57.8 (high
HDI (2009) 0.683  (medium) (129th)
Currency Rand (ZAR)
Time zone SAST (UTC+2)
Drives on the left
Internet TLD .za
Calling code +27
.Coordinates: 29°02′46″S 25°03′47″E / 29.046°S 25.063°E / -29.046; 25.063 The Republic of South Africa is a country located at the southern tip of Africa, with a 2,798 kilometres (1,739 mi) coastline[7][8] on the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.^ The aborigines of South Africa are represented by the Bushmen and Hottentots , now found in any racial purity only in the Kalahari and in the southern part of German South-West Africa.

^ The majority of Indians who originally came to South Africa were Hindu.
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^ South Africa visits Gauteng, making the province the country’s highest earner of tourism income.
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[9] .To the north lie Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe; to the east are Mozambique and Swaziland; while Lesotho is an independent country wholly surrounded by South African territory.^ The country has common boundaries with Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe, while Mozambique and Swaziland lie to the north-east.
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^ Completely enclosed by South African territory in the south-east is the mountain kingdom of Lesotho.
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^ South African countries.

[10]
.Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for more than 100,000 years.^ IN ARAB countries more than 100 Jews were also massacred and synagogues were burned in Aleppo and Aden, driving thousands of Jews from their homes.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During these six years the part he played in the development and public life of South Africa was greater than that of any other man.

^ Assad responded: "In Lebanon, divisions and confessionalism have been deeply anchored for more than 300 years.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.At the time of European contact, the dominant indigenous peoples were tribes who had migrated from other parts of Africa about one thousand years before.^ Mohammad Dahlan, who had been a small-time gangster in Gaza before the Israelis, Americans and Europeans discovered him as "somebody they could do business with", brought in many criminals to work under his command.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the convention a way out of the difficulty - for a time at least - was found in a compromise , namely, that in the state about to be created the franchise in each constituent part should be that which existed before union was effected.

^ During these six years the part he played in the development and public life of South Africa was greater than that of any other man.

.From the 4th-5th century CE, Bantu-speaking tribes had steadily moved south, where they displaced, conquered and assimilated original Khoikhoi and San peoples of southern Africa.^ The aborigines of South Africa are represented by the Bushmen and Hottentots , now found in any racial purity only in the Kalahari and in the southern part of German South-West Africa.

^ They are run by Shosholoza Meyl ( www.shosholozameyl.co.za ), originally part of South African Railways (Spoornet) and now a division of the new Passenger Rail Authority of South Africa (PRASA, www.sarcc.co.za ).
  • Train travel in South Africa | Cape Town-Johannesburg from �32/$58 with sleeper 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ According to the Community Survey 2007 , there are 48 502 063 people in South Africa.
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At the time of European contact, the two major groups were the Xhosa and Zulu peoples.
.In 1652, a century and a half after the discovery of the Cape Sea Route, the Dutch East India Company founded a refreshment station at what would become Cape Town.^ The administration of the Dutch East India Company was of an extremely despotic character.

^ Isolated, some 1 920 km south-east of Cape Town in the Atlantic, lie the Prince Edward and Marion islands, annexed by South Africa in 1947.
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^ Meanwhile the Dutch East India Company had been formed in Holland, and the Dutch had entered keenly into the competition for the glittering prizes of Eastern commerce.

[11] .Cape Town became a British colony in 1806. European settlement expanded during the 1820s as the Boers (original Dutch, Flemish, German and French settlers) and the British 1820 Settlers claimed land in the north and east of the country.^ Isolated, some 1 920 km south-east of Cape Town in the Atlantic, lie the Prince Edward and Marion islands, annexed by South Africa in 1947.
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^ In 1811 it was deemed necessary to expel the Kaffirs from the Zuurveld, and the British headquarters in that campaign became the site of Graham's Town.

^ In 1884, having the power in his hands when the Scanlen ministry fell, Hofmeyr had put into office a ministry dependent upon the Bond, and had talked of a possible Dutch rebellion in Cape Colony if the Boer freebooters in Bechuanaland were ejected; in 1890 Rhodes became premier with Hofmeyr's approval and support.

.Conflicts arose among the Xhosa, Zulu and Afrikaner groups who competed for territory.^ Although the Palestinian people, men, women, and children practice politics they were doomed to be controlled by groups who are less competent.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.The discovery of diamonds and later gold triggered the 19th-century conflict known as the Anglo-Boer War, as the Boers and the British fought for the control of the South African mineral wealth.^ Mainly related to the Anglo-Boer War.

^ While vast additional territories had been occupied by British 'a ' or Boers the unity of administration, which had Policy of marked the previous stages in the expansion of the white races in South Africa, had been lost.

^ As a port outside British control Delagoa Bay was a source of strength to the Boers, especially as the railway 1 was under their control.

.Although the British defeated the Boers, they gave limited independence to South Africa in 1910 as a British dominion.^ Other writers confine the term to the British possessions south of the Zambezi, but in this case British South Africa is the proper designation.

^ The new industrial situation created had its effect on all parties in South Africa, and in some measure drew together the British and Dutch sections outside the Transvaal.

^ The fact is that the Boers had made up their minds to a trial of strength with Great Britain for supremacy in South Africa.

.Within the country, anti-British policies among white South Africans focused on independence.^ South African countries.

^ The indefatigable entrepreneur wants to build thousands of these pumps to help water-stressed communities across South Africa, then expand to other African countries.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . Rough Cut . South Africa: The Play Pump | PBS 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: General]

^ The war between the Transvaal republic and the natives has had this further effect, it rapidly ripened all South African policy....

.During the Dutch and British colonial years, racial segregation was mostly informal, though some legislation were enacted to control the settlement and movement of native people, including the Native Location Act of 1879 and the system of pass laws.^ Up to the year 1870 the Dutch considerably outnumbered the British inhabitants; indeed, save in Natal, in the eastern province and in Cape Town, the British inhabitants were cornparatively few.

^ A number of years ago - in the late 60's, early 70's - there was a movement of God where many people were awakened to the power of the Holy Spirit.

^ He sanctioned the calling of an inter-colonial conference, which led to a customs convention including all the British possessions in South Africa, and to united action regarding railway rates and native questions.'

[12][13][14] Power was held by the European colonists.
.In the Boer republics,[15] from as early as the Pretoria Convention (chapter XXVI),[16] and subsequent South African governments, the system became legally institutionalised segregation, later known as apartheid.^ Some 5,9% of the South African GDP in agriculture and 16,96% of total labour in agriculture are based in the North West (Provincial Economies, 2004).
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^ The intimation of the impending grant of self-government to Cape Colony was regarded by both Boer republics as bringing nearer the prospect of their union with the British colonies.

^ South African Police and Justice Department Files, 1916-1926 , selected by Robert Edgar at the Union Archives] Pretoria: National Film Board [197-?

.The government established three classes of racial stratification: white, coloured, and black, with rights and restrictions for each.^ What, however, was probably the most powerful motive of the Great Trek was the equality established by the British between the black and white races.

.South Africa achieved the status of a republic in 1961. Despite opposition both in and outside of the country, the government legislated for a continuation of apartheid.^ I can see nothing which will put a stop to this mischievous propaganda but some striking proof of the intention of Her Majesty's government nDt to be ousted from its position in South Africa.

^ The views from the train are both astonishing (the Karoo, and table mountain from the rear) and telling (the often invisible shantytowns of South Africas poor).
  • Train travel in South Africa | Cape Town-Johannesburg from �32/$58 with sleeper 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ South Africa visits Gauteng, making the province the country’s highest earner of tourism income.
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.As the 20th century went on, some Western nations and institutions began to boycott doing business with the country because of its racial policies and oppression of civil rights.^ He defends calling for a boycott of Israel and not any other country "whose policies are barbaric" because "education and scholarship are held in high regard" in Israel and among Jews.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Included are files on the 1948 electoral victory of the Afrikaaner National Party, the establishment of the official policy of apartheid, and internal and foreign opposition to South Africa's racial policies.

^ Some national feeling may have lingered, but, substantially, every man in the country, of every hue , was benefited when the incubus of the tyranny of the Dutch East India Company was removed.

.After years of internal protests, activism and insurgency by black South Africans and their allies, finally in 1990, the South African government began negotiations that led to dismantling of discriminative laws, and democratic elections in 1994.^ Kader Hassim and twelve others were charged with participating in terrorist activities and conspiring to overthrow the government of South Africa in 1970 as members of the African People's Democratic Union of South Africa and of the Non-European Unity Movement.

^ South Africans had thus after seventy years of discord agreed upon union.

^ Mr Field has shown the South African government the way and now it's up to the government to gather its resources in the interests of its poorer citizens.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . Rough Cut . South Africa: The Play Pump | PBS 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: General]

The country then rejoined the Commonwealth of Nations.
.South Africa is known for a diversity in cultures, languages, and religious beliefs.^ The cereal most grown is maize (known in South Africa as mealies); kaffir corn , wheat , barley and oats are also largely cultivated.

^ The 4 000 or more independent churches have a membership of more than 10 million people, making this movement the most important religious group in South Africa.
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^ The work of this society's agents has had a greater influence on the history of South Africa than that of any other religious body save the Dutch Reformed Church.

.Eleven official languages are recognised in the constitution.^ The Constitution recognises 11 official languages, namely Afrikaans, English, isiNdebele, isiXhosa, isiZulu, Sesotho sa Leboa, Sesotho, Setswana, siSwati, Tshivenda and Xitsonga.
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^ Recognising the historically diminished use and status of the indigenous languages, the Constitution expects government to implement positive measures to elevate the status and advance the use of these languages.
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[9] .English, despite having a large role in public and commercial life, is only the fifth most-spoken home language.^ The languages spoken in South Africa by the inhabitants of European descent are English and Dutch, the latter chiefly in the form of a patois colloquially known as the Taal .

^ Among the general provisions of the constitution the most im portant is that both the English and Dutch languages are official languages of the Union and are treated on a footing of equality; all records of parliament, and all notices of general public importance or interest issued by the government of the Union must be in both languages.

^ Although English is the mother tongue of only 8,2% of the population, it is the language most widely understood, and the second language of the majority of South Africans.
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[9] .South Africa is ethnically diverse, with the largest European, Indian, and racially mixed communities in Africa.^ The aborigines of South Africa are represented by the Bushmen and Hottentots , now found in any racial purity only in the Kalahari and in the southern part of German South-West Africa.

^ The majority of Indians who originally came to South Africa were Hindu.
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^ South Africa is the world’s largest producer of gold.
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.Although 79.5% of the South African population is black,[4] the people are from a variety of ethnic groups speaking different Bantu languages, nine of which have official status.^ The South African people decided to solve their problem in their way.
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  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Officially throughout the Union of South Africa both languages are now on a footing of equality.

^ Israel advocacy has to start speaking to unconvinced people in the language that they understand, and in the places where they listen: on campus, in the internet, in unions and women's groups and church groups.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

[9] .About a quarter of the population is unemployed[17] and lives on less than US $1.25 a day.^ It will be seen that the population is sparse, less than 62 persons per square mile.

^ In Limpopo, more than 5,2 million people live on about 123 910 km 2 of land ( Community Survey, 2007) .
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^ About 21% of the country, mainly the arid west, receives less than 200 mm per year.
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[18]
.South Africa is one of the founding members of the African Union, and has the largest economy of all the members.^ Its port is the busiest in South Africa and one of the 10 largest in the world.
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^ For a detailed examination of the constitution and a comparison of it with the federal constitutions of Canada and Australia see " South African Union," by A. Berriedale Keith , in the Journ.

^ The aborigines of South Africa are represented by the Bushmen and Hottentots , now found in any racial purity only in the Kalahari and in the southern part of German South-West Africa.

It is also a founding member of the United Nations and NEPAD. .South Africa is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, Antarctic Treaty System, Group of 77, South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone, Southern African Customs Union, World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund, G20 and G8+5.^ The aborigines of South Africa are represented by the Bushmen and Hottentots , now found in any racial purity only in the Kalahari and in the southern part of German South-West Africa.

^ The general outlook of uncritical support for the Palestinians and unbridled hostility towards Israel is articulated by the ruling African National Congress (ANC) and its allies, the Congress of South African Trade Unions (Cosatu) and the South African Communist Party.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Isolated, some 1 920 km south-east of Cape Town in the Atlantic, lie the Prince Edward and Marion islands, annexed by South Africa in 1947.
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Contents

History

The arrival of Jan van Riebeeck, the first European to settle in South Africa, with Devil's Peak in the background
.South Africa contains some of the oldest archaeological sites in the world.^ Isolated, some 1 920 km south-east of Cape Town in the Atlantic, lie the Prince Edward and Marion islands, annexed by South Africa in 1947.
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^ I can see nothing which will put a stop to this mischievous propaganda but some striking proof of the intention of Her Majesty's government nDt to be ousted from its position in South Africa.

^ The Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden is included in this area, which makes it a world-first for South Africa, since no other world heritage site includes a botanical garden.
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[19][20][21] .Extensive fossil remains at the Sterkfontein, Kromdraai and Makapansgat caves suggest that various australopithecines existed in South Africa from about three million years ago.^ Background Facts and Related Links Learn more about South Africa's freshwater challenges and the solutions proposed by the government in its Working for Water program.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . Rough Cut . South Africa: The Play Pump | PBS 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: General]

^ The 4 000 or more independent churches have a membership of more than 10 million people, making this movement the most important religious group in South Africa.
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^ South Africa is often called the “Cradle of Humankind”, for it is where archaeologists discovered 2,5-million-year-old fossils of our earliest ancestors, and 100 000-year-old remains of modern man.
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[22] These were succeeded by various species of Homo, including Homo habilis, Homo erectus and modern humans, Homo sapiens.
.Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were already present south of the Limpopo River by the fourth or fifth century CE.^ As already stated, the Bantus, like the Europeans, were invaders of South Africa, and the meeting of these rival invaders was the cause of many bloody conflicts.

^ Limpopo, South Africa’s northernmost province, lies within the great elbow of the Limpopo River.
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^ They are beneath the dignity of people who are used to fixing matters in private audiences at Number 10 Downing Street and 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

(see Bantu expansion). They displaced, conquered and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers. The Bantu slowly moved south. .The earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people.^ Israel advocacy has to start speaking to unconvinced people in the language that they understand, and in the places where they listen: on campus, in the internet, in unions and women's groups and church groups.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province.^ Up to the year 1870 the Dutch considerably outnumbered the British inhabitants; indeed, save in Natal, in the eastern province and in Cape Town, the British inhabitants were cornparatively few.

^ Delagoa Bay and the Great Fish River, and for many years they were strong enough to bar the further progress eastward of the white races.

^ At first the Cape government endeavoured to come to an amicable arrangement with the new power threatening its eastern border, and in 1780 it was agreed that the Great Fish River should be the permanent boundary between the colonial and Bantu territories.

.As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations displaced or assimilated earlier peoples, who often had hunter-gatherer societies.^ We get all these IDF special forces people who are Ethiopian Jews, and send them down there to rape and murder people.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "The Copts, who [initially] assimilated Arabs into their society, but who have over time themselves assimilated into Arab society, discover time and again that this assimilated state is but a surface shell, which quickly cracks whenever they demand equality...
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I see a lot of people in sports who think when they reach a certain level they've got it made, but really, you can only find happiness in the Lord."

[citation needed]
Historical states
in present-day
South Africa
South Africa topo continent.png
more
.In 1487, the Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias became the first European to reach the southernmost point of Africa.^ The first Europeans to follow in the wake of the Portuguese voyagers were the English.

^ When the Portuguese first reached the southern part of Africa there was but one place in it where a civilized race held sway.

.Initially named the Cape of Storms, The King of Portugal, John II, renamed it the Cabo da Boa Esperança or Cape of Good Hope, as it led to the riches of India.^ It was with this intention that Bartholomew Diaz, sailing southwards, discovered the Cape of Good Hope in 1488.1 Nine years after the discovery of the Cape by Diaz another Portuguese expedition was fitted out under Vasco da Gama .

^ Guide to Cape of Good Hope Official Publications, 1854- 1910 .

^ (Historical and Literary Papers: Inventories of Collections, 5) Covers the years 1779-1803, but especially 1779-1798 when he was Governor of the Cape of Good Hope, also items on Africans, India, and the Dutch East India Company.

Dias' great feat of navigation was later immortalised in Camões' epic Portuguese poem, The Lusiads (1572). .In 1652, Jan van Riebeeck established a refreshment station at the Cape of Good Hope on behalf of the Dutch East India Company.^ The administration of the Dutch East India Company was of an extremely despotic character.

^ Meanwhile the Dutch East India Company had been formed in Holland, and the Dutch had entered keenly into the competition for the glittering prizes of Eastern commerce.

^ This patriotic act was not, however, sufficiently appreciated by either King James I. or the English East India Company to evoke any official confirmation on their part.

.The Dutch transported slaves from Indonesia, Madagascar, and India as labour for the colonists in Cape Town.^ The Cape governments - both Dutch and British - had been consistently averse from the importation of slaves in large numbers, and the great majority of the slaves were therefore Hottentots.

^ The most complete account of the company's tenure and government of the Cape was written in 1857 by E. B. Watermeyer, a Cape colonist of Dutch descent residing in Cape Town.

^ Up to the year 1870 the Dutch considerably outnumbered the British inhabitants; indeed, save in Natal, in the eastern province and in Cape Town, the British inhabitants were cornparatively few.

.As they expanded east, the Dutch settlers met the south-westerly expanding Xhosa people in the region of the Fish River.^ In religion they were Calvinistic, fanatic, and their old traditions of Dutch East India government, together with their relation to the natives, developed a spirit of caste and even tyranny.

^ What they had learnt of government from the Dutch East India Company they carried into the wilderness with them.

^ The history of the Dutch language in South Africa is intimately bound up with the history of the South African Dutch people.

.A series of wars, called the Cape Frontier Wars, ensued, mainly caused by conflicting land and livestock interests.^ The departure of so large a number of persons caused serious misgiving both to the Cape and the home governments.

^ The peace was broken in 1789 by an invasion of the colonial territory by the Kaffirs, and this conflict proved to be but the first of a series of Kaffir wars which lasted for a century.

.Great Britain took over the Cape of Good Hope area in 1795, ostensibly to stop it from falling under Revolutionary French control.^ This brought the dispute between Great Britain and Portugal to a head, the matter being referred in 1872 to the president of the French republic for arbitration .

^ It was with this intention that Bartholomew Diaz, sailing southwards, discovered the Cape of Good Hope in 1488.1 Nine years after the discovery of the Cape by Diaz another Portuguese expedition was fitted out under Vasco da Gama .

^ In the following year the Farmers' Protection Association was amalgamated with the Bond, and the joint organization fell under the control of J. H. Hofmeyr, the leader of the Dutch party in Cape Colony.

.Given its standing interests in Australia and India, Great Britain wanted to use Cape Town as an interim port for its merchants' long voyages.^ The Cape Afrikanders also formed what was styled a " conciliation committee " to help the party in Great Britain which still supported the Boer side.

^ Living in Cape Town and at the head of the government, Rhodes used every effort to demonstrate to the Cape' Colonists that the work he was doing in the north must eventually be to the advantage of Cape Colonists and their descendants.

^ Next to Great Britain the countries doing most trade with South Africa are Australia and New Zealand , Germany, the United States, Canada , Brazil , India, Belgium , Holland and France .

.The British returned Cape Town to the Dutch in 1803, but soon afterwards the Dutch East India Company declared bankruptcy.^ The administration of the Dutch East India Company was of an extremely despotic character.

^ Nevertheless the cleavage at the Cape between the Dutch and British grew.

^ Catalogue of Documents from 16th September 1795 to 21st February 1803, in the Collection of the Colonial Archives at Cape Town, arranged by Geo.

.The British annexed the Cape Colony in 1806. The British continued the frontier wars against the Xhosa, pushing the eastern frontier eastward through a line of forts established along the Fish River.^ They were driven back and the country up to the Keiskama River annexed to the colony; but the disaster which nearly overwhelmed the eastern province convinced Lord Charles Somerset, then governor of the colony, of the necessity for a line of frontier forts and a more numerous settlement of Settlers colonists.

^ Up to the year 1870 the Dutch considerably outnumbered the British inhabitants; indeed, save in Natal, in the eastern province and in Cape Town, the British inhabitants were cornparatively few.

^ The intimation of the impending grant of self-government to Cape Colony was regarded by both Boer republics as bringing nearer the prospect of their union with the British colonies.

.They consolidated the territory by encouraging British settlement.^ Moreover, though the farmers might leave British territory they were still held to be liable to the jurisdiction of British courts.

.Due to pressure of abolitionist societies in Britain, the British parliament first stopped its global slave trade with the passage of the Slave Trade Act 1807, then abolished slavery in all its colonies with the Slavery Abolition Act 1833.^ This decision was deplored by all parties in the British parliament, but it was recognized that to alter a decision deliberately come to by South African statesmen would wreck the union.

^ British parliament passed the act, foreshadowed by the secretary of state, " for the union under one government of such of the South African colonies and states as may agree thereto, " another war with the Kaffirs broke out.

^ II. - Constitution Of The Union Of South Africa In accordance with the provisions of an act of the British Parliament (South Africa Act 1909) Cape Colony, Natal, the Transvaal and Orange River colonies were united under one government in a legislative union under the British crown .

Boers in combat (1881)
.In the first two decades of the 19th century, the Zulu people grew in power and expanded their territory under their leader, Shaka.^ They led, among other things, to the improvement of ports and the building of railways , so that by the close of the first decade of the 10th century the.

[23] Shaka’s depredations led indirectly to the Mfecane (“Crushing”) that devastated the inland plateau in the early 1820s.[24] An offshoot of the Zulu, the Matabele, created an even larger empire under their king Mzilikazi, including large parts of the highveld.
.During the 1830s, approximately 12,000 Boers (later known as Voortrekkers), departed from the Cape Colony, where they had been subjected to British control.^ They might at the outset either have let the trek Boers go, and given them their blessing and liberty, or they might have controlled the trek and ' Part of the territory thus reannexed was added to Cape Colony while the region between the Keiskamma and Kei was created a separate territory under the name of British Kaffraria.

^ During that period no fewer than 7000 Boers (including women and children), impatient of British rule, emigrated from Cape Colony into the great plains beyond the Orange river, and across them again into Natal and into the fastnesses of the Zoutspanberg, in the northern part of the Transvaal.

^ The intimation of the impending grant of self-government to Cape Colony was regarded by both Boer republics as bringing nearer the prospect of their union with the British colonies.

.They migrated to the future Natal, Orange Free State and Transvaal regions.^ The Natal, Transvaal and Orange Free State official publications should also be consulted.

^ In the Transvaal and Orange Free State provinces the franchise is restricted to white adult male British subjects.

^ Willcocks in 1.901 in which he estimated that there were in the Cape, Orange Free State and the Transvaal, 3,000,000 acres which could be brought under irrigation at a cost of about £30,000,000.

.The Boers founded the Boer Republics: the South African Republic (now Gauteng, Limpopo, Mpumalanga and North West provinces) and the Orange Free State (Free State).^ The aborigines of South Africa are represented by the Bushmen and Hottentots , now found in any racial purity only in the Kalahari and in the southern part of German South-West Africa.

^ There isn't a single Arab state in the north, in the east or in the south with which we do not seek peace.
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^ Some 5,9% of the South African GDP in agriculture and 16,96% of total labour in agriculture are based in the North West (Provincial Economies, 2004).
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.The discovery of diamonds in 1867 and gold in 1884 in the interior encouraged economic growth and immigration.^ It was, however, the discoveries of diamonds and gold that chiefly determined the development of the country.

.This intensified the European-South African subjugation of the indigenous people.^ The history of the Dutch language in South Africa is intimately bound up with the history of the South African Dutch people.

^ The South African people decided to solve their problem in their way.
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^ That is fine for them, as long as it is accepted by the South African people.
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.The struggle to control these important economic resources was a factor between Europeans and the indigenous population, and also between the Boers and the British.^ As a port outside British control Delagoa Bay was a source of strength to the Boers, especially as the railway 1 was under their control.

^ The contrast in temperature between these two currents partly accounts for important differences in climate and vegetation between the east and west coasts of South Africa.
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^ The removal of the Zulu danger did not, however, restore harmony between the British and the Boers in the Transvaal.

[25]
.The Boer Republics successfully resisted British encroachments during the First Boer War (1880–1881) using guerrilla warfare tactics, which were well suited to local conditions.^ The intimation of the impending grant of self-government to Cape Colony was regarded by both Boer republics as bringing nearer the prospect of their union with the British colonies.

^ At that time all the chief towns in both of the late republics were held by the British, and the Boers still in the field were reduced to guerilla warfare.

^ It did more, it divided British opinion, sympathy for the Boer republics leading in some cases to a disregard for the real grievances of the Uitlanders.

.However, the British returned with greater numbers, more experience, and more suitable tactics in the Second Boer War (1899–1902), which was won by the British.^ The councils consist of not fewer than 25 members and not more than the number of members returned by the province to the House of Assembly.

^ In the war which began in 1899 munitions of war and recruits for the Boers were freely passed through Delagoa Bay.

^ The situation in 1908 was, however, radically different from that which existed before the war of 1899-1902.

20th century

.After four years of negotiating, the Union of South Africa was created from the Cape and Natal colonies, as well as the republics of Orange Free State and Transvaal, on 31 May 1910, exactly eight years after the end of the Second Boer War.^ Cape Colony (4 vols., 1910 sqq.

^ At first Natal was dependent on Cape Colony.

^ There is internal free trade throughout the Union of South Africa.

.The newly created Union of South Africa was a dominion of Great Britain.^ To lay before South Africa the true position of affairs in the Transvaal Charles Leonard issued a manifesto as chairman of the National Union.

^ The new industrial situation created had its effect on all parties in South Africa, and in some measure drew together the British and Dutch sections outside the Transvaal.

^ True, Norway and South Africa recognized the unity government, but the European Union and the UN secretary general did not follow in their footsteps.
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.The Natives' Land Act of 1913 severely restricted the ownership of land by 'blacks'; at that stage they had control of a mere 7% of the country.^ Plaatje was the leader of the African National Congress delegation that tried to get the Native Land Act discussed at the Versailles Peace Conference.

^ They at that time occupied the Cape peninsula and sur- the Native rounding country, and in the early days of the settlement caused the colonists a considerable amount of trouble.

^ He lets the cat out of the bag when he suggests, in his article, that the Taliban are located not only on the border of Egypt but right inside the country, where they act as the emissaries of the Zionists.
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The amount of land reserved for indigenous peoples was later marginally increased.[26]
.In 1931 the union was effectively granted independence from the United Kingdom with the passage of the Statute of Westminster.^ Nevertheless the advocates of unification gained a complete victory and a form of government was agreed to which made the union of South Africa as close as that of the United Kingdom.

.In 1934, the South African Party and National Party merged to form the United Party, seeking reconciliation between Afrikaners and English-speaking "Whites". In 1939 the party split over the entry of the Union into World War II as an ally of the United Kingdom, a move which the National Party followers strongly opposed.^ For a detailed examination of the constitution and a comparison of it with the federal constitutions of Canada and Australia see " South African Union," by A. Berriedale Keith , in the Journ.

^ These bars are formed by the action of waves and currents, and by the intermittent flow, heavy sediment load and steep gradients of most South African rivers.
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^ In 1909 the value of the imports into British South Africa was returned at £29,842,000; the value of the exports at £51,151,000.3 Of the imports over £16,850,000 came from the United Kingdom , over £2,240,000 from Australia , £2,450,000 from Germany , and £2,195,000 from the United States .

"For use by white persons" – sign from the apartheid era
In 1948, the National Party was elected to power. .It intensified the implementation of racial segregation begun under Dutch and British colonial rule, and subsequent South African governments since the Union was formed.^ For a detailed examination of the constitution and a comparison of it with the federal constitutions of Canada and Australia see " South African Union," by A. Berriedale Keith , in the Journ.

^ British parliament passed the act, foreshadowed by the secretary of state, " for the union under one government of such of the South African colonies and states as may agree thereto, " another war with the Kaffirs broke out.

^ The new industrial situation created had its effect on all parties in South Africa, and in some measure drew together the British and Dutch sections outside the Transvaal.

.The Nationalist Government systematised existing segregationist laws, classifying all peoples into three races, developing rights and limitations for each, such as pass laws and residential restrictions.^ All peoples have the right of self-determination.
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^ Such activity contradicts the stated goal of the French Government to "promote peace, security, [and] stability," "prevent conflicts," "promote public order in the Territories in respect of the law," and to help "respect human rights and fundamental freedoms."
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^ Peace is a ZIonist plot, that should be opposed by all right-thinking followers of CODOH and Stormfront and other such organizations obsessed with the Jew s.
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The white minority controlled the vastly larger black majority. The system of segregation became known collectively as apartheid.
.While the White minority enjoyed the highest standard of living in all of Africa, often comparable to First World western nations, the Black majority remained disadvantaged by almost every standard, including income, education, housing, and life expectancy.^ Attireh said troops took over two houses on his street as temporary positions, and that almost every house in the neighborhood was searched.
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^ Many of South Africa’s major insurance companies and banks are based in the Western Cape.
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^ Often called the Rainbow Nation, South Africa has socially progressive policies.
  • South Africa Phone Cards | South Africa Calling Cards - Cheap South Africa Phone Card to South Africa 17 September 2009 20:17 UTC www.phonecardsmile.com [Source type: News]

.On 31 May 1961, following a whites-only referendum, the country became a republic and left the Commonwealth.^ A Hamas defection followed by a Syrian change of policy would have left the Islamic Republic isolated and exposed.
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.Queen Elizabeth II ceased to be head of state, and the last Governor-General became State President.^ "As President Mahmoud Abbas stated last week, we have no intention to compromise on any of our rights," he said.
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^ The administration of the railways, ports and harbours is entrusted to a board of not more than three commissioners (appointed by the governor-general in council) presided over by a minister of state.

^ The Free State, under the guidance of Sir John Brand , who became president in 1864, attained a considerable measure of prosperity.

.Apartheid became increasingly controversial, leading to widespread international sanctions, divestment and growing unrest and oppression within South Africa.^ The former Supreme, High and Circuit Courts of the several colonies then became provincial and local divisions of the Supreme Court of South Africa, which consists of two divisions, namely the Supreme Court and the Appellate Division.

^ The Muslim community in South Africa is small, but growing rapidly.
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^ Religion: Christianity in South Africa was a "common bond to assail and de-legitimize" apartheid.
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.A long period of harsh suppression by the government, and at times violent resistance, strikes, marches, protests, and sabotage by bombing and other means, by various anti-apartheid movements, most notably the African National Congress (ANC), followed.^ The general outlook of uncritical support for the Palestinians and unbridled hostility towards Israel is articulated by the ruling African National Congress (ANC) and its allies, the Congress of South African Trade Unions (Cosatu) and the South African Communist Party.
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^ At this period Dr John Philip , of the London Missionary Society, was the most prominent of the missionaries in the colony, and his influence was powerful with the home government.

^ "Refusing to recognize the right of the other so as to usurp his rights was a governing principle of the Islamic conquests from the time of 'Omar bin Al-Khattab; during that historical period it was the norm.
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.In the late 1970s, South Africa began a programme of nuclear weapons development.^ During these six years the part he played in the development and public life of South Africa was greater than that of any other man.

^ The board champions the recognition, implementation and promotion of multilingualism in South Africa, and the development of previously marginalised languages.
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^ More than 60% of South Africa’s research and development (R&D) takes place in Gauteng.
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In the following decade, it produced six deliverable nuclear weapons.
The Mahlabatini Declaration of Faith, signed by Mangosuthu Buthelezi and Harry Schwarz in 1974, enshrined the principles of peaceful transition of power and equality for all, the first of such agreements by acknowledged black and white political leaders in South Africa, which would ultimately end with the negotiations between F.W. de Klerk and Nelson Mandela in 1993.
.In 1990 the National Party government took the first step towards dismantling discrimination when it lifted the ban on the African National Congress and other political organisations.^ The general outlook of uncritical support for the Palestinians and unbridled hostility towards Israel is articulated by the ruling African National Congress (ANC) and its allies, the Congress of South African Trade Unions (Cosatu) and the South African Communist Party.
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^ The Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden is included in this area, which makes it a world-first for South Africa, since no other world heritage site includes a botanical garden.
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^ While the home government was seeking to prevent the expansion of the white races the first steps had been taken by a body of Englishmen to found a new colony at Natal.

.It released Nelson Mandela from prison after twenty-seven years' incarceration on a sabotage sentence.^ Israel will consider releasing on humanitarian medical grounds several longtime prisoners from Fatah who were convicted of serious crimes and served in jail for many years.
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^ He ran to Syria and was caught and sentenced to ten years in prison.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Abbas also said that that the Palestinian prisoners slated for release by Israel before the upcoming Eid Al-Adha holiday include lawmakers and prisoners serving long sentences.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.A negotiation process known as the Convention for a Democratic South Africa was started.^ The cereal most grown is maize (known in South Africa as mealies); kaffir corn , wheat , barley and oats are also largely cultivated.

^ The languages spoken in South Africa by the inhabitants of European descent are English and Dutch, the latter chiefly in the form of a patois colloquially known as the Taal .

^ Third-party intervention: Both the main players in South Africa, the ANC and the Afrikaner Nationalist Party, avoided third-party intervention in their negotiations.
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The government repealed apartheid legislation. .South Africa destroyed its nuclear arsenal and acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.^ The treaty was followed by the formation of the British South Africa Company, which obtained a royal charter in 1889, and by the occupation of Mashonaland in 1890.

^ Lately, a fourth element was apparently added - general nuclear disarmament and arms control, including hints that the U.S. expects Israel to become a signatory of the Nuclear Non-proliferation treaty.
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^ Above all, opponents in South Africa finally realized that neither side could defeat the other completely without destroying the country.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.South Africa held its first multi-racial elections in 1994, which the ANC won by an overwhelming majority.^ The aborigines of South Africa are represented by the Bushmen and Hottentots , now found in any racial purity only in the Kalahari and in the southern part of German South-West Africa.

^ The majority of Indians who originally came to South Africa were Hindu.
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^ KwaZulu-Natal ranks second as a major contributor to the economy, accounting for 16,7% of South Africa’s GDP. .
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It has been in power ever since.
.In post-apartheid South Africa, unemployment has been extremely high.^ The former Supreme, High and Circuit Courts of the several colonies then became provincial and local divisions of the Supreme Court of South Africa, which consists of two divisions, namely the Supreme Court and the Appellate Division.

^ Religion: Christianity in South Africa was a "common bond to assail and de-legitimize" apartheid.
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^ And what of the United Kingdom, France, the United States and virtually every country in the world that traded with apartheid South Africa?
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.While many blacks have risen to middle or upper classes, the overall unemployment rate of blacks worsened between 1994 and 2003.[27] Poverty among whites, previously rare, increased.^ The unemployment rate decreased from 35,6% in March 2006 to 27,6% in September 2007.
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^ In 2003, your daughter Rachel became one of the many victims of the struggle between Jews and Arabs in the land of Israel, AKA (between 1917 and 1947) as "Palestine."
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^ What, however, was probably the most powerful motive of the Great Trek was the equality established by the British between the black and white races.

[28] .While some have attributed this partly to the legacy of the apartheid system, increasingly many attribute it to the failure of the current government's policies.^ The Kaffirs had suffered much injustice, especially from the commando -reprisal system, but they had also committed many injustices, and for the disturbed state of the border the vacillating policy of the Cape government was largely to blame.

.In addition, the current government has struggled to achieve the monetary and fiscal discipline to ensure both redistribution of wealth and economic growth.^ In addition, the 248-km road will also facilitate agricultural and economic productivity, and access to government services at schools, clinics and police stations.
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.Since the ANC-led government took power, the United Nations Human Development Index of South Africa has fallen, while it was steadily rising until the mid-1990s.^ History of South Africa since Sept.

^ I can see nothing which will put a stop to this mischievous propaganda but some striking proof of the intention of Her Majesty's government nDt to be ousted from its position in South Africa.

^ To lay before South Africa the true position of affairs in the Transvaal Charles Leonard issued a manifesto as chairman of the National Union.

[29] Some of this could possibly be attributed to the AIDS pandemic and the failure of the government to take steps to address it.[30]

Government and politics

The Union Buildings in Pretoria are the home of the South African executive
.South Africa has three capital cities: Cape Town, the largest of the three, is the legislative capital; Pretoria is the administrative capital; and Bloemfontein is the judicial capital.^ Pretoria is the administrative capital of South Africa and home to the Union Buildings .
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^ Cape Town houses Parliament and is the country’s legislative capital.
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^ The chief cities are Cape Town (pop.

.South Africa has a bicameral parliament: the National Council of Provinces (the upper house) has 90 members, while the National Assembly (the lower house) has 400 members.^ The qualifications for electors are the same as for parliament, and any person qualified to vote is qualified to be a member of the council.

^ South Africa visits Gauteng, making the province the country’s highest earner of tourism income.
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^ To lay before South Africa the true position of affairs in the Transvaal Charles Leonard issued a manifesto as chairman of the National Union.

.Members of the lower house are elected on a population basis by proportional representation: half of the members are elected from national lists and the other half are elected from provincial lists.^ Bishop Colenso of Natal and other Anglicans did not accept the authority of the provincial synod, regarding themselves as in all respects members of the Church of England.

^ Suspicions had been raised that the attempt would be made to force union on a Dutch Afrikander basis, which might have resulted had the basis of representation adopted been the total European population.

^ Any member of the provincial council who becomes a member of either House of Parliament thereupon ceases to be a member of such provincial council.

.Ten members are elected to represent each province in the National Council of Provinces, regardless of the population of the province.^ The province hosted representatives from 204 of the 208 soccer-playing nations of the world as well as a contingent of international media – the largest FIFA representation ever.
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^ The councils consist of not fewer than 25 members and not more than the number of members returned by the province to the House of Assembly.

^ It provided that the legislative council was to consist of not fewer than six or more than nine official members, and, provisionally, of not fewer than thirty or more than thirty-five elected members.

.Elections for both chambers are held every five years.^ A general election must take place every five years, and all polls must be taken on the same day.

The government is formed in the lower house, and the leader of the majority party in the National Assembly is the President.
The National Assembly building, located in Cape Town.
.The primary sources of South Africa law are Roman-Dutch mercantile law and personal law with English Common law, as imports of Dutch settlements and British colonialism.^ The basis of the common law of British South Africa is the Roman-Dutch law as it existed in Holland at the end of the 18th century.

^ In 1909 the value of the imports into British South Africa was returned at £29,842,000; the value of the exports at £51,151,000.3 Of the imports over £16,850,000 came from the United Kingdom , over £2,240,000 from Australia , £2,450,000 from Germany , and £2,195,000 from the United States .

^ The former Supreme, High and Circuit Courts of the several colonies then became provincial and local divisions of the Supreme Court of South Africa, which consists of two divisions, namely the Supreme Court and the Appellate Division.

[31] .The first European based law in South Africa was brought by the Dutch East India Company and is called Roman-Dutch law.^ The administration of the Dutch East India Company was of an extremely despotic character.

^ Isolated, some 1 920 km south-east of Cape Town in the Atlantic, lie the Prince Edward and Marion islands, annexed by South Africa in 1947.
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^ In 2008, the Ford Motor Company announced a R1,5-billion investment in South Africa.
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It was imported before the codification of European law into the Napoleonic Code and is comparable in many ways to Scots law. .This was followed in the 19th century by English law, both common and statutory.^ The basis of the common law of British South Africa is the Roman-Dutch law as it existed in Holland at the end of the 18th century.

.Starting in 1910 with unification, South Africa had its own parliament which passed laws specific for South Africa, building on those previously passed for the individual member colonies.^ The former Supreme, High and Circuit Courts of the several colonies then became provincial and local divisions of the Supreme Court of South Africa, which consists of two divisions, namely the Supreme Court and the Appellate Division.

^ These provisions - subsequently adopted in the electoral law of the Union of South Africa - were made to secure equal rights for the British and Dutch sections of the community.

^ While vast additional territories had been occupied by British 'a ' or Boers the unity of administration, which had Policy of marked the previous stages in the expansion of the white races in South Africa, had been lost.

.During the years of apartheid, the country's political scene was dominated by figures like B. J. Vorster and P. W. Botha, as well as opposition figures such as Harry Schwarz, Joe Slovo and Helen Suzman.^ During the eight years the British held the Cape notable reforms in the government were effected, but the country remained essentially Dutch, and few British settlers were attracted to it.

Durban City Hall
.Since the end of apartheid in 1994, South African politics have been dominated by the African National Congress (ANC), which has been the dominant party with 60–70% of the vote.^ The general outlook of uncritical support for the Palestinians and unbridled hostility towards Israel is articulated by the ruling African National Congress (ANC) and its allies, the Congress of South African Trade Unions (Cosatu) and the South African Communist Party.
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^ More than 70 foreign banks have their head offices here, as do at least the same number of South African banks, stockbrokers and insurance giants.
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^ This decision was deplored by all parties in the British parliament, but it was recognized that to alter a decision deliberately come to by South African statesmen would wreck the union.

.The main challenger to the rule of the ANC is the Democratic Alliance party, which received 16.7% of the vote in the 2009 election and 14.8% in the 2006 election.^ Third-party intervention: Both the main players in South Africa, the ANC and the Afrikaner Nationalist Party, avoided third-party intervention in their negotiations.
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.The formerly dominant New National Party, which introduced apartheid through its predecessor, the National Party, chose to merge with the ANC on 9 April 2005. Other major political parties represented in Parliament are the Congress of the People, which split from the ANC and won 7.4% of the vote in 2009, and the Inkatha Freedom Party, which mainly represents Zulu voters and took 4.6% of the vote in the 2009 election.^ The general outlook of uncritical support for the Palestinians and unbridled hostility towards Israel is articulated by the ruling African National Congress (ANC) and its allies, the Congress of South African Trade Unions (Cosatu) and the South African Communist Party.
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^ These people won't listen to new suggestions.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The elections, which resulted in a Nationalist majority of 13 over all other parties, showed that the Unionists were stronger than had been thought.

.Since 2004, the country has had many thousands of popular protests, some violent, making it, according to one academic, the "most protest-rich country in the world".[32] Many of these protests have been organised from the growing shanty towns that surround South African cities.^ South African countries.

^ Isolated, some 1 920 km south-east of Cape Town in the Atlantic, lie the Prince Edward and Marion islands, annexed by South Africa in 1947.
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^ These bars are formed by the action of waves and currents, and by the intermittent flow, heavy sediment load and steep gradients of most South African rivers.
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.In 2008, South Africa placed 5th out of 48 sub-Saharan African countries on the Ibrahim Index of African Governance.^ South African countries.

^ I can see nothing which will put a stop to this mischievous propaganda but some striking proof of the intention of Her Majesty's government nDt to be ousted from its position in South Africa.

^ In German South-West Africa no discrimination is made as to the country of origin of imports.

.South Africa scored well in the categories of Rule of Law, Transparency & Corruption and Participation & Human Rights, but was let down by its relatively poor performance in Safety & Security.^ We have an almost air-tight case that is based on international law and human rights, but almost nobody is making that case, because they are too busy defending the occupation and fighting "leftists."
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^ South Africa’s surface area falls into two major physiographic categories: the interior plateau, and the land between the plateau and the coast.
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^ Such activity contradicts the stated goal of the French Government to "promote peace, security, [and] stability," "prevent conflicts," "promote public order in the Territories in respect of the law," and to help "respect human rights and fundamental freedoms."
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Ibrahim Index is a comprehensive measure of African governance, based on a number of different variables which reflect the success with which governments deliver essential political goods to its citizens.^ Because the traditional religion of the African people has a strong cultural base, the various groups have different rituals, but there are certain common features.
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33]
.After the end of apartheid in 1994, the "independent" and "semi-independent" Bantustans were integrated into the political structure of South Africa by the abolition of the four former provinces (Cape Province, Natal, Orange Free State and Transvaal) and the creation of nine fully integrated new provinces.^ There are separate synods with independent authority for the congregations of the Dutch Reformed Churches in the Cape, Orange Free State and Transvaal provinces.

^ Of these members the Cape Province returns 51, the Transvaal 36, and Natal and Orange Free State 17 each.

^ The Natal, Transvaal and Orange Free State official publications should also be consulted.

.The generally smaller size of the new provinces theoretically means that local governments have more resources to distribute over smaller areas.^ Even though it is one of the smaller provinces, Mpumalanga has a population of more than 3,6 million people ( Community Survey, 2007 ).
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The province’s natural resources include more than 50 provincial reserves, as well as several private game reserves.
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The provinces are subdivided into 52 districts: 6 metropolitan and 46 district municipalities. The district municipalities are further subdivided into 231 local municipalities. The metropolitan municipalities perform the functions of both district and local municipalities. The new provinces are:
Province[34] Capital[35] Area (km²)[35] Population (2007)[36]
Eastern Cape Bhisho 169,580 6,527,747
Free State Bloemfontein 129,480 2,773,059
Gauteng Johannesburg 17,010 10,451,713
KwaZulu-Natal Pietermaritzburg 92,100 10,259,230
Limpopo Polokwane 123,900 5,238,286
Mpumalanga Nelspruit 79,490 3,643,435
Northern Cape Kimberley 361,830 1,058,060
North West Mafikeng 116,320 3,271,948
Western Cape Cape Town 129,370 5,278,585
Total 1,219,080 48,502,063
South African provinces

Foreign relations and military

.Since the end of apartheid, the South African foreign policy has focused on its African partners particularly in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the African Union.^ For a detailed examination of the constitution and a comparison of it with the federal constitutions of Canada and Australia see " South African Union," by A. Berriedale Keith , in the Journ.

^ South Africans had thus after seventy years of discord agreed upon union.

^ This decision was deplored by all parties in the British parliament, but it was recognized that to alter a decision deliberately come to by South African statesmen would wreck the union.

.South Africa has played a key role as a mediator in African conflicts over the last decade, such as in Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Comoros, and Zimbabwe.^ During these six years the part he played in the development and public life of South Africa was greater than that of any other man.

^ As already stated, the Bantus, like the Europeans, were invaders of South Africa, and the meeting of these rival invaders was the cause of many bloody conflicts.

^ The history of the Dutch language in South Africa is intimately bound up with the history of the South African Dutch people.

.After apartheid ended, South Africa was readmitted to the Commonwealth of Nations.^ To lay before South Africa the true position of affairs in the Transvaal Charles Leonard issued a manifesto as chairman of the National Union.

^ Under the influence of Africander nationalism strenuous efforts have been made to teach the language in the schools throughout the greater part of South Africa.

^ He was inclined to regard Shepstone's act as premature, and he realized that it stirred very deeply Dutch national feeling throughout South Africa.

.As the Union of South Africa, South Africa was a founding member of the United Nations.^ The aborigines of South Africa are represented by the Bushmen and Hottentots , now found in any racial purity only in the Kalahari and in the southern part of German South-West Africa.

^ To lay before South Africa the true position of affairs in the Transvaal Charles Leonard issued a manifesto as chairman of the National Union.

^ Under the influence of Africander nationalism strenuous efforts have been made to teach the language in the schools throughout the greater part of South Africa.

The then Prime Minister Jan Smuts wrote the preamble to the United Nations Charter.[37][38] .South Africa was a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council between 2007 and 2008, and has attracted controversy by voting against a resolution criticising the Burmese government in 2006 and against the implementation of sanctions against Zimbabwe in 2008. South Africa is a member of the Group of 77 and chaired the organisation in 2006. South Africa is a member of the South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone, Southern African Customs Union, World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund, G20 and G8+5.^ There is internal free trade throughout the Union of South Africa.

^ I can see nothing which will put a stop to this mischievous propaganda but some striking proof of the intention of Her Majesty's government nDt to be ousted from its position in South Africa.

^ For a detailed examination of the constitution and a comparison of it with the federal constitutions of Canada and Australia see " South African Union," by A. Berriedale Keith , in the Journ.

South African Denel AH-2 Rooivalk attack helicopter
.The South African National Defence Force was created in 1994,[39][40] as an all volunteer force composed of as the former South African Defence Force, the forces of the African nationalist groups (Umkhonto we Sizwe and Azanian People's Liberation Army), and the former Bantustan defence forces.^ The South African people decided to solve their problem in their way.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "We will return the Islamic community to its former greatness, and liberate Jerusalem, God willing, liberate Iraq, God willing, and liberate all the countries of the Muslims invaded by the murderers."
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That is fine for them, as long as it is accepted by the South African people.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

[39] .The SANDF is subdivided into four branches, the South African Army, the South African Air Force, the South African Navy, and the South African Medical Service.^ This sentiment, which found formal recognition later on in the constitution of the South African Republic, was held in fullest force by the voortrekkers.

^ From the time of his entrance into politics Rhodes endeavoured I to induce the leading men in the country to realize that a development of the whole country could and should be accomplished by South Africans for South Africans.

^ The South Africans of British descent are divided, mainly, into Anglicans, Wesleyans and Presbyterians.

[41]
.In recent years, the SANDF has become a major peacekeeping force in Africa,[42] and has been involved in operations in Lesotho, the Democratic Republic of the Congo,[42] and Burundi,[42] amongst others.^ The largest operations in the 2008 annual budget are: Chad (US$ 73.6 million), Afghanistan (US$ 49.87 million), Kenya (US$ 41.48 million) and the Democratic Republic of Congo (40.92 million).
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is hard to believe that the Fateh organization, which failed to reform itself in all the years of the Oslo process, will suddenly become a force for progress, rectitude and good government.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet Hamas' popularity has soared in recent years, with Fatah and other nationalist factions steadily losing ground.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

It has also participated as a part of multi-national UN peacekeeping forces.
.South Africa undertook a nuclear weapons programme in the 1970s[43] and may have conducted a nuclear test over the Atlantic in 1979.[44] It is the only African country to have successfully developed nuclear weapons.^ South African countries.

^ The aborigines of South Africa are represented by the Bushmen and Hottentots , now found in any racial purity only in the Kalahari and in the southern part of German South-West Africa.

^ During these six years the part he played in the development and public life of South Africa was greater than that of any other man.

It has become the first country (followed by Ukraine) with nuclear capability to voluntarily renounce and dismantle its programme and in the process signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1991.[43]

Geography

Satellite picture of South Africa
.South Africa is located at the southernmost region of Africa, with a long coastline that stretches more than 2,500 km (1,553 mi) and along two oceans (the South Atlantic and the Indian).^ The former Supreme, High and Circuit Courts of the several colonies then became provincial and local divisions of the Supreme Court of South Africa, which consists of two divisions, namely the Supreme Court and the Appellate Division.

^ During these six years the part he played in the development and public life of South Africa was greater than that of any other man.

^ But what has drawn our attention more than anything else is Israel's attempt to redefine the idea of the two-state solution.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.At 1,219,912 km2 (471,011 sq mi),[45] South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world and is comparable in size to Colombia.^ In German South-West Africa no discrimination is made as to the country of origin of imports.

^ South Africa was "a pariah state that lacked the legitimacy of Israel outside the Arab and Muslim world."
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ South Africa presents, however, a solid land mass without peninsulas of any size or any large islands off its coasts.

.Njesuthi in the Drakensberg at 3,408 m (11,181 ft) is the highest peak in South Africa.^ In the south-east, in the Drakensberg , they attain heights of Io,000 to Ii,000 ft., elsewhere the highest points are between 8000 and 9000 ft.

.South Africa has a generally temperate climate, due in part to being surrounded by the Atlantic and Indian Oceans on three sides, by its location in the climatically milder southern hemisphere and due to the average elevation rising steadily towards the north (towards the equator) and further inland.^ The aborigines of South Africa are represented by the Bushmen and Hottentots , now found in any racial purity only in the Kalahari and in the southern part of German South-West Africa.

^ During these six years the part he played in the development and public life of South Africa was greater than that of any other man.

^ Under the influence of Africander nationalism strenuous efforts have been made to teach the language in the schools throughout the greater part of South Africa.

Due to this varied topography and oceanic influence, a great variety of climatic zones exist.
.The climatic zones vary, from the extreme desert of the southern Namib in the farthest northwest to the lush subtropical climate in the east along the Mozambique border and the Indian ocean.^ IDF officers said the Southern Command's high level of alert along the border was responsible for thwarting the attack.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

From the east, the land quickly rises over a mountainous escarpment towards the interior plateau known as the Highveld. .Even though South Africa is classified as semi-arid, there is considerable variation in climate as well as topography.^ There is internal free trade throughout the Union of South Africa.

^ The interval between the passing of the South Africa Act and the establishment of union was employed by the various colonies in putting their houses in order.

^ Henceforth, save for the German and Portuguese possessions, on the west and east coasts respectively, there was but one flag and one allegiance throughout South Africa.

The Drakensberg mountains, the highest mountain range in South Africa
.The interior of South Africa is a vast, flat, and sparsely populated scrubland, the Karoo, which is drier towards the northwest along the Namib desert.^ Sir Hercules Robinson, who was regarded sympathetically by the Dutch population of South Africa, had succeeded Loch as high commissioner.

^ While vast additional territories had been occupied by British 'a ' or Boers the unity of administration, which had Policy of marked the previous stages in the expansion of the white races in South Africa, had been lost.

^ The Asiatic inhabitants of South Africa of the present day are mainly Indian Population (1904).

In contrast, the eastern coastline is lush and well-watered, which produces a climate similar to the tropics.
The extreme southwest has a climate remarkably similar to that of the Mediterranean with wet winters and hot, dry summers, hosting the famous Fynbos Biome of grassland and thicket. .This area also produces much of the wine in South Africa.^ South Africa is divided, and also the area of these territories.

^ The scanty rainfall in many parts of South Africa and its unequal distribution necessitates a system of artificial irrigation unless much of the land be allowed to remain uncultivated.

^ (Excluding the Bechuanaland Protectorate and German South-West Africa, which contain very large desert areas, the population is slightly over 7 per square mile.

This region is also particularly known for its wind, which blows intermittently almost all year. .The severity of this wind made passing around the Cape of Good Hope particularly treacherous for sailors, causing many shipwrecks.^ An act passed in 1836 (the Cape of Good Hope Punishment Act) empowered the colonial courts to deal with offences committed by British subjects in any part of South Africa up to the 25th degree of south latitude .

.Further east on the south coast, rainfall is distributed more evenly throughout the year, producing a green landscape.^ In Rhodesia and on the east coast the tsetse fly is found and termites are widely distributed.

^ The first to enter the field were the Jesuits and Dominicans , who laboured on the south-east coast and among the subjects of the monomotapa (see Portuguese East Africa ).

^ The scanty rainfall in many parts of South Africa and its unequal distribution necessitates a system of artificial irrigation unless much of the land be allowed to remain uncultivated.

This area is popularly known as the Garden Route.
The Free State is particularly flat due to the fact that it lies centrally on the high plateau. North of the Vaal River, the Highveld becomes better watered and does not experience subtropical extremes of heat. Johannesburg, in the centre of the Highveld, is at 1,740 m (5,709 ft) and receives an annual rainfall of 760 mm (29.9 in). Winters in this region are cold, although snow is rare.
To the north of Johannesburg, the altitude drops beyond the escarpment of the Highveld, and turns into the lower lying Bushveld, an area of mixed dry forest and an abundance of wildlife. East of the Highveld, beyond the eastern escarpment, the Lowveld stretches towards the Indian Ocean. It has particularly high temperatures, and is also the location of extended subtropical agriculture.
.The high Drakensberg mountains, which form the south-eastern escarpment of the Highveld, offer limited skiing opportunities in winter.^ The eastern escarpments (the Drakensberg, &c.

.The coldest place in South Africa is Sutherland in the western Roggeveld Mountains, where midwinter temperatures can reach as low as −15 °C (5.0 °F).^ When the Portuguese first reached the southern part of Africa there was but one place in it where a civilized race held sway.

^ The leopard (called a tiger in South Africa) is still fairly common in all mountainous regions.

^ Wanderings in the Wilds of South-Western Africa (1856); David I Unless otherwise stated the place of publication is London.

The deep interior has the hottest temperatures: a temperature of 51.7 °C (125.06 °F) was recorded in 1948 in the Northern Cape Kalahari near Upington.[46]
.South Africa also has one possession, the small sub-Antarctic archipelago of the Prince Edward Islands, consisting of Marion Island (290 km2/110 sq mi) and Prince Edward Island (45 km2/17 sq mi) (not to be confused with the Canadian province of the same name).^ For a more informed and informative look at the issue, one can turn to an authoritative source: a book published in 2005 by two Canadians, Heribert Adam and Kogila Moodley, who are specialists on South Africa.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One state solution: South Africa Is Not a Model for Us .
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]


Climate data for Cape Town, South Africa
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 27
(81)
28
(82)
26
(79)
24
(75)
20
(68)
18
(64)
17
(63)
18
(64)
19
(66)
22
(72)
24
(75)
26
(79)
28
(82)
Average low °C (°F) 16
(61)
16
(61)
15
(59)
13
(55)
10
(50)
8
(46)
8
(46)
8
(46)
9
(48)
11
(52)
14
(57)
15
(59)
8
(46)
Precipitation mm (inches) 16.5
(0.65)
13
(0.51)
20
(0.79)
54
(2.13)
92
(3.62)
111
(4.37)
96
(3.78)
87
(3.43)
56
(2.2)
40
(1.57)
24
(0.94)
18
(0.71)
627
(24.69)
Source: EuroWEATHER[47] 2008-02-22

Flora and fauna

Fynbos, a floral kingdom unique to South Africa, is found near Cape Town
Swartberg mountains near the town of Oudtshoorn
A field of flowers in the West Coast National Park
.South Africa is ranked sixth out of the world’s seventeen megadiverse countries,[48] with more than 20,000 different plants, or about 10% of all the known species of plants on Earth, making it particularly rich in plant biodiversity.^ "The homeland is more important than all our differences," he said.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The cereal most grown is maize (known in South Africa as mealies); kaffir corn , wheat , barley and oats are also largely cultivated.

^ This finding is all the more noteworthy in that Palestinian territories stand out in their responses from every other Muslim country surveyed.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.The most prevalent biome in South Africa is the grassland, particularly on the Highveld, where the plant cover is dominated by different grasses, low shrubs, and acacia trees, mainly camel-thorn and whitethorn.^ The cereal most grown is maize (known in South Africa as mealies); kaffir corn , wheat , barley and oats are also largely cultivated.

^ On the plains where grasses cannot find sufficient moisture their place is taken by " bush ," composed mainly of stunted mimosas, acacias, euphorbia , wild pomegranate , bitter aloes and herbaceous plants.

^ Despite the differences, South Africa does offer valuable lessons in the efforts to resolve the Israel and Palestine conflict.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

Vegetation becomes even more sparse towards the northwest due to low rainfall. There are several species of water-storing succulents like aloes and euphorbias in the very hot and dry Namaqualand area. .The grass and thorn savannah turns slowly into a bush savannah towards the north-east of the country, with denser growth.^ First the United Church of Canada (later in 2006) and now the United Church of Christ have made similar turns toward fairness in their approach to the Middle East ."
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He points out that it was after failing to find a route by the north-east to China and Japan that the Dutch turned their eyes to the Cape route.

There are significant numbers of baobab trees in this area, near the northern end of Kruger National Park.[49]
.The Fynbos Biome, which makes up the majority of the area and plant life in the Cape floristic region, one of the six floral kingdoms, is located in a small region of the Western Cape and contains more than 9,000 of those species, making it among the richest regions on earth in terms of floral biodiversity.^ Flowering plants include numerous species of terrestrial orchids , the socalled arum lily ( Richardia Africana ), common in low-lying moist land, and the white everlasting flower , found abundantly in some regions of Cape Colony .

^ The Arab Higher Committee was no more than an assembly of notables, who were appointed on a regional and clan basis without elections, and it represented only itself.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It nests mostly on rocky ledges, and sometimes in one area there can be up to 10 nests.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

The majority of the plants are evergreen hard-leaf plants with fine, needle-like leaves, such as the sclerophyllous plants. Another uniquely South African plant is the protea genus of flowering plants. .There are around 130 different species of protea in South Africa.^ Despite the differences, South Africa does offer valuable lessons in the efforts to resolve the Israel and Palestine conflict.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

While South Africa has a great wealth of flowering plants, only 1% of South Africa is forest, almost exclusively in the humid coastal plain of KwaZulu-Natal, where there are also areas of Southern Africa mangroves in river mouths. .There are even smaller reserves of forests that are out of the reach of fire, known as montane forests.^ Had it not been for Israel, even the Syrians would not have known that they threw live people out of planes.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even were a deal to be reached, there is no way that Mahmoud Abbas would be able to keep his part of the bargain, as he doesn't control the Palestinian "street" and shows no will to do so.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.Plantations of imported tree species are predominant, particularly the non-native eucalyptus and pine.^ Among the timber trees are species of pine , cedar , ebony , ironwood , stinkwood and sneezewood.

.South Africa has lost a large area of natural habitat in the last four decades, primarily due to overpopulation, sprawling development patterns and deforestation during the nineteenth century.^ The cereal most grown is maize (known in South Africa as mealies); kaffir corn , wheat , barley and oats are also largely cultivated.

^ During these six years the part he played in the development and public life of South Africa was greater than that of any other man.

^ While vast additional territories had been occupied by British 'a ' or Boers the unity of administration, which had Policy of marked the previous stages in the expansion of the white races in South Africa, had been lost.

.South Africa is one of the worst affected countries in the world when it comes to invasion by alien species with many (e.g.^ The imperial government made but one alteration of consequence - that explicitly placing the control and administration of matters " specially or differentially affecting Asiatics "in the sole control of the union parliament.

^ Henceforth, save for the German and Portuguese possessions, on the west and east coasts respectively, there was but one flag and one allegiance throughout South Africa.

^ As already stated, the Bantus, like the Europeans, were invaders of South Africa, and the meeting of these rival invaders was the cause of many bloody conflicts.

Black Wattle, Port Jackson, Hakea, Lantana and Jacaranda) posing a significant threat to the native biodiversity and the already scarce water resources. .The original temperate forest found by the first European settlers was exploited ruthlessly until only small patches remained.^ Forest patches are found in the kloofs and seaward sides of the mountains; willows often border the watercourses; heaths and bulbous plants are common in some areas.

.Currently, South African hardwood trees like Real Yellowwood (Podocarpus latifolius), stinkwood (Ocotea bullata), and South African Black Ironwood (Olea laurifolia) are under government protection.^ The most marked difference between the English and South African systems of law is, as might be expected, to be found in the law relating to real property .

^ None of the South African governments was, however, then in a position to undertake large works.

^ South African affairs because they have no South African government with which to govern."

Numerous mammals are found in the bushveld including lions, leopards, white rhinos, blue wildebeest, kudus, impalas, hyenas, hippopotamus and giraffes. A significant extent of the bushveld exists in the north-east including Kruger National Park and the Mala Mala Reserve, as well as in the far north in the Waterberg Biosphere.
Climate change is expected to bring considerable warming and drying to much of this already semi-arid region, with greater frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as heatwaves, flooding and drought. According to computer generated climate modelling produced by the South African National Biodiversity Institute[50] parts of southern Africa will see an increase in temperature by about one degree Celsius along the coast to more than four degrees Celsius in the already hot hinterland such as the Northern Cape in late spring and summertime by 2050.
.The Cape Floral Kingdom has been identified as one of the global biodiversity hotspots since it will be hit very hard by climate change and has such a great diversity of life.^ Cape Colony since 1874, was created a peer of the United Kingdom in 1910 under the title of Baron de Villiers of Wynburg.

Drought, increased intensity and frequency of fire and climbing temperatures are expected to push many of these rare species towards extinction.
.South Africa houses many endemic species, among them the critically endangered Riverine Rabbit (Bunolagus monticullaris) in the Karoo.^ As already stated, the Bantus, like the Europeans, were invaders of South Africa, and the meeting of these rival invaders was the cause of many bloody conflicts.

^ The scanty rainfall in many parts of South Africa and its unequal distribution necessitates a system of artificial irrigation unless much of the land be allowed to remain uncultivated.

^ The interval between the passing of the South Africa Act and the establishment of union was employed by the various colonies in putting their houses in order.

Economy

Table Mountain. Cape Town has become an important retail and tourism centre for the country, and attracts the largest number of foreign visitors in South Africa
.By UN classification South Africa is a middle-income country with an abundant supply of resources, well-developed financial, legal, communications, energy, and transport sectors, a stock exchange that ranks among the top twenty in the world, and a modern infrastructure supporting an efficient distribution of goods to major urban centres throughout the entire region.^ True, Norway and South Africa recognized the unity government, but the European Union and the UN secretary general did not follow in their footsteps.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ South Africa was "a pariah state that lacked the legitimacy of Israel outside the Arab and Muslim world."
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We are a small country with a small population, but rich in good will and with a significant ability to create a partnership that will lead to prosperity, to growth, to economic development, and to stability for the entire region.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

South Africa is ranked 25th in the world in terms of GDP (PPP) as of 2008.
.Advanced development is significantly localised around four areas: Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Durban, and Pretoria/Johannesburg.^ From the seaports of Cape Town, Port Elizabeth , East London , Durban, Lourenco Marques and Beira railway lines run to Kimberley, Bloemfontein, Johannesburg and Pretoria, while a trunk line extends north from Kimberley through Rhodesia (in which gold mining began on an extensive scale in 1898) and across the Zambezi below the Victoria Falls into the Congo basin, where it serves the Katanga mineral area.

^ In 1892 (the year in which the railway from Cape Town reached the Rand), the National Union was founded at Johannesburg by ex-Cape Colonists of the Imperial progressive party.

^ After sitting at Durban for a month, the convention adjourned to Cape Town and concluded its elaboration of a draft constitution by February 1909.

Beyond these four economic centres, development is marginal and poverty is still prevalent despite government efforts. Consequently the vast majority of South Africans are poor. However, key marginal areas have experienced rapid growth recently. .Such areas include Mossel Bay to Plettenberg Bay; Rustenburg area; Nelspruit area; Bloemfontein; Cape West Coast; and the KwaZulu-Natal North Coast.^ Thence he pushed on round the coast, landed in Mossel Bay , then sailing up the south-east coast he sighted land again on the 25th of December 1497, and named it in honour of the day, Natal.

^ Cape and British governments, all the coast between the Orange and the Portuguese frontier, save Walfish Bay, was placed under German protection (see Africa , §5).

^ It is divided into the dioceses of Cape Town, Graham's Town , Maritzburg (Natal), Kaffraria , Bloemfontein, Pretoria, Zululand, Mashonaland and Lebombo.

Unemployment is extremely high and income inequality is approximately equal to Brazil. .During 1995–2003, the number of formal jobs decreased and informal jobs increased; overall unemployment worsened.^ "We hope that the number will increase to 40 states," Abbas was quoted as telling Palestinian dignitaries from Jerusalem, during a meal breaking the dawn-to-dusk Ramadan fast.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the past two decades their number has decreased by 50 percent, and this is a species that is in danger of extinction.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

[27] .The average South African household income decreased considerably between 1995 and 2000. As for racial inequality, Statistics South Africa reported that in 1995 the average white household earned four times as much as the average black household.^ Economy: Blacks and whites in South Africa were economically interdependent.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The aborigines of South Africa are represented by the Bushmen and Hottentots , now found in any racial purity only in the Kalahari and in the southern part of German South-West Africa.

^ The war between the Transvaal republic and the natives has had this further effect, it rapidly ripened all South African policy....

.In 2000 the average white household was earning six times more than the average black household.^ They had also rapidly multiplied, so that by 1 9 04 they were more numerous than the whites in the colony.

^ It provided that the legislative council was to consist of not fewer than six or more than nine official members, and, provisionally, of not fewer than thirty or more than thirty-five elected members.

^ So far as may be the total earnings are not to be more than are sufficient to meet necessary outlays.

[51] The affirmative action policies have seen a rise in black economic wealth and an emerging black middle class.[52][53] .Other problems are crime, corruption, and HIV/AIDS. South Africa suffers from relatively heavy overall regulation burden compared to developed countries.^ During these six years the part he played in the development and public life of South Africa was greater than that of any other man.

^ Other writers confine the term to the British possessions south of the Zambezi, but in this case British South Africa is the proper designation.

^ In German South-West Africa no discrimination is made as to the country of origin of imports.

State ownership and interference impose high barriers to entry in many areas.[54] Restrictive labour regulations have contributed to the unemployment malaise.[27]
The Nelson Mandela Bridge in Johannesburg. Gauteng produces 33% of South Africa's GDP and 10% of the African continent's GDP
The 1994 government inherited an economy wracked by long years of internal conflict and external sanctions. Governments refrained from resorting to economic populism. Inflation was brought down, public finances were stabilised, and some foreign capital was attracted.[55] However, growth was still subpar.[55] .At the start of 2000, then President Thabo Mbeki vowed to promote economic growth and foreign investment by relaxing restrictive labour laws, stepping up the pace of privatisation, and cutting unneeded governmental spending.^ Most of the file is taken up with Foreign Office attempts to distance itself from the Israeli raid while privately admitting that the Israelis were probably justified in sending their troops into President Idi Amin's Uganda.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It notes that: Most of the file is taken up with Foreign Office attempts to distance itself from the Israeli raid while privately admitting that the Israelis were probably justified in sending their troops into President Idi Amin's Uganda.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

His policies face strong opposition from organised labour. From 2004 onward economic growth picked up significantly; both employment and capital formation increased.[55]
.South Africa is the largest energy producer and consumer on the continent.^ As a geographical unit South Africa is usually held to be that part of the continent south of the middle course of the Zambezi .

^ By some writers Northern Rhodesia is included in South Africa, but that district belongs more accurately to the central portion of the continent.

South Africa is a popular tourist destination, and a substantial amount of revenue comes from tourism.[56] Among the main attractions are the diverse and picturesque culture, the game reserves and the highly regarded local wines.
.The South African rand (ZAR), is the most actively traded emerging market currency in the world.^ The most marked difference between the English and South African systems of law is, as might be expected, to be found in the law relating to real property .

^ A South African Customs Statistical Bureau , which deals with the external trade of British South Africa,' was established in July 1905.

^ "Sanctions (divestment and trade boycotts) are generally overrated in triggering South African change," they say.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

It has joined an elite club of fifteen currencies, the Continuous linked settlement (CLS), where forex transactions are settled immediately, lowering the risks of transacting across time zones. .The rand was the best-performing currency against the United States dollar (USD) between 2002 and 2005, according to the Bloomberg Currency Scorecard.^ The United States will do all we can to encourage these negotiations and promote reconciliation between Israelis and Palestinians.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The article states: The trend toward delegitimizing Israel's existence as a Jewish state is growing not only in Europe, but also in the United States, according to Jewish-American academics and community leaders.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

JSE is the largest stock exchange on the African continent
The volatility of the rand has affected economic activity, falling sharply during 2001 and hitting a historic low of 13.85 ZAR to the USD, raising fears of inflation, and causing the Reserve Bank to increase interest rates. The rand has since recovered, trading at 7.77 ZAR to the dollar as of February 2010. However, as exporters are put under considerable pressure from a stronger domestic currency, many call for government intervention to help soften the rand.
.Refugees from poorer neighbouring countries include many immigrants from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Malawi and others, representing a large portion of the informal sector.^ To the surprise of many, the United States, Europe and the international Quartet (which also includes a representative from the United Nations and from Russia) joined the boycott.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Under this treaty Lobengula bound himself not to make a treaty with any other foreign power, nor to sell or in any other way dispose of any portion of his country without the sanction of the high commissioner.

^ The Arab world represented here by many countries is a vital component in creating a new reality in the Middle East.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.With high unemployment levels amongst poorer South Africans, xenophobia is prevalent and many people born in South Africa feel resentful of immigrants who are seen to be depriving the native population of jobs, a feeling which has been given credibility by the fact that many South African employers have employed migrants from other countries for lower pay than South African citizens, especially in the construction, tourism, agriculture and domestic service industries.^ South African countries.

^ Statistical Year Books or Registers; Census Reports; Reports of the Statistical Bureau (since 1905); Annual Trade Returns and other official publications, especially those on native affairs, mining, agriculture and railways; Argus Annual and South African'Directory (Cape Town); L. V. Praagh (ed.

^ The former Supreme, High and Circuit Courts of the several colonies then became provincial and local divisions of the Supreme Court of South Africa, which consists of two divisions, namely the Supreme Court and the Appellate Division.

Illegal immigrants are also heavily involved in informal trading.[57] However, many immigrants to South Africa continue to live in poor conditions, and the South African immigration policy has become increasingly restrictive since 1994.[58]
.Principal international trading partners of South Africa—besides other African countries—include Germany, the United States, China, Japan, the United Kingdom and Spain.^ And what of the United Kingdom, France, the United States and virtually every country in the world that traded with apartheid South Africa?
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ South African countries.

^ In 1909 the value of the imports into British South Africa was returned at £29,842,000; the value of the exports at £51,151,000.3 Of the imports over £16,850,000 came from the United Kingdom , over £2,240,000 from Australia , £2,450,000 from Germany , and £2,195,000 from the United States .

[59] .Chief exports include corn, diamonds, fruits, gold, metals and minerals, sugar, and wool.^ Wool , mohair and ostrich feathers were the chief exports, the only mineral exported being copper (from the Namaqualand mines).

^ The raw gold exported was worth £32,047,000 but the export of diamonds fell to £4,796,000.

^ The value of raw gold exported in 1907 was £29,510,000, of diamonds £8,973,000.

.Machinery and transportation equipment make up more than one-third of the value of the country’s imports.^ In 1843 two more of these treaty states were established, one under Adam Kok (the third of that name) and the other under Moshesh.

Other imports include chemicals, manufactured goods, and petroleum.

Electricity crisis

Arnot power station
.After unsuccessful attempts by the government to encourage private construction of electricity generation capacity, in 2007 the state-owned electricity supplier (Eskom) started experiencing a lack of capacity in the electrical generating and reticulation infrastructure.^ For the Palestinians, the goal is a state of their own, where they can enjoy the dignity that comes with sovereignty and self-government.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

This led to an inability to meet the routine demands of industry and consumers, resulting in countrywide rolling blackouts. Initially the lack of capacity was triggered by a failure at Koeberg nuclear power station, but since then a general lack of capacity due to increased demand became evident. The supplier has been widely criticised for failing to adequately plan for and construct sufficient electrical generating capacity,[60] although ultimately the government has admitted that it is at fault for refusing to approve funding for investment in infrastructure.[61]
.The crisis was resolved within a few months, but the margin between national demand and available capacity is still low (particularly in peak hours) and power stations are under strain, meaning another phase of rolling blackouts is probable if parts of the supply are halted for whatever reason.^ That party soon afterwards had it in its power to bring pressure officially upon President Kruger, for it was a few months after the delivery of the s p eech that Mr Schreiner became premier.

^ Nevertheless, over the past few days Abbas has reiterated to foreign media outlets that under no conditions would Fatah again share power with Hamas.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

Government and Eskom are currently planning new power stations. The power utility plans to have 20 000MW of nuclear power in its grid by 2025.[62][63]

Agriculture

Workers planting on a farm in the central area of Mpumalanga
Farm workers
South Africa has a large agricultural sector and is a net exporter of farming products. .There are almost a thousand agricultural cooperatives and agribusinesses throughout the country, and agricultural exports have constituted 8% of South African total exports for the past five years.^ In recent years he has said that he has rediscovered his identity as a Jew; however, the South African Jewish community wants nothing to do with him.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.The agricultural industry contributes around 10% of formal employment, relatively low compared to other parts of Africa, as well as providing work for casual labourers and contributing around 2.6% of GDP for the nation.^ However, the study found, the Basor is now full of both municipal waste and toxins emitted by the stone- and leather-working industries around Hebron.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It would seem that he claims that the UCC does not " also have a responsibility to more fully understand and name the ways other nations and forces have contributed to the situation."
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The PA will leave him free of any charges, as he has other relatives working with the PA, and these relative protect him from the consequences of his crime.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

[64] However, due to the aridity of the land, only 13.5% can be used for crop production, and only 3% is considered high potential land.[65]
.Although the commercial farming sector is relatively well developed, people in some rural areas still survive on subsistence agriculture.^ When a Jewish area was overrun - and some were - the homes were looted or destroyed and any survivors were killed, as at Kfar Etzion (only three of the defenders survived the massacre).
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

It is the eighth largest wine producer in the world, and the eleventh largest producer of sunflower seed. .South Africa is a net exporter of agricultural products and foodstuffs, the largest number of exported items being sugar, grapes, citrus, nectarines, wine and deciduous fruit.^ Originally regarded by Europeans merely as a convenient depot for ships on their way to India , the wealth of South Africa for long consisted in its agricultural and pastoral resources.

^ Throughout South Africa a number of words, mainly Dutch, are in general use by the English-speaking inhabitants and also, to a considerable extent, among the natives.

^ Being declared by judicial decision in 1863 a voluntary body, the Anglicans formed " The Church of the Province of South Africa."

.The largest locally produced crop is maize (corn), and it has been estimated that 9 million tons are produced every year, with 7.4 million tons being consumed.^ Members of parliament are paid £400 a year, f3 being deducted from this allowance for every day's absence during the session.

.Livestock are also popular on South African farms, with the country producing 85% of all meat consumed.^ South African countries.

^ The war between the Transvaal republic and the natives has had this further effect, it rapidly ripened all South African policy....

^ This decision was deplored by all parties in the British parliament, but it was recognized that to alter a decision deliberately come to by South African statesmen would wreck the union.

The dairy industry consists of around 4,300 milk producers providing employment for 60,000 farm workers and contributing to the livelihoods of around 40,000 others.[66]
In recent years, the agricultural sector has introduced several reforms, some of which are controversial, such as land reform and the deregulation of the market for agricultural products. .The South African government has set a target of transferring 30% of productive farmland from whites to previously disadvantaged blacks by 2014.[67] Land reform has been criticised both by farmers' groups and by landless workers, the latter alleging that the pace of change has not been fast enough, and the former alleging racist treatment and expressing concerns that a similar situation to Zimbabwe's land reform policy may develop,[68] a fear exacerbated by comments made by former deputy president Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka.^ The war between the Transvaal republic and the natives has had this further effect, it rapidly ripened all South African policy....

^ South African standard time , adopted in 1903, is that of 30° E., or two hours in advance of Greenwich .

^ While vast additional territories had been occupied by British 'a ' or Boers the unity of administration, which had Policy of marked the previous stages in the expansion of the white races in South Africa, had been lost.

[69][70] .The sector continues to face problems, with increased foreign competition and crime being two of the major challenges for the industry.^ The speech is being viewed by skeptics as a " last ditch effort " to salvage the two state vision of the Bush administration, but it reflects a deeper problem.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

The government has been accused of either putting in too much effort,[71] or not enough effort,[72] to tackle the problem of farm attacks as opposed to other forms of violent crime.
.Another issue which affects South African agriculture is environmental damage caused by misuse of the land and global climate change.^ "Sanctions (divestment and trade boycotts) are generally overrated in triggering South African change," they say.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.South Africa is unusually vulnerable to climate change and resultant diminution of surface waters.^ Peacemaking resulted in an inclusive democracy in South Africa, while territorial separation of the adversaries in two states is widely hailed as the solution in Israel and Palestine: .
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

Some predictions show surface water supply could decrease by 60% by the year 2070 in parts of the Western Cape.[73] To reverse the damage caused by land mismanagement, the government has supported a scheme which promotes sustainable development and the use of natural resources.[74] .Maize production, which contributes to a 36% majority of the gross value of South Africa’s field crops, has also experienced negative effects due to climate change.^ Despite the differences, South Africa does offer valuable lessons in the efforts to resolve the Israel and Palestine conflict.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

The estimated value of loss, which takes into consideration scenarios with and without the carbon dioxide fertilisation effect,[75] ranges between 10’s to 100’s of millions of Rands.[76]

Demographics

Historical populations
Year Pop.  %±
1900 5,014,000
1910 5,842,000 16.5%
1920 6,953,000 19.0%
1930 8,580,000 23.4%
1940 10,341,000 20.5%
1950 13,310,000 28.7%
1960 16,385,000 23.1%
1970 21,794,000 33.0%
1980 24,261,000 11.3%
1990 37,944,000 56.4%
2000 43,686,000 15.1%
2009 (est.) 49,320,000 12.9%
Map of population density in South Africa.
     <1 /km²      1–3 /km²      3–10 /km²      10–30 /km²      30–100 /km²      100–300 /km²      300–1000 /km²      1000–3000 /km²      >3000 /km²
The many migrations that formed the modern Rainbow Nation
.South Africa is a nation of about 50 million people of diverse origins, cultures, languages, and religions.^ The Arab peoples have over twenty states in which to give expression to their national heritage, language and culture.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What to do about the 1.4 million people who live there?
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ About 50,000 people were confined to their homes.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.The last census was held in 2001 and the next will be in 2011. Statistics South Africa provided five racial categories by which people could classify themselves, the last of which, "unspecified/other" drew negligible responses, and these results were omitted.^ The slaughtered wife who he forced to sell sexual favors to others should not be held responsible for what happened to her.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If you were to conduct statistics within the Zionist entity, you would find that all these people have their origins in other countries – they came from Europe, Eastern Europe, from American, South America, or other places.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It's fashionable these days in South Africa to offer the country as an exemplar for the Israeli-Palestinian conflict: "We created a unitary state and so must you," they say.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

[77] The 2009 midyear estimated figures for the other categories were Black African at 79.3%, White at 9.1%, Coloured at 9.0%, and Indian or Asian at 2.6%.[78]
.Even though the population of South Africa has increased in the past decade[77][79] (primarily due to immigration), the country had an annual population growth rate of −0.501% in 2008 (CIA est.^ We are a small country with a small population, but rich in good will and with a significant ability to create a partnership that will lead to prosperity, to growth, to economic development, and to stability for the entire region.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And what of the United Kingdom, France, the United States and virtually every country in the world that traded with apartheid South Africa?
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It's fashionable these days in South Africa to offer the country as an exemplar for the Israeli-Palestinian conflict: "We created a unitary state and so must you," they say.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

), including immigration.[80] The CIA estimates that in 2009 South Africa's population started to grow again, at a rate of 0,281%.[1] South Africa is home to an estimated 5 million illegal immigrants, including some 3 million Zimbabweans.[81][82][83] A series of anti-immigrant riots occurred in South Africa beginning on 11 May 2008.[84][85]
By far the major part of the population classified itself as African or black, but it is not culturally or linguistically homogeneous. .Major ethnic groups include the Zulu, Xhosa, Basotho (South Sotho), Bapedi (North Sotho), Venda, Tswana, Tsonga, Swazi and Ndebele, all of which speak Bantu languages.^ Israel advocacy has to start speaking to unconvinced people in the language that they understand, and in the places where they listen: on campus, in the internet, in unions and women's groups and church groups.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are, however, divided by religion, language, and above all, by history and the mythologies that the 'burden of history' imprints on the self-concept and collective identity of the two groups.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some, such as the Zulu, Xhosa, Bapedi and Venda groups, are unique to South Africa.^ Such a different trajectory suggests itself because South Africa, arguably, constitutes merely a multiethnic society with many cross-cutting bonds between the legislated artificial racial groups.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.Other groups are distributed across the borders with neighbours of South Africa: The Basotho group is also the major ethnic group in Lesotho.^ Above all, opponents in South Africa finally realized that neither side could defeat the other completely without destroying the country.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

The Tswana ethnic group constitute the majority of the population of Botswana. The Swazi ethnic group is the major ethnic group in Swaziland. The Ndebele ethnic group is also found in Matabeleland in Zimbabwe, where they are known as the Matabele. These Ndebele people are the descendants of a Zulu faction under the warrior Mzilikazi that escaped persecution from Shaka by migrating to their current territory. The Tsonga ethnic group is also found in southern Mozambique, where they are known as the Shangaan.
The white population is not ethnically homogeneous and descends from many ethnic groups: Dutch, Flemish, Portuguese, Norwegian, German, Greek, French Huguenot, English, Polish, Irish, Italian, Scottish and Welsh. .There is also a substantial (though decreased) Jewish population, the majority of whom came from Lithuania at the turn of the 20th century; though others came then and later from Great Britain, the former Soviet Union and Israel.^ Similarly, though it is not a prior condition for negotiations, everyone should be made to understand that Israel will assert the historic rights of the Jewish people in "East Jerusalem."
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ [But] at the turn of the [20th] century, this principle was abandoned and prohibited, because it sparked wars and [violent] conflict.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If this succeeds by the turn of the century, this new post-patriarchal liberation struggle will regain the human face of the first intifada and win the support of progressive forces the world over, including the support of progressive Jewish forces in Israel and the United States.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.Culturally and linguistically, they are divided into the Afrikaners, who speak Afrikaans, and English-speaking groups, many of whom are descended from British and Irish immigrants (see Anglo-African).^ Israel advocacy has to start speaking to unconvinced people in the language that they understand, and in the places where they listen: on campus, in the internet, in unions and women's groups and church groups.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are lacking in intelligence, education or culture, and they integrate poorly into Palestinian society.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are, however, divided by religion, language, and above all, by history and the mythologies that the 'burden of history' imprints on the self-concept and collective identity of the two groups.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many small communities that have immigrated over the last century retain the use of other languages.^ PMW comment: Last year PMW documented that Ma'an used this politicized hate language after the suicide terror attack in the Israeli city of Eilat.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

The white population is on the decrease due to a low birth rate and emigration; as a factor in their decision to emigrate, many cite the high crime rate and the affirmative action policies of the government. Since 1994, approximately 1,000,000 white South Africans have permanently emigrated.[86][87][88][89]
Despite high emigration levels, a high level of non-South African white immigrants have settled in the country, in particular from countries such as Britain and Zimbabwe. For example, by 2005, an estimated 212 000 British citizens were residing in South Africa. Since 2003, the numbers of British migrants coming to South Africa has risen by 50%. .An estimated 20 000 British migrants moved to South Africa in 2007. There have also been a significant number of white Zimbabwean arrivals, fleeing their home country in light of the economic and political problems currently facing the country.^ Economy: Blacks and whites in South Africa were economically interdependent.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And ultimately there was Nelson Mandela, who led the way to the "miracle" of the new South Africa, and the Afrikaner leader F.W. de Klerk, who had the boldness and courage to recognize that white rule could not be sustained.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We are a small country with a small population, but rich in good will and with a significant ability to create a partnership that will lead to prosperity, to growth, to economic development, and to stability for the entire region.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

As well as recent arrivals, a significant number of white Zimbabweans emigrated to South Africa in the wake of independence in Zimbabwe in 1980. Some of the more nostalgic members of the community are known in popular culture as "Whenwes", because of their nostalgia for their lives in Rhodesia "when we were in Rhodesia".[90]
There were other white immigrations to South Africa in past decades. .In the 1970s, many Portuguese residents of African colonies such as Angola and Mozambique, came to live in South Africa after the independence of those nations.^ Such a different trajectory suggests itself because South Africa, arguably, constitutes merely a multiethnic society with many cross-cutting bonds between the legislated artificial racial groups.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

Portuguese colonial soldiers had deep ties with the SADF since they were fighting the same enemies, such as FRELIMO in Mozambique. Many opened restaurants and convenience stores in the country. Also, the apartheid government encouraged Eastern European immigration in the 1980s and early 1990s, particularly from Poland and Hungary.
.The term "coloured" is still used for the people of mixed race descended from slaves brought in from East and Central Africa, the indigenous Khoisan who lived in the Cape at the time, Bantus, Whites (mostly the Dutch/Afrikaner and British settlers) as well as an admixture of Javanese, Malay, Indian, Malagasy and Asian blood (such as Burmese).^ All agreed that each language has its own terminology and special meanings, and that Ma'an will not stop using terms such as "martyr", "resistance" and equivalent terms, in Arabic.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And ultimately there was Nelson Mandela, who led the way to the "miracle" of the new South Africa, and the Afrikaner leader F.W. de Klerk, who had the boldness and courage to recognize that white rule could not be sustained.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the Jewish side, religiously motivated settlers and ultra-Orthodox believers cannot be as easily marginalized as were extremists among white Afrikaners.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

The majority speak Afrikaans. .Khoisan is a term used to describe two separate groups, physically similar: light-skinned and small in stature.^ In its English versions of these reports, Ma'an did not honor the terrorists as "Shahids" or use the similar English term "Martyrs."
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

The Khoikhoi, who were called Hottentots by the Europeans, were pastoralists and were annihilated; the San, called Bushmen by the Europeans, were hunter-gatherers. Within the Coloured community, more recent immigrants will also be found: Coloureds from the former Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe); Namibia and immigrants of mixed descent from India and Burma (Anglo-Indians/Anglo-Burmese) who were welcomed to the Cape when India and Burma received their Independence.
The major part of the South African Asian population is Indian in origin (see Indian South Africans); many of them descended from indentured workers brought in the nineteenth century to work on the sugar plantations of the eastern coastal area then known as Natal. Serious riots in Durban between Indians and Zulus erupted in 1949.[91] There is also a significant group of Chinese South Africans (approximately 100,000 individuals) and Vietnamese South Africans (approximately 50,000 individuals). In 2008, the Pretoria High Court has ruled that Chinese South Africans who arrived before 1994 are to be reclassified as Coloureds. .As a result of this ruling, about 12,000–15,000 [92] ethnically Chinese citizens who arrived before 1994, numbering 3%–5% of the total Chinese population in the country, will be able to benefit from government BEE policies.^ About 400,000 Palestinians live in 12 refugee camps in Lebanon.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The criteria set by Sharon's government excluded Fatah veterans who have been jailed since before the Oslo agreements, or Marwan Barghouti.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

[93]
South Africa hosts a sizeable refugee and asylum seeker population. .According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, this population numbered approximately 144,700 in 2007.[94] Groups of refugees and asylum seekers numbering over 10,000 included people from Zimbabwe (48,400), The Democratic Republic of the Congo (24,800), and Somalia (12,900).^ In January 2008, UNHCR expects to launch supplementary appeals for programmes including the Iraq situation; relief operations in Darfur; the Somali situation; repatriation and reintegration of Sudanese and Mauritanian refugees; IDP programmes in Chad, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia and Colombia.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The study is the result of a survey of 1,500 households in eight refugee camps across Lebanon and a number of focus group discussions, and assesses the income of Palestinian refugees, challenges to and perceptions of work, and their contribution to the Lebanese economy.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The largest operations in the 2008 annual budget are: Chad (US$ 73.6 million), Afghanistan (US$ 49.87 million), Kenya (US$ 41.48 million) and the Democratic Republic of Congo (40.92 million).
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

[94] These populations mainly lived in Johannesburg, Pretoria, Durban, Cape Town, and Port Elizabeth.[94]
Code Rank City Population Province Annual Growth Rate
GP - Gauteng Megalopolis 20,000,000[95] Gauteng 2.47%
JHB 1 Johannesburg 8,837,000 Gauteng 2.47%
CPT 2 Cape Town 3,653,000 Western Cape 1.43%
ETH 3 Durban 3,192,000 Kwazulu-Natal 1.36%
EKU 4 Germiston 2,724,229 Gauteng 1.36%
TSH 5 Pretoria 2,450,000 Gauteng 1.41%
NMA 6 Port Elizabeth 1,572,000 Eastern Cape 0.41%
JHB 7 Vereeniging 1,074,000 Gauteng 0.41%
EC125 8 East London 958,000 Eastern Cape 0.32%
FS172 9 Bloemfontein 752,906 Free State 0.21%
GT421 10 Vanderbijlpark 650,867 Gauteng 0.13%

Health

The AIDS red ribbon
The spread of AIDS (acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome) is an alarming problem in South Africa with up to 31% of pregnant women found to be HIV infected in 2005 and the infection rate among adults estimated at 20%.[96] The link between HIV, a virus spread primarily by sexual contact, and AIDS was long denied by prior president Thabo Mbeki and then health minister Manto Tshabalala-Msimang, who insisted that the many deaths in the country are due to malnutrition, and hence poverty, and not HIV.[97]
In 2007, in response to international pressure, the government made efforts to fight AIDS.[98] In September 2008 Thabo Mbeki was ousted by the ANC and Kgalema Motlanthe was appointed for the interim. One of Mr. Motlanthe's first actions was to replace Mrs. Tshabalala-Msimang with Barbara Hogan who immediately started working to improve the Government's approach to AIDS. After the 2009 General Elections, President Jacob Zuma appointed Dr Aaron Motsoaledi as the new minister and committed his government to increasing funding for and widening the scope of AIDS treatment.[99]
AIDS affects mainly those who are sexually active and is far more prevalent in the black population. .Most deaths are people who are also economically active, resulting in many families losing their primary wage earners.^ According to Islam, someone who intentionally seeks Shahada - death for Allah - is greater than someone who achieves Shahada while not actively hoping to die.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even one civilian death is too many, but the accidental death of about 20 civilians in a clearly defensive action cannot be compared with the intentional murder of 350,000 people.
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.This has resulted in many 'AIDS orphans' who in many cases depend on the state for care and financial support.^ The United States will support the government of President Abbas and Prime Minister Fayyad with major incentives including $190,000,000 in aid.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At SFSU some Jews who support the existence of a Jewish state found their reservation requests ignored by the organizers.
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^ That is the real essential ideology of the "One State Solution" and those who subscribe to it are supporting genocide.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

[100] It is estimated that there are 1,200,000 orphans in South Africa.[100] .Many elderly people also lose the support from lost younger members of their family.^ If public beheadings are staged in public squares and hands are chopped off for thievery, Abu Toameh predicts they will lose the support of the people.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, 54.9 per cent of households said they were supported financially by remittances from emigrant family members.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

Roughly 5 million people are infected with the disease.[98]

Science and technology

Mark Shuttleworth, the first African in space
Several important scientific and technological developments have originated in South Africa. The first human-to-human heart transplant was performed by cardiac surgeon Christiaan Barnard at Groote Schuur Hospital in December 1967. Max Theiler developed a vaccine against Yellow Fever, Allan McLeod Cormack pioneered x-ray Computed tomography, and Aaron Klug developed crystallographic electron microscopy techniques. These advancements were all recognised with Nobel Prizes. Sydney Brenner won most recently, in 2002, for his pioneering work in molecular biology.
Mark Shuttleworth founded an early Internet security company Thawte, that was subsequently bought out by world-leader VeriSign. .Despite government efforts to encourage entrepreneurship in biotechnology, IT and other high technology fields, no other notable groundbreaking companies have been founded in South Africa.^ True, Norway and South Africa recognized the unity government, but the European Union and the UN secretary general did not follow in their footsteps.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite the differences, South Africa does offer valuable lessons in the efforts to resolve the Israel and Palestine conflict.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Above all, opponents in South Africa finally realized that neither side could defeat the other completely without destroying the country.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

However, it is the expressed objective of the government to transition the economy to be more reliant on high technology, based on the realisation that South African cannot compete with Far Eastern economies in manufacturing, nor can the republic rely on its mineral wealth in perpetuity.
South Africa has cultivated a burgeoning astronomy community. It hosts the Southern African Large Telescope, the largest optical telescope in the southern hemisphere. .South Africa is currently building the Karoo Array Telescope as a pathfinder for the $20 billion Square Kilometer Array project.^ Schalit was abducted on June 25, 2006, during a cross-border attack near Kerem Shalom, some 20 kilometers south of Saturday's shootout.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

South Africa is a finalist, with Australia, to be the host of the SKA.

Society and culture

Decorated houses, Drakensberg Mountains
Traditional South African cuisine
.It may be argued that there is no "single" culture in South Africa because of its ethnic diversity.^ There isn't a single Arab state in the north, in the east or in the south with which we do not seek peace.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It seems that there are no longer any real limits to what may be published under the guise of supposedly "legitimate criticism of Israel."
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no one state solution, because the Arabs of Palestine will would not be willing to accord equal rights to the Jews.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

Today, the diversity in foods from many cultures is enjoyed by all and especially marketed to tourists who wish to sample the large variety of South African cuisine. In addition to food, music and dance feature prominently.
South African cuisine is heavily meat-based and has spawned the distinctively South African social gathering known as a braai, or barbecue. South Africa has also developed into a major wine producer, with some of the best vineyards lying in valleys around Stellenbosch, Franschoek, Paarl and Barrydale.[101]
The South African black majority still has a substantial number of rural inhabitants who lead largely impoverished lives. .It is among these people, however, that cultural traditions survive most strongly; as blacks have become increasingly urbanised and westernised, aspects of traditional culture have declined.^ These people often marry with Palestinian women in a second marriage, but most of these marriages end in divorce because of cultural differences or because of the psychological problems, which these men have to start with.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Israelis had tortured most of these people during their stay in Israeli jails, they suffered different mental diseases as a consequence.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

Urban blacks usually speak English or Afrikaans in addition to their native tongue. .There are smaller but still significant groups of speakers of Khoisan languages who are not included in the eleven official languages, but are one of the eight other officially recognised languages.^ The One Million Voices group was to hold simultaneous concerts in Jericho, Tel Aviv and numerous other cities as a public demonstration of the will for peace.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the British Mandate began in 1917, there was only one settlement on Palestinian land, which included several dozen Jews, who were living there in violation of the law at the time.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.There are small groups of speakers of endangered languages, most of which are from the Khoi-San family, that receive no official status; however, some groups within South Africa are attempting to promote their use and revival.^ However, MSF officials sometimes depart from their humanitarian aid mandate by using highly politicized and biased language, such as "the violence of Israeli occupation," "the daily humiliation," "the fear of reprisal by the Israeli army and the Jewish settlers."
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are, however, divided by religion, language, and above all, by history and the mythologies that the 'burden of history' imprints on the self-concept and collective identity of the two groups.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, Israel uses closure as collective punishment, whereas South Africa's whites were too dependent on black labor to be able to do this.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.The middle class lifestyle, predominantly of the white minority but with growing numbers of Black, Coloured and Indian people,[102] is similar in many respects to that of people found in Western Europe, North America and Australasia.^ UNHCR's operations in Africa lead the needs with 37.5 percent of the total budget, followed by the Middle East and North Africa 17.5 percent, Asia/Pacific 9.9 percent, Europe 5.9 percent and the Americas 2.8 percent.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.Members of the middle class often study and work abroad for greater exposure to the markets of the world.^ They have world-class standards of research, often producing discoveries which benefit all humanity.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.Asians, predominantly of Indian origin, preserve their own cultural heritage, languages and religious beliefs, being either Christian, Hindu or Sunni Muslim and speaking English, with Indian languages like Hindi, Telugu, Tamil or Gujarati being spoken less frequently, but the majority of Indians being able to understand their mother tongue.^ The Arab peoples have over twenty states in which to give expression to their national heritage, language and culture.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Israel advocacy has to start speaking to unconvinced people in the language that they understand, and in the places where they listen: on campus, in the internet, in unions and women's groups and church groups.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

The first Indians arrived on the famous Truro ship as indentured labourers in Natal to work the Sugar Cane Fields. There is a much smaller Chinese community in South Africa, although its numbers have increased due to immigration from Republic of China (Taiwan).
.South Africa has also had a large influence in the Scouting movement, with many Scouting traditions and ceremonies coming from the experiences of Robert Baden-Powell (the founder of Scouting) during his time in South Africa as a military officer in the 1890s.^ The Palestinians who were jailed during the first Intifada or killed Israelis, were automatically engaged by the PA military and given officers rank.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There were hundreds of Palestinian women killed by their families during the Al-Aqsa Intifada and since the time PA had the power to establish the military system.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.The South African Scout Association was one of the first youth organisations to open its doors to youth and adults of all races in South Africa.^ Above all, opponents in South Africa finally realized that neither side could defeat the other completely without destroying the country.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One state solution: South Africa Is Not a Model for Us .
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

This happened on 2 July 1977 at a conference known as Quo Vadis.[103]

Music

There is great diversity in music from South Africa. .Many black musicians who sang in Afrikaans or English during apartheid have since begun to sing in traditional African languages, and have developed a unique style called Kwaito.^ Violence: Suicide was never used as a weapon, and martyrdom was never celebrated during the South African anti-apartheid struggle.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

Of note is Brenda Fassie, who launched to fame with her song "Weekend Special", which was sung in English. More famous traditional musicians include Ladysmith Black Mambazo, while the Soweto String Quartet performs classic music with an African flavour. White and Coloured South African singers are historically influenced by European musical styles. .South Africa has produced world-famous jazz musicians, notably Hugh Masekela, Jonas Gwangwa, Abdullah Ibrahim, Miriam Makeba, Jonathan Butler, Chris McGregor, and Sathima Bea Benjamin.^ South Africa was "a pariah state that lacked the legitimacy of Israel outside the Arab and Muslim world."
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And what of the United Kingdom, France, the United States and virtually every country in the world that traded with apartheid South Africa?
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

Afrikaans music covers multiple genres, such as the contemporary Steve Hofmeyr and the punk rock band Fokofpolisiekar. Crossover artists such as Verity (internationally recognized for innovation in the music industry) and Johnny Clegg and his bands Juluka and Savuka have enjoyed various success underground, publicly, and abroad.
.The South African music scene includes Kwaito, a new music genre that had developed in the mid 80s and has since developed to become the most popular social economical form of representation among the populous.^ By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We are a small country with a small population, but rich in good will and with a significant ability to create a partnership that will lead to prosperity, to growth, to economic development, and to stability for the entire region.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ UNRWA's strategic objectives for the coming biennium are thus to support the educational, health, social and economic development of the refugees and to provide targeted relief for the most vulnerable among them, particularly women, children and the disabled.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.Though some may argue that the political aspects of Kwaito has since diminished after Apartheid, and the relative interest in politics has become a minor aspect of daily life.^ Some of the demonstrators argued that the list of prisoners was prepared by those prisoners' relatives.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While outlining similarities and even asserting that in some respects conditions are worse for the Palestinians than apartheid was for blacks, Adam and Moodley argue that similar anti-apartheid strategies may falter in the Israeli case.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

Some argue that in a sense, Kwaito is in fact a political force that shows activism in its apolitical actions. Today, major corporations like Sony, BMG, and EMI have appeared on the South African scene to produce and distribute Kwaito music. .Due to its overwhelming popularity, as well as the general influence of DJs, who are among the top 5 most influential types of people within the country[citation needed], Kwaito has taken over radio, television, and magazines.^ Johnston said he had followed events on a radio during most of his time as a hostage and thanked people around the world, as well as his colleagues at the British public broadcaster, for their support and efforts to help secure his release.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

[104]

Religion

Church in Graaff Reinet
According to the latest 2001 national census, Christians accounted for 79.7% of the population. .This includes Zion Christian 11.1%, Pentecostal (Charismatic) 8.2%, Roman Catholic 7.1%, Methodist 6.8%, Dutch Reformed 6.7%, Anglican 3.8%, and other Christian 36%.^ Significantly, he also addressed fears concerning the future of Palestinian Christians, accusing Hamas of being behind the ransacking of a Roman Catholic convent and school in Gaza.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

Islam accounted for 1.5% of the population, Hinduism about 1.3%, and Judaism 0.2%. 15.1% had no religious affiliation, 2.3% were other and 1.4% were unspecified.[59][105][106]
African Indigenous Churches were the largest of the Christian groups. .It was believed that many of these persons who claimed no affiliation with any organised religion adhered to traditional indigenous religions.^ He questions the validity of the Islamic traditions underpinning the Arab claim to Palestine, Jerusalem, and the Temple Mount, and presents evidence that religions that preceded Islam had conducted rituals on the Temple Mount.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

Many peoples have syncretic religious practices combining Christian and indigenous influences.[107]
.There is no evidence that Islam was known to the Zulu, Swazi, or Xhosa of the east coast prior to the colonial era.^ The report has been investigated by various bodies over the years, and four intensive journalistic inquiries examining the incident said there was no evidence that the boy was shot by the soldiers.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no actual evidence that this occurred, but it is repeated in dozens of places.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to international law, there is no reason to favor Arab sovereignty in East Jerusalem over Israeli sovereignty.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

Many South African Muslims are described as Coloureds, notably in the Western Cape, especially those whose ancestors came as slaves from the Indonesian archipelago (the Cape Malays). Others are described as Indians, notably in KwaZulu-Natal, including those whose ancestors came as traders from South Asia; they have been joined by others from other parts of Africa as well as white or black South African converts. It is estimated that Islam is the fastest growing religion of conversion in the country,[108] with the number of black Muslims growing sixfold, from 12,000 in 1991 to 74,700 in 2004.[109]
Hinduism dates back to British Colonial period primarily but later waves of continuous immigrants from India have contributed to a sizeable Hindu population. .Most Hindus are ethnically South Asian but there are many who come from mixed racial stock and many are converts with the efforts of Hindu missionaries such as ISKCON. Other religions in smaller numbers are Sikhism, Jainism and Bahá'í Faith.^ Those who say that peace-making between us is impossible, actually does not need except to perpetuate this conflict toward the unknown, but it is, we all know, in other words, that continuation of bloodshed for many decades to come.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are many lessons to be learned, for those who would learn.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Such a different trajectory suggests itself because South Africa, arguably, constitutes merely a multiethnic society with many cross-cutting bonds between the legislated artificial racial groups.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

[105]

Languages

Map showing dominant South African languages.
     Afrikaans      English      Ndebele      Xhosa      Zulu      Northern Sotho      Sotho      Tswana      Swazi      Venda      Tsonga      None dominant
South Africa has eleven official languages:[110] Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Sotho, Swazi, Tswana, Tsonga, Venda, Xhosa and Zulu. In this regard it is third only to Bolivia and India in number. .While all the languages are formally equal, some languages are spoken more than others.^ The coverage is more important than the language.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This finding is all the more noteworthy in that Palestinian territories stand out in their responses from every other Muslim country surveyed.
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^ More than any other nation, the Palestinians are able to quickly adapt to changing situations.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.According to the 2001 National Census, the three most spoken first home languages are Zulu (23.8%), Xhosa (17.6%) and Afrikaans (13.3%).^ It came via David Colvin, the first secretary at the British embassy in Paris, according to a newly released National Archives file.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

[77] .Despite the fact that English is recognised as the language of commerce and science, it was spoken by only 8.2% of South Africans at home in 2001, an even lower percentage than in 1996 (8.6%).^ Philippa N., chief English editor, said: "We have never tried to hide the fact that we cater to a different audience and therefore need to employ a different language.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

[77]
The country also recognises eight unofficial languages: Fanagalo, Khoe, Lobedu, Nama, Northern Ndebele, Phuthi, San and South African Sign Language.[citation needed] These unofficial languages may be used in certain official uses in limited areas where it has been determined that these languages are prevalent. Nevertheless, their populations are not such that they require nationwide recognition.
Many of the "unofficial languages" of the San and Khoikhoi people contain regional dialects stretching northwards into Namibia and Botswana, and elsewhere. .These people, who are a physically distinct population from other Africans, have their own cultural identity based on their hunter-gatherer societies.^ The culture tie of the Jews to the land over 2,000 years is disputed only by degenerate malefactors, the sort of people who accept the Protocols of the Elders of Zion as factual.
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^ These people are rabble recruited in other Arab countries and given some military training.
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^ The people who carried out these attacks on innocent Arabs should be hunted mercilessly and treated as traitors and enemies of the Jewish people.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

They have been marginalised to a great extent, and many of their languages are in danger of becoming extinct.
Many white South Africans also speak other European languages, such as Portuguese (also spoken by Angolan and Mozambican blacks), German, and Greek, while some Asians and Indians in South Africa speak South Asian languages, such as Tamil, Hindi, Gujarati, Urdu and Telugu. French is still widely spoken by French South Africans especially in places like Franschhoek, where many South Africans are of French origin. South African French is spoken by less than 10,000 individuals. Congolese French is also spoken in South Africa by migrants.

Sports

The Springboks in a bus parade after winning the 2007 Rugby World Cup
.South Africa's most popular sports are soccer, rugby union and cricket.^ True, Norway and South Africa recognized the unity government, but the European Union and the UN secretary general did not follow in their footsteps.
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Other sports with significant support are swimming, athletics, golf, boxing, tennis and netball. Although soccer commands the greatest following among the youth, other sports like basketball, surfing and skateboarding are increasingly popular.
Famous boxing personalities include Baby Jake Jacob Matlala, Vuyani Bungu, Welcome Ncita, Dingaan Thobela, Gerrie Coetzee and Brian Mitchell. Football players who have played for major foreign clubs include Lucas Radebe and Philemon Masinga (both formerly of Leeds United), Quinton Fortune (Atletico Madrid and Manchester United), Benni McCarthy (Ajax Amsterdam, F.C. Porto and Blackburn Rovers), Aaron Mokoena (Ajax Amsterdam, Blackburn Rovers and Portsmouth), Delron Buckley (Borussia Dortmund) and Steven Pienaar (Ajax Amsterdam and Everton). .South Africa produced Formula One motor racing's 1979 world champion Jody Scheckter.^ South Africa was "a pariah state that lacked the legitimacy of Israel outside the Arab and Muslim world."
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And what of the United Kingdom, France, the United States and virtually every country in the world that traded with apartheid South Africa?
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One state solution: South Africa Is Not a Model for Us .
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

Famous current cricket players include Herschelle Gibbs, Graeme Smith, Jacques Kallis, JP Duminy etc. Most of them also participate in the Indian Premier League.
.South Africa has also produced numerous world class rugby players, including Francois Pienaar, Joost van der Westhuizen, Danie Craven, Frik du Preez, Naas Botha and Bryan Habana.^ South Africa was "a pariah state that lacked the legitimacy of Israel outside the Arab and Muslim world."
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They have world-class standards of research, often producing discoveries which benefit all humanity.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Third-party intervention: Both the main players in South Africa, the ANC and the Afrikaner Nationalist Party, avoided third-party intervention in their negotiations.
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.South Africa hosted and won the 1995 Rugby World Cup at their first attempt and won the 2007 Rugby World Cup in France.^ South Africa was "a pariah state that lacked the legitimacy of Israel outside the Arab and Muslim world."
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And what of the United Kingdom, France, the United States and virtually every country in the world that traded with apartheid South Africa?
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.South Africa was only allowed to participate from 1995 since the end of Apartheid.^ Religion: Christianity in South Africa was a "common bond to assail and de-legitimize" apartheid.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And what of the United Kingdom, France, the United States and virtually every country in the world that traded with apartheid South Africa?
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The ANC's approach was proved correct: Only a few attacks on whites took place over the decades, and this was a significant factor in persuading whites that it was safe to end apartheid.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

It followed the 1995 Rugby World Cup by hosting the 1996 African Cup of Nations, with the national team, 'Bafana Bafana,' going on to win the tournament. It also hosted the 2003 Cricket World Cup and the 2007 World Twenty20 Championship which were a great success. .South Africa will be the host nation for the 2010 FIFA World Cup, which will be the first time the tournament is held on the African continent.^ South Africa was "a pariah state that lacked the legitimacy of Israel outside the Arab and Muslim world."
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And what of the United Kingdom, France, the United States and virtually every country in the world that traded with apartheid South Africa?
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

In 2004, the swimming team of Roland Schoeman, Lyndon Ferns, Darian Townsend and Ryk Neethling won the gold medal at the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens, simultaneously breaking the world record in the 4x100 freestyle relay. Penny Heyns won Olympic Gold in the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games.
In golf, Gary Player is generally regarded as one of the greatest golfers of all time, having won the Career Grand Slam, one of five golfers to have done so. Other South African golfers to have won major tournaments include Bobby Locke, Ernie Els, Retief Goosen and Trevor Immelman.

Education

Primary schools span the first seven years of schooling. .In the age of Apartheid, schools for blacks were subject to discrimination through inadequate funding and so forth.^ The growth of politicized trade unions enabled blacks to attack apartheid through industrial action such as strikes and consumer boycotts.
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South Africa has numerous universities. Instruction can take place in Afrikaans as well. Public expenditure on education was at 5.4 % of the 2002-05 GDP.[111]

Social issues

Prison buildings on Robben Island
.According to a survey for the period 1998–2000 compiled by the United Nations, South Africa was ranked second for murder and first for assaults and rapes per capita.^ And what of the United Kingdom, France, the United States and virtually every country in the world that traded with apartheid South Africa?
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Seth Frantzman, a doctoral student at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, has compiled a survey showing that Arabs killed 1,256 Palestinian Jews between the United Nations Palestine partition vote Nov.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

[112] .Official statistics show that 52 people are murdered every day in South Africa.^ And what of the United Kingdom, France, the United States and virtually every country in the world that traded with apartheid South Africa?
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It's fashionable these days in South Africa to offer the country as an exemplar for the Israeli-Palestinian conflict: "We created a unitary state and so must you," they say.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

[113] The reported number of rapes per year is 55,000,[114] and it is estimated that 500,000 rapes are committed annually in South Africa.[115] Total crime per capita is 10th out of the 60 countries in the data set.
.Rape is a common problem in South Africa.^ Religion: Christianity in South Africa was a "common bond to assail and de-legitimize" apartheid.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.One in three of the 4,000 women questioned by the Community of Information, Empowerment and Transparency said they had been raped in the past year.^ Over the past year when Hamas would stage attacks in Gaza, Fatah forces would retaliate in the West Bank, where they were stronger.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They said the latest escalation, which claimed the lives of some 20 Hamas members over the past week, was directly linked to the conference.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamas legislator Mushir al-Masri said the killing of six Hamas activists over the past 48 hours was one of the direct results of the Annapolis conference.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

[116] .South Africa has some of the highest incidences of child and baby rape in the world.^ South Africa was "a pariah state that lacked the legitimacy of Israel outside the Arab and Muslim world."
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And what of the United Kingdom, France, the United States and virtually every country in the world that traded with apartheid South Africa?
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

[117] In a related survey conducted among 1,500 schoolchildren in the Soweto township, a quarter of all the boys interviewed said that 'jackrolling', a term for gang rape, was fun.[116]
.Middle-class South Africans seek security in gated communities.^ In recent years he has said that he has rediscovered his identity as a Jew; however, the South African Jewish community wants nothing to do with him.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many emigrants from South Africa also state that crime was a big motivator for them to leave.^ And what of the United Kingdom, France, the United States and virtually every country in the world that traded with apartheid South Africa?
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ South Africa was "a pariah state that lacked the legitimacy of Israel outside the Arab and Muslim world."
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It's fashionable these days in South Africa to offer the country as an exemplar for the Israeli-Palestinian conflict: "We created a unitary state and so must you," they say.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

Crime against the farming community has continued to be a major problem.[118]
.Along with many African nations, South Africa has been experiencing a "brain drain" in the past 20 years.^ Israel and Palestine will not be going along the South African road.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Perhaps now, with the passing of so many years, he understands that the Jews haven't been particularly liked over the past 2000 years – but because of them, the Palestinians are now liked a little more.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In recent years he has said that he has rediscovered his identity as a Jew; however, the South African Jewish community wants nothing to do with him.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.This is believed to be potentially damaging for the regional economy,[119] and is almost certainly detrimental for the well-being of the majority of people reliant on the healthcare infrastructure, given the HIV/AIDS epidemic.^ Well, he is certainly giving a voice to the Palestinian people now.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

[120] .The skills drain in South Africa tends to demonstrate racial contours (naturally given the skills distribution legacy of South Africa) and has thus resulted in large white South African communities abroad.^ Economy: Blacks and whites in South Africa were economically interdependent.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, Israel uses closure as collective punishment, whereas South Africa's whites were too dependent on black labor to be able to do this.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The mistrust and rejection which separate them are far more intense than what divided white and black in South Africa.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

[121]
.In May 2008 long standing state hostility[citation needed] to African migrants exploded in a series of pogroms that left up to 100 people dead and 100,000 displaced.^ Most of the current nation states of the Middle East were dead for varying amounts of time, ranging up to 2,000 years.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

[122]

See also

References

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  114. ^ Behind South Africa's Reggae Murder. Time. October 22, 2007.
  115. ^ "SOUTH AFRICA: One in four men rape". IRIN Africa. June 18, 2009.
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  117. ^ Oprah scandal rocks South Africa
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  119. ^ http://jae.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/13/suppl_2/ii15 World Bank, IMF study 2004
  120. ^ http://www.equinetafrica.org/bibl/docs/healthpersonnel.pdf Health Personnel in Southern Africa: Confronting maldistribution and brain drain
  121. ^ Skilled Labour Migration from Developing Countries: Study on South and Southern Africa, Haroon Bhorat et al. 2002. International Migration Programme, International Labour Office, Geneva.
  122. ^ A collection of published articles on the May 2008 pogroms

Further reading

.
  • A History of South Africa, Third Edition.^ Third-party intervention: Both the main players in South Africa, the ANC and the Afrikaner Nationalist Party, avoided third-party intervention in their negotiations.
    • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

    Leonard Thompson. Yale University Press. 1 March 2001. 384 pages. ISBN 0-300-08776-4.
  • Emerging Johannesburg: Perspectives on the Postapartheid City. Richard Tomlinson, et al. 1 January 2003. 336 pages. .ISBN 0-415-93559-8.
  • Making of Modern South Africa: Conquest, Segregation and Apartheid.^ Religion: Christianity in South Africa was a "common bond to assail and de-legitimize" apartheid.
    • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And what of the United Kingdom, France, the United States and virtually every country in the world that traded with apartheid South Africa?
    • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

    Nigel Worden. 1 July 2000. 194 pages. .ISBN 0-631-21661-8.
  • Religion and Politics in South Africa. David Hein.^ Religion: Christianity in South Africa was a "common bond to assail and de-legitimize" apartheid.
    • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

    Modern Age 31 (1987): 21–30.
  • South Africa: A Narrative History. Frank Welsh. Kodansha America. 1 February 1999. 606 pages. ISBN 1-56836-258-7.
  • South Africa in Contemporary Times. Godfrey Mwakikagile. New Africa Press. February 2008. 260 pages. ISBN 978-0-9802587-3-8.
  • The Atlas of Changing South Africa. A. J. Christopher. 1 October 2000. 216 pages. .ISBN 0-415-21178-6.
  • The Politics of the New South Africa.^ J-Street and APN split from Israeli left on Iran How to stop Iran Better news for Israel from South Africa?
    • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

    Heather Deegan. 28 December 2000. 256 pages. ISBN 0-582-38227-0.
  • Twentieth-Century South Africa. William Beinart Oxford University Press 2001, 414 pages, ISBN 0-19-289318-1
  • The Diamond Mines of South Africa. Gardner F. Williams, General Manager De Beers, Buck & Co, 1905, 845 pages, Vol I and II. Online full text version: Diamond Mines Vol. I and Diamond Mines Vol. II

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Africa : Southern Africa : South Africa
Contents
noframe
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:sf-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Pretoria - Administrative
Cape Town - Legislative
Bloemfontein - Judicial
Government Republic
Currency Rand (ZAR)
Area total: 1,219,912 km2
land: 1,219,912 km2
water: 0 km2
Population 48,782,756 (July 2008 est.)
Language There are 11 official languages:-
Afrikaans
English
Ndebele
Xhosa
Zulu
Sepedi
Sesotho
Setswana
Swati
Tshivenda
Xitsonga
Religion Christian 68% (includes most whites and "Coloureds", about 60% of Blacks and about 40% of Indians), Muslim 2%, Hindu 1.5% (60% of Indians), indigenous beliefs, animist, other religions and people without religion 28.5%
Electricity 220-240V/50HZ (South Africa plug)
Calling Code +27
Internet TLD .za
Time Zone UTC+2
South Africa [1] is located at the southern tip of Africa. .It is bordered by Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Swaziland and Lesotho (which is completely surrounded by South Africa).^ Above all, opponents in South Africa finally realized that neither side could defeat the other completely without destroying the country.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

It is a vast country with widely varying landscapes and has 11 official languages, as well as an equally diverse population. .South Africa is renowned for its wines and is the world's largest producer of gold.^ South Africa was "a pariah state that lacked the legitimacy of Israel outside the Arab and Muslim world."
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And what of the United Kingdom, France, the United States and virtually every country in the world that traded with apartheid South Africa?
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.South Africa has a strong economy and is an influential player in African politics.^ Third-party intervention: Both the main players in South Africa, the ANC and the Afrikaner Nationalist Party, avoided third-party intervention in their negotiations.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Economy: Blacks and whites in South Africa were economically interdependent.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

In 2010, South Africa will host the first Football World Cup to be held on the African continent.
The Protea is the national flower of South Africa
The Protea is the national flower of South Africa
Informal settlement near Cape Town.
Informal settlement near Cape Town.
.If you want to travel in southern Africa then South Africa is a good place to start.^ It's fashionable these days in South Africa to offer the country as an exemplar for the Israeli-Palestinian conflict: "We created a unitary state and so must you," they say.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.While you can fly into any country in southern Africa, most flights will route through South Africa anyway.^ And what of the United Kingdom, France, the United States and virtually every country in the world that traded with apartheid South Africa?
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It's fashionable these days in South Africa to offer the country as an exemplar for the Israeli-Palestinian conflict: "We created a unitary state and so must you," they say.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Above all, opponents in South Africa finally realized that neither side could defeat the other completely without destroying the country.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.South Africa is also a good place to get used to traveling in the region (though some would argue that Namibia is better for that).^ J-Street and APN split from Israeli left on Iran How to stop Iran Better news for Israel from South Africa?
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, Israel uses closure as collective punishment, whereas South Africa's whites were too dependent on black labor to be able to do this.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.Of course South Africa is not only a jumping off point, it is itself a superb destination rich in culture, fauna & flora and history.^ Jews Have a Rich and Ancient History in Palestine "The Arabs see the Palestinian problem as exceedingly complicated, while it actually appears so only to them – [that is], from the point of view of the Arabs' emotional attitudes and their national and religious philosophy.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

Outsiders' views of South Africa are colored by the same stereotypes as the rest of Africa. .Contrary to popular belief, South Africa is not devastatingly poor with an unstable government that is rapidly going to pot.^ True, Norway and South Africa recognized the unity government, but the European Union and the UN secretary general did not follow in their footsteps.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although the rural part of South Africa remains among the poorest and the least developed parts of the world and poverty in the townships can be appalling, progress is being made.^ South Africa was "a pariah state that lacked the legitimacy of Israel outside the Arab and Muslim world."
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And what of the United Kingdom, France, the United States and virtually every country in the world that traded with apartheid South Africa?
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

The process of recovering from apartheid, which lasted almost 46 years, is quite slow. .In fact, South Africa's United Nations Human Development Index which was slowly improving in the final years of apartheid, has declined dramatically since 1996, largely due to the AIDS pandemic, and poverty levels appear to be on the increase.^ Religion: Christianity in South Africa was a "common bond to assail and de-legitimize" apartheid.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And what of the United Kingdom, France, the United States and virtually every country in the world that traded with apartheid South Africa?
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Above all, opponents in South Africa finally realized that neither side could defeat the other completely without destroying the country.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.South Africa boasts a well-developed infrastructure and has all the modern amenities and technologies, much of it developed during the years of white minority rule.^ And ultimately there was Nelson Mandela, who led the way to the "miracle" of the new South Africa, and the Afrikaner leader F.W. de Klerk, who had the boldness and courage to recognize that white rule could not be sustained.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Economy: Blacks and whites in South Africa were economically interdependent.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, Israel uses closure as collective punishment, whereas South Africa's whites were too dependent on black labor to be able to do this.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

The government is stable, although corruption is common. .The government and the primary political parties generally have a high level of respect for democratic institutions and human rights, although the government's support of the misrule of neighboring Zimbabwe's Robert Mugabe has raised questions about its commitment to human rights and even democracy itself.^ In addition to the close relationship between the MFA and PNGO, the politicized Palestinian Center for Human Rights (PCHR) is supported financially by the MFA through the General Consulate of France in Jerusalem , having received $78,460 in 2004 .
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The question is, who is silly enough to think that this conference is about Palestinian institutions?
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Al-Ajrami added, "The Hamas militias are still committing atrocities against Palestinian citizens and institutions, even after the military coup in the Gaza Strip."
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

History

The tip of Africa has been home to the Khoisan (collective name for Hottentot(Koi) and Bushmen(San)) people for thousands of years. Their rock art can still be found in many places throughout South Africa. .Bantu tribes started expanding into Southern Africa around 2500 years ago and by around 500 AD the different cultural groups as we know them today had been established in the area.^ The 45-year-old Briton was taken into the care of officials from the Hamas movement, which seized full control of Gaza three weeks ago.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These people often marry with Palestinian women in a second marriage, but most of these marriages end in divorce because of cultural differences or because of the psychological problems, which these men have to start with.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

The first permanent European settlement was built after the Dutch East India Company reached the Cape of Good Hope in April 1652. In the late 1700's the Boers (the settling farmers) slowly started expanding into the interior. In 1795 Britain took control of the Cape and in 1820 a large group of British Settlers arrived in the region. .In 1835 large numbers of Boers started out on the Groot Trek into the interior after becoming dissatisfied with the British rule.^ Because the apartheid regime of the Ottomans and the local Arabs prevented Jews from settling here in large numbers for most of Ottoman rule, and made it difficult for Jews to buy land.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

In the interior they established their own republics after a number of bloody conflicts with the local population.
Two wars for control over the region were fought between the Boers and the British in 1880 and 1899. This was when the British contained the Boer population in the first modern concentration camps.
.The Union of South Africa was formed in 1910, consolidating the various Boer republics and British colonies.^ True, Norway and South Africa recognized the unity government, but the European Union and the UN secretary general did not follow in their footsteps.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.From this, the Republic of South Africa was formed in 1961. Non-Europeans were largely excluded in all these political changes and even with the creation of the Union were not given the right to vote.^ True, Norway and South Africa recognized the unity government, but the European Union and the UN secretary general did not follow in their footsteps.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All these events result from a plot against the Arab region, aimed at destabilizing it and igniting civil wars [motivated by] political, sectarian and national [conflicts].
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bolton is right to be worried, but nobody has practical solutions given European indifference and Russian obstructionism.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

From 1948 additional apartheid laws were introduced to erode the right of the black population further. .Since then, South Africa (at least the government itself), became almost synonymous with fascism, racism, and many other pejorative descriptions.^ True, Norway and South Africa recognized the unity government, but the European Union and the UN secretary general did not follow in their footsteps.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Above all, opponents in South Africa finally realized that neither side could defeat the other completely without destroying the country.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Today, after the conquest of the Gaza Strip, the international boycott of the Hamas (Haniyeh) government is almost total since both Egypt and Jordan have joined it.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the years to follow, the country, despite having strong economic growth until the 1980s, experienced frequent uprisings and other social disturbances in response to the apartheid laws.^ This finding is all the more noteworthy in that Palestinian territories stand out in their responses from every other Muslim country surveyed.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We are a small country with a small population, but rich in good will and with a significant ability to create a partnership that will lead to prosperity, to growth, to economic development, and to stability for the entire region.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

Among them: weapons embargoes, being banned from the Olympic Games, and deliberate violations of the laws by black radicals.
In 1992, 68% of the voting white population voted in a referendum to have the apartheid system abolished. This was quickly followed by a new constitution in 1993 and the first fully democratic election in 1994.

Place names

Many region, city, street and building names in South Africa have been changed after the end of apartheid and some of them are still being changed today. These changes can sometimes lead to confusion as many of the new names are not yet well known. This travel guide will use the official new names, but also mention the previous names where possible.
Climate Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Scale of justice 2 new.jpeg Subject classification: this is a law resource .
Part of the Comparative law and justice Wikiversity Project
Flag of South Africa
Flag of South Africa

Contents

Brief History

.The first modern humans residing in South Africa date back to over 100,000 years.^ War & Conflict # Soldier of Africa receives new Air Assault Badge in South Africa: “After four years of waiting I was today the first person in the SANDF to be awarded the new Air Assault Badge, which I also designed.” .

^ Democratic Consolidation in South Africa: Progress and Pitfalls "...February 1998, the Centre for Policy Studies (Johannesburg) and the International Forum for Democratic Studies convened a conference in Johannesburg that examined the first three and a half years of South African democracy ,..."
  • South African Politics and Government on the Internet 19 September 2009 7:37 UTC library.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ First Class = South Africa safaris typically range from $150 to $500 per person, per day, plus airfare.
  • South Africa Safaris, South Africa Safari, South African Safaris, South African Safari, Safaris in South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.africasafari.com [Source type: Reference]
  • South Africa Safaris, South Africa Safari, South African Safaris, South African Safari, Safaris in South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.africasafari.com [Source type: Reference]

.The two groups which inhabited the southern tip of Africa were the hunter-gather San and the pastoral Khoekhoe people[1].^ HISTORY People have inhabited southern Africa for thousands of years.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Southern Africa, at the southern tip of the continent of Africa .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Members of the Khoisan language groups are the oldest surviving inhabitants of the land, but only a few are left in South Africa today--and they are located in the western sections.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Dutch founded Cape Town in 1652 as a check point for the spice route between the Netherlands and the East.^ Isolated, some 1 920 km south-east of Cape Town in the Atlantic, lie the Prince Edward and Marion islands, annexed by South Africa in 1947.
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nevertheless the cleavage at the Cape between the Dutch and British grew.

^ Up to the year 1870 the Dutch considerably outnumbered the British inhabitants; indeed, save in Natal, in the eastern province and in Cape Town, the British inhabitants were cornparatively few.

[2] .With the arrival of the European settlers came new diseases and warfare, completely eliminating the Khoekhoe people[3].^ The part played by the various native races in modifying the character of the European colonization will be best considered as they successively came into contact with the white settlers.

^ It is a great idea and good news for those people who need clean water.I came from Pakistan and we don't have water at all in our village.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . Rough Cut . South Africa: The Play Pump | PBS 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: General]

.In 1806 Britain seized the Cape of Good Hope.^ After the British seized the Cape of Good Hope area in 1806, many of the Dutch settlers (the Boers) trekked north to found their own republics.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- South Africa 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cape of Good Hope: Commissioner of Eastern Inquiry (Original Correspondence), 1805 to 1830.

^ The British gained control of the Cape of Good Hope at the end of the 18th century.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .Anger rose for the native inhabitants when the discovery of diamonds in 1867 and gold in 1886 brought upon new wealth and immigration.^ The discovery of diamonds at Kimberley in 1870 and the discovery of large gold deposits in the Witwatersrand region of the Transvaal in 1886 caused an influx of European (mainly British) immigration and investment.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was, however, the discoveries of diamonds and gold that chiefly determined the development of the country.

^ While gold and diamond mining continue the greatest of South African industries other sources of wealth have been added.

[5] .The Boer War broke out in 1899 with the outcome of a shared political party between the Boers and British called The Union of South Africa.^ Independence: The Union of South Africa was created on May 31, 1910; became a sovereign state within British Empire in 1934; became a republic on May 31, 1961; left the Commonwealth in October 1968; rejoined the Commonwealth in June 1994.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Boer reactions to this influx and British political intrigues led to the Anglo-Boer Wars of 1880-81 and 1899-1902.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Towards Sustainable Democratic Institutions in Southern Africa , reports on political parties in the SADC region, from a Botswana May 2000 conference.
  • South African Politics and Government on the Internet 19 September 2009 7:37 UTC library.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

[6] .In 1948 there was an election by the National Party to create a separate development between the races[7].^ The National Party, led by Hendrik Verwoerd, wins a majority of the seats in the 1961 South African General Election.
  • Apartheid South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.southafrica.to [Source type: Original source]

^ The National Party wins a majority of the seats in the 1989 South African General Election (South Africa's last race-based election).
  • Apartheid South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.southafrica.to [Source type: Original source]

^ Stability - the thing which South Africa required above everything else - was unattainable so long as there were five separate governments developing different systems in all branches of public life, but no national government with power to harmonize the whole.

.The National Party invented apartheid as a means ensure white domination and increase racial seperation[8].^ President Thabo Mbeki led the African National Congress (ANC) party, which increased its seats to 279 in the 400-seat National Assembly after a free and fair national election in 2004.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apartheid is an afrikaans word meaning "seperateness" - it was a legal system whereby people were classified into racial groups - White, Black, Indian and Coloured; and seperate geographic areas were demarcated for each racial group.
  • Apartheid South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.southafrica.to [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1948, the National Party (NP) won the all-white elections and began passing legislation codifying and enforcing an even stricter policy of white domination and racial separation known as "apartheid" (separateness).
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the 1960's South Africa initiated "Grand Apartheid," which stressed on territorial divisions and police repressions[9].^ Apartheid South Africa flights to Cape Town flights to Durban flights to George flights to Kruger flights to London flights to Port Elizabeth a relentless quest to expose the cheapest flights & car rentals in, to and from South Africa .
  • Apartheid South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.southafrica.to [Source type: Original source]

^ The former Supreme, High and Circuit Courts of the several colonies then became provincial and local divisions of the Supreme Court of South Africa, which consists of two divisions, namely the Supreme Court and the Appellate Division.

^ The indefatigable entrepreneur wants to build thousands of these pumps to help water-stressed communities across South Africa, then expand to other African countries.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . Rough Cut . South Africa: The Play Pump | PBS 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: General]

.These race laws prohibited intermarriage between races and prevented non-whites from designated jobs[10].^ While the home government was seeking to prevent the expansion of the white races the first steps had been taken by a body of Englishmen to found a new colony at Natal.

^ The merits of the Cape system - to minimize the differences between the white and native races.

^ It was designed to torpedo the rival Palestine Liberation Organisation's standing in France and to prevent what they saw as a growing rapprochement between the PLO and the Americans.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

The Bantu Authorities issued all citizens to a specific "homeland" based on origin[11]. .Four of these homelands were created between 1976 and 1981, denationalizing nine million South Africans and making them aliens in their own country[12].^ South African countries.

^ Sport # Africa is not a country posts a video to help soccer fans practice the South African national anthem for the opening game of The World Cup June 11, 2010, in Johannesburg between South Africa vs Mexico: “Practice the national anthem.

^ When these settlers arrived, they brought with them nonnative seeds and plants with the idea that they would be able to re-create the thick forests and vegetation of their homeland.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . Rough Cut . South Africa: The Play Pump | PBS 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: General]

.The Public Safety Act and Criminal Law Amendment Act were passed in 1953 which gave the white leaders the right to fine, imprison, or whip any civilian protesting against or supporting the repeal of a law[13].^ Supported financially by the French MFA , the Platform organizes campaigns against the "Wall" and the "Occupation," also publishing a variety of booklets on Palestinian refugees and the right of return.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On April 13, police used rubber bullets to disperse a demonstration along the country's border with Swaziland, supporting human rights and trade union freedom in Swaziland.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The law provides for the right of mine employees to remove themselves from work deemed dangerous to health or safety.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1994 the African National Congress brought an end to separate development between the races.^ Plaatje was the leader of the African National Congress delegation that tried to get the Native Land Act discussed at the Versailles Peace Conference.

^ (Historical and Literary Papers: Inventories of Collections, 20) "This is not the official records of the African National Congress (ANC) but is one built up at the South African Institute of Race Relations."

^ [KF] http://www.tshwane.gov.za/ Umrabulo Print and online magazine of the African National Congress.
  • South African Politics and Government on the Internet 19 September 2009 7:37 UTC library.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

[14] .In September 2008, following resignation of President Thabo MBEKI, massive fighting between natives broke out.^ ANC infighting, which has grown in recent years, came to a head in September 2008 after President Thabo MBEKI resigned.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- South Africa 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following a September 2008 court judgment in Zuma’s long-running corruption trial, the judge suggested that it was possible that Zuma was a victim of an Mbeki-led political conspiracy and persecution in the form of a criminal prosecution.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On September 20, 2008, Mbeki was "recalled" by the ANC and replaced by Kgalema Motlanthe as President on September 25.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The leader of the party is now the General Secretary, Kgalema MOTLANTHE, and will be in office until the next election.^ Kgalema MOTLANTHE, the party's General-Secretary, succeeded as interim president until general elections scheduled for 2009.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- South Africa 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General Botha decided to retain office, and seats for him and Mr Hull were found by means of by-elections.

[15].
Location of South Africa
Location of South Africa

Basic Information

.South Africa is located at the southernmost tip of Africa and is approximately twice the size of Texas.^ Members of the Khoisan language groups are the oldest surviving inhabitants of the land, but only a few are left in South Africa today--and they are located in the western sections.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ South Africa presents, however, a solid land mass without peninsulas of any size or any large islands off its coasts.

^ According to a March South Africa Labor Force Survey,total union membership was approximately 2.9 million persons, out of a total work force of 9.8 million, or 30 percent of the total labor force.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With a landmass of 1,214,470 sq km South Africa ranks in at the world's 32nd largest country.^ Sport # Africa is not a country posts a video to help soccer fans practice the South African national anthem for the opening game of The World Cup June 11, 2010, in Johannesburg between South Africa vs Mexico: “Practice the national anthem.

^ In German South-West Africa no discrimination is made as to the country of origin of imports.

^ Environment South Africa's government is committed to managing the country's rich and varied natural resources in a responsible and sustainable manner.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16] .The country includes the Prince Edward Islands and borders Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe.^ Train travel in: Zimbabwe Botswana Namibia .
  • Train travel in South Africa | Cape Town-Johannesburg from �32/$58 with sleeper 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Botswana 1,840 km, Lesotho 909 km, Mozambique 491 km, Namibia 967 km, Swaziland 430 km, Zimbabwe 225 km .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- South Africa 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Child laborers, including some from Zimbabwe and Mozambique, worked illegally in the country on commercial farms, for the taxi industry, or as domestic servants.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] .On the southwestern side of the country is the Indian Ocean and on the southeastern side lies the Atlantic Ocean.^ In the south the drainage is to the Atlantic , chiefly through the Orange River , in the north to the Indian Ocean through the Zambezi, Limpopo and other streams.

.South Africa has three capitals: Cape Town, Bloemfontein, and Pretoria.^ Pretoria; note - Cape Town is the legislative center and Bloemfontein the judicial center .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pretoria (administrative capital) geographic coordinates: 25 42 S, 28 13 E time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) note: Cape Town (legislative capital); Bloemfontein (judicial capital) .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- South Africa 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dutch traders landed at the southern tip of modern day South Africa in 1652 and established a stopover point on the spice route between the Netherlands and the East, founding the city of Cape Town.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- South Africa 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The climate of South Africa is semiarid and subtropical on the east coast with hot days and cool nights.^ Thence he pushed on round the coast, landed in Mossel Bay , then sailing up the south-east coast he sighted land again on the 25th of December 1497, and named it in honour of the day, Natal.

^ First Class = South Africa safaris typically range from $150 to $500 per person, per day, plus airfare.
  • South Africa Safaris, South Africa Safari, South African Safaris, South African Safari, Safaris in South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.africasafari.com [Source type: Reference]
  • South Africa Safaris, South Africa Safari, South African Safaris, South African Safari, Safaris in South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.africasafari.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Henceforth, save for the German and Portuguese possessions, on the west and east coasts respectively, there was but one flag and one allegiance throughout South Africa.

[18] The country is a relatively flat plateau with rugged hills and a narrow coastal plain.[19] .South Africa has two major rivers: the Limpopo River and the Orange River.^ South Africa has placed military along the border to stem the thousands of Zimbabweans fleeing to find work and escape political persecution; managed dispute with Namibia over the location of the boundary in the Orange River .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 1910 (Union of South Africa formed from four British colonies: Cape Colony, Natal, Transvaal, and Orange Free State); 31 May 1961 (republic declared) 27 April 1994 (majority rule) .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- South Africa 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The former Supreme, High and Circuit Courts of the several colonies then became provincial and local divisions of the Supreme Court of South Africa, which consists of two divisions, namely the Supreme Court and the Appellate Division.

.The key mountain ranges in South Africa are the Drakensberg Mountains.^ In international environmental organizations, South Africa is seen as a key leader among developing countries on issues such as climate change, conservation, and biodiversity.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The leopard (called a tiger in South Africa) is still fairly common in all mountainous regions.

^ The views from the train are both astonishing (the Karoo, and table mountain from the rear) and telling (the often invisible shantytowns of South Africas poor).
  • Train travel in South Africa | Cape Town-Johannesburg from �32/$58 with sleeper 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.In July 2009 South Africa had a population of 49,052,289 making it the 25th most populated country.^ South Africa Family Holiday 2009 .
  • South Africa Safaris, South Africa Safari, South African Safaris, South African Safari, Safaris in South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.africasafari.com [Source type: Reference]
  • South Africa Safaris, South Africa Safari, South African Safaris, South African Safari, Safaris in South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.africasafari.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Gauteng is the most densely populated province in South Africa.
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UN Country Population (2009) .
  • Joshua Project - Ethnic People Groups of South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.joshuaproject.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20] .The total population has 0.99 males for every female; 28.9% are under the age of 15, while 5.4% are over the age of 65.[21] South Africa has never had an official religion but the 2001 census reported that 11.1% of the population was Zion Christian, 8.2% Pentecostal/Charismatic, 7.1% Catholic, 6.8% Methodist, 6.7% Dutch Reformed, 3.8% Anglican, 1.5% Muslim, 36% other Christian, 2.3% other, 1.4% unspecified, and 15.1% none.^ The independence of Bophuthatswana was only ever recognized by South Africa and other South African homelands (Transkei, Ciskei, and Venda).
  • Apartheid South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.southafrica.to [Source type: Original source]

^ Death a free agent once again," The Age (14 April 2002); "Revenge of South Africa's 'Dr.
  • NTI: Research Library: Country Profiles: South Africa Biological Overview 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.nti.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This finding is all the more noteworthy in that Palestinian territories stand out in their responses from every other Muslim country surveyed.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

[22] .Also according to the 2001 census the population consists of 79% black African, 9.6% white, 8.9% colored, and 2.5% Indian/Asian.^ There also were reports that white employers abused and killed black African farm laborers, and complaints that white employers received preferential treatment from the authorities (see section 1.a.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of these, 79% classify themselves as African; 9,6% as white; 8,9% as coloured; and 2,5% as Indian/Asian.
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The collection consists of pamphlets published by various South African Indian organizations and by the Indian government concerning Indians in South Africa."

[23] .South Africa has 11 official languages: Afrikaans, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Southern Sotho, Swati, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa, Zulu, and English.^ The South African population consists of the following groups: the Nguni (comprising the Zulu, Xhosa, Ndebele and Swazi people); Sotho-Tswana, who include the Southern, Northern and Western Sotho (Tswana people); Tsonga; Venda; Afrikaners; English; coloureds; Indians; and those who have immigrated to South Africa from the rest of Africa, Europe and Asia and who maintain a strong cultural identity.
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Members of the Khoisan language groups are the oldest surviving inhabitants of the land, but only a few are left in South Africa today--and they are located in the western sections.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The aborigines of South Africa are represented by the Bushmen and Hottentots , now found in any racial purity only in the Kalahari and in the southern part of German South-West Africa.

[24] .The language distribution is relatively dispersed with 23.8% of the country speaking IsiZulu, IsiXhosa 17.6%, Afrikaans 13.3%, Sepedi 9.4%, English 8.2%, Setswana 8.2%, Sesotho 7.9%, Xitsonga 4.4%, and 7.2% speaking a different language.^ Maan replies below that news must be written differently for Arabic speaking and English speaking audiences.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitution recognises 11 official languages, namely Afrikaans, English, isiNdebele, isiXhosa, isiZulu, Sesotho sa Leboa, Sesotho, Setswana, siSwati, Tshivenda and Xitsonga.
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Census 2001 , isiZulu is the mother tongue of 23,8% of the population, followed by isiXhosa (17,6%), Afrikaans (13,3%), Sesotho sa Leboa (9,4%), and English and Setswana (8,2% each).
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25]

Economic Development

.South Africa is a middle-country with a Gross Domestic Product of $491 billion, ranked 26th in the world.^ Sport # Africa is not a country posts a video to help soccer fans practice the South African national anthem for the opening game of The World Cup June 11, 2010, in Johannesburg between South Africa vs Mexico: “Practice the national anthem.

^ KwaZulu-Natal ranks second as a major contributor to the economy, accounting for 16,7% of South Africa’s GDP. .
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ South Africa, which have already been adopted by a number of member countries: .
  • Apartheid South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.southafrica.to [Source type: Original source]

[26] .The GDP per capita is $10,100 (105th in the world).^ GDP per capita (2008): $5,684.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GDP - per capita (PPP) : .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- South Africa 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] .The South African economy is driven by mining (world's largest producer of platinum, gold, chromium), automobile assembly, metalworking, machinery, textiles, iron and steel, chemicals, fertilizer, foodstuffs, and commercial ship repair.^ World's largest producer of platinum, gold, and chromium; also significant coal production.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the world's largest producer and exporter of gold and platinum and also exports a significant amount of coal.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ South Africa is the world’s largest producer of gold.
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28] .The major exports are gold, diamonds, platinum, other metals and minerals, machinery, and equipment.^ The value of raw gold exported in 1907 was £29,510,000, of diamonds £8,973,000.

^ It is the world's largest producer and exporter of gold and platinum and also exports a significant amount of coal.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Limpopo is rich in mineral deposits, including platinum-group metals, iron ore, chromium, high- and middle-grading coking coal, diamonds, antimony, phosphate and copper, as well as mineral reserves like gold, emeralds, scheelite, magnetite, vermiculite, silicon and mica.
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29]

Health and Education

.South Africa has an infant mortality rate of 44.42 deaths/1,000 live births making it the 59th highest in the world.^ Health: Infant mortality rate (2007)--58 per 1,000 live births.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ South Africa has one of the highest incidence of reported rape in the world.
  • South Africa Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ South Africa has no shortage of theatres , live music venues, bioscopes (cinemas), nightclubs, and drive-in cinemas (in those places where the weather permits).
  • South Africa Bed and Breakfast Network - Cheap Hotel Guest House Accommodation Directory 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC southafrica.bedandbreakfasts.net [Source type: News]

[30] .Males have a life expectancy of 50 years compared to females with an average life expectancy of 48 years, making the country 209th in the world.^ South Africa has an average annual rainfall of 450 mm, compared with a world average of 860 mm.
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31]The major public health concerns in .South Africa are HIV/AIDS, smoking-related diseases, and tuberculosis.^ Background Facts and Related Links Learn more about South Africa's freshwater challenges and the solutions proposed by the government in its Working for Water program.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . Rough Cut . South Africa: The Play Pump | PBS 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: General]

^ The level of sexual violence in schools also increased the risk for girls of contracting HIV/AIDS or other sexually transmitted diseases, as well as unwanted pregnancies.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ U.S.-SOUTH AFRICAN RELATIONS The United States has maintained an official presence in South Africa since 1799, when an American consulate was opened in Cape Town.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.South Africa has the world's highest AIDS rate with 11% of the total population being infected[32].^ South Africa has one of the highest incidence of reported rape in the world.
  • South Africa Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ South Africa visits Gauteng, making the province the country’s highest earner of tourism income.
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden is included in this area, which makes it a world-first for South Africa, since no other world heritage site includes a botanical garden.
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 2008 there was a total of 5.2 million people living with HIV/AIDS and 250,000 South African died from AIDS [33].^ HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS : .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- South Africa 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What to do about the 1.4 million people who live there?
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some 5,9% of the South African GDP in agriculture and 16,96% of total labour in agriculture are based in the North West (Provincial Economies, 2004).
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.About one in every three females aged 25-29 and almost one in every four males aged 30-34 carry the virus[34].^ With regards to Johannesburg's Park Station, it was one of the things I was concerned about as I havent been there for ages, and Im super cautious.
  • Train travel in South Africa | Cape Town-Johannesburg from �32/$58 with sleeper 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Most men, meanwhile, worked when they were younger, between the ages of 25 and 29, and 35-39, in keeping with their time-honored gender role as breadwinner.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.Over 70,000 babies are born every year affected by HIV transmitted from the mother and is the main factor in the rise of the infant mortality rate[35].^ Five years before the Balfour declaration, my mother was born in Hebron.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Health: Infant mortality rate (2007)--58 per 1,000 live births.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The marked rise in TB and HIV co-infection (with 50% co-infection rates) adds significantly to mortality in this country.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

South African School Children
South African School Children.
.In 2003, 86.4% of the total population over the age of 15 could read and write.^ The minimum hourly rates for domestics depended on the number of hours worked and could range from $0.59 (R4.15) to $0.86 (R6.04).
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36] Male literacy rate is 87% while female literacy is 85.7%.[37]

Governance

.South Africa has a republican government that is based on Roman-Dutch law and English common law [38].^ I can see nothing which will put a stop to this mischievous propaganda but some striking proof of the intention of Her Majesty's government nDt to be ousted from its position in South Africa.

^ Car hire in Cape Town Established in 1960, Kenings Bakkie and Car Hire is a privately owned vehicle hiring company based in Cape Town, South Africa.
  • South Africa Bed and Breakfast Network - Cheap Hotel Guest House Accommodation Directory 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC southafrica.bedandbreakfasts.net [Source type: News]

^ The work of this society's agents has had a greater influence on the history of South Africa than that of any other religious body save the Dutch Reformed Church.

.Government officials get their positions by being elected by the national assembly [39].^ Branches: Executive --president (chief of state) elected to a 5-year term by the National Assembly.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition women occupied three of four parliamentary presiding officer positions, including speaker and deputy speaker of the National Assembly and deputy chair of the NCOP. .
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The president is the head of state, and is elected by the National Assembly from among its members.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.South Africa has a constitution that was put into effect on February 4, 1997 which was created jointly by local citizens, civil society, and political parties[40].^ Constitution: Entered into force February 3, 1997.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I can see nothing which will put a stop to this mischievous propaganda but some striking proof of the intention of Her Majesty's government nDt to be ousted from its position in South Africa.

^ A great all year climate has made South Africa into a major wine producer , producing fine wines to be drank alongside some fine steaks on a braai, or barbecue.
  • South Africa Bed and Breakfast Network - Cheap Hotel Guest House Accommodation Directory 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC southafrica.bedandbreakfasts.net [Source type: News]

.The government is split into the Judicial branch, the Legislative branch, and the Executive branch [41].^ Furthermore, national and provincial government must ensure that executive obligations imposed by the housing legislation are met.
  • Government of the Republic of South Africa and Others v Grootboom and Others (CCT11/00) [2000] ZACC 19; 2001 (1) SA 46; 2000 (11) BCLR 1169; (4 October 2000) 18 September 2009 18:42 UTC www.saflii.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Executive branch consists of the President and his cabinet which serve a five year term [42].^ Branches: Executive --president (chief of state) elected to a 5-year term by the National Assembly.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During Nelson Mandela's 5-year term as President of South Africa, the government committed itself to reforming the country.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thabo Mbeki was reelected in 2004 to a second five-year term as president and head of state; there is a constitutional two-term limit for the presidency.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Legislative branch consists of the National Council of Provinces which consists of 10 members from each of the 9 provinces totaling 90 seats [43].^ National Council of Provinces consisting of 90 delegates (10 from each province) and 10 nonvoting delegates representing local government.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The National Council of Provinces (NCOP) consists of 90 members, 10 from each of the nine provinces.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The seats allotted to each province are determined by its number of European male adults as ascertained by a quinquennial census, the quota for a constituency being obtained by dividing the total number of such adults in the Union as ascertained at the 1904 census by the number of members at the establishment of the Union.

.The Judicial branch consists of the Constitutional court, Supreme Court of Appeals, High Courts, and the Magistrate Courts.During the Apartheid years South Africa rejected all things constitutional, including a role for judicial review.^ Masetlha's appeal for reinstatement was rejected by the Pretoria High Court in December.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the first term of the ANC's post-apartheid rule, President Mandela concentrated on national reconciliation, seeking to forge a single South African identity and sense of purpose among a diverse and splintered populace, after years of conflict.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Appeals to all Governments and organizations to take appropriate action for the cessation of all academic, cultural, scientific and sports relations that would support the apartheid regime of South Africa as well as relations with individuals, institutions and other bodies endorsing or based on apartheid and also appeals for further strengthening of contacts with those opposed to apartheid."
  • Apartheid South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.southafrica.to [Source type: Original source]

.The post-apartheid government has incorporated judicial constitutionalism involving a role for judicial review.^ Challenges Ahead South Africa's post-apartheid governments have made remarkable progress in consolidating the nation's peaceful transition to democracy.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44]

Elections

.South Africa holds elections at the state, national, and local levels with proportional representation making it possible for small affiliates to hold office.^ The former Supreme, High and Circuit Courts of the several colonies then became provincial and local divisions of the Supreme Court of South Africa, which consists of two divisions, namely the Supreme Court and the Appellate Division.

^ The National Party, led by Hendrik Verwoerd, wins a majority of the seats in the 1961 South African General Election.
  • Apartheid South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.southafrica.to [Source type: Original source]

^ Under the influence of Africander nationalism strenuous efforts have been made to teach the language in the schools throughout the greater part of South Africa.

.South Africa's parliament is split into the National Assembly and the National Council of Provinces, whom are responsible for electing the president.^ The Parliament consists of two houses, the National Assembly and the National Council of Provinces, which are responsible for drafting the laws of the republic.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Parliament, in turn, elected the president.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The president is the head of state, and is elected by the National Assembly from among its members.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The National Assembly has 400 members while the National Council of Provinces has 90 members, each serving a five year term.^ The National Council of Provinces (NCOP) consists of 90 members, 10 from each of the nine provinces.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ National Assembly (400 members) elected by a system of proportional representation.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Branches: Executive --president (chief of state) elected to a 5-year term by the National Assembly.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.National, state, and local elections are all held on general election days.^ On March 1, local elections were held nationwide.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The National Party wins a majority of the seats in the 1981 South African General Election.
  • Apartheid South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.southafrica.to [Source type: Original source]

^ The National Party, led by Hendrik Verwoerd, wins a majority of the seats in the 1961 South African General Election.
  • Apartheid South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.southafrica.to [Source type: Original source]

.In the last election only 56% of all eligable voters cast their vote[45].^ All this and more contributed to last years election, in which the PA was voted out of power.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.Anyone that is over 18 years old, registered, a South African citizen, and has a valid bar-coded identity document or a valid temporary identity certificate is able to vote[46].^ During the first term of the ANC's post-apartheid rule, President Mandela concentrated on national reconciliation, seeking to forge a single South African identity and sense of purpose among a diverse and splintered populace, after years of conflict.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These bars are formed by the action of waves and currents, and by the intermittent flow, heavy sediment load and steep gradients of most South African rivers.
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In recent years he has said that he has rediscovered his identity as a Jew; however, the South African Jewish community wants nothing to do with him.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

Section 19 in the South African Constitution states that 'Every adult citizen has the right to vote in elections for any legislative body established in terms of the Constitution, and to do so in secret and to stand for public office and, if elected, to hold office'.

Courts and Criminal Law

The judges' table in a courtroom of the Constitutional Court of South Africa at Constitution Hill, Braamfontein, Johannesburg.
The judges' table in a courtroom of the Constitutional Court of South Africa at Constitution Hill, Braamfontein, Johannesburg..
.Before South Africa created its first democratic constitution it had two courts: the Supreme Court and the Appellate Division[47].^ The former Supreme, High and Circuit Courts of the several colonies then became provincial and local divisions of the Supreme Court of South Africa, which consists of two divisions, namely the Supreme Court and the Appellate Division.

^ The records consist of transcripts and trial documents for the case, in the Supreme Court of South Africa, of the State versus Wilson Welile Chief Twala and ten others (No.

^ GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS South Africa is a multiparty parliamentary democracy in which constitutional power is shared between the president and the Parliament.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1994 a new system was established entitled the Constitutional Court, which is South Africa's highest court.^ Map of South Africa 1910-1994 .

^ South Africa Yearbook, 1994 (p.

^ The former Supreme, High and Circuit Courts of the several colonies then became provincial and local divisions of the Supreme Court of South Africa, which consists of two divisions, namely the Supreme Court and the Appellate Division.

.The first President of the Constitutional Court, Arthur Chaskalson, was appointed by President Mandela and the current chief justice[48].^ The president's constitutional responsibilities include assigning cabinet portfolios, signing bills into law, and serving as commander in chief of the military.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the first multi-racial democratic elections, South African president Nelson Mandela is sworn in to office.
  • Apartheid South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.southafrica.to [Source type: Original source]

^ President Mandela signed the new constitution into law on December 10, and it entered into force on February 3, 1997.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are a total of nine judges in the Constitutional Court, each serving a non-renewable term of seven years which was later extended to a term of 12-15 years depending on the age of the judge[49].^ It mandates compulsory education from ages seven to 15 and ensures that children cannot be refused admission to public schools due to a lack of funds.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eddie Daniels begins a 15 year prison term on Robben Island.
  • Apartheid South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.southafrica.to [Source type: Original source]

^ Najdeh also found there was "disequilibrium in the contribution to the workforce among men and women typical to the region: women constitute only 20 per cent of those who work between ages 15 to 64 years."
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Constitutional Court has the final say in all matters involving the constitution and its decisions are binding[50].^ Judicial --Constitutional Court interprets and decides constitutional issues; Supreme Court of Appeal is the highest court for interpreting and deciding nonconstitutional matters.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the course of stating the general principles binding on all levels of government, the Housing Act provides that in the administration of any matter relating to housing development, all levels of government must respect, protect, promote and fulfil the rights in Chapter 2 of the Constitution.
  • Government of the Republic of South Africa and Others v Grootboom and Others (CCT11/00) [2000] ZACC 19; 2001 (1) SA 46; 2000 (11) BCLR 1169; (4 October 2000) 18 September 2009 18:42 UTC www.saflii.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitutional Court is the highest court for interpreting and deciding constitutional issues, while the Supreme Court of Appeal is the highest court for interpreting and deciding other legal matters.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Supreme Court of Appeal involves all appeal cases except those involving the constitution[51].^ This restriction of the power of appeal to the privy council is much greater than are the restrictions upon appeals from the Commonwealth of Australia, where appeals to the privy council lie by right from the several state Supreme Courts.

^ In November the full bench of the Supreme Court of Appeals dismissed the appeal of Schabir Shaik's conviction on two counts of corruption and one of fraud.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Judicial --Constitutional Court interprets and decides constitutional issues; Supreme Court of Appeal is the highest court for interpreting and deciding nonconstitutional matters.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The High Court of South Africa handles civil cases which involve more than R100,000 and serious criminal cases[52].^ The former Supreme, High and Circuit Courts of the several colonies then became provincial and local divisions of the Supreme Court of South Africa, which consists of two divisions, namely the Supreme Court and the Appellate Division.

^ The records consist of transcripts and trial documents for the case, in the Supreme Court of South Africa, of the State versus Wilson Welile Chief Twala and ten others (No.

^ Combined, these two ports handle about 78% of South Africa’s cargo tonnage.
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The High Court primarily deals with cases involving a person's status and are defined by the geographical areas in which they reside[53].^ In practice, the government provided protection against refoulement, the forcible return of persons to a country where they feared persecution, and granted refugee status and asylum.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most cases are heard in the extensive system of High Courts and Magistrates Courts.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At first blush, the respondents’ position was so acute and untenable when the High Court heard the case that simple humanity called for some form of immediate and urgent relief.
  • Government of the Republic of South Africa and Others v Grootboom and Others (CCT11/00) [2000] ZACC 19; 2001 (1) SA 46; 2000 (11) BCLR 1169; (4 October 2000) 18 September 2009 18:42 UTC www.saflii.org [Source type: Original source]

.The lowest level of court in South Africa is defined as the Magistrate Court, which has more than 400 courts divided regionally and districtly[54].^ South Africa safaris can also venture into the wine-producing regions just outside Cape Town, where guests enjoy tastings at historic estates.
  • South Africa Safaris, South Africa Safari, South African Safaris, South African Safari, Safaris in South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.africasafari.com [Source type: Reference]
  • South Africa Safaris, South Africa Safari, South African Safaris, South African Safari, Safaris in South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.africasafari.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The former Supreme, High and Circuit Courts of the several colonies then became provincial and local divisions of the Supreme Court of South Africa, which consists of two divisions, namely the Supreme Court and the Appellate Division.

^ During these six years the part he played in the development and public life of South Africa was greater than that of any other man.

.Magistrate Court deals with cases involving less than R100,000 with most criminal cases being solved in a High Court[55].^ Most cases are heard in the extensive system of High Courts and Magistrates Courts.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 4 000 or more independent churches have a membership of more than 10 million people, making this movement the most important religious group in South Africa.
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Jewish population numbers less than 100 000.
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.South Africa also has specialist courts including Circuit Courts, Special Income Tax Courts, Labour Courts and Labour Appeal Courts, Divorce Courts, Land Claims Courts, The Water Tribunal, Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Small Claims Courts[56].^ South Africa visits Gauteng, making the province the country’s highest earner of tourism income.
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden is included in this area, which makes it a world-first for South Africa, since no other world heritage site includes a botanical garden.
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Background Facts and Related Links Learn more about South Africa's freshwater challenges and the solutions proposed by the government in its Working for Water program.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . Rough Cut . South Africa: The Play Pump | PBS 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: General]

.In the South African court system there is no law that allows the accused to remain silent.^ Although this law has been abolished, many South Africans still view themselves and each other according to these categories.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Limpopo Province, where traditional beliefs regarding witchcraft remained strong, there were occasional reports of attacks on persons accused of witchcraft (see section 1.f.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stability - the thing which South Africa required above everything else - was unattainable so long as there were five separate governments developing different systems in all branches of public life, but no national government with power to harmonize the whole.

.The accused has the right to ask for bail, the right to have a trial within 48 hours, subpoena witnesses, the right to legal representation, and the right to question any witnesses[57].^ The bill of rights provides for due process, including the right to a fair, public trial within a reasonable time after being charged, and the right to appeal to a higher court.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The constitution's bill of rights provides for due process including the right to a fair, public trial within a reasonable time of being charged and the right to appeal to a higher court.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Detainees must be charged within 48 hours of arrest, held in conditions of human dignity, allowed to consult with legal counsel at every stage, and permitted to communicate with relatives, medical practitioners, and religious counselors.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The South African court systems have an adversarial trial with some inquisitorial traits.^ Some 5,9% of the South African GDP in agriculture and 16,96% of total labour in agriculture are based in the North West (Provincial Economies, 2004).
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CRL South African Trials, 1977-1978 .

^ The most marked difference between the English and South African systems of law is, as might be expected, to be found in the law relating to real property .

This is shown in the plea bargaining stage and is shown in the motto of the court that the decision "should not descend into the arena and have its vision clouded by the dust of the conflict"[58]. .In South Africa there is a presumption of innocence until proven guilty.^ There is a presumption of innocence for criminal defendants.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the Community Survey 2007 , there are 48 502 063 people in South Africa.
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In South Africa there is a rigid and universal application of the principle of registration .

On paper the courts adhere to both the prosecutor and the accused to understand the full truth of the disagreement. .Due to the lack of funding for the courts, the accused are expected to pay their fines out of pocket.^ It mandates compulsory education from ages seven to 15 and ensures that children cannot be refused admission to public schools due to a lack of funds.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Legal Personnel

G6 howitzer at the South African Military Museum
G6 howitzer at the South African Military Museum.
The most important actors in the Constitutional Court are the eleven judges. To be appointed as a judge one must not be a member of any political organization to ensure justice in the courts[59]. The commission nominates and holds public interviews to screen the candidates and the President makes the final decision[60]. .In the lower courts the Judicial officers are called 'magistrates' and must hold a law degree or have passed the Civil Service Higher examinations[61].^ When interpreting any legislation, and when developing the common law or customary law, every court, tribunal or forum must promote the spirit, purport and objects of the Bill of Rights.
  • Government of the Republic of South Africa and Others v Grootboom and Others (CCT11/00) [2000] ZACC 19; 2001 (1) SA 46; 2000 (11) BCLR 1169; (4 October 2000) 18 September 2009 18:42 UTC www.saflii.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The lower courts include magistrates' courts, divorce courts, small claims courts, and courts of chiefs and headmen.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Careers Foreign Service Officer Civil Service Officer Foreign Service Specialist Students International Organizations USAJobs: Working for America More...
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Additional key actors in court are the accused, the prosecutor, and the lawyer. .In court the prosecutor has the right to trial against the accused, who has the right to a lawyer[62].^ The bill of rights provides for due process, including the right to a fair, public trial within a reasonable time after being charged, and the right to appeal to a higher court.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The constitution's bill of rights provides for due process including the right to a fair, public trial within a reasonable time of being charged and the right to appeal to a higher court.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.South African lawyers must serve articles for at least two years under an experienced attorney and attend law school to understand theoretical concepts[63].^ Although this law has been abolished, many South Africans still view themselves and each other according to these categories.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ South Africa served as the African Union's (AU) first president from July 2003 to July 2004.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But we must also remember that the respondents are not alone in their desperation; hundreds of thousands (possibly millions) of South Africans live in appalling conditions throughout our country.
  • Government of the Republic of South Africa and Others v Grootboom and Others (CCT11/00) [2000] ZACC 19; 2001 (1) SA 46; 2000 (11) BCLR 1169; (4 October 2000) 18 September 2009 18:42 UTC www.saflii.org [Source type: Original source]

South Africa does not have a jury due to the deep racism that still exists from apartheid and lack of funding in the legal department[64]

Law Enforcement

.South Africa possesses a centralized single police structure with a national police force (SAP) and a single municipal police force in Durban[65].^ Hendricks, a fast bowler, had been singled out by the visiting English captain of 1892 as central to any South African side that might be selected to tour England.
  • Apartheid South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.southafrica.to [Source type: Original source]

^ Apartheid South Africa flights to Cape Town flights to Durban flights to George flights to Kruger flights to London flights to Port Elizabeth a relentless quest to expose the cheapest flights & car rentals in, to and from South Africa .
  • Apartheid South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.southafrica.to [Source type: Original source]

^ To lay before South Africa the true position of affairs in the Transvaal Charles Leonard issued a manifesto as chairman of the National Union.

The ten homelands and the SAP account for the eleven policing agencies, each with their own uniform, rank structures, and conditions of service[66]. .The eleven policing agencies consist of Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda, Ciskei, Gazankulu, Kangwane, Kwandebele, Kwazulu, Lebowa, Qwaqwa, and the old South Africa (SAP)[67].^ The independence of Bophuthatswana was only ever recognized by South Africa and other South African homelands (Transkei, Ciskei, and Venda).
  • Apartheid South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.southafrica.to [Source type: Original source]

^ The independence of Ciskei was only ever recognized by South Africa and other South African homelands (Transkei, Venda, and Bophuthatswana).
  • Apartheid South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.southafrica.to [Source type: Original source]

^ The independence of Transkei was only ever recognized by South Africa and other South African homelands (Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, and Venda).
  • Apartheid South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.southafrica.to [Source type: Original source]

The SAP rank system has Non-commissioned Officers and Commissioned Officers[68]. .The Commissioned Officers consist of a National Commissioner with a deputy followed by Provincial Commissioners with assistants each with a Director, Senior Superintendent, Superintendent, and Captain[69].^ Zuma took over the presidency, with Motlanthe as his deputy, following the ANC’s win in the April 22, 2009 national election.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition women occupied three of four parliamentary presiding officer positions, including speaker and deputy speaker of the National Assembly and deputy chair of the NCOP. .
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Non-commissioned Officers consist of a Inspector, Sergeant, Constable, and Student Constable[70]. .Law officers must complete a long basic training in order to become an appointed police official on salary.^ The border police incorporated antitrafficking material into their training manuals, and both police and judicial officials continued to receive training in antitrafficking activities.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The constitution and law prohibit such practices; however, some police officers reportedly tortured, beat, raped, and otherwise abused suspects.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The government made efforts to address abuses with an official antitorture policy and training programs for police and SANDF officers that included a focus on human rights.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Trainees must go through a six-month long basic training and tactical policing program, followed by a twelve-week long field training as a student constable in uniform, followed by a year of in-service training, and then work in the police service for four years[71].^ The RDP was designed to create programs to improve the standard of living for the majority of the population by providing housing--a planned 1 million new homes in 5 years--basic services, education, and health care.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Join us for a six-week crash course that will rush you through these imperitives in the context of simplicity, poverty and injustice.

^ The police service, which was violent where it should have been reasonable, and blind where it should have been vigilant, had long been a source of great irritation.

.Out of 153 countries being surveyed on corruption rates, South Africa ranked in at 51st[72].^ Key to Quality Ratings South Africa safaris are classified according to the quality of amenities and accommodations.
  • South Africa Safaris, South Africa Safari, South African Safaris, South African Safari, Safaris in South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.africasafari.com [Source type: Reference]
  • South Africa Safaris, South Africa Safari, South African Safaris, South African Safari, Safaris in South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.africasafari.com [Source type: Reference]

^ KwaZulu-Natal ranks second as a major contributor to the economy, accounting for 16,7% of South Africa’s GDP. .
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This finding is all the more noteworthy in that Palestinian territories stand out in their responses from every other Muslim country surveyed.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.On a scale of 0 through 10, with 0 being most corrupt, South Africa received a 4.6 rating by the Corruption Perception Index[73].^ The cereal most grown is maize (known in South Africa as mealies); kaffir corn , wheat , barley and oats are also largely cultivated.

^ Key to Quality Ratings South Africa safaris are classified according to the quality of amenities and accommodations.
  • South Africa Safaris, South Africa Safari, South African Safaris, South African Safari, Safaris in South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.africasafari.com [Source type: Reference]
  • South Africa Safaris, South Africa Safari, South African Safaris, South African Safari, Safaris in South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.africasafari.com [Source type: Reference]

^ ECONOMY South Africa has a two-tiered economy; one rivaling other developed countries and the other with only the most basic infrastructure.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The role of the military in South Africa is to defend the country in a time of war, prevent or suppress terrorism and internal disorder, and to preserve life, health, or property and maintenance of essential services[74].^ South Africa visits Gauteng, making the province the country’s highest earner of tourism income.
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ South Africa's trade with other Sub-Saharan African countries, particularly those in the southern Africa region, has increased substantially.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During these six years the part he played in the development and public life of South Africa was greater than that of any other man.

The country follows the Quasi-Military Police Model in which the SAP and the military work in conjunction to help patrol internal violence. .South African National Defense Force (SANDF) branches into the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Military Health Service.^ HOOVER, IOWA, LC South African National Gallery.

^ People Nationality: Noun and adjective --South African(s).
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As of November, 80 South African Defense Force (SANDF) personnel previously deployed in multilateral peace support operations faced criminal charges on allegations ranging from murder to sexual exploitation of women and girls.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Street art in South Africa, warning against AIDS and abuse
Street art in South Africa, warning against AIDS and abuse.

Crime Rates and Public Opinion

.The most common types of crimes in South Africa are murder, theft, rape, and drug offenses.^ The cereal most grown is maize (known in South Africa as mealies); kaffir corn , wheat , barley and oats are also largely cultivated.

^ ECONOMY South Africa has a two-tiered economy; one rivaling other developed countries and the other with only the most basic infrastructure.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most steel in South Africa is produced and consumed in Gauteng.
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1992 the Annual Report of the Commissioner of Police there were 16,067 counts of murder, 78,677 counts of reported robbery, and 24,360 counts of rape.^ There were reports that police and immigration officials abused refugees and asylum seekers and that asylum seekers were repatriated immediately upon arrival at airports without benefit of formal asylum processing.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There continued to be reports of widespread rape, sexual abuse, sexual harassment, and assaults of girls at school by teachers, students, and other persons in the school community.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were credible reports that these youths were vulnerable to sexual exploitation, including rape.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[75] .The number of reported rapes range from one in every two to one in every twenty.^ Amnesty International noted that the number of reported rapes was believed to be only one-third of the estimated number of actual rapes.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to an initial report on the Kfar Etzion stabbing incident, the two assailants entered the yeshiva building, one armed with a gun and the other with a knife.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One in every two foreign visitors in Gauteng .
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[76] .The statistics suggest that a large portion of rapes go without being reported and alter the accuracy of the rate of crime.^ Iran is the place where they hang homosexuals, arrest, rape and murder pretty women for the crime of being pretty, arrest visiting Americans for the crime of being Americans, and close newspapers they do not like.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

[77] .In 1992 there were 20,071 people were arrested for connections with the drug trade.^ He also claims that there have been attempts to rewrite Palestinian history, in order to deny any connection between it and the Jewish people.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Seven people were injured and 25 arrested, including five trade union leaders.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[78] In comparison to other countries South Africa ranks first in gun violence per 100,000, murders, and murders with firearms and ranks second in assaults, kidnappings, rape, and prisoners[79]
Meeting for Rape Victims Rape victims who have been successfully reintegrated into their communities assemble in a "peace hut" near Walungu, South Kivu in DRC. USAID-supported health programs have assisted rape victims with counseling, training, employment, and safe living environments.
Meeting for Rape Victims Rape victims who have been successfully reintegrated into their communities assemble in a "peace hut" near Walungu, South Kivu in DRC. USAID-supported health programs have assisted rape victims with counseling, training, employment, and safe living environments.
.There has been an increase in the rate of crime since the death penalty was abolished in 1995.[80]Statistics show that one in every three females have been raped and 90% were first raped as a teenager.^ Ahead of the August draft, the IDF reported damning statistics showing a sharp rise in the number of teenagers dodging military service.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While there was increased attention to the problem, a lack of coordinated and comprehensive strategies to deal with violent crimes continued to impede the delivery of needed services to young victims.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There must be a session of parliament every year, so arranged that twelve months shall not elapse between the last day of one session and the first sitting of the next session.

[81] .Due to the high crime rate in South Africa the desire to live in a gated community has increased.^ Key to Quality Ratings South Africa safaris are classified according to the quality of amenities and accommodations.
  • South Africa Safaris, South Africa Safari, South African Safaris, South African Safari, Safaris in South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.africasafari.com [Source type: Reference]
  • South Africa Safaris, South Africa Safari, South African Safaris, South African Safari, Safaris in South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.africasafari.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The former Supreme, High and Circuit Courts of the several colonies then became provincial and local divisions of the Supreme Court of South Africa, which consists of two divisions, namely the Supreme Court and the Appellate Division.

^ South Africa's trade with other Sub-Saharan African countries, particularly those in the southern Africa region, has increased substantially.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many South Africans feel as though the government is ignoring the increasing rate of crime and supporting toll roads and new licensing systems.^ South African government or its agents, and Canadian federal departments .
  • Apartheid South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.southafrica.to [Source type: Original source]

^ Israel and Palestine will not be going along the South African road.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ South Africa's trade with other Sub-Saharan African countries, particularly those in the southern Africa region, has increased substantially.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[82] .The citizens believe that the actual problem is not in the arrest of the criminal, but in the legal acts that follow.^ The legal rights of criminal suspects also are enumerated, as are citizens' entitlements to a safe environment, housing, education, and health care.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[83] .Most of South Africa exhibits common law.^ The cereal most grown is maize (known in South Africa as mealies); kaffir corn , wheat , barley and oats are also largely cultivated.

^ ECONOMY South Africa has a two-tiered economy; one rivaling other developed countries and the other with only the most basic infrastructure.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These provisions - subsequently adopted in the electoral law of the Union of South Africa - were made to secure equal rights for the British and Dutch sections of the community.

Punishment

 Nelson Mandela's prison cell on Robben Island.
Nelson Mandela's prison cell on Robben Island.
.Currently South African prisons contain 163,479 inmates at an overcrowded rate of 142.32% with about 393 prisoners per 100,000[84].^ These bars are formed by the action of waves and currents, and by the intermittent flow, heavy sediment load and steep gradients of most South African rivers.
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Health: Infant mortality rate (2007)--58 per 1,000 live births.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The scope of the problem is perhaps most sharply illustrated by this: about 22 000 houses are built in the Western Cape each year while demand grows at a rate of 20 000 family units per year.
  • Government of the Republic of South Africa and Others v Grootboom and Others (CCT11/00) [2000] ZACC 19; 2001 (1) SA 46; 2000 (11) BCLR 1169; (4 October 2000) 18 September 2009 18:42 UTC www.saflii.org [Source type: Original source]

.Of the 163,479 inmates 3,565 are adult females and 58,271 of the inmates are children under the age of 25[85].^ The law prohibits the commercial sexual exploitation of children, sexual intercourse with children under 16, or permitting a female under 16 to stay in a brothel for the purpose of prostitution.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children under 5 travel free if sharing with their parents, children under 10 pay 50% of the adult fare, children 10 & over pay the adult fare.
  • Train travel in South Africa | Cape Town-Johannesburg from �32/$58 with sleeper 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Children aged under 5 travel free, children aged 5 to 9 (inclusive) travel at half fare, children aged 10 and over pay full fare (note that these child age limits were changed in early 2008).
  • Train travel in South Africa | Cape Town-Johannesburg from �32/$58 with sleeper 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.There is much violence in the prisons against guards and other prisoners, many ending in fatalities[86].^ There were deaths resulting from vigilante and mob action against suspected criminals, as well as acts of violence against suspected witches (see section 1.a.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to NGOs, prisoners used drugs provided to them illegally by guards or other prisoners.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nevertheless, there was some societal violence and discrimination against homosexuals, but unlike in the previous year, there were no reports of official violence or discrimination.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.South Africa has many prisons, each varying in physical condition.^ Many South Africa safaris also feature guided tours of Cape Town, the oldest European settlement in the country.
  • South Africa Safaris, South Africa Safari, South African Safaris, South African Safari, Safaris in South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.africasafari.com [Source type: Reference]
  • South Africa Safaris, South Africa Safari, South African Safaris, South African Safari, Safaris in South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.africasafari.com [Source type: Reference]

^ GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS South Africa is a multiparty parliamentary democracy in which constitutional power is shared between the president and the Parliament.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Environment South Africa's government is committed to managing the country's rich and varied natural resources in a responsible and sustainable manner.
  • South Africa (11/09) 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The cells range from clean single rooms to unsanitary with up to 42 people in each cell. .Prisoners awaiting trial sleep in small damp and cold rooms, have dirty toilets and blankets, chipped tiles, and unpainted walls.^ As of September 30, 43,588 of the country's 158,501 prisoners were awaiting trial.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[87] .The maximum security prisoners include those who have committed murder, serious economic offenses, or those who are serving for multiple crimes.^ Abbas said the Palestinian leadership takes the negotiations seriously: "Those who think that we sit with Israelis for sake of publicity; they are wrong."
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Abbas also said that that the Palestinian prisoners slated for release by Israel before the upcoming Eid Al-Adha holiday include lawmakers and prisoners serving long sentences.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Medically unfit" includes those who died before age 18 - we can start drafting the dead as well as the quick.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some prisoners in maximum security are allowed to attend school, play soccer, and work;However most of the prisoners in this department are allowed nothing.^ Under obvious pressure, Israel has agreed to release 250 Fateh prisoners, and is allowing absorption of "wanted men" into the Palestinian security forces.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of the PA officers were sent for training, but I know of no Palestinian officer who has attended a college military school.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Courts and police generally respected most of these rights; however, there continued to be problems with prison conditions and prolonged pretrial detention.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[88] .The justification for punishment in South Africa is 'warehousing,' a purpose of punishment in which the goal is to isolate the prisoners completely from the outside world and has no type of rehabilitation or post-release program.^ The new industrial situation created had its effect on all parties in South Africa, and in some measure drew together the British and Dutch sections outside the Transvaal.

^ In German South-West Africa no discrimination is made as to the country of origin of imports.

^ Background Facts and Related Links Learn more about South Africa's freshwater challenges and the solutions proposed by the government in its Working for Water program.
  • FRONTLINE/WORLD . Rough Cut . South Africa: The Play Pump | PBS 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: General]

.Due to South Africa's deep apartheid roots there is still much segregation in the prisons.^ In South Africa there is a rigid and universal application of the principle of registration .

^ Religion: Christianity in South Africa was a "common bond to assail and de-legitimize" apartheid.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is internal free trade throughout the Union of South Africa.

.Blacks make up the highest percentage of prisoners with 129,594 incarcerated, followed by 28,971 Coloured inmates, 2,725 Whites, and 763 Asian.^ The Population Registration Act, requiring all citizens to register as black, white or coloured.
  • Apartheid South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.southafrica.to [Source type: Original source]

^ White South Africans vote "yes" for a tricameral parliament that included coloured and indians, but excluded the black majority (and whites held the majority of the seats).
  • Apartheid South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.southafrica.to [Source type: Original source]

^ The white population is estimated at 9,6 million, the coloured population at 4,2 million and the Indian/Asian population at 2,6 million.
  • About SA - The land and its people 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.info.gov.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[89]Due to the overcrowding of the prisons, there is a periodic .'special remissions' stage in which prisoners are released before their parole date.^ Abbas also said that that the Palestinian prisoners slated for release by Israel before the upcoming Eid Al-Adha holiday include lawmakers and prisoners serving long sentences.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.The minimum sentence for a rape charge is 10-25 years depending on whether it is the perpetrator's first offense.^ It is not in any event necessary to decide whether it is appropriate for a court to determine in the first instance the minimum core content of a right.
  • Government of the Republic of South Africa and Others v Grootboom and Others (CCT11/00) [2000] ZACC 19; 2001 (1) SA 46; 2000 (11) BCLR 1169; (4 October 2000) 18 September 2009 18:42 UTC www.saflii.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Violating a protection order is punishable by a prison sentence of up to five years, or 20 years if additional criminal charges are brought.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The South African law has a minimum life sentence for cases involving gang rape, second offenders, and those cases in which the victim has already been raped previously[90].^ I was greatly blessed to meet wonderful people and to see a slice of South African life that's not on the tourist maps.
  • Train travel in South Africa | Cape Town-Johannesburg from �32/$58 with sleeper 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Plus you just get a window onto so many different aspects of South African life, just in terms of whom you meet.
  • Train travel in South Africa | Cape Town-Johannesburg from �32/$58 with sleeper 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ We are grateful to him, the Human Rights Commission and the Community Law Centre for a detailed, helpful and creative approach to the difficult and sensitive issues involved in this case.
  • Government of the Republic of South Africa and Others v Grootboom and Others (CCT11/00) [2000] ZACC 19; 2001 (1) SA 46; 2000 (11) BCLR 1169; (4 October 2000) 18 September 2009 18:42 UTC www.saflii.org [Source type: Original source]

.The minimum sentence for first degree murder is 15 years imprisonment on the first offense and the minimum for assault ranges from 5-10 years[91].^ November 1962: Nelson Mandela is sentenced to 5 years imprisonment for illegally leaving the country and incitement to strike.
  • Apartheid South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.southafrica.to [Source type: Original source]

^ The minimum hourly rates for domestics depended on the number of hours worked and could range from $0.59 (R4.15) to $0.86 (R6.04).
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scott-Crossley's accomplice, Simon Mathebula, received a 15-year sentence for his part in the crime.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.First offenses for some murder, some terrorism, robbery including hijacking, some drug dealing, firearm offenses, and white collar crimes including corruption has a minimum of 15 years.^ Scott-Crossley's accomplice, Simon Mathebula, received a 15-year sentence for his part in the crime.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[92] .The only crimes that can be punishable for life involve massive murders, rapes, and terrorism.^ Iran is the place where they hang homosexuals, arrest, rape and murder pretty women for the crime of being pretty, arrest visiting Americans for the crime of being Americans, and close newspapers they do not like.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The law requires that a panel of lay assessors and a magistrate hear cases involving murder, rape, robbery, indecent assault, and assault leading to serious bodily harm.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[93] .The determination of the life sentence depends if the act was premeditation, conspiracy, robbery in aggravated circumstances, the victim being a law enforcement officer or witness, or if the act was done under repeated rape or vulnerability of the victim[94].^ The constitution and law prohibit such practices; however, some police officers reportedly tortured, beat, raped, and otherwise abused suspects.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The age of consent is 16 and the statutory sentence for rape of a child is life in prison; however, the law grants judges the discretion to issue more lenient sentences.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Court fees are paid by the offender based on the offense category. .South Africa has outlawed capital punishment but permits corporal punishment in schools and allows caning on adults[95].^ Under the influence of Africander nationalism strenuous efforts have been made to teach the language in the schools throughout the greater part of South Africa.

^ Although the law prohibits corporal punishment in schools, there were reports that teachers used physical violence to discipline students.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Export-Import Corporation not to provide assistance to companies in respect of business with South Africa; .
  • Apartheid South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.southafrica.to [Source type: Original source]

Rights

Family Law

 Protest and Celebration is a history of South Africa’s gay pride marches and parades over the last 16 years.
Protest and Celebration is a history of South Africa’s gay pride marches and parades over the last 16 years.
.In order to obtain a customary marriage both spouses must be over the age of 18, must consent to each other to be married under customary law, and must not be blood related[96].^ The law prohibits employment of a child under 15 years of age, or under the minimum school-leaving age, or over 15 but under 18, if the work places at risk the child's wellbeing, education, physical or mental health, or spiritual, moral, or social development.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the statute law of Natal post-nuptial agreements between spouses are permitted under certain conditions, to which it is not possible now to refer at length.

^ When interpreting any legislation, and when developing the common law or customary law, every court, tribunal or forum must promote the spirit, purport and objects of the Bill of Rights.
  • Government of the Republic of South Africa and Others v Grootboom and Others (CCT11/00) [2000] ZACC 19; 2001 (1) SA 46; 2000 (11) BCLR 1169; (4 October 2000) 18 September 2009 18:42 UTC www.saflii.org [Source type: Original source]

.If the prospective spouses are under the age of 18 they must obtain consent from a parent, guardian, commissioner of child welfare, judge, or minister[97].^ The law prohibits employment of a child under 15 years of age, or under the minimum school-leaving age, or over 15 but under 18, if the work places at risk the child's wellbeing, education, physical or mental health, or spiritual, moral, or social development.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The consent of the high commissioner and of the home government was obtained, and in June 1904 the first batch of coolies reached the Rand.

^ Child support grants cover children up to the age of 14, but it was sometimes difficult for children, particularly those in rural areas or without documentation, to obtain access to health care facilities and other social welfare programs.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A South African married under customary law can have the marriage be dissolved if the court agrees that the relationship "has reached such a state that there is no reasonable prospect of the restoration of a normal marriage relationship between them"[98].^ There was no Israel and no Jewish State.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no law that protects the victims in such a case.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are no cultural agreements between Ireland and South Africa.
  • Apartheid South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.southafrica.to [Source type: Original source]

.South Africa allows same-sex couples to "enjoy the status and the benefits coupled with the responsibilities that marriage accords to opposite-sex marriage"[99].^ South Africa's commonwealth status is restored (although it remains a Republic).
  • Apartheid South Africa 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.southafrica.to [Source type: Original source]

^ Other Societal Abuses and Discrimination The post-apartheid constitution outlaws discrimination based on sexual orientation and on December 1 the country legalized same-sex marriage.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The scanty rainfall in many parts of South Africa and its unequal distribution necessitates a system of artificial irrigation unless much of the land be allowed to remain uncultivated.

.The rights to a child may be given up by choice or by force under circumstances in which they harm the child's safety, protection, welfare, or well-being[100].^ They also protect the rights of the child [17] and the right to education.
  • Government of the Republic of South Africa and Others v Grootboom and Others (CCT11/00) [2000] ZACC 19; 2001 (1) SA 46; 2000 (11) BCLR 1169; (4 October 2000) 18 September 2009 18:42 UTC www.saflii.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The question is therefore not whether socio-economic rights are justiciable under our Constitution, but how to enforce them in a given case.
  • Government of the Republic of South Africa and Others v Grootboom and Others (CCT11/00) [2000] ZACC 19; 2001 (1) SA 46; 2000 (11) BCLR 1169; (4 October 2000) 18 September 2009 18:42 UTC www.saflii.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They may both be used under the section as tools of interpretation.
  • Government of the Republic of South Africa and Others v Grootboom and Others (CCT11/00) [2000] ZACC 19; 2001 (1) SA 46; 2000 (11) BCLR 1169; (4 October 2000) 18 September 2009 18:42 UTC www.saflii.org [Source type: Original source]

The child may be placed in a drop-in center, foster home, youth center, or be put up for adoption. .There are many laws which determine the outcome of a deceased persons' property.^ Many of the residents who were not there could not even salvage their personal belongings.
  • Government of the Republic of South Africa and Others v Grootboom and Others (CCT11/00) [2000] ZACC 19; 2001 (1) SA 46; 2000 (11) BCLR 1169; (4 October 2000) 18 September 2009 18:42 UTC www.saflii.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With regard to the devolution of property upon death, it may be remarked that the law of intestate succession applies equally to real and personal estate, there being no law of primogeniture .

^ A ministerial determination exempted businesses employing fewer than 10 persons from certain provisions of the law concerning overtime and leave.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

If the spouse is not mentioned in the will the Maintenance of Surviving Spouses Act allows the surviving spouse to claim the property only until remarriage or death. .If there is no will the property is divided up equally between the remaining children and spouse.^ Discrimination against women remained a serious problem despite equal rights under family law and property law with regard to inheritance, divorce, and custody of children, and equal legal rights under the judicial system.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Upon the dissolution of a marriage in community of property, or in the event of a judicial separation a communione bonorum, the property of the spouses is divided as upon the liquidation of a partnership.

^ There is no real difference between the PA and Mafia gangs.
  • Israel News 16 September 2009 12:35 UTC zionism-israel.com [Source type: Original source]

.If there is no surviving spouse or children the property is divided equally among parents and siblings, or the next closest blood relative.^ This does not mean, however, that the state incurs no obligation in relation to children who are being cared for by their parents or families.
  • Government of the Republic of South Africa and Others v Grootboom and Others (CCT11/00) [2000] ZACC 19; 2001 (1) SA 46; 2000 (11) BCLR 1169; (4 October 2000) 18 September 2009 18:42 UTC www.saflii.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Upon the dissolution of a marriage in community of property, or in the event of a judicial separation a communione bonorum, the property of the spouses is divided as upon the liquidation of a partnership.

^ The death of parents by HIV/AIDS has increased the number of children who have to support themselves and often younger siblings in households headed by children.
  • South Africa 7 January 2010 4:30 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The property must be claimed within 30 years or is forfeited to the state[101].^ The state must take reasonable legislative and other measures, within its available resources, to achieve the progressive realisation of this right.
  • Government of the Republic of South Africa and Others v Grootboom and Others (CCT11/00) [2000] ZACC 19; 2001 (1) SA 46; 2000 (11) BCLR 1169; (4 October 2000) 18 September 2009 18:42 UTC www.saflii.org [Source type: Original source]

^ British subject of European descent, must be thirty years old, be a parliamentary voter in one of the provinces, have lived for five years in the Union, and if an elected member be possessed of immovable property within the Union of the clear value of £500.

^ The measures must establish a coherent public housing programme directed towards the progressive realisation of the right of access to adequate housing within the