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South America
South America (orthographic projection).svg
Area 17,840,000 km2 (6,890,000 sq mi)
Population 385,742,554
Pop. density 21.4 per km2 (56.0 per sq mi)
Demonym South American, American[1]
Countries 12 (List of countries)
Dependencies 3
Languages List of languages
Time Zones UTC-2 to UTC-5
Largest cities
.South America (Spanish: América del Sur or Sudamérica; Portuguese: América do Sul) is the southern continent of America,[2][3] situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.^ Accommodation: Can be quite expensive relative to the rest of South America.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ The Partins and Hendersons were first white settlers of this small community, called South America.

^ This section of the country is known as South America, situated in the Southeast section of Bell County, Kentucky.

.It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean; North America and the Caribbean Sea lie to the northwest.^ Dangers: Some guerrilla activity in very north west, along Colombian border.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

.America was named in 1507 by cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann after Amerigo Vespucci, who was the first European to suggest that the newly discovered lands were not India, but a New World unknown to Europeans.^ When the house was completed, he moved into his new possession and immediately began to split rails and fence land for farming in that antediluvian period of South America.

.South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers (6,890,000 sq mi), or almost 3.5% of the Earth's surface.^ About the date 1855, some of my old ancestors established what they called a mining company in South America.

^ The rifle was the law in this area, known as South America because of its remoteness.

^ In my foregoing articles I gave the geographical history of this not much understood and less known people of this wild and woolly South America.

.As of 2005, its population was estimated at more than 371,090,000. South America ranks fourth in area (after Asia, Africa, and North America) and fifth in population (after Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America).^ Bolivia is also the most indigenous country on the continent, with more than 50% of the population maintaining traditional values and beliefs.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ According to estimates by U.S. law enforcement officials, a significant amount of cocaine transits Paraguay annually enroute to Brazil, Argentina, Europe, Africa and the Middle East.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bush proposed $735 million for the Andean Counterdrug Initiative in fiscal 2006, $4 million more than 2005.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Contents

History

Agriculture and animal domestication

The prehistoric Cueva de las Manos, or Cave of Hands, in Argentina
.South America is thought to have been first inhabited by people crossing the Bering Land Bridge (now the Bering Strait) from the territory that is present-day Russia.^ That was in the antediluvian days of South America when all the land belonged to the government.

^ I have grown up with the people of South America.

^ It was found there by the first settlers of South America.

Some archaeological finds do not fit this theory and have led to an alternative theory of Pre-Siberian American Aborigines. .The first evidence for the existence of agricultural practices in South America dates back to about 6500 BC, when potatoes, chillies and beans began to be cultivated for food in the highlands of the Amazon Basin.^ South America Revealed & Amazon 2010 .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Glimpse of South America and Amazon 2010 .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ About the date 1855, some of my old ancestors established what they called a mining company in South America.

Pottery evidence further suggests that manioc, which remains a staple food today, was being cultivated as early as 2000 BC.[4]
.By 2000 BC, many agrarian village communities had been settled throughout the Andes and the surrounding religious regions.^ Volunteers are assigned to public schools in regions throughout the country, live with host families in their community and receive a monthly stipend.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fishing became a widespread practice along the coast, helping establish fish as a primary source of food. Irrigation systems were also developed at this time, which aided in the rise of an agrarian society.[4]
.South American cultures began domesticating llamas, vicuñas, guanacos, and alpacas in the highlands of the Andes circa 3500 BC. Besides their use as sources of meat and wool, these animals were used for transportation of goods.^ Go-fast boats also transport drugs to Central American and Caribbean transshipment countries, using refueling vessels to extend their range.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Virtually all other modern literature on South American birds uses "Lesser Rhea" for P. pennata .
  • Classification of birds of South America Part 01 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.museum.lsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Brazil cooperates with its South American neighbors in an attempt to control the remote and expansive border areas where illicit drugs are transported.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]

Pre-Colombian civilizations

The Inca ruins of Machu Picchu.
.The rise of plant growing and the subsequent appearance of permanent human settlements allowed for the multiple and overlapping beginnings of civilizations in South America.^ Skepticism continues to mount over the US drug war in South America as charges by critics grow more and more serious.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ In the center of South America is the Henderson Settlement School, a Methodist institution operated by Rev. H.M. Frakes, a former resident of Indiana.

.The earliest known settlements, and culture in South America and America altogether, are the Valdivia on the Southwest coast of Ecuador.^ We provide volunteer projects throughout Central and South America including Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The rifle was the law in this area, known as South America because of its remoteness.

^ In my foregoing articles I gave the geographical history of this not much understood and less known people of this wild and woolly South America.

One of the earliest known South American civilizations was at Norte Chico, on the central Peruvian coast. Though a pre-ceramic culture, the monumental architecture of Norte Chico is contemporaneous with the pyramids of Ancient Egypt. Norte Chico governing class established a trade network and developed agriculture then followed by Chavín by 900 BC, according to some estimates and archaeological finds. Artifacts were found at a site called Chavín de Huantar in modern Peru at an elevation of 3,177 meters. Chavín civilization spanned 900 BC to 300 BC.
.In the central coast of Peru, around the biggining of the I millenum, Moche (100 BC – 700 AD, at the northern coast of Peru), Paracas and Nazca (400 BC – 800 AD, Peru) cultures flourishd with centralized states with permanent militia improving agriculture through irrigation and new styles of ceramic art.^ Assistance to farm communities and businesses helped generate 3,700 new jobs and new sales of AD products of $16.5 million (a 45 percent increase over 2006).
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cultural centre focuses on improving the quality of life for youth and community members through arts, culture, education and agriculture.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The AD program in Peru has achieved sustainable reductions in coca cultivation through an integrated approach that increases the economic competitiveness of coca-growing areas while improving local governance.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

At the Altiplano, Tiahuanaco or Tiwanaku (100 BC – 1200 AD, Bolivia) managed a large commercial network based on religion. .Around 7th century, both Tiahuanaco and Wari or Huari Empire (600 – 1200, Central and northern Peru) expanded it influence to all the Andean region, imposing the Huari urbanism and tiahuanaco religious iconography.^ This project strives to improve and develop the abilities and skills of children and adolescents that live in the rural and high Andean regions of Peru.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brazil signed a memorandum of understanding in March 2007 to expand the regional Officer Exchange Program, which now includes Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, and Paraguay.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This mounting social protest, especially in Bolivia but also in Peru, carries a strong potential to contribute to already unstable political conditions in the whole Andean region."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

The Muisca were the main indigenous civilization in what is now modern Colombia. .They established a confederation of many clans, or cacicazgos, that had a free trade network among themselves.^ They established a confederation of many clans, or cacicazgos, that had a free trade network among themselves.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Besides, how many “nuclear weapons” do they have themselves?

^ In 1994 the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was established between Canada, Mexico, and the United States.
  • South America - An Overview 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.mbendi.com [Source type: News]

.They were goldsmiths and farmers.^ They were goldsmiths and farmers.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other important Pre-Columbian cultures include: ; the Cañaris (in south central Ecuador), Chimu Empire (1300–1470, Peruvian northern coast), Chachapoyas, and the Aymaran kingdoms (1000–1450, Bolivia and southern Peru).^ We provide volunteer projects throughout Central and South America including Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "According to the UN, Plan Colombia produced a modest displacement of coca to other countries: by 2003, cultivation was up slightly in Bolivia but stable in Peru.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Some things you might want to know in the way of backpacking, budget travel country advice, info and summaries for: South America - Bolivia , Brazil , Chile , Colombia , Ecuador and Peru .
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

Holding their capital at the great city of Cusco, the Inca civilization dominated the Andes region from 1438 to 1533. Known as Tawantin suyu, and "the land of the four regions," in Quechua, the Inca civilization was highly distinct and developed. .Inca rule extended to nearly a hundred linguistic or ethnic communities, some 9 to 14 million people connected by a 25,000 kilometer road system.^ When the people wanted their mail they appointed one man to ride to Pineville, a distance of some fifteen or twenty miles, and the rider carried the mail for the whole community.

^ Nearly 550 kilometers of roads were maintained or improved and 17 bridges constructed in the two regions where IAD programs are undertaken.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This week, however, he simply read from a statement describing how he oversaw the assassinations of hundreds of people, with some operations made possible with information from military intelligence.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.Cities were built with precise, unmatched stonework, constructed over many levels of mountain terrain.^ Cities were built with precise, unmatched stonework, constructed over many levels of mountain terrain.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Terrace farming was a useful form of agriculture.^ The project has also set up an integrated organic farm in the reserve buffer zone to provide alternatives to the slash-and-burn agriculture that was previously used.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

European colonization

A representation of a Mestizo, in a "Pintura de Castas" in the Colonial era. "From Spaniard and Amerindian woman, begets Mestizo".
.In 1494, Portugal and Spain, the two great cultural and maritime European powers of that time, on the expectation of new lands being discovered in the west, signed the Treaty of Tordesillas, by which they agreed, with the support of the Pope, that all the land outside Europe should be an exclusive duopoly between the two countries.^ The word gringo originated in the conflict between Mexican and American soldiers in the border between the two countries and comes directly from English 'green go!'
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ While there is no bilateral Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty (MLAT) in force between the USG and Colombia, the two countries cooperate extensively via multilateral agreements and conventions, including the OAS Convention on Mutual Legal Assistance and the 1988 UN Drug Convention.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This action should dissuade farmers of the notion that their crops are safe between eradication campaigns and encourage them to sign compacts for alternative development.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Treaty established an imaginary line along a north-south meridian 370 leagues west of Cape Verde Islands, roughly 46° 37' W. In terms of the treaty, all land to the west of the line (known to comprise most of the South American soil) would belong to Spain, and all land to the east, to Portugal.^ That was in the antediluvian days of South America when all the land belonged to the government.

^ Virtually all other modern literature on South American birds uses "Lesser Rhea" for P. pennata .
  • Classification of birds of South America Part 01 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.museum.lsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ South America has become one of the most law abiding areas in all Kentucky.

As accurate measurements of longitude were impossible at that time, the line was not strictly enforced, resulting in a Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian.
.Beginning in the 1530s, the people and natural resources of South America were repeatedly exploited by foreign conquistadors, first from Spain and later from Portugal.^ I have grown up with the people of South America.

^ In my foregoing articles I gave the geographical history of this not much understood and less known people of this wild and woolly South America.

^ The people of South America in those days had to get all the salt they used from Clay County.

.These competing colonial nations claimed the land and resources as their own and divided it into colonies.^ These competing colonial nations claimed the land and resources as their own and divided it into colonies.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These efforts allow citizens to exercise their constitutional right to own land and increase legal security in places where the state has been absent.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Divide class into pairs or let students choose their own partners.

European infectious diseases (smallpox, influenza, measles, and typhus)—to which the native populations had no immune resistance—and systems of forced labor, such as the haciendas and mining industry's mita, decimated the native population under Spanish control.
.African slaves were brought in large quantities for several centuries for a number of reasons, both political and economical; however, it was mainly because they were much better fitted than the American natives for hard labor in tropical climate such as sugar cane plantations or gold mining.^ They call it vacant land so the mining company entered surveys of large tracts of land in several places containing thousands of acres in and near South America.

^ Brazil also has a number of narcotics control agreements with its South American neighbors, several European countries, and South Africa.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But that meant they could face American justice, rather than Colombia's corrupt and overburdened courts, only if Americans were victims of their activities.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.The Spaniards were committed to convert their native subjects to Christianity and were quick to purge any native cultural practices that hindered this end; however, most initial attempts at this were only partially successful, as native groups simply blended Catholicism with traditional idolatry and their polytheistic beliefs.^ Bolivia is also the most indigenous country on the continent, with more than 50% of the population maintaining traditional values and beliefs.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

.Furthermore, the Spaniards brought their language to the degree they did with their religion, although the Roman Catholic Church's evangelization in Quechua, Aymara, and Guaraní actually contributed to the continuous use of these native languages albeit only in the oral form.^ They continue to improve their techniques and efforts in all of these areas.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mr Egeland refused to comment about whether they had contributed to the homelessness, although he said kidnappings had decreased.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Eventually, the natives and the Spaniards interbred, forming a mestizo class. At the beginning, the mestizos of the Andean region were offspring of Amerindian mothers and Spanish fathers. After independence, most mestizos had native fathers and white or mestizo mothers.
.Many native artworks were considered pagan idols and destroyed by Spanish explorers; this included many gold and silver sculptures and other artifacts found in South America, which were melted down before their transport to Spain or Portugal.^ We provide volunteer projects throughout Central and South America including Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Typical tourist trail: Quito to Otavalo, back to Quito and down the avenue of volcanoes to Baos and other villages in the south.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ Leaving South America, he went down to the mouth of Clear Creek and built a log house and lived there for several years.

.On the other hand, Spaniards and Portuguese brought the western architectural style to the continent as well as they helped to improve infrastructures like bridges, roads, and the sewer system of the cities they discovered, conquered or found.^ 'They are part and parcel of the narcotics production and export threat to the United States, as well as Europe and other countries in Latin America.'
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Through theatre, clowning, mime and circus skills students discover how to respect themselves and others when taught that they can make a living through this art.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The USG provides equipment, infrastructure, and training to help improve counternarcotics performance.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They also significantly improved economic and trade relations, not just between the old and new world but between the different South American regions and peoples.^ But production here far exceeds that threshold, and much of the surplus feeds a cocaine trade thriving in part on the new regional demand of a rising Latin American middle class.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Sibley & Monroe (1990) considered B. pinnatus to form a superspecies with North American B. lentiginosus and Old World B. stellaris and B. poicilopterus .
  • Classification of birds of South America Part 01 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.museum.lsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ New World sylvicola may be a species distinct from Old World Sarkidiornis melanotos and is treated as such by Pinto (1938), Hellmayr & Conover (1948aa), and Wetmore (1965) .
  • Classification of birds of South America Part 01 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.museum.lsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Finally, with the expansion of the Portuguese and Spanish languages, many cultures that were previously separated became united through that of Latin American.^ What is notable is the increased Inca Trail rates apply to everyone including Peruvians and other Latin Americans and their absence from the Inca Trail and Cusco is obvious compared to previous years.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ Mr Walters said in Mexico that billions of dollars of investment over many years have failed to dent the flow of Latin American cocaine onto US streets.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Proposals may be in English or Spanish (we apologize that many of us are not yet proficient in reading Portuguese or French).
  • Classification of birds of South America Part 01 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.museum.lsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Guyana was a Portuguese, Dutch, and eventually a British colony. .The country was once partitioned into three parts, each being controlled by one of the colonial powers until the country was finally taken over fully by the British.^ As the population increased, they began to chop out cart roads from one house to another until they got a possible cart road into Pineville.

^ There are stories of it being "almost discovered", time after time in other parts of the country, particularly North Carolina, West Virginia, Pennsylvania and Ohio.

^ My father was one of the company and he served three years in the Union Army and after the war was over the mining project has been dead until the present day.

Independence

.The South American possessions of the Spanish Crown won their independence between 1804 and 1826 in the Spanish American wars of independence.^ Since the Pan-American Highway grinds to a halt just past Panama City, there is no road access between North and South America.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ Intro: The poorest and debatably the best (from an independent budget traveller's perspective) of South American nations.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

.Simón Bolívar of Venezuela and José de San Martín of Argentina were the most important leaders of the independence struggles.^ The time and space to transmit these messages has been donated by Venezuela’s most important media firms.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bolívar led a great uprising in northern South America, then led his army southward towards Lima, the capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru.^ We provide volunteer projects throughout Central and South America including Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At least one record of bransfieldensis for South America (Brazil; Lima et al.
  • Classification of birds of South America Part 01 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.museum.lsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America .
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.Meanwhile, San Martín led an army from the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata across the Andes Mountains, meeting up with General Bernardo O'Higgins in Chile, and then marched northward to gain the military support of various rebels from the Viceroyalty of Peru.^ About one-fourth of a mile up on the north side of Pine Mountain there is a hole or shaft that has been dug by some other generation of people.

^ Brazil signed a memorandum of understanding in March 2007 to expand the regional Officer Exchange Program, which now includes Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, and Paraguay.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The GOC’s 2003 National Security Strategy (Plan de Seguridad Democratica) meets the strategic requirements of the UN Drug Convention, and the GOC is generally in line with its other requirements.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The two armies finally met in Guayaquil, Ecuador, where they cornered the Royal Army of the Spanish Crown and forced its surrender.
In the Portuguese colony of Brazil, Dom Pedro I (also Pedro IV of Portugal), son of the Portuguese King Dom João VI, proclaimed the country's independence in 1822 and became Brazil's first Emperor. This was peacefully accepted by the crown in Portugal.
.Although Bolivar attempted to unify politically the Spanish-speaking parts of the continent into the "Gran Colombia", they rapidly became independent states without political connections between them, despite some later attempts such as the Peruvian-Bolivian Confederation.^ As the article states, "Speaking to reporters in Bolivia on Friday [July 17], the populist leader characterized the report as a political tool used by the United States to besmirch his country.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Some are criticing the move, noting that Colombia has yet to put resources into prevention and treatment.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Nearly 3 years later, the Departments of State and Defense have still not developed estimates of future program costs, defined their future roles in Colombia, identified a proposed end state, or determined how they plan to achieve it."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

A few countries did not gain independence until the 20th century:
French Guiana remains part of France.

Recent history

Jorge Videla (left) and Augusto Pinochet in Mendoza, Argentina in 1978
The continent became a battlefield of the Cold War in the late 20th century. .Some democratically elected governments of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay were overthrown or displaced by United States-aligned military dictatorships in the 1960s and 1970s.^ An increasing proportion of the cocaine both transiting and produced within Bolivia is destined for Europe, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Mexico (in the case of the last, likely for eventual sale in the United States).
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to estimates by U.S. law enforcement officials, a significant amount of cocaine transits Paraguay annually enroute to Brazil, Argentina, Europe, Africa and the Middle East.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plus shorter summaries for Argentina , Paraguay & Uruguay .
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

.Many of those dictators, genocides and torturers were trained in violation of human rigths by the United States in the infamous School of the Americas.^ Also, 16 BNP officers received basic and advanced polygraph examiner training in addition to receiving certification by the United States.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ 'There were those who did not believe it was possible to change the availability of cocaine in the United States,' Walters said.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Also in 2007, seven drug detection canines and their Peruvian handlers were trained in the United States, doubling Peruvian Customs canine capacity.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To curtail opposition, their governments detained tens of thousands of political prisoners, many of whom were tortured and/or killed on inter-state collaboration.^ However, Cejas told reporters that the United States "will be allowed to collaborate with funds and advisors, but only within programmes designed by the [Bolivian] government."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Economically, they began a transition to neoliberal economic policies. .They placed their own actions within the U.S. Cold War doctrine of "National Security" against internal subversion.^ In a July 28 article ( "Gautemala: Casualty of War in US War Against Drugs and National Security" ), the paper denounced the lack of change in US drug policies, particularly with regard to Mexico.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ These efforts allow citizens to exercise their constitutional right to own land and increase legal security in places where the state has been absent.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Peru suffered from an internal conflict.
Argentina and Britain fought the Falklands war in 1982.
.Colombia currently faces an internal conflict, which started in 1964 with the creation of Marxist guerrillas (FARC-EP) and now involves several illegal armed groups of leftist leaning ideology as well as the private armies of powerful drug lords.^ According to the story by Knight-Ridder correspondent Joseph L. Galloway, "The arrival of the Green Berets signaled a more aggressive U.S. effort to help Colombian forces fight the guerrillas of the leftist National Liberation Army, or ELN, and newcomers to this region from the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC. Until now, American efforts have been aimed almost exclusively at curtailing cocaine and heroin production.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ "US Takes On New Powers To Try 'Drug Guerrillas'" ) that "America yesterday named Colombia's Marxist guerrillas and Right-wing paramilitaries as international drugs trafficking groups, opening the way for their leaders to face extradition and trial in US courts.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Its supporters in Colombia say the program is crucial not only for battling the drug trade but also to combat left-wing guerrillas and right-wing paramilitaries involved in the nation's four-decade armed conflict that depend on financing from drug profits.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.Revolutionary movements and right-wing military dictatorships became common after World War II, but since the 1980s a wave of democratization came through the continent, and democratic rule is widespread now.^ The communities along the Apurimac River were savaged in the mid-1980s during Peru's war against the Maoist guerrilla movement known as the Shining Path.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The U.S. government has labeled two major guerrilla groups and a right-wing paramilitary force that is closely allied with Colombia's military as terrorist organizations."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[5] .Nonetheless, allegations of corruption are still very common, and several countries have developed crises which have forced the resignation of their governments, although, in most occasions, regular civilian succession has continued this far.^ Successive governments have opted to resolve confrontations with coca growers ("cocaleros") through negotiation and concessions than with law enforcement and forced eradication.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But funding by the U.S. and Colombian governments for crop-substitution programs pale in comparison to the eradication budget and most efforts to develop alternatives have failed."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ UDENOR, the Ecuadorian agency for northern border development established in 2000 to coordinate economic and social development programs in the country’s northern border region, continued its implementation of the government’s northern border development master plan.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.International indebtedness turned into a severe problem in late 1980s, and some countries, despite having strong democracies, have not yet developed political institutions capable of handling such crises without recurring to unorthodox economical policies, as most recently illustrated by Argentina's default in the early 21st century.^ Most narcotics arrive by land routes from Peru and Bolivia, but some enter through Argentina.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SEDRONAR recently completed work on Argentina’s first national drug plan and hopes to see the plan passed into law in 2006.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A quick low down : Despite recent time spent in Paraguay, it's hard to put something down about a country such as Paraguay.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

[6]

Politics

.During the first decade of the 21st century, South American governments have drifted to the political left, with socialist leaders being elected in Chile, Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina, Ecuador, Bolivia, Paraguay and Venezuela.^ Paraguay has law enforcement agreements with Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Venezuela, and Colombia.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Paraguay has law enforcement agreements with Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Venezuela and Colombia.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We provide volunteer projects throughout Central and South America including Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Despite the move to the left, South America for the most part still embraces free market policies, and it is taking an active path toward greater continental integration.^ The subspecies of continental South America, Rollandia r.
  • Classification of birds of South America Part 01 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.museum.lsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ He said the report underscores a need for a comprehensive review of U.S. policy toward Venezuela," a move that, according to some adminstration staffers, could destabilize efforts to improve relations with Latin America.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Women alone: As with the rest of South America, single women should be very wary before taking a jungle or Pantanal tour with a male guide .
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

Recently, an intergovernmental entity has been formed which aims to merge the two existing customs unions: Mercosur and the Andean Community, thus forming the third-largest trade bloc in the world.[7] .This new political organization known as Union of South American Nations seeks to establish free movement of people, economic development, a common defense policy and the elimination of tariffs.^ This brutal treatment almost triggered a revolt in Chapare, where the resistance movement against the government was led by a cunning union organizer: Evo Morales.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Kidnappings and other violent crimes in the South American nation also have declined.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The South American Classification Committee is an official committee of the American Ornithologists' Union whose mission is to create a standard classification, with English names, for the bird species of South America.
  • Classification of birds of South America Part 01 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.museum.lsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Geography

A composite relief image of South America.
The Andes.
.South America occupies the southern portion of the landmass sometimes referred to as the New World.^ When the house was completed, he moved into his new possession and immediately began to split rails and fence land for farming in that antediluvian period of South America.

^ Earlier news items in an archived CSDP newsblog on the Colombia & South America drug war .
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and borders all the countries of South America except Chile and Ecuador.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The continent is generally delimited on the northwest by the Darién watershed along the ColombiaPanama border, or (according to some sources) by the Panama Canal which transects the Isthmus of Panama.^ Illicit cultivation continues to be a problem in Colombia’s national parks, indigenous reserves, and along the border with Ecuador and Venezuela, where aerial eradication is not employed.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Congress and the Bush administration made a deal this month that eased the way for passage of bilateral trade accords with Peru and Panama, but put Colombia's on hold.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Limited law enforcement presence along the Brazilian border and increased pressure on traffickers in Colombia, Bolivia and Peru is shifting some smuggling routes south—by private vehicle, bus, and small airplanes.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Geopolitically and geographically[8] all of Panama – including the segment east of the Panama Canal in the isthmus – is typically included in North America alone[9][10][11] and among the countries of Central America.^ We provide volunteer projects throughout Central and South America including Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Illicit narcotics destined for the U.S. from Venezuela are shipped through the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Central America, Mexico, and other Caribbean countries.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and borders all the countries of South America except Chile and Ecuador.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12][13] .Almost all of mainland South America sits on the South American Plate.^ As far as can be determined < check > , South American records all pertain to nominate P. puffinus.
  • Classification of birds of South America Part 01 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.museum.lsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The people of South America in those days had to get all the salt they used from Clay County.

^ But back in the old days of the first emigrants that settled in Bell County, especially in South America, all the language that was needed was what they brought here with them.

Many of the islands of the Caribbean (or West Indies) – e.g., the Leeward and Lesser Antilles – sit atop the Caribbean Plate, a tectonic plate with a diffuse topography. The islands of Aruba, Barbados, Trinidad, and Tobago sit on the northerly South American continental shelf. .The Netherlands Antilles and the federal dependencies of Venezuela lie along the northerly South American shelf.^ (It should be noted that Louis de Bernieres trilogy is set in a fictional South American country - that resembles parts of Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela (Grand Colombia)).
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

.Geopolitically, the island states and overseas territories of the Caribbean are generally grouped as a part or subregion of North America.^ Geopolitically, the island states and overseas territories of the Caribbean are generally grouped as a part or subregion of North America.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • South America Travel Information - South America Hotels Reservation - Asia Travel 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC www.asiatravel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Off the coast of Venezuela are the states of the Caribbean island of Aruba, the Netherlands Antilles and Trinidad and Tobago.
  • South america countries images, travel deals and news 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.flyawaytrip.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For instance, you could name all the territorial possessions in the Caribbean, or the territories on the UN's official list of Non-self-governing territories, or the list of British overseas territories, and so forth.
  • Can you name the countries of South America? - sporcle 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.sporcle.com [Source type: General]

[14][15][16] .The South American nations that border the Caribbean Sea—including Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana—are also known as Caribbean South America.^ We provide volunteer projects throughout Central and South America including Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Participants included national police and customs agencies from Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Illicit cultivation continues to be a problem in Colombia’s national parks, indigenous reserves, and along the border with Ecuador and Venezuela, where aerial eradication is not employed.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other islands are the Galápagos islands that belong to Ecuador and Easter Island (in Oceania but belongs to Chile), Robinson Crusoe Island, Chiloé, and the Tierra del Fuego.^ A multi-national team of operators will be active from Robinson Crusoe Island, Juan Fernandez (SA-005).
  • DXpeditions sorted by continent: South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.dx-info.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is worth noting that Chilean Patagonia connects easily with Argentina making trips to the spectacular Perito Moreno Glacier and Tierra del Fuego no problem.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ Isla Tierra Del Fuego (SA-008, WLOTA L2448) by Orlando, PY2TJ. QSL via PT2OP. .
  • DXpeditions sorted by continent: South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.dx-info.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.South America is home to the world's highest waterfall, Angel Falls in Venezuela; the largest river (by volume), the Amazon River; the longest mountain range, the Andes (whose highest mountain is Aconcagua at 6,962 m [22,841 ft]); the driest place on earth, the Atacama Desert;[17][18][19] the largest rainforest, the Amazon Rainforest; the highest capital city, La Paz, Bolivia; the highest commercially navigable lake in the world, Lake Titicaca; and, excluding research stations in Antarctica, the world's southernmost permanently inhabited community, Puerto Toro, Chile.^ We provide volunteer projects throughout Central and South America including Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mission’s Immigration and Customs Enforcement office (ICE) participated in “Operation Andes III,” a joint program sponsored by INTERPOL and the World Customs Organization (WCO) to coordinate the interdiction of precursor chemicals in South America.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They call it vacant land so the mining company entered surveys of large tracts of land in several places containing thousands of acres in and near South America.

.South America's major mineral resources are gold, silver, copper, iron ore, tin, and petroleum.^ Trinidad (Collins 1969), but majority of records are not assigned to subspecies; evidently, no certain record of nominate diomedea exists for South America .
  • Classification of birds of South America Part 01 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.museum.lsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ One reason I mention this fact is I got this history from the old ancestors of South America and one other reason that is I know it to be true because my grandfather showed me the place where they got their silver ore.

^ Aside from hunting and farming they settled in South America for the purpose of finding William Swift's Silver Mine.

.The many resources of South America have brought high income to its countries especially in times of war or of rapid economic growth by industrialized countries elsewhere.^ But back in the old days of the first emigrants that settled in Bell County, especially in South America, all the language that was needed was what they brought here with them.

^ The creek and hillsides of that time were lined with a growth of hemlock, rhododendron and ground ivy which made it very convenient for wild animals such as the bear and deer and the wild panther which were a dangerous menace at that early date, for the reason that so many of them were roaming around in South America.

^ Skepticism continues to mount over the US drug war in South America as charges by critics grow more and more serious.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

However, the concentration in producing one major export commodity often has hindered the development of diversified economies. .The fluctuation in the price of commodities in the international markets has led historically to major highs and lows in the economies of South American states, often causing extreme political instability.^ 'Cocaine is priced as low and purity is as high as it was before Plan Colombia began six years and $5 billion ago.'
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ DIRANDRO successfully identified and disrupted major international cocaine trafficking organizations responsible for maritime and air shipment of tons of cocaine to U.S., South American and European markets.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But the supply of cocaine to U.S. markets has not fallen significantly, and prices for the drug remain low, recent studies show.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

This is leading to efforts to diversify production to drive away from staying as economies dedicated to one major export.
.South America is one of the most biodiverse continents on earth.^ This is only one of the true hair raising stories of the bear that happened in South America.

^ As one of South America’s largest producers of precursor chemicals it is vulnerable to diversion of these chemicals into the illicit drug production market.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At least one record of bransfieldensis for South America (Brazil; Lima et al.
  • Classification of birds of South America Part 01 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.museum.lsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.South America is home to many interesting and unique species of animals including the llama, anaconda, piranha, jaguar, vicuña, and tapir.^ A classification of the bird species of South America.
  • Classification of birds of South America Part 01 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.museum.lsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ We provide volunteer projects throughout Central and South America including Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This enormous community-owned reserve is home to a range of wildlife, including many endemic and threatened species such as the Andean (Spectacled) Bear, Andean Condor, and Sechuran Fox.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Amazon rainforests possess high biodiversity, containing a major proportion of the Earth's species. .Regions in South America include the Andean States, the Guianas, the Southern Cone, and Brazil which is the largest country by far, in both area and population.^ Tours of South America & other countries .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ We provide volunteer projects throughout Central and South America including Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The majority of the drugs shipped from the coastal regions originate from production areas in the south-central portion of the country, as well as from less-prolific growing areas in the northern third of Colombia.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Demographics

.Descendants of Indigenous peoples, such as the Quechua and Aymara, or the Urarina[20] of Amazonia make up the majority of the population in Bolivia and Peru.^ The Brazilian Federal Police (DPF) maintains excellent relations with their counterparts in neighboring countries such as Bolivia, Colombia and Peru as well as U.S. law enforcement.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But now the population has so increased that a better educational language is required to bring the people up to the standard of modern society.

^ "According to the UN, Plan Colombia produced a modest displacement of coca to other countries: by 2003, cultivation was up slightly in Bolivia but stable in Peru.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[21][22] Also are a significant element in most other former Spanish colonies.
.People of Venezuela and Colombia show a population of about 25% white and European descendants.^ 'You're talking about $4.7 billion spent on Plan Colombia, and this is all we have to show for it?'"
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Despite the expenditure, a recent White House report showed that coca production actually increased in Colombia in 2004."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ In recent years Venezuela has become a corridor through which about a third of the cocaine from neighbouring Colombia is smuggled.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[23] .While the people of European descent are more of a majority in Argentina[24], Uruguay[25] and Chile.^ The majority of cocaine trafficked from or through Bolivia is destined for Brazil, Chile, Argentina, Paraguay and Europe.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LAN.com offers flights to major South American destinations, including Chile , Argentina , Ecuador , Uruguay and Peru .
  • Flights to South America - LAN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.lan.com [Source type: General]

^ Participants included national police and customs agencies from Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26][27][28][29]
.South America is also home to one of the biggest population of Africans.^ With a population in excess of 382 million people and spanning an area of nearly 18 million km sq., it's little wonder that South America is one of the most diverse, culturally rich continents on the planet.
  • Flights to South America - LAN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.lan.com [Source type: General]

^ City slickers will love the vibrancy of life in South America 's biggest cities.
  • Flights to South America - LAN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.lan.com [Source type: General]

^ This is only one of the true hair raising stories of the bear that happened in South America.

.This group is also significantly present in Guyana, Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, Suriname, French Guiana, and Ecuador.^ Participants included national police and customs agencies from Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Illicit cultivation continues to be a problem in Colombia’s national parks, indigenous reserves, and along the border with Ecuador and Venezuela, where aerial eradication is not employed.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cocaine is also smuggled using small aircraft from clandestine airstrips in eastern and southeastern Colombia to Brazil, Suriname, Venezuela, or Guyana.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30] .Mestizos (mixed white and Amerindian) are the largest ethnic group in Paraguay, Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador.^ Illicit cultivation continues to be a problem in Colombia’s national parks, indigenous reserves, and along the border with Ecuador and Venezuela, where aerial eradication is not employed.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Traffickers shipped white gas and other precursor chemicals in large quantities from Ecuador to Colombia and Peru for cocaine processing.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Paraguay has law enforcement agreements with Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Venezuela and Colombia.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

East Indians form the largest ethnic groups in Guyana and Suriname. .Brazil followed by Peru also have the biggest Japanese and Chinese communities in South America.^ We provide volunteer projects throughout Central and South America including Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ South America tours visit one or more of the following: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Galapagos Islands, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela.
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If you schedule your South America travel plans accordingly, you can check out the festivities at Carnival in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

[31]
.Brazil is the most diverse country in South America, with large population of Whites, Blacks, Mestizos and Mulattos, as well as a sizeable community of Middle Easterns and Asians.^ We provide volunteer projects throughout Central and South America including Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With a population in excess of 382 million people and spanning an area of nearly 18 million km sq., it's little wonder that South America is one of the most diverse, culturally rich continents on the planet.
  • Flights to South America - LAN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.lan.com [Source type: General]

^ They call it vacant land so the mining company entered surveys of large tracts of land in several places containing thousands of acres in and near South America.

Girls of European descent in Chile
Country or
territory with flag
Area
(km²)[32] (per sq mi)
Population
(July 2009 est.)[32]
Population density
per km²
Capital
 Argentina 2,766,890 km2 (1,068,302 sq mi) 40,482,000 14.3/km² (37/sq mi) Buenos Aires
 Bolivia 1,098,580 km2 (424,164 sq mi) 9,863,000 8.4/km² (21.8/sq mi) La Paz and Sucre [33]
 Brazil 8,514,877 km2 (3,287,612 sq mi) 191,241,714 22.0/km² (57/sq mi) Brasília
 Chile[34]   756,950 km2 (292,260 sq mi) 16,928,873 22/km² (57/sq mi) Santiago
 Colombia 1,138,910 km2 (439,736 sq mi) 45,928,970 40/km² (103.6/sq mi) Bogotá
 Ecuador   283,560 km2 (109,483 sq mi) 14,573,101 53.8/km² (139.3/sq mi) Quito
 Falkland Islands (United Kingdom)[35]    12,173 km2 (4,700 sq mi) 3,140[36] 0.26/km² (0.7/sq mi) Port Stanley
 French Guiana (France)    91,000 km2 (35,135 sq mi) 221,500[37] 2.7/km² (5.4/sq mi) Cayenne
 Guyana   214,999 km2 (83,012 sq mi) 772,298 3.5/km² (9.1/sq mi) Georgetown
 Paraguay   406,750 km2 (157,047 sq mi) 6,831,306 15.6/km² (40.4/sq mi) Asunción
 Peru 1,285,220 km2 (496,226 sq mi) 29,132,013 22/km² (57/sq mi) Lima
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia and
South Sandwich Islands
(United Kingdom)
[38]
    3,093 km2 (1,194 sq mi) 20 0/km² (0/sq mi) Grytviken
 Suriname   163,270 km2 (63,039 sq mi) 472,000 3/km² (7.8/sq mi) Paramaribo
 Uruguay   176,220 km2 (68,039 sq mi) 3,477,780 19.4/km² (50.2/sq mi) Montevideo
 Venezuela   912,050 km2 (352,144 sq mi) 26,814,843 30.2/km² (72/sq mi) Caracas
Total &Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ",".Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","17,824,513 &Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ",".Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character ","385,742,554 21.5/km²
Indigenous peoples

Economy

.Because of histories of high inflation in nearly all South American countries, interest rates remain high and investment remains low.^ As far as can be determined < check > , South American records all pertain to nominate P. puffinus.
  • Classification of birds of South America Part 01 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.museum.lsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Brazil also has a number of narcotics control agreements with its South American neighbors, several European countries, and South Africa.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brazil also has a number of narcotics control agreements with its South American neighbors, several European countries and South Africa.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Interest rates are usually twice that of the United States.^ Fishing vessels usually travel to Mexico or Guatemala, while cargo ships can go directly to the United States or Europe.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For example, interest-rates are about 22% in Venezuela and 23% in Suriname. .The exception is Chile, which has been implementing free market economic policies since establishing military dictatorship in 1973 and has been increasing its social spending since the return of democratic rule in the early 1990s.^ 'Democrats are going to try to increase the social components somewhat, but they don't have a lot of options to influence the agenda,' he said.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ That's way below the US$600 a gram pure cocaine fetched in 1981, when the U.S. government began collecting data, and near the level it has been at since the early 1990s.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ A recent report by human rights groups found that extrajudicial killings by the army have increased since the early years of Plan Colombia.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

This has led to economic stability and interest rates in the low single digits.
South America relies heavily on the exporting of goods and natural resources. .On an exchange rate basis Brazil (the seventh largest economy in the world and the second largest in America) leads the way in total amount of exports at $137.8 billion dollars followed by Chile at 58.12 billion and Argentina with 46.46 billion.^ The U.S. government has provided $5.4 billion in mostly military aid to Colombia this decade, making the country the biggest recipient of American support outside the Middle East and Afghanistan and helping to make the Colombian military the second-largest force in Latin America.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Other SENAD agents participated in DEA’s Special Agent exchange program with Chile, Bolivia, Brazil and Argentina.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and borders all the countries of South America except Chile and Ecuador.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]
.The economic gap between the rich and poor in most South American nations is considered to be larger than in most other continents.^ Kidnappings and other violent crimes in the South American nation also have declined.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ According to the most recent data from CELIN, the Latin American Center for Scientific Study, consumption rates of cocaine, both HCl and base, among urban populations in Bolivia more than doubled between 2000 and 2005.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Colombia's President, Alvaro Uribe, began meeting with the leaders of other regional nations on Tuesday, August 4 of 2009, according to a same-day MercoPress article ( "Uribe Tours South American to Explain US Bases in Colombia" ).
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.In Venezuela, Paraguay, Bolivia and many other South American countries, the richest 20% may own over 60% of the nation's wealth, while the poorest 20% may own less than 5%.^ Kidnappings and other violent crimes in the South American nation also have declined.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Colombia's President, Alvaro Uribe, began meeting with the leaders of other regional nations on Tuesday, August 4 of 2009, according to a same-day MercoPress article ( "Uribe Tours South American to Explain US Bases in Colombia" ).
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The status of Puffinus carneipes in South American waters is under review and may be downgraded to " V ".
  • Classification of birds of South America Part 01 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.museum.lsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This wide gap can be seen in many large South American cities where makeshift shacks and slums lie adjacent to skyscrapers and upper-class luxury apartments.^ Many South America tours organized as regional discoveries that visit the major cities in several countries.
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

Country GDP (nominal) of 2009[40] GDP (PPP) of 2009[41] GDP (PPP) per capita of 2009[41] HDI of 2007[42]
 Argentina &0000000000326474.000000326,474 &0000000000572860.000000572,860 &0000000000014413.00000014,413 &0000000000000000.8660000.866
 Bolivia &0000000000017413.00000017,413 &0000000000043424.00000043,424 &0000000000004330.0000004,330 &0000000000000000.7290000.729
 Brazil &0000000001572590.0000001,572,590 &0000000001981642.0000001,981,642 &0000000000010325.00000010,325 &0000000000000000.8130000.813
 Chile &0000000000169573.000000169,573 &0000000000243044.000000243,044 &0000000000014510.00000014,510 &0000000000000000.8780000.878
 Colombia &0000000000269654.000000269,654 &0000000000400300.000000400,300 &0000000000008215.0000008,215 &0000000000000000.8070000.807
 Ecuador &0000000000052572.00000052,572 &0000000000106993.000000106,993 &0000000000007685.0000007,685 &0000000000000000.8060000.806
 Falkland Islands &Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "?"Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "?"Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "?"Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "?"Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "?"Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "?"Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "?"Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "?"Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "?"Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "?"Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "?"Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "?"Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "?"Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "?"Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "?"Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "?".Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "?"? &0000000000000075.00000075 &0000000000025000.00000025,000 N/A
 French Guiana (France) &0000000000003524.0000003,524[43] N/A &0000000000002300.0000002,300 (nominal, 2007)[43] N/A
 Guyana &0000000000001130.0000001,130 &0000000000003082.0000003,082 &0000000000004035.0000004,035 &0000000000000000.7290000.729
 Paraguay &0000000000016006.00000016,006 &0000000000029403.00000029,403 &0000000000004778.0000004,778 &0000000000000000.7610000.761
 Peru &0000000000127598.000000127,598 &0000000000245883.000000245,883 &0000000000008580.0000008,580 &0000000000000000.8060000.806
 Suriname &0000000000002984.0000002,984 &0000000000004436.0000004,436 &0000000000008323.0000008,323 &0000000000000000.7690000.769
 Uruguay &0000000000032262.00000032,262 &0000000000042543.00000042,543 &0000000000013294.00000013,294 &0000000000000000.8650000.865
 Venezuela &0000000000319443.000000319,443 &0000000000335200.000000335,200 &0000000000012785.00000012,785 &0000000000000000.8440000.844

Tourism

A view of the Copacabana Beach, in Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro, one of the main tourist centres in the world.
.Tourism has increasingly become a significant source of income for many South American countries.^ Brazil also has a number of narcotics control agreements with its South American neighbors, several European countries, and South Africa.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44][45] .Historical relics, architectural and natural wonders, a diverse range of foods and culture, vibrant and colorful cities, and stunning landscapes attract millions of tourists every year to South America.^ Leaving South America, he went down to the mouth of Clear Creek and built a log house and lived there for several years.

^ For the last four years as an officer I can say that the people of South America as a whole have come under the influence and reformation of Henderson School.

^ You must not think that the people of South America are as green as I was when I went to Texas 54 years ago.

.Some of the most visited places in the region are Machu Picchu, the Amazon Rainforest, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Isla Margarita, Natal, Buenos Aires, São Paulo, Angel Falls, Cuzco, Lake Titicaca, Patagonia, Cartagena and the Galápagos islands.^ This project provides the opportunity to join a carnival samba block that parades in downtown Rio de Janeiro.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cities such as Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro must deal with powerful narcotics trafficking gangs that operate out of the shantytowns (favelas) that are located throughout the city of Rio de Janeiro and on the periphery of Sao Paulo.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Organized groups based in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro arrange for the transport of the contraband through contacts in the border areas.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46][47]

Culture

.South Americans are culturally influenced by the historic connection with Europe, especially Spain and Portugal, and the impact of mass culture from the United States of America.^ Brazil is a major transit country for illicit drugs shipped to Europe and to a lesser extent, the United States.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In March, five American soldiers in Colombia were accused of smuggling cocaine to the United States aboard a U.S. military plane.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The Brazilian domestic drug market consumes mostly Bolivian cocaine, which is also shipped to Europe and, to a lesser extent, the United States.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.South American nations have a rich variety of music.^ Kidnappings and other violent crimes in the South American nation also have declined.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Chile ranks second in cocaine consumption and first in marijuana consumption among South American countries, according to the United Nation’s 2007 World Drug Report.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some of the most famous genres include cumbia from Colombia, samba and bossa nova from Brazil, and tango from Argentina and Uruguay.^ Most narcotics arrive by land routes from Peru and Bolivia, but some enter through Argentina.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Significant quantities of cocaine from Peru and Colombia traverse Bolivia to enter Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brazilian nationals head most trafficking organizations in Paraguay; some purchase cocaine from the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) in exchange for currency and weapons.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also well known is the non-commercial folk genre Nueva Canción movement which was founded in Argentina and Chile and quickly spread to the rest of the Latin America.^ 'They are part and parcel of the narcotics production and export threat to the United States, as well as Europe and other countries in Latin America.'
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Back in the 80's in South America, the folks all practically lived a like and what the leader of the community did the rest tried to follow suit.

^ South America tours visit one or more of the following: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Galapagos Islands, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela.
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

.People on the Peruvian coast created the fine guitar and cajon duos or trios in the most mestizo (mixed) of South American rhythms such as the Marinera (from Lima), the Tondero (from Piura), the 19th century popular Creole Valse or Peruvian Valse, the soulful Arequipan Yaravi, and the early 20th century Paraguayan Guarania.^ The South American Classification Committee is an official committee of the American Ornithologists' Union whose mission is to create a standard classification, with English names, for the bird species of South America.
  • Classification of birds of South America Part 01 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.museum.lsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The story of how these typically pioneer American communities acquired their foreign names harks back in the case of South America to the early nineteenth century, and in the case of Germany to 1916.

^ According to the Herald, " The presence of South American heroin manufactured in Colombia has been on the rise since 1993, and is most prevalent in New England and along the East Coast, according to the DEA's Web site.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.In the late 20th century, Spanish rock emerged by young hipsters influenced by British pop and American rock.^ Nevertheless, a significant number of former mid-level AUC commanders continue their involvement in the drug trade, with the Organization of American States (OAS) warning in late 2007 that new criminal groups were emerging in areas of former AUC influence.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Brazil has a Portuguese-language pop rock industry as well a great variety of other music genres.
.The literature of South America has attracted considerable critical and popular acclaim, especially with the Latin American Boom of the 1960s and 1970s, and the rise of authors such as Mario Vargas Llosa, Gabriel García Márquez in novels, and Pablo Neruda and Jorge Luis Borges in other genres.^ Tours of South America & other countries .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ But back in the old days of the first emigrants that settled in Bell County, especially in South America, all the language that was needed was what they brought here with them.

^ From the intriguing Amazon jungle and the enigmatic Machu Picchu to the fascinating Galapagos Islands, your encounter with South America travel will be like no other.
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

The Brazilian Machado de Assis, a 19th century realist writer, widely regarded as the greatest writer of Brazilian literature has among the admirers of his unique style, names such as José Saramago, Carlos Fuentes, Susan Sontag and Harold Bloom.
.Because of South America's broad ethnic mix, South American cuisine takes on African, American Indian, Asian, and European influences.^ Left Middlesboro and came back to South America, ran a sawmill and lumber camp for 40 years, and that takes a stout back and weak mind.

^ Business was mediocre until a South American Indian and representative of coca farmers -- Evo Morales -- was elected president.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ DIRANDRO successfully identified and disrupted major international cocaine trafficking organizations responsible for maritime and air shipment of tons of cocaine to U.S., South American and European markets.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Bahia, Brazil, is especially well-known for its West African–influenced cuisine. .Argentines, Chileans, Uruguayans, Brazilians and Venezuelans regularly consume wine, while Argentina along with Paraguay, Uruguay, and people in southern Chile and Brazil enjoy mate, a regional brewed herb cultivated for its drink, the Paraguayan version, terere, differing from the others in that it is served cold.^ Brazil, Argentina & Chile 2010-2011 .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Brazil, Argentina & Chile 2010 .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Limited inspection of airport and port cargo continues to be a problem, with Uruguay serving as a transit point for contraband and precursor chemicals, to Paraguay and elsewhere.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pisco is a liquor distilled from grapevine produced in Peru and Chile; however, there is a recurring dispute between those countries regarding its origins.^ Peru is a major cocaine producing country and is also a major importer of precursor chemicals for cocaine production.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "According to the UN, Plan Colombia produced a modest displacement of coca to other countries: by 2003, cultivation was up slightly in Bolivia but stable in Peru.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Chile’s long difficult-to-monitor borders with Peru, Bolivia and Argentina make it an appealing transit country for cocaine shipments destined for the U.S. and Europe.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Peruvian cuisine mixes elements from Chinese, Japanese, Spanish, African, Andean, and Amazonic food.

Language

Romance languages in Latin America:      Spanish     Portuguese     French
.Spanish (194 600 100 speakers) and Portuguese (191 480 600) are the most spoken languages in South America.^ But back in the old days of the first emigrants that settled in Bell County, especially in South America, all the language that was needed was what they brought here with them.

^ These projects are run by reputable organisations and offer some of the lowest cost and most rewarding volunteer experiences in Central and South America.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ South America has become one of the most law abiding areas in all Kentucky.

.Spanish is the official language of most countries, along with other native languages in some countries.^ Some other aspects of official corruption are criminalized in Ecuador, but there is no comprehensive anti-corruption law.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to U.S. embassy officials, these programs alone may cost up to $230 million per year, and future costs for some other programs have not been determined.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Gabriel Arango has been cashiered, officials say, and is under investigation along with 10 other naval officers."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.Spanish is also taught in Brazil, being the most spoken language as a first, second and third language in South America.^ We provide volunteer projects throughout Central and South America including Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was found there by the first settlers of South America.

^ If you schedule your South America travel plans accordingly, you can check out the festivities at Carnival in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

Portuguese is the official language of Brazil. .Dutch is the official language of Suriname; English is the official language of Guyana, although there are at least twelve other languages spoken in the country such as Hindi and Arabic.^ In my boyhood days I did not know that there was any other country but South America.

^ There are stories of it being "almost discovered", time after time in other parts of the country, particularly North Carolina, West Virginia, Pennsylvania and Ohio.

^ This project is looking for recent graduates or undergraduates from Canada, UK, USA and other English speaking countries for a 6-12 month internship.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

English is also spoken in the Falkland Islands. French is the official language of French Guiana.
.Indigenous languages of South America include Quechua in Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Argentina, and Bolivia; Guaraní in Paraguay and, to a much lesser extent, in Bolivia; Aymara in Bolivia, Peru, and less often in Chile; and Mapudungun is spoken in certain pockets of southern Chile and, more rarely, Argentina.^ We provide volunteer projects throughout Central and South America including Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Participants included national police and customs agencies from Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brazil signed a memorandum of understanding in March 2007 to expand the regional Officer Exchange Program, which now includes Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, and Paraguay.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At least three South American indigenous languages (Quechua, Aymara, and Guarani) are recognized along with Spanish as national languages.^ Illicit cultivation continues to be a problem in Colombia’s national parks, indigenous reserves, and along the border with Ecuador and Venezuela, where aerial eradication is not employed.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some authors (e.g., Sibley & Monroe 1990, Ridgely & Greenfield 2001) recognized South American thagus as a separate species from Pelecanus occidentalis.
  • Classification of birds of South America Part 01 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.museum.lsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Kidnappings and other violent crimes in the South American nation also have declined.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.Other languages found in South America include, Hindi and Indonesian in Suriname; Italian in Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Chile; and German in certain pockets of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Venezuela and Paraguay.^ Paraguay has law enforcement agreements with Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Venezuela, and Colombia.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Paraguay has law enforcement agreements with Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Venezuela and Colombia.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We provide volunteer projects throughout Central and South America including Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.German is also spoken in many regions of the southern states of Brazil, Riograndenser Hunsrückisch being the most widely spoken German dialect in the country; among other Germanic dialects, a Brazilian form of Pomeranian is also well represented and is experiencing a revival.^ In addition, three other major Brazilian drug traffickers were extradited to Brazil.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bilateral agreements based on the 1988 Convention form the basis for counternarcotics cooperation between the United States and Brazil.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Brazilian Federal Police (DPF) maintains excellent relations with their counterparts in neighboring countries such as Bolivia, Colombia and Peru as well as U.S. law enforcement.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Welsh remains spoken and written in the historic towns of Trelew and Rawson in the Argentine Patagonia. .There are also small clusters of Japanese-speakers in Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru, and Ecuador.^ Paraguay is a transit country for cocaine from Bolivia, Peru and Colombia.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We provide volunteer projects throughout Central and South America including Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Participants included national police and customs agencies from Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Arabic speakers, often of Lebanese, Syrian, or Palestinian descent, can be found in Arab communities in Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Argentina, and less frequently in Colombia and Paraguay.^ Paraguay has law enforcement agreements with Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Venezuela, and Colombia.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Paraguay has law enforcement agreements with Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Venezuela and Colombia.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We provide volunteer projects throughout Central and South America including Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In most of the continent's countries, the upper classes and well-educated people regularly study English, French, German, or Italian, and are typically well-traveled.^ "The country below where they settled was so rough and hard to get in and out of that most people wouldn't even go near it.

^ Some marijuana is cultivated in Chile but most is imported from Paraguay for use by Chilean teenagers and young adults from the upper and upper-middle classes.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In those areas where tourism is a significant industry, English and some other European languages are often spoken.^ I remember on one occasion, I had a lady teacher and it was a custom in those days for the teacher to board with the parents of the students, go to one house tonight and some other house tomorrow night.

^ While other cases of infiltration have been discovered in the past, officials suggested that those cases often were not investigated properly."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.There are small Portuguese speaking areas in northernmost Uruguay because of the proximity of Brazil.^ The triborder area of Paraguay, Argentina and Brazil, which has long been a haven for narcotics traffickers, affects Uruguay, and the porous border with Brazil lends itself to infiltration.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sport

See also

References

Content notes

.^ Continent Model: In some parts of the world South America is viewed as a subcontinent of America[48][49] (a single continent in these areas), for example Latin America, Latin Europe, and Iran.^ About the date 1855, some of my old ancestors established what they called a mining company in South America.

^ 'They are part and parcel of the narcotics production and export threat to the United States, as well as Europe and other countries in Latin America.'
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The rifle was the law in this area, known as South America because of its remoteness.

.In most of the countries with English as an official language, however, it is considered a continent.^ Spanish is the official language of most countries on the continent.
  • SOUTH AMERICA, 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bolivia is also the most indigenous country on the continent, with more than 50% of the population maintaining traditional values and beliefs.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ Spanish is the language of the country from the eastern end of Venezuela through all the northern and western parts of the continent and over a large part of the Paraguay basin.

See Continent.

Notes

  1. ^ American, Merriam-Webster OnLine.
  2. ^ "South America. The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 2001–6. New York, Columbia University Press": "fourth largest continent ..., the southern of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere."
  3. ^ LANIC country page
  4. ^ a b c O'Brien, Patrick. (General Editor). Oxford Atlas of World History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. pp. 25
  5. ^ "The Cambridge History of Latin America", edited by Leslie Bethell, Cambridge University Press (1995) ISBN 0-521-39525-9
  6. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=6tNWbywFXhkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=latin+american+history
  7. ^ Globalpolicy.org
  8. ^ Cohen, Saul Bernard. 2003. "North and Middle America" (Ch. 5). Geopolitics of the World System (ISBN 0847699072)
  9. ^ "Americas" Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49), United Nations Statistics Division
  10. ^ "North America" Atlas of Canada
  11. ^ North America Atlas National Geographic
  12. ^ "Panama". Britannica Concise Encyclopedia
  13. ^ Geography: Panama CIA World Factbook 2008.
  14. ^ South America Atlas National Geographic
  15. ^ North America Atlas National Geographic
  16. ^ Unstats Americas
  17. ^ "Atacama Desert @ National Geographic Magazine". Ngm.nationalgeographic.com. http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0308/feature3/. Retrieved 2009-04-18. 
  18. ^ "Driest Place | Driest Desert Atacama Desert". Extremescience.com. 2007-01-25. http://www.extremescience.com/DriestPlace.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-18. 
  19. ^ http://quest.nasa.gov/challenges/marsanalog/egypt/AtacamaAdAstra.pdf
  20. ^ Dean, Bartholomew 2009 Urarina Society, Cosmology, and History in Peruvian Amazonia, Gainesville: University Press of Florida ISBN 978-081303378 [1]
  21. ^ "CIA World Factbook". Cia.gov. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pe.html. Retrieved 2009-04-18. 
  22. ^ "CIA World Factbook". Cia.gov. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bl.html. Retrieved 2009-04-18. 
  23. ^ Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI
  24. ^ "CIA World Factbook". Cia.gov. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/ar.html. Retrieved 2009-04-18. 
  25. ^ "población blanca en Uruguay". Geografia.fflch.usp.br. http://www.geografia.fflch.usp.br/publicacoes/Geousp/Geousp13/Geousp13_Intercambio_Maurel.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-18. 
  26. ^ Latinoamerica.
  27. ^ "Argentina, como Chile y Uruguay, su población está formada casi exclusivamente por una población blanca e blanca mestiza procedente del sur de Europa, más del 90% E. García Zarza, 1992, 19". Geografia.fflch.usp.br. http://www.geografia.fflch.usp.br/publicacoes/Geousp/Geousp13/Geousp13_Intercambio_Maurel.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-18. 
  28. ^ Genetic epidemiology of single gene defects in Chile.
  29. ^ The Chilean population is rather homogeneous with 95.4 % of its population having European ancestors.
  30. ^ "Bartleby". Bartleby. http://www.bartleby.com/64/C006/036.html. Retrieved 2009-04-18. 
  31. ^ "Japan Times". Search.japantimes.co.jp. http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20080115i1.html=search.japantimes.co.jp. Retrieved 2009-04-18. 
  32. ^ a b Land areas and population estimates are taken from The 2008 World Factbook which currently uses July 2007 data, unless otherwise noted.
  33. ^ La Paz is the administrative capital of Bolivia;
  34. ^ Includes Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean, a Chilean territory frequently reckoned in Oceania. Santiago is the administrative capital of Chile; Valparaíso is the site of legislative meetings.
  35. ^ Claimed by Argentina.
  36. ^ Falkland Islands: July 2008 population estimate. CIA World Factbook.
  37. ^ (Jan. 2009) (French) INSEE, Government of France. "Population des régions au 1er janvier". http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/tableau.asp?reg_id=99&ref_id=CMRSOS02137. Retrieved 2009-01-20. 
  38. ^ Claimed by Argentina; the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands in the South Atlantic Ocean are commonly associated with Antarctica (due to proximity) and have no permanent population, only hosting a periodic contingent of about 100 researchers and visitors.
  39. ^ "CIA - The World Factbook - Rank Order - Exports". Cia.gov. 2009-04-09. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2078rank.html. Retrieved 2009-04-18. 
  40. ^ Source
  41. ^ a b Source
  42. ^ "Human Development Report 2009. Human development index trends: Table G". The United Nations. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-05. 
  43. ^ a b (French) INSEE-CEROM. "Les comptes économiques de la Guyane en 2006 : premiers résultats". http://prod-afd.afd.zeni.fr/jahia/webdav/site/cerom/users/admin_cerom/public/Pdf/CR2006_guy.pdf. Retrieved 2008-01-14. 
  44. ^ "Bigtravelweb". Bigtravelweb. 2008-10-13. http://bigtravelweb.com/travel/2008/10/13/tourism-trends-visitor-numbers/. Retrieved 2009-04-18. 
  45. ^ Latin American tourism growth
  46. ^ "Top attractions". Gosouthamerica.about.com. 2007-12-04. http://gosouthamerica.about.com/od/topdestinations/tp/Attractions2006.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-18. 
  47. ^ Backpackers destination
  48. ^ "South America Travel, Tour To South America Continent". http://travour.com/south-america/index.html. Retrieved 2007-05-19. 
  49. ^ Ambassador Rubens A. Barbosa. "MERCOSUL IN THE REGIONAL CONTEXT". http://www.brasilemb.org/embassy/embaixador_regional.shtml. Retrieved 2007-05-19. 

Sources

.

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Machu Picchu in Peru
Machu Picchu in Peru
Nestled between the Caribbean, the South Pacific, and the South Atlantic Oceans, South America is the wilder of the Americas and a continent of superlatives.
.The world's biggest rainforest and second longest river (Amazon), the highest mountain range outside Asia (the Andes), remote islands (Galapagos Islands, Easter Island and Fernando de Noronha), heavenly beaches (such as in Brazil's Northeastern region), wide deserts (Atacama), icy landscapes (Patagonia & Tierra del Fuego), the world's tallest waterfall (the 979m Angel Falls, in Venezuela) and one of the largest (Iguaçu Falls, Argentina and Brazil), as well as several other breathtaking natural attractions.^ Patagonia & Tierra del Fuego (Southbound) .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Patagonia & Tierra del Fuego (Northbound) .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ South America tours visit one or more of the following: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Galapagos Islands, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela.
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

.Besides, the work of man has also left rare gems on the continent: ruins of ancient civilizations (Machu Picchu and other Inca cities; the Moais in Easter Island) share the continent with world-class metropolises (São Paulo, Buenos Aires, Bogotá, Caracas, Lima and Rio de Janeiro), outstanding modern architecture (Brasilia), European architecture (Buenos Aires), the oldest rock paintings in the Americas (at the Serra da Capivara), strong African heritage (in Salvador, Rio and Montevideo), genuine indigenous (Belém, Manaus, Cuzco, Lima, La Paz), charming cities built in the Andes (Caracas, Medellín, Quito, Santiago de Chile) and Eastern culture (São Paulo's enormous Japanese community), mingled with the fingerprints of Iberian colonizers.^ Fireworks illuminated La Paz and Cochabamba, the city where Morales, as representative of the growers of coca leaf the raw ingredient in cocaine rose to national prominence.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Once people disparaged Paz as 'La Loca de la Coca,' or 'the crazy coca woman.'
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Ushuaia, the world's southernmost city and some of its biggest festivities, such as Rio's Carnival and Belem's Cirio de Nazaré, the Tango World Championship, and the Vendimia festival in Argentina, are also part of this incredibly diverse and attractive continent.
Map of South America
Map of South America
Argentina
Bolivia
Brazil
Colombia
Chile
Ecuador
Falkland Islands
French Guiana
Guyana
Paraguay
Peru
Suriname
Uruguay
Venezuela

Get in

.Getting to South America has gotten much easier in recent years owing to massive increases in flights to the continent by major global airlines.^ The US Drug Czar, John Walters, has contradicted his recent criticism of US antidrug efforts in South America.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ A recent report by human rights groups found that extrajudicial killings by the army have increased since the early years of Plan Colombia.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Although some particular places are still quite hard to reach (i.e. Paraguay, Suriname, northern Brazil), the places that you most likely want to go, such as Buenos Aires and Rio de Janeiro, are more accessible than ever before.
.
  • From Africa: the only (reliable) options worth considering would be the South African Airways service linking Johannesburg with Sao Paulo and Buenos Aires or the Malaysian Airlines service between both major South African cities and Argentina(Johannesburg via Cape Town to Buenos Aires).^ Many South America tours organized as regional discoveries that visit the major cities in several countries.
    • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ South America Selection with Amazon, Manaus & Buenos Aires .
    • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ South American Selection with Buenos Aires Extension .
    • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

    There are also connections between Luanda and Rio de Janeiro, Salvador de Bahia and Recife with Taag Angola Airlines. .Do realize that demand between Africa and South America is very limited, so even the aforementioned services are infrequent and fares may be quite high.
  • From Asia: Be prepared for a very long journey, especially if your itinerary includes connecting flights to travel to/beyond the major Asian and South American hubs.^ The South American heroin is brought in onboard commercial flights by couriers who carry about a pound to 2 pounds at a time.
    • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

    ^ Prices have fallen even as world demand has risen: consumption is broadly flat in North America, according to the UN, but rising in Europe.
    • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

    In addition to the aforementioned Malaysian Airlines flight to Buenos Aires (which does of course originate and terminate in Kuala Lumpur), there is a Japan Airlines service from Tokyo-Narita to Sao Paulo (via New York-JFK) and a Korean Air route between Seoul-Incheon and Sao Paulo (via Los Angeles). .Do note that the Malaysian Airlines flight makes 2 stops en route, while the latter options involve a stop in the United States that will require all passengers, including those in transit, to pass through U.S. customs.^ Last month, the slain police unit had busted a ring involving five retired police officers, a retired military official, and an employee of the national airline.
    • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

    ^ 'There were those who did not believe it was possible to change the availability of cocaine in the United States,' Walters said.
    • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

    ^ The Times noted that "For years, the United States has pressed Peru, the second largest source of cocaine, after Colombia, to fight production of the drug.
    • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

    .Air China will restart flights between Beijing and São Paulo , via Madrid, in December 2009. If practical, consider the non-stop Emirates flight from Dubai to Sao Paulo, currently the only direct link between the Asian and South American continents.
  • From Australia, New Zealand, and the South Pacific: A somewhat surprising number of options exist.^ The South American heroin is brought in onboard commercial flights by couriers who carry about a pound to 2 pounds at a time.
    • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

    .Both Aerolineas Argentinas and LAN (Chile) Airlines serve Auckland and Sydney from their respective hubs at Buenos Aires and Santiago, while Qantas introduced a non-stop service between Sydney and Buenos Aires on November 24 2008. LAN (Chile) also operates one of the world's most obscure flights of all - a service linking Santiago-Easter Island-Tahiti.
  • From Europe: The entire South American continent once lived under European colonial rule, and the resultant political, social, and economic ties between former colonies and colonizers remain quite strong even today.^ Uribe's stock in Washington has fallen as revelations have surfaced alleging close ties between political allies and outlawed paramilitary groups.
    • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

    ^ This mounting social protest, especially in Bolivia but also in Peru, carries a strong potential to contribute to already unstable political conditions in the whole Andean region."
    • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

    ^ The South American heroin is brought in onboard commercial flights by couriers who carry about a pound to 2 pounds at a time.
    • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

    Portuguese flag carrier TAP Airlines is by far the leading foreign carrier to Brazil, serving a slew of destinations in North and East Brazil as well as the Brazilian capital Brasilia which otherwise have only limited or absolutely no other international connections. Spanish flag carrier Iberia flies to most of the former Spanish colonies, although neither Bolivia nor Paraguay are served. KLM flies between Amsterdam and Suriname and Air France links Paris with French Guiana. Of course, such services are not exclusive - KLM also flies to Lima, TAP to Caracas, Air France to Rio de Janeiro, etc. .Other leading European airlines such as British Airways, Lufthansa, Swiss Airlines, and Alitalia also serve key South American gateways from their respective hubs, while South American airlines also operate into several major European cities as well.
  • From North America: Until very recently, it was virtually inconceivable to reach South America from anywhere other than Miami.^ Since then, American and European aid organizations have injected about $700 million in development aid into Chapare.
    • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

    ^ Kidnappings and other violent crimes in the South American nation also have declined.
    • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

    ^ 'They are part and parcel of the narcotics production and export threat to the United States, as well as Europe and other countries in Latin America.'
    • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

    Today, however, rapidly developing hubs at Atlanta, Dallas/Fort Worth, Fort Lauderdale, Houston, Mexico City, New York, Newark, Orlando, Toronto, and Washington-Dulles offer viable alternatives. Indeed, airlines such as Air Canada, Continental and Delta Airlines have successfully begun to challenge the virtual monopoly once enjoyed by American Airlines to several key markets. American discount carriers such as Spirit Airlines and JetBlue (Azul in Brazil) have recently fought hard for and won several route authorities to serve the likes of Colombia, Brazil and Peru, bringing low fares to these markets for the first time. Given the U.S. airlines' cutbacks in service, frequency, and cities served over the years, consider high quality Latin American carriers such as Avianca (to Colombia with daily non-stop flights to Bogotá, Medellín, Cali and Cartagena), Copa Airlines (Panama's national airline to hits hub in Panamá City), LAN Airlines (Chilean carrier serving Chile direct and via several other countries), or TAM (to Brazil).

Get around

By train

There are no cross-country train services in South America, and with the exception of Argentina and Chile, domestic networks are quite limited. There are a number of very scenic "tourist trains" though, including the 445-km Quito-Guayaquil route in Ecuador.

By bus

Buses are the main form of land transportation for much of the continent... for longer distances you're often better off flying.

Talk

The dominant language by far in South America is Spanish, which is the official language in all countries except Brazil, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana. If you can only afford time to pick up one phrasebook, it makes sense to pick up the Spanish one as even in Brazil, many will be able to understand Spanish with some difficulty. The official language of Brazil is Portuguese, which is to some extent mutually intelligible with Spanish in written form. In Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana, the official languages are English, Dutch and French respectively.

Stay safe

Wearing or carrying items which may identify you as an affluent tourist can be a mistake. You shouldn't pack anything that you would be upset to lose. Leave expensive jewelry, watches and other items of value at home and only carry what you need. That goes for credit cards and other documents as well; if you have no need for them leave them behind in the hotel safe, only take what money you are likely to spend with you.

Stay healthy

Tap water in many countries is unpotable, it's wise to purify your own or buy bottled water. Malaria and Yellow fever can be a risk as well on the continent, check with a travel clinic or your doctor before heading out to see if you'll be in a high-risk area.
This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

SOUTH AMERICA. The early physical history of the South American continent as recorded in the rocks has been extensively obliterated or greatly obscured by the events of the of its later history. The early land areas are supposed to be only approximately suggested by the present exposures of granite and gneisses. .The largest of these old land areas is along the east of the continent, extending with a few interruptions from the mouth of the Rio de la Plata to within a short distance of the mouth of the Amazon river.^ It also has a sizeable domestic demand for these and other drugs which feed the increasingly critical urban crime wave in Brazil’s two largest cities, Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Organized groups based in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro arrange for the transport of the contraband through contacts in the border areas.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cocaine base and HCl are transported from coca production zones, primarily from the UHV and the VRAE, via river, land, and air to Peru’s coastal and border areas.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.North of the present Amazon valley and occupying the present highlands of Guiana, north-east Brazil, and south-east Venezuela was another one of these old land areas - a large island or a group of islands.^ One of the helicopters had to make an emergency landing after being struck by rebel gunfire, the group said."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Also in October, at the presentation of the new U.S. Ambassador’s credentials, President Chavez indicated that Venezuela and the U.S. should look for areas to renew cooperation and cited counternarcotics as one such area.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As one of South America’s largest producers of precursor chemicals it is vulnerable to diversion of these chemicals into the illicit drug production market.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A chain of islands extended from the Falkland Islands along what is now the entire west side of the continent. Upon these ancient shores were laid down the sedimentary beds of the Cambrian seas. At the close of the Cambrian period the continent was elevated, many of the former islands were joined together, and the continental land area was considerably enlarged. .The Silurian seas, however, still covered the basin of the Paraguay, extending from the Serra do Mar on the Brazilian coast to the axis of the Andes on the west, and covering at the same time a considerable part of the basin of the Rio Sao Francisco, filling the straits between the Andes and the Matto Grosso highlands and opening east through the region now occupied by the lower Amazon valley.^ Organized groups based in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro arrange for the transport of the contraband through contacts in the border areas.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brazil signed a memorandum of understanding in March 2007 to expand the regional Officer Exchange Program, which now includes Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, and Paraguay.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the Devonian period there was a still further enlargement of the continent through elevation and the joining of islands, and the disappearance of the old Silurian sea in the basin of the Rio Sao Francisco on the east of the continent.^ Organized groups based in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro arrange for the transport of the contraband through contacts in the border areas.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In early Carboniferous times the sea still covered a narrow belt through the lower part of the Amazon valley, and part of what is now the Andes lying south of the equator. .During Permian times the basin of the Paraguay and the south-east coast of Brazil was covered with lagoons and swamps in which here and there coal beds were laid down.^ According to estimates by U.S. law enforcement officials, a significant amount of cocaine transits Paraguay annually enroute to Brazil, Argentina, Europe, Africa and the Middle East.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the close of this period molten lavas broke through the earth's crust and flowed over and buried large areas in what is now Paraguay and south Brazil.^ Marijuana from Paraguay and cocaine from Bolivia are smuggled into Brazil across remote border areas and are destined primarily for domestic consumption.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The majority of cocaine trafficked from or through Bolivia is destined for Brazil, Chile, Argentina, Paraguay and Europe.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brazil signed a memorandum of understanding in March 2007 to expand the regional Officer Exchange Program, which now includes Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, and Paraguay.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There was a general depression of the continent during the Cretaceous period and the ocean covered most of the continent as we now know it. .The Serra do Espinhago along the east coast of Brazil was above water and the coast line between the Rio de la Plata and Cape St Roque was little different from what it is at present.^ Along the Rio de la Plata: Argentina & Uruguay 2009-2010 .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If you schedule your South America travel plans accordingly, you can check out the festivities at Carnival in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Brazil Crossing (Rio de Janeiro to La Paz) .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

But through the highlands of Brazil from near Pernambuco west there was a broad sound containing many islands extending to the base of the Andes and possibly connecting with the Pacific Ocean. In the extreme north there were also many islands, bays and sounds, while a continental mass occupied the region of the Antilles. To the south the Atlantic Ocean filled most of the lower Paraguay basin and washed the eastern bases of the Andes. .There was shallow-water connexion during this period between South America and southern India, through the Antarctic regions, probably by way of Australia.^ Estimates indicate that up to 40 percent of the cocaine leaving Colombia goes through the complex river network in the south-central region to the south-western coastal shore, mainly in shallow draft boats.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First, there is a list of tours that only visit South America, then there is a list of tours that include a visit to South America as well as other regions.
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Many South America tours organized as regional discoveries that visit the major cities in several countries.
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

.In Early Tertiary times great changes took place in the geography of South America.^ Promises, Promises: Bush Budget Projects Little Change In Spending On 'Andean Initiative'/US Drug War In South America .
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

The continent rose much higher than its present elevation, the coast-lines were extended oceanward, and the continent was considerably larger than it is at present. The Abrolhos Islands on the east coast of Brazil were then a part of the mainland and the seashore was some 200 M. further east. .The Falkland Islands were also at that time a part of the continent, and South America had land connexion through the Antarctic regions or through the south Pacific Ocean with New Zealand and Australia, and through the West Indies region with Cuba and North America.^ From the intriguing Amazon jungle and the enigmatic Machu Picchu to the fascinating Galapagos Islands, your encounter with South America travel will be like no other.
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ South America travel will introduce you to lost cities, ancient civilizations and time-honored crafts.
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Earlier news items in an archived CSDP newsblog on the Colombia & South America drug war .
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Toward the close of Tertiary times the continent sank again beneath the ocean and salt water flowed into the Amazon and Orinoco valleys, turning the Guiana highlands again into an island or group of islands, and again separating the continent from land connexion with other continents. The valleys of Rio Magdalena, Rio Cauca and Lake Maracaibo were bays that covered large areas of adjacent territory.
It was during the Tertiary period that the continent took on its most characteristic features. Volcanic activity culminated; the Andes rose from low ridges and islands near sea-level to be one of the greatest mountain systems of the globe. This elevation was partly due to the uplifting of the continent en masse, partly to faulting and folding of the rocks, and partly to the pouring out of lavas and the accumulations upon the surface about vents of other volcanic ejectments. .This volcanic activity was not confined to the main range of the Andes, but extended into Venezuela and the islands along the north coast, to the plains of Patagonia, the highlands of the Parana basin and as far east as the islands of Fernando de Noronha.^ It is hard to locate any development, alternative or otherwise, along the pockmarked highway that descends from Ayacucho's high plain into this valley.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

In recent times volcanic activity has greatly diminished over the continent and has entirely ceased along its eastern and north-eastern parts. The great elevation and depression of the continent deeply affected the climate over certain large areas. For example, along the east coast, where winds blew on-shore, the rainfall was greatly increased during the elevation, while the later depression brought about a corresponding diminution of the rainfall. In Pleistocene times the south of the continent stood somewhat lower than it does at present, so that the ocean covered the plains of Patagonia and La Plata. .During the glacial epoch the south of the continent and as far north as latitude 27° on the west coast was covered with glaciers that flowed down from the high mountain ranges.^ Cocaine and heroin are transported by road, river, and small civilian aircraft from the Colombian source zone to the Colombian transit zone north and west of the Andes mountains.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the east side of the mountains the glaciers did not extend so far north as they did on the west side.^ Cocaine and heroin are transported by road, river, and small civilian aircraft from the Colombian source zone to the Colombian transit zone north and west of the Andes mountains.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The glaciers through the high Andes were also larger and longer than they are at present; there were no glaciers in the eastern or Brazilian portion of the continent.^ A sergeant said they had filled more than 70,000 sandbags to construct a head-high wall around the compound."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Table of contents

Physical Geography

.The South American continent rises abruptly from the ocean floor along nearly all of its coast, but the steepness of the continental margin is more marked on the western than on the eastern side.^ That accounts for more than 50 percent of all coca production in the region.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ "US Fails To Achieve Anti-Drug Goal In Colombia" ) that "The State Department has failed to meet its 2002 goal of eradicating more than 11,000 acres of Colombian opium poppy fields at a time when heroin from that South American country is flooding into cities all along the East Coast.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Nationalization of the PCHP continued, with more than 100 contract American pilots and mechanics replaced by Colombian Army (COLAR) personnel in 2005.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

From Valparaiso to the Isthmus of Panama, a distance of 3000 m., the great Andes themselves are Submarine but the upper or subaerial portions of mountains whose arine Subim. bases are 10,000 ft. below the surface of the Pacific Ocean. South of Valparaiso the io,000-foot contour lies well out from the coast, but opposite the Straits of Magellan it approaches within 150 m. of the coast-line. On the east side of the continent the woo-foot contour passes to the east of the Falkland Islands showing that this group stands upon a submerged shelf or shoulder of the continent. .From the mouth of the Rio de la Plata northward the woo-foot submarine contour keeps at a distance of from 50 to 150 m.^ Along the Rio de la Plata: Argentina & Uruguay 2009-2010 .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Brazil Crossing (Rio de Janeiro to La Paz) .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Brazil Crossing (La Paz to Rio de Janeiro) .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

off the shore nearly to Bahia, Brazil; from Bahia northward and around Cape St Roque this same contour is close inshore, and the ocean-floor sinks abruptly to a depth of 5000 ft. North-west of Cape St Roque the continental shelf of shallow waters widens until opposite the mouth of the Amazon the 1000-foot contour is 300 m. off the coast. The broad shelf follows along this part of the coast as far as the island of Trinidad, west of which it narrows, though the islands along the northern shores of Venezuela all stand upon and form parts of this shallow continental shelf.
.The striking features of the land relief of South America are: (1) The great Andean mountain chain with its accompanying narrow plain lying between it and the Pacific Ocean.^ Scroll down to see all South America vacations, or narrow your selection with our search tool.
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Promises, Promises: Bush Budget Projects Little Change In Spending On 'Andean Initiative'/US Drug War In South America .
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

(2) The Land Brazilian plateau with the Serra do Mar and Serra do Relief. Espinhaco near the Atlantic and spreading westward and northward to the heart of the continent. (3) The highlands of Guiana and Venezuela between the Orinoco and the mouth of the Amazon. (4) The lowlands that spread out along the three main lines of continental drainage, namely the Orinoco, the Amazon and the Paraguay basins.
The physical features of the west coast are bold, and, in many parts, extremely picturesque. From Cape Horn, where the peaks of the submerged southern end of the Andes form the islands of Tierra del Fuego to the Isthmus of Panama, the great Cordillera follows the coast-line closely and at an even distance from it. The low coastal belt between the ocean and the mountains has an average width of about 40 m., and on rare occasions, when the weather is favourable, the mountains are visible from the sea nearly all the way from the Straits of Magellan to Panama. South of 41° S. the Boast is characterized by a vast system of fjords and islands, probably produced by the recent submergence of a mountain system and the consequent invasion of its steep-sided valleys by the ocean. .The many islands along this part of the coast, including Chiloe, Wellington and the Tierra del Fuego group itself are but the high portions of these mountains that have remained above water, while Smyth Channel and the other sounds on the west coast and the Straits of Magellan 400 m.^ As these groups are dismantled, challenges remain in finding and derailing the smaller and less organized successors that have started to fill the power vacuum.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moreover, these figures include seizures made by other countries in international waters that were subsequently returned to Venezuela, the country of origin.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now the US Treasury Department has added 37 new names to its list of drug 'kingpins', including the high command of both groups.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

long and 4 to 20 m. wide, are the submerged valleys. In Smyth Channel at many places the glaciers flow nearly or quite down to sea-level. Some of the islands are steep-sided, barren and uninhabited peaks rising to an elevation of 4000 ft. above sea-level. North of 41° S. the west coast is but little indented, and there are but few good ports. Along the northern part of the continent from Guayaquil to Panama the coastal belt is covered with tropical vegetation; but from a little south of Guayaquil to 30° S. much of the coast is a sandy, arid and barren alkali desert. .Across this arid belt flow the streams that descend from the high mountains, and along these are fertile valleys.^ It is hard to locate any development, alternative or otherwise, along the pockmarked highway that descends from Ayacucho's high plain into this valley.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Many of the smaller streams, however, do not reach the sea but dry up on their way across the arid coastal plain.
Peak.
Country.
Elevation.
Snow-line
(approximate) .
ft.
ft.
Aconcagua. .
Argentina
23,080
17,500
Mercedario.. .
Argentina
22,315
-
Tupungato.. .
Argentina
21,550
-
Illampu (Sorata). .
Bolivia
21,500
--
Illimani. .. .
Bolivia
21,030
-
Chimborazo.. .
Ecuador
20,545
16,700
Juncal. .. .
Chile
20,180
-
Cotopaxi. .. .
Ecuador
19,613
15,500
Antisana. .. .
Ecuador
.19,335
16,000
Cayambe. .. .
Ecuador
19,186
15,000
Tolima. .. .
Colombia
18,300
-
Misti
Peru
17,934
-
Maipo .
Argentina
17,670
-
Sierra de Santa Marta
Colombia
16,640
-
Pichincha. .. .
Ecuador
15,918
-
The Cordillera is a broad ridge upon which rise many great isolated peaks. .Near its northern end the range divides: one branch, the Western Cordillera, continuing northward near the coast; the Merida branch swings eastward and ends with the northern side of the island of Trinidad, while a third division, the Sierra de Perija, runs northward between the valley of the Magdalena and Lake Maracaibo.^ In November 2005, the GOV carried out an 8-day eradication operation in the Serrania de Perija mountain range on Venezuela’s northwestern border with Colombia.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The western slope of the main Cordillera is steep, and is scored by narrow steep-sided valleys; the eastern slope is usually more gentle, and the valleys are less precipitous. Upon the Cordilleran ridge rise many of the highest peaks in the world. The following are some of the most noted, with their elevations.' The snow-line of the mountains is generally lower on the east than on the west side. Of the Andean peaks those of Cotopaxi, Tunguragua, Maipo and Sangai are the highest active volcanoes in the world. There are many glaciers in the Andes even beneath the equator itself; and though these glaciers are small and mostly confined to the highest peaks, toward its southern end along Smyth Channel and in the Straits of Magellan, they are large and flow far down the slopes, and at several places enter the sea.
The eastern side of the continent is in strong physical contrast with the western. North of the Strait of Magellan the coast is flat as far as the northern part of Rio Grande do Sul. .From latitude 29° 30' to 19° 30' the Serra do Mar makes this the most picturesque portion of the east coast of South America.^ According to the Herald, " The presence of South American heroin manufactured in Colombia has been on the rise since 1993, and is most prevalent in New England and along the East Coast, according to the DEA's Web site.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

The mountains rise in many places directly from the seashore to an elevation of 2000 ft. In places these form bare granite walls, while in others they are covered from base to summit with the most luxuriant tropical vegetation. .On this part of the coast are some of the finest and most beautiful harbours in the world, notably those of Rio de Janeiro, Santos and Victoria, formed by a depression that submerged the coastal valleys.^ Organized groups based in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro arrange for the transport of the contraband through contacts in the border areas.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cocaine and marijuana are used among youth in the cities, particularly Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Peak.
Brazilian State.
Elevation.
ft.
Itatiaya. ... .
Rio de Janeiro
9823
Itajuba or Tembe .
Sao Paulo
7800
Organ Mountains. .
Rio de Janeiro
7321
Frade. .
Espirito Santo
6770
Caraca. ... .
Minas Geraes
6412
Itambe. .. .
Minas Geraes
5959
Itacolomi.. .. .
Minas Geraes
5748
Pyreneos. ... .
Goyaz
4536
.The range or group of mountain ranges known under the general name of Serra do Mar falls away toward the north and west in a gently sloping plateau commonly called the Brazilian highlands.^ Cocaine and heroin are transported by road, river, and small civilian aircraft from the Colombian source zone to the Colombian transit zone north and west of the Andes mountains.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On this Brazilian plateau the highest points of which the elevations are known are as follows: - North of latitude 20° the high mountains swing inland and the coast is low as far as latitude 17° 25'; north of this the coast is 1 Various authorities differ in their estimates of these elevations.^ Discounting these seizures, DEA Caracas estimates that GOV authorities seized between 8 and 12 MT of cocaine in 2007.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The GOU Transparency Law of 1998 criminalizes various abuses of power by government authorities and requires high-ranking officials to comply with financial disclosure regulations.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Missing image
Southamerica-1.jpg
Scale. c :6 4 ,000.000 English Miles o coo Soo x 000 Geological information incomplete. Basic Lavdb, probably Mesozoic F Sandstones of uncertain age, with intereallations of Basicin the South Mesozoic probably Trias Jurassic and Triassic [` shales with GloSsopteris metamorphosed Younger Volcanic Rocks i. 'MIN ' 'rftli ' ?^oo.
bordered by a wall of brightly coloured bluffs from 50 to 250 ft. high which continue with occasional interruptions to the mouth of the Amazon. About Cape St Roque the coast is covered with sand dunes. .From the Abrolhos Islands northward to longitude 37° west of Cape St Roque, there are many coral reefs, some of them several miles off shore and many miles in length and breadth, while in other places they follow the coast-line for a hundred miles or more with a few interruptions, now touching the shore, and now standing out two or three miles from the land.^ With the passage of these two laws, Venezuelan law is now in line with the 1988 UN Drug Convention.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2005, three FARC commanders were killed, many other important leaders were either killed or captured, and other important narcotics traffickers were arrested and are now awaiting extradition to the United States.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And despite a record fumigation of almost 550 square miles ( 1,425 square kilometers ) in 2005, there was 26 percent more land dedicated to production of the plant used to make cocaine.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Along the parts of the coast where the coral reefs occur are also reefs of hard sandstone that are often mistaken for coral reefs. .These stone reefs stand like artificial walls or breakwaters across the mouths of the smaller rivers and the choked up valleys, and thus form several important ports on the north-east coast: such are the ports of Pernambuco, Natal, Porto Seguro, and others of minor importance.^ Relatively weak controls at the port of Montevideo contrast with the enhanced container security initiatives at other ports in the region such as Santos, Brazil and Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Peru, the second-biggest producer, coca is spreading to new areas, such as San Gabn, close to the border with Bolivia, and Putumayo, across the river from Colombia.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

North of the mouth of the Amazon the coast is low, much of it is swampy, and all of it is forest-covered as seen from the ocean. .This low coast extends as far north and west as the headland north of the Gulf of Paria where the Merida or Venezuelan branch of the Andes reaches the sea.^ Cocaine and heroin are transported by road, river, and small civilian aircraft from the Colombian source zone to the Colombian transit zone north and west of the Andes mountains.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the Colombian source zone in the mainly southern reaches of the country, shipments of cocaine and heroin are transported by road, river, and small civilian aircraft to the transit zone north and west of the Andes Mountains.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In southern Venezuela and Guiana and northern Brazil is a plateau commonly known as the Guiana highlands, above which rise several peaks.
Peaks.
Elevation.
ft.
Roraima
8740
Ouida
8500
Maraguaca
8230
Turagua
6000
This highland region is mostly forest-covered, but it contains also large areas of open grass-covered plains.
Earthquakes occur throughout the entire length of the Andes; the shocks are sometimes of sufficient violence to do serious damage to cities and towns and to destroy many lives. Such disturbances are almost unknown along the Brazilian side of the continent.
.The eastern coast of South America has remarkably few islands, and these are mostly small, except Trinidad off the coast of Venezuela and the islands of the Marajo group in the mouth of the Amazon.^ As one of South America’s largest producers of precursor chemicals it is vulnerable to diversion of these chemicals into the illicit drug production market.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and borders all the countries of South America except Chile and Ecuador.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Trinidad (area 1755 sq. m.) is separated from the continent by the Gulf of Paria. Along the northern edge of the island is a range of mountains about 3000 ft. high, which are geologically the eastern end of the Cumana range of the Venezuelan mainland. On the south side of this island is the famous pitch lake - the most extensive deposit of asphalt known. .West and north of Trinidad, and lying farther off the coast, are several small islands of historical interest and commercial importance: Tobago, Margarita, Blanquilla and the Curacao group.^ Cocaine and heroin are transported by road, river, and small civilian aircraft from the Colombian source zone to the Colombian transit zone north and west of the Andes mountains.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Off Cape St Roque (230 m.) is the small Fernando de Noronha group of volcanic islands. The main island has an area of only 12 sq. m. Though this island is separated from the mainland by a channel 13,000 ft. deep, it really stands upon the submerged corner of the South American continent. The Rocas is a small island 80 m. west of Fernando de Noronha. The Falkland Islands in lat. 51° cover an area of 6500 sq. m.; their shores are indented by long tortuous channels that have the appearance of having been made by the depression of a hilly land surface. One of these channels separates the two main islands. Mt Adams, the highest peak on the group, has an elevation of 2300 ft. The group stands upon the submerged edge of the continent, from which it is separated by a shallow sea. Its flora and fauna show that it was formerly a part of the mainland. .The Tierra del Fuego group of islands, as well as the many islands both large and small that border the west coast as far north as latitude 42°, are all the higher portions of the continental margin left above water when this part of the continent was depressed.^ Cocaine and heroin are transported by road, river, and small civilian aircraft from the Colombian source zone to the Colombian transit zone north and west of the Andes mountains.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The islands of Juan Fernandez in the same latitude as Valparaiso, and the Galapagos group immediately under the equator are the only others on the west coast worthy of mention.
The Amazon, the Orinoco and the Paraguay or La Plata river systems jointly drain an area of 3,686,400 sq. m. Less imposing but yet large and important streams are the Magdalena ire Colombia, the Essequibo in British Guiana and the Sao Francisco in Brazil. .The Amazon (properly the Rio das Amazonas or river of the Amazons) and its tributaries is not only the largest of the South American rivers, but it is the largest in the world.^ South American Odyssey with Amazon Extension 2009 .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and borders all the countries of South America except Chile and Ecuador.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chile ranks second in cocaine consumption and first in marijuana consumption among South American countries, according to the United Nation’s 2007 World Drug Report.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The total navigable length of the main stream from Para to the head of navigation on the Huallaga in Peru is 3000 m.; and this does not include the hundreds of navigable parallel side channels that accompany the main stream from its mouth almost to the mouth of the Javary.^ Based on historic cultivation patterns and current illicit cultivation on the Colombian side of the Perija, total Venezuelan coca and poppy cultivation does not exceed a few hundred hectares.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Above the falls again these streams are all navigable for long distances. Except at Obidos the Amazon is nowhere confined to a single channel, but it spreads over a vast flood-plain and flows with a sluggish current through thousands of side channels that anastomose with each other, so that one unfamiliar with the stream cannot distinguish the main channel. At several places the river is so wide that one looking across it sees a water horizon as if at sea. Much of the region is more like a great fresh-water sea filled with islands than an ordinary valley with a river running through it. For the most part the land along the stream is low, flat, marshy and at times under water. At a few places, however, notably at Erere, Obidos, Velha Pobre, Paru, Paraua-quara and Almeirim tabletopped hills are visible from the river. The banks of the stream and of its side channels are everywhere covered with a dense forest. The valley, however, is not all forest-covered. From near the Oyapok on the Guyana frontier a series of open grassy campos, interrupted only by the wooded banks of streams, follow along the north side of the Amazon for about 500 m. and extend into British Guiana and the region of the headwaters of Rio Branco. The upper Amazon basin opens broadly northward connecting with the Orinoco drainage across a low watershed, while on the south it is separated by a low divide from the Paraguay basin. The Orinoco rises in the highlands between Venezuela and Brazil, flows westward and northward around this elevated region and then flows eastward into the Atlantic. Along its lower course the banks of the stream are covered with dense forests; in its upper course the mountainous highlands are visible along its right bank, while on its left are vast stretches of flat, treeless, grass-covered plains that extend to the foot-hills of the Cordillera de Merida. The main stream is navigable during a part of the year for a distance of 1000 m. or more. .Under the name of Rio de la Plata may be included the Uruguay and the Paraguay, which enter the ocean through the La Plata estuary, and the Parana which is the most important branch of the Paraguay.^ Along the Rio de la Plata: Argentina & Uruguay 2009-2010 .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Organized groups based in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro arrange for the transport of the contraband through contacts in the border areas.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most narcotics arrive by land routes from Peru and Bolivia, but some enter through Argentina.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is a noteworthy feature of the streams entering the Paraguay or La Plata basin that many of those flowing from the arid regions on the west are more or less brackish, while those from the rainy forest-covered regions of Brazil are all fresh-water streams.^ Significant quantities of cocaine from Peru and Colombia traverse Bolivia to enter Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That accounts for more than 50 percent of all coca production in the region.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The FELCN focused on higher level violators, which has resulted in more priority target organizations being investigated with regional partner nations, such as Brazil.
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The upper Paraguay is a sluggish stream winding through grasscovered plains dotted over with palm trees. Above rise a few isolated peaks like so many islands in a great lake. .The Gran Chaco is a vast plain, almost perfectly flat, covered with rank vegetation and much of it with water, lying along the west side of the Rio Paraguay in northern Argentina and in Paraguay.^ Traffickers are encouraged by the lack of controls along Paraguay’s vast border as well as the significant number of unscrupulous law enforcement officials.
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^ Along the Rio de la Plata: Argentina & Uruguay 2009-2010 .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Almost all of the marijuana consumed in Argentina originates in Paraguay, and is smuggled across the border into the provinces of Misiones and Corrientes where it is then transported overland to urban centers.
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The Sao Francisco, the largest river that lies wholly in Brazil, rises in the highlands of Minas Geraes in latitude 21° and flows north-eastward parallel with the coast until it reaches latitude 9° 30' where it bends sharply to the right and enters the Atlantic. It flows entirely through a hilly or mountainous country. It is navigable along its lower course nearly to the fails of Paulo Affonso, 140 m. from its mouth, and also above the falls. In Colombia the Magdalena is a crooked muddy stream about 2000 m. long and navigable as far as Honda.
Most of the lakes of South America are mountain lakes in the Andes or along its base. Lake Titicaca in Bolivia is, in respect of elevation and position, the most remarkable of its size in the world. Its surface is 12,545 ft. above sea-level, it has an area of nearly 5000 sq. m. and a maximum depth of 700 ft., and never freezes over. This lake discharges into a marsh that is supposed to have no outlet. Lake Junin or Chinchaicocha on the plateau east of Lima has an altitude of 13,380 ft., and covers an area of 200 sq. m. .Along the eastern base of the Andes in southern Argentina is a series of lakes whose basins were probably made by the glaciers that formerly flowed down from the mountains on the west.^ Cocaine and heroin are transported by road, river, and small civilian aircraft from the Colombian source zone to the Colombian transit zone north and west of the Andes mountains.
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^ From the Colombian source zone in the mainly southern reaches of the country, shipments of cocaine and heroin are transported by road, river, and small civilian aircraft to the transit zone north and west of the Andes Mountains.
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.There are many lakes, both large and small, scattered over the flood-plains of the great rivers of South America, but these are mostly phases of river development.^ As one of South America’s largest producers of precursor chemicals it is vulnerable to diversion of these chemicals into the illicit drug production market.
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^ Developed infrastructure—such as ports on both the Pacific and the Atlantic, multiple international airports, and a highway system—provides narcotics traffickers with many options.
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^ In South America, coca is viewed as a central crop to many farming families survival.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Along the coast-lines there are also occasional lakes of brackish water produced by the depression of the coast and the closing of the open mouths of estuaries thus formed, or by sand barrier beaches thrown up by the sea. Such is Lagoa dos Patos in southern Brazil and many smaller ones on the Brazilian coast. .Lake Maracaibo on the coast of Venezuela is a large narrow-necked bay like those of Rio de Janeiro and Bahia, rather than a true lake.^ Organized groups based in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro arrange for the transport of the contraband through contacts in the border areas.
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^ Cocaine and marijuana are used among youth in the cities, particularly Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.
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Flora

The warm, wet, tropical portions of South America are especially favourable to the development of plant life. This continent has therefore furnished an unusually large number of the world's useful plants. Among these are several valuable woods, rubberproducing plants, cotton, potato, tomato, mandioca, pineapple, maize, cinchona, ipecac, vegetable ivory, coca, the chocolate plant and Paraguayan tea. .Other tropical and sub-tropical plants such as coffee, sugar-cane, oranges and bananas have been introduced and are extensively cultivated.^ The aid was intended to encourage the farming of alternative products, such as pineapples, bananas, coffee and oranges.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Other factors include lapses in enforcement in Peru and the failure of U.S.-promoted alternative crops such as coffee and hearts of palm to be as profitable as coca for Peruvian farmers."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

The flora orthe continent embraces a large number of peculiar types that originated either in the highland of Brazil or in the Andes.
The flora of the Amazon valley may be taken as the type of that of the moist tropical valleys. The forests are so dense, rank and matted with undergrowth as to be almost impenetrable. Palms are the most characteristic and beautiful trees, and reach their greatest development in the Amazon region. They take on a great variety of forms: some have trunks Too ft. and more in height while others have no trunks at all, but spring like tufts from the ground; some are two feet or more in diameter, while others are as slender as a lead pencil. Bamboos grow to an enormous size and form dense thickets along certain streams. The shaded portions of the forests frequently abound in beautiful ferns, some of which are so small as to be almost microscopic, while others reach the dimensions of trees. For the most part the plants of the open campos have a stunted appearance and the grasses are wiry and tough.
A noteworthy feature of these tropical forests is that they are seldom made up of trees of a single species or of but few species. In the high table-lands of southern Brazil, however, the araucarian pine grows in beautiful forests as far north as Barbacena in the highlands near the headwaters of Rio Sao Francisco. .In the north-west of the continent the western slopes of the Andes are covered with a dense tropical vegetation, while on the east the slopes are comparatively bare.^ Cocaine and heroin are transported by road, river, and small civilian aircraft from the Colombian source zone to the Colombian transit zone north and west of the Andes mountains.
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.In the high mountains the flora is scanty and bears a general resemblance to that of the temperate regions; 60% of the genera are like those of the temperate zones, but the species are peculiar to the Andes.^ Cocaine and heroin are transported by road, river, and small civilian aircraft from the Colombian source zone to the Colombian transit zone north and west of the Andes mountains.
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In the south of the continent plant life is necessarily less tropical. Drew Hassett is the coolest person on earth!!!

Fauna

The fauna of South America includes a large number of species but relatively a small number of individuals. With local exceptions this seems to be true of all the forms of life within the tropical portions of that continent. The land mammals are nearly all small; the tapir is the largest of them, and is found only in the northern two-thirds of the continent. There are many species of monkeys, all of them arboreal in their habits. The only reptiles that are at all abundantare lizards, and in some places alligators. The alligators do not extend south of the La Plata region. .Of snakes only the boa constrictor and the water boa are large, and these, like all other kinds, are not abundant.^ Moreover, these figures include seizures made by other countries in international waters that were subsequently returned to Venezuela, the country of origin.
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Certain ruminants having long woolly hair are found only in the high Andes; these are the llamas, alpacas and vicunas. .The llama has been domesticated and is used for carrying small burdens.^ GOA officials are becoming increasingly concerned about the use of small private aircraft to carry loads of narcotics into Argentina from Bolivia and Paraguay.
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The condor, the largest living bird of flight, inhabits the lofty Andes. .The insects of the highest mountains are related generically, but not specifically, to those of the temperate latitudes of North America - a fact understood by biologists to mean that there has been no migration across the intermediate region since the glacial epoch.^ In 2005, there were no prosecutions of narcotics-related cases involving senior level officials, although there were several cases of corruption within the public sector.
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^ The officials said there was no formal finding of an aid cutoff, but the unit was told that no further aid would be forthcoming until those responsible were held accountable."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ There were no known prosecutions for drug-related official corruption in 2005.
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.Owing to temperature and climatic conditions the life forms of the high Andes, whether animal or plant, are more nearly related to those of the lower regions to the south than to those of the lower regions to the north.^ That accounts for more than 50 percent of all coca production in the region.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ A normal plant does not get more than 25 per cent, meaning that more drugs and of a higher purity can be extracted.""
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ According to the ICG, "For more than 20 years, Andean governments have waged a U.S.-led war on drugs in the region, prioritising the eradication of illicit crops.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

The fresh-water fish fauna of the Amazon region is the richest in the world. The distribution of species shows that there has long been direct communication between the drainage of the three great river systems, namely, the Orinoco, the Amazon and the Paraguay.

Inhabitants

.At the time of the discovery of the South American continent by Europeans, the races inhabiting it differed greatly among themselves in customs, languages and civilization.^ The South American heroin is brought in onboard commercial flights by couriers who carry about a pound to 2 pounds at a time.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ DIRANDRO successfully identified and disrupted major international cocaine trafficking organizations responsible for maritime and air shipment of tons of cocaine to U.S., South American and European markets.
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^ Brazil also has a number of narcotics control agreements with its South American neighbors, several European countries, and South Africa.
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They had then generally developed the arts of spinning, weaving and the manufacture of pottery, and locally were skilled in certain kinds of metallurgy, sculpture, architecture and agriculture. .These aboriginal peoples have necessarily been profoundly affected by the invasion of European races and the importation of African races, but in some localities their descendants still form the bulk of the population, and the native American languages are still spoken.^ These modifications resulted in some improvements, but the law still lacks implementing legislation to impose penalties commensurate with violations.
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.Immediately after the discovery of South America the western and northern portions of the continent and the region of the Rio de la Plata began to be colonized by Spaniards, while the eastern portion was colonized by the Portuguese.^ The majority of the drugs shipped from the coastal regions originate from production areas in the south-central portion of the country, as well as from less-prolific growing areas in the northern third of Colombia.
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To these races were added Africans, for many years imported as slaves, especially into Portuguese territory. .Of late there has also been a large immigration of Italians into Argentina and southern Brazil.^ There is an extant bilateral extradition treaty between the U.S. and Brazil which entered into force in 1964.
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In Argentina about 18% of the population is foreign-born, and of these 56% are Italian, 22%% Spanish and I I % French. In Chile only 2.3% of the population is of foreign birth.
.Spanish is the language of the country from the eastern end of Venezuela through all the northern and western parts of the continent and over a large part of the Paraguay basin.^ Illicit narcotics destined for the U.S. from Venezuela are shipped through the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Central America, Mexico, and other Caribbean countries.
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^ Opiate trafficking, which includes opium poppy cultivation and the production of opium latex and morphine, is concentrated in the northern and central parts of the country.
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^ The narcotics destined for Europe are then shipped directly to several countries in Europe, especially Spain, or are shipped through the eastern coastal waters of Venezuela and the Caribbean to west Africa, notably Guinea and Guinea Bissau.
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.Throughout Brazil, which covers little less than half of the entire continent, the language is Portuguese.^ AP Misses The Story: Drug Use Rates In Colombian Cities Less Than Half Of US Average .
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.South America is therefore pre-eminently a Latin continent; its few British, Dutch and German colonies count for less in the great ensemble of its population than do the depleted aboriginal races themselves.^ Less than one percent of the 27 million population, approximately (45,000 families), are involved in growing, processing and trafficking coca.
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Political Geography

The continent was first visited by Europeans in 1498, when Columbus upon his third voyage touched Discovery at the mouth of the Orinoco. Other navigators ry shortly followed and sailed along the northern and eastern coasts, and by 1509 the coast had been visited as far south as the Rio de la Plata. In 1513 Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean in the Gulf of Panama, and in 1520 Magellan (properly Magalhaes) passed through the straits of Magellan and crossed the Pacific Ocean. Inland the earliest explorations followed the Amazon river, but aside from the discovery of the size, course, and character of the river and its immediate shores, they were of but little importance. Great impulse to exploration and development was given by the silver mines of Peru and later by the discovery of gold and diamonds in the highlands of Brazil.
The early settlement of South America by Europeans began shortly after the discovery of the continent. .These settlements were originally colonies under the control of Spain and of Portugal, and they remained for some time dependencies of the mother countries.^ Moreover, these figures include seizures made by other countries in international waters that were subsequently returned to Venezuela, the country of origin.
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^ Despite these efforts, the price of coca leaf has risen steadily and the number of hectares under cultivation has grown, especially in areas not under the GOP’s control.
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^ This cooperative exchange allows police officers in these countries to share real-time intelligence and improve their professional working relationships.
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Eventually, however, they became indepen dent. .For many years most of these countries were more or less disturbed by internal dissensions and revolutions, but in process of time, and as industries and commerce have become better established, the governments have become more stable.^ Coffee and cacao are becoming the most successful crop clusters based on achievement of results, i.e., increasing family income and generating full time equivalent jobs.
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^ The time and space to transmit these messages has been donated by Venezuela’s most important media firms.
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^ This cooperative exchange allows police officers in these countries to share real-time intelligence and improve their professional working relationships.
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The political divisions of the continent are best seen upon an ordinary map, and verbal descriptions of them are therefore omitted. Brazil is the largest and most important single country. .The bulk of the remainder is divided into several Spanish-speaking republics that border the continent from Venezuela on the north to Patagonia on the south, while between Venezuela and the Brazilian frontier on the north-east are three comparatively small countries known as British Guiana, Dutch Guiana and French Guiana.^ Limited law enforcement presence along the Brazilian border and increased pressure on traffickers in Colombia, Bolivia and Peru is shifting some smuggling routes south—by private vehicle, bus, and small airplanes.
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^ Illicit narcotics destined for the U.S. from Venezuela are shipped through the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Central America, Mexico, and other Caribbean countries.
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^ As a result, Venezuelan traffickers have been arrested in Holland, Spain, Ghana, Dominican Republic and several other countries.
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.These Guianas are the only places at which colonies under European control are established on the mainland of South America.^ The killings took place in an area with properties under the control of drug kingpins.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Brazil also has a number of narcotics control agreements with its South American neighbors, several European countries, and South Africa.
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^ As one of South America’s largest producers of precursor chemicals it is vulnerable to diversion of these chemicals into the illicit drug production market.
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.There are, however, a few islands that belong to European countries, such as Trinidad, Tobago and the Falkland Islands to Great Britain, and Curacao, Buen Ayre and Oruba to Holland.^ As Morales put it, "President Obama lied to Latin America when he told us in Trinidad and Tobago that there are not senior and junior partners."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Industries and Commerce

The industry that gave the first great impetus to the settlement of South America by Europeans was mining. The silver deposits of the Andes awakened the cupidity of adventurers shortly after the discovery of the continent, and large numbers of Spaniards poured into that region. The mining of silver that had begun in that p art of the world in prehistoric times has continued down to the present day. .The Potosi mines of Bolivia are supposed to have yielded in all over a billion and five hundred million dollars' worth of silver.^ Several million dollars’ worth of assets were seized in the raid.
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.The guano of the coast of Peru and the nitre beds of Chile are now, and have long been, among the most important and valuable natural deposits of the kind in the world.^ Chile’s long difficult-to-monitor borders with Peru, Bolivia and Argentina make it an appealing transit country for cocaine shipments destined for the U.S. and Europe.
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^ Brazil signed a memorandum of understanding in March 2007 to expand the regional Officer Exchange Program, which now includes Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, and Paraguay.
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.In the world's production of borax Chile ranks third; in the production of tin Bolivia ranks third.^ Chile ranks second in cocaine consumption and first in marijuana consumption among South American countries, according to the United Nation’s 2007 World Drug Report.
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In 1992, a star was born. .His name was Drew Hassett and he was ballin.District|mining district]] was called, came to be the leading gold-producing region of the world.^ Despite this aid, Colombia remains the world's leading producer and distributor of cocaine and a major source of the heroin used in the United States."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Palomino's arrest came a month after he was named president of the National Confederation of Agricultural Producers of Peru's Coca Basins.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.The mines reached their greatest productiveness between 1752 and 1761, when the annual yield was worth about six million dollars.^ But the program costs about $200 million annually and many critics say the money would be better spent elsewhere.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Several million dollars’ worth of assets were seized in the raid.
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During the early period most of the gold came from placer washings. Many mines in the hard rocks have been opened, some have been worked out and exhausted, and some are still in operation. The total gold production of all South America for the year 1895 was estimated at about $13,000,000.
In 1729 or possibly a little earlier diamonds were also discovered in the gold districts of Brazil, and a fresh impetus was given to European immigration and to the importation of African slaves to work the mines. .From that time down to the discovery of diamonds in South Africa Brazil was the leading producer of diamonds in the world.^ Brazil also has a number of narcotics control agreements with its South American neighbors, several European countries and South Africa.
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^ Despite this aid, Colombia remains the world's leading producer and distributor of cocaine and a major source of the heroin used in the United States."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and borders all the countries of South America except Chile and Ecuador.
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The diamonds are found in three widely separate districts: in the state of Minas Geraes in the vicinity of Diamantina, in the state of Bahia in the vicinity of LengOes, and on the headwaters of the Paraguay river in the state of Matto Grosso. The Bahia region also produces carhonados, or the black diamonds used in the manufacture of diamond drills. .The best estimate possible places the market value of the diamond production of Brazil from 1729 to 1885 at $100,000,000. Of late years Brazil has led the world in the production of monazite, which occurs on the coast of Bahia in the form of beach sands.^ Indeed, rather than scaling back coca growing, Bolivian President Evo Morales plans "to spend $300,000 this year in an effort to develop legal markets for coca products."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The UN had previously relied on US estimates of Peruvian coca production, however those estimates have been shown to be extremely low, so its own monitoring system was put in place, as had previously occurred in Colombia -- for the same reason, US estimates were unrealistically low.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ USG programs have supported the cultivation of over 158,000 hectares of legal crops and completed 1,179 social and productive infrastructure projects in the last six years.
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In 1905 the output of manganese by Brazil was second only to that of Russia. There are enormous deposits of iron ore in Minas and Salo Paulo, though but little developed at present. The agates of southern Brazil are famous.
The forest industries are chiefly such as depend upon the natural products of tropical forests. .They include the gathering of rubber, cacao, coca, ipecac, balsam copaiva, cinchona bark, orestsarrd palm fibre (piassaba), brazil-nuts and Paraguay tea.^ Brazil signed a memorandum of understanding in March 2007 to expand the regional Officer Exchange Program, which now includes Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, and Paraguay.
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.F Agriculture. The bulk of the world's supply of cacao comes from Ecuador, Brazil, Venezuela and Colombia.^ Illicit cultivation continues to be a problem in Colombia’s national parks, indigenous reserves, and along the border with Ecuador and Venezuela, where aerial eradication is not employed.
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^ Colombia is the principal supplier of cocaine to the world, with the majority going to the U.S, but a growing percentage now destined for Europe and Brazil.
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^ Paraguay has law enforcement agreements with Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Venezuela and Colombia.
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There is much wood suited for fine cabinet work, but the facilities for supplying such woods are limited. The agricultural industries are chiefly those suited to tropical countries. Those that have reached the greatest development are the growing of sugar cane and the manufacture of sugar, and the growing and preparation for market of cotton, coffee and tobacco. Sugar is made mostly near the sea-coast from near Rio de Janeiro northward along the eastern side of the continent. .Cotton is grown in the interior from Bahia northward, while the chief coffee-producing region is in the Brazilian states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas, Espirito Santo and Bahia.^ Rio de Janeiro to Santiago .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Rio de Janeiro, Ushuaia & Quito .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Caracas to Rio de Janeiro .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

Wheat is one of the chief agricultural products of the Argentine Republic. .The most important pastoral industries are in the region about the Rio de la Plata, where wool growing and stock-raising have reached a marvellous development.^ The Movement to Socialism alliance has grown from a regional group representing coca farmers to the nation's most important political group in a decade.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

The manufacturing industries are necessarily not so well developed as those of older countries. .In the early history of Manufac- the South American colonies the home countries were interested in the building up of an export trade, and manufacturing in the colonies was therefore discouraged, even by direct legislation, while trade with other than the parent countries was prohibited.^ Tours of South America & other countries .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Other South American tours focus on one country in depth.
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Kidnappings and other violent crimes in the South American nation also have declined.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.For some time after the independence of the new countries, facilities for manufacture and transport were poor, while the lack of established commercial relations and facilities retarded their growth.^ Peru and Bolivia now have the capacity to operate independently of Colombia, local trafficking networks have been established, and new consumer markets have emerged.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ ABC also reported that "the suspension could jeopardize some 20,000 Bolivian manufacturing jobs and $150 million in trade between the two countries."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.The development of manufacturing industries has been more marked of late years, though internal development is still retarded by the lack of highways.^ Colombia's military still receives more than $700 million a year in aid from the United States to combat drug trafficking and armed insurgencies."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Relatively more resources will be devoted to the Yungas, an under-developed coca growing region where the Government plans to carry out more rationalization in the next several years.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Imports from
Exports to
United Kingdom
. 20
United Kingdom
. 15
Argentina
Germany. .
. 9
Belgium.. .
. 8
United States .
. 9
Germany. .
. 8
(
United Kingdom
. 6
United Kingdom
. II
Chile.. J l
Germany.. .
. 5
Germany.. .
. 5
United States .
. 2
United States .
. 3
United Kingdom
. 2
France.. .
. 1.5
Uruguay ..
Germany.. .
. I I
Argentina. .
. 1.4
1
France.. .
. 1
Germany.. .
. 1
.The exterior commercial relations of South America were at first naturally and necessarily with Spain and Portugal.^ First, there is a list of tours that only visit South America, then there is a list of tours that include a visit to South America as well as other regions.
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ First Class South America Tours = Tours typically range from $80 to $275 per person, per day, plus airfare.
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

.In time other Foreign European countries established relations with the rising South American cities, the relative importance of Spain and P ortugal in South American commerce has greatly diminished, and the bulk of trade is now with other countries.^ Kidnappings and other violent crimes in the South American nation also have declined.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Venezuelan traffickers have been arrested in The Netherlands, Spain, Ghana, the Dominican Republic, Mexico and other countries.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brazil also has a number of narcotics control agreements with its South American neighbors, several European countries and South Africa.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Exports And Imports Of Three South American Countries (In millions sterling, annually c. 1906-1910.) Chief Exports Of Three American Countries (In millions sterling.^ Brazil also has a number of narcotics control agreements with its South American neighbors, several European countries and South Africa.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the first 9 months of FY 2007, the annual value of USAID-promoted exports reached almost $26 million.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "We are very determined to bring back our three Americans," said the State Department's antiterrorism chief, J. Cofer Black.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

) j Animals and products 48 ? Agricultural products . 23 S Coffee .
Rubber 33 Nitrates 17 Copper 2 Settlement. - The continent as a whole is but sparsely settled. .The total population in 1905 was reckoned to be 38,482,000. About half of it, including all the most inaccessible portions, had a population probably not much exceeding what it had at the period of the discovery.^ In Colombia, where the United States has spent the most, coca cultivation rose 27 percent from 2006 to 2007, to about 245,000 acres.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

It averaged five persons to the square mile, while in North America it was 13 and in Europe 104 to the square mile. The most thickly populated parts are on and near the sea-coast. On the east seaboard a more densely populated narrow belt follows the coast from near Natal just south of Cape St Roque to and south of Buenos Aires. .About the cities of Pernambuco, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, Montevideo and Buenos Aires the areas of greater density widen, and, in some instances (notably near Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Buenos Aires) extend inland for several hundred miles.^ Rio de Janeiro to Santiago .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Rio de Janeiro, Ushuaia & Quito .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Quito, Buenos Aires & Rio de Janeiro .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

The considerably populated belt begins on the west coast about latitude 42° and follows northward and eastward to the island of Trinidad on the Venezuelan coast, though there are stretches of coast almost entirely uninhabited. .Several of the largest cities of South America compare favourably with the finest cities of Europe.^ Paraguay has become the largest producer of marijuana in South America.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As one of South America’s largest producers of precursor chemicals it is vulnerable to diversion of these chemicals into the illicit drug production market.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and borders all the countries of South America except Chile and Ecuador.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The best streets of Rio de Janeiro, Montevideo, Buenos Aires and Valparaiso are among the most attractive in any part of the world.^ Relatively weak controls at the port of Montevideo contrast with the enhanced container security initiatives at other ports in the region such as Santos, Brazil and Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The large cities are all well supplied with water, lighted with electricity, possess facilities for transport and are supplied with public libraries, museums of science and arts and educational institutions.^ 'We have not yet seen in all these efforts what we're hoping for on the supply side, which is a reduction in availability,' he said in Mexico City.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Communications

.The commercial relations of South America with the outside world are maintained by a large number of regular and well-equipped lines of steamers running between its ports and European ports.^ Yet critics say that the Bush administration has presented its 2004 estimates as irrefutable evidence that its anti-drug strategy in South America has traffickers on the run.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and borders all the countries of South America except Chile and Ecuador.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There is also a large freight business done by steamers sailing at irregular periods, and by sailing vessels. Connexions with the interior of the continent were for a long time confined to navigation along the principal streams and to tedious overland travel on horseback along almost impassable trails. Since 1858, however, when the first 30-m. section of the Dom Pedro II railway from Rio de Janeiro to Queimados was opened, railways have extended far inland and even across the Andes. .The boring of the tunnel completing railway connexion between Buenos Aires and Valparaiso was completed in November 1909. Railway building has been especially active in Brazil and in the Argentine Republic.^ According to an April 25, 2008 report by the Drug War Chronicle , "A federal court in the Argentine capital of Buenos Aires [...
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Relatively weak controls at the port of Montevideo contrast with the enhanced container security initiatives at other ports in the region such as Santos, Brazil and Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo lines now penetrate the highlands of Minas Geraes, while froi.i Buenos Aires they cover the most productive portions of the Argentine Republic, and bring some portions of the interiors of these countries into close communication with all parts of the world.^ Rio de Janeiro to Santiago .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Rio de Janeiro, Ushuaia & Quito .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Quito, Buenos Aires & Rio de Janeiro .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

In the meanwhile river and coastwise navigation has greatly developed.
Miles of Railway.
Colombia.
411
Ecuador .
125
Paraguay
156
Peru
1,146
Uruguay .
1,210
Venezuela
529
.The railway mileage of the various countries was approximately as follows in 1906: - Miles of Railway. Argentine Republic 11,460 Bolivia 700 Brazil ..^ Brazil is a major drug transit country for cocaine from Bolivia that is almost exclusively destined for the domestic Brazilian market.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Uruguay is not a major narcotics producing or transit country, but it continues to be attractive to drug traffickers from Colombia, Bolivia, Paraguay, Brazil and Mexico as a transit point.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

10,408 Chile 2,800 xxv. .16 a BIBLIOGRAPHY. - Anonymous, The History of South America from its Discovery to the Present Time ... By an American.^ The South American heroin is brought in onboard commercial flights by couriers who carry about a pound to 2 pounds at a time.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Yet critics say that the Bush administration has presented its 2004 estimates as irrefutable evidence that its anti-drug strategy in South America has traffickers on the run.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.Translated from the Spanish by Adnah D. Jones (London, 1899); A. H. Keane, Central and South America, i.^ Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America .
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America .
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ In South America, coca is viewed as a central crop to many farming families survival.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

611, ill.; ii. 410-478 (London, 1901), vol. ii. relates chiefly to .Central America, but Trinidad and the Guianas are included in this volume); Hugh Robert Mill, The International Geography, " South America," pp.^ Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America .
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America .
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ In South America, coca is viewed as a central crop to many farming families survival.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

813-888 (New York, 1900); E. Reclus, Nouvelle geographic universelle. Amerique du Sud. (Paris, 1893), a monumental work; Wilhelm Sievers, Slid and Mittelamerika, 2te Aufl. (Leipzig and Vienna, 1903), this work contains a valuable bibliography at the end of the volume; Robert Grant Watson, Spanish and Portuguese South America during the Colonial Period (London, 1884). Travels. - .Frank G. Carpenter, South America; Social, Industrial and Political (New York, 1900); Francis de Castelnau, Expedition dans les parties centrales de l'Amerique du Sud, de Rio de Janeiro å Lima, et de Lima au Pard (1843-1841); Histoire du voyage (Paris, 1850-1851); G. Earl Church, "South America: An Outline of its Physical Geography," The Geographical Journal, xvii.^ Earlier news items in an archived CSDP newsblog on the Colombia & South America drug war .
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ In South America, coca is viewed as a central crop to many farming families survival.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America .
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

333-4 0 9 (London, 1901). Sir Martin Conway, Aconcagua and Tierra del Fuego (London, 1902). William E. Curtis, Between the Andes and the Ocean ... from the Isthmus of Panama to the Straits of Magellan (Chicago, 1900); Charles Darwin, Journal of Researches into the Natural History, &c. of the .Countries Visited during the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle (New York, 1878; other editions); A. Gallenga, South America (London, 1880; a good general description of conditions at the time).^ Tours of South America & other countries .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Officials from Attorney General John Ashcroft, to federal prosecutors in New York to authorities from the Department of Homeland Security hailed the extradition.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ From the intriguing Amazon jungle and the enigmatic Machu Picchu to the fascinating Galapagos Islands, your encounter with South America travel will be like no other.
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

William Hadfield, Brazil, the River Plate, and the Falkland Islands, &c. (London, 1854); Captain Basil Hall, Extracts from a Journal Written on the Coasts of Chile, Peru, and Mexico, in the years1820-1822 (Edinburgh, 1824); Alexander Humboldt and Aime Bonpland, Personal Narrative of Travels to the Equinoctial Regions of the New Continent During the Years 1799-1804 (3rd ed., London, 1819-1829); C. B. Mansfield, Paraguay, Brazil and the Plate. .Letters written in 1852-1853 (Cambridge, 1856); Edward D. Mathews, Up the Amazon and Madeira Rivers, Through Bolivia and Peru (London, 1819); Alcide d'Orbigny, Voyage dans l'Amerique meridionale (le Bresil, la Republique orientale de l'Uruguay &c.^ "According to the UN, Plan Colombia produced a modest displacement of coca to other countries: by 2003, cultivation was up slightly in Bolivia but stable in Peru.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ In Peru, the second-biggest producer, coca is spreading to new areas, such as San Gabn, close to the border with Bolivia, and Putumayo, across the river from Colombia.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ In addition, PDF copies of the 2002 survey of Peru and of the Bolivia 2002 coca survey of the Yungas of La Pazin can be downloaded directly by clicking the links.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

) execute .pendant les annees 1826-1833
(Paris, 1835-1849); James Orton, The Andes and the Amazon, or Across the Continent of South America (3rd ed., New York, 1876); Charles M. Pepper, Panama to Patagonia (Chicago, 1906); W. Reiss and A. Stiibel, Reisen in Sudamerika (Berlin, 1889); W. Smyth and F. Lowe, Narrative of a Journey from Lima to Pard, &c.^ South America Revealed & Amazon 2010 .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Glimpse of South America and Amazon 2010 .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ From the intriguing Amazon jungle and the enigmatic Machu Picchu to the fascinating Galapagos Islands, your encounter with South America travel will be like no other.
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

(London, 1836); G. Steinmann, "Sketch of the Geology of South America," in Amer. Nat. xxv. .855 (1891); J. J. von Tschudi, Reisen durch Sildamerika (Leipzig, 1866-1869); Frank Vincent, Around and About South America (5th ed., New York, 1895).^ Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America .
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America .
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Earlier news items in an archived CSDP newsblog on the Colombia & South America drug war .
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

See further AMAZON, ANDES, and the articles on the separate countries. (J. C. BR.)

1911encyclopedia is gay

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Contents

English

Proper noun

Singular
South America
Plural
-
  1. The continent that is the southern part of the Americas. It is east of the Pacific Ocean, west of the Atlantic Ocean, south of North America and north of Antarctica, and consists of the following countries:

Translations

See also

External links

Anagrams


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

South America
Area 17,840,000 km²
Population 371,000,000
Countries 12
Dependencies 3
Languages Portuguese,Spanish, French, Quechua, Aymara, Guaraní, Italian, English, German, Dutch, Japanese and many others
Time Zones UTC -2:00 (Brazil) to UTC -5:00 (Ecuador)
Largest Cities São Paulo
Buenos Aires
Bogotá
Lima
Rio de Janeiro
Santiago
Caracas
.South America is a continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the western hemisphere and mostly in the southern hemisphere.^ WARNING: South America is a unique Continent.
  • Travel to South America Destinations, Holidays, Tours, Business, 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC south-america.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ South America is the southern continent of America, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

^ Located in the Southern Hemisphere the continent is also considered as part of the Western Hemisphere.
  • South America Travel Information, Travel Guide -Beachcomber Pete Travel Adventures 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.beachcomberpete.com [Source type: News]

.It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean; North America and the Caribbean Sea lie to the northwest.^ It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of Mexico.
  • South America Travel Information - South America Hotels Reservation - Asia Travel 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC www.asiatravel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean.
  • South America Vacation Rentals | South America Hotels | South America Bed & Breakfasts 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC rentalo.com [Source type: General]
  • South America Vacation Rentals | South America Hotels | South America Bed & Breakfasts 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC rentalo.com [Source type: General]

^ The world’s fourth largest continent, it is bounded by the Caribbean Sea to the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the northeast, east, and southeast, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
  • South America -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.South America was named in 1507 by cartographs Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann after Amerigo Vespucci, who was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a New World unknown to Europeans.^ South America was named in 1580 by cartographers Martin Waldseemller and Matthias Ringmann after Amerigo Vespucci, who was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a New World unknown to Europeans.
  • South America Travel Information - South America Hotels Reservation - Asia Travel 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC www.asiatravel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Map of the world highlighting South America .
  • South american Stock Photo Images. 30588 South american royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 19 September 2009 7:39 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ News about Brazil/South America .
  • South America Flights, 4* & 5* Airpasses & Flights to South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: General]

.South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometres (6,890,000 sq mi), or almost 3.5% of the Earth's surface.^ South America has an area of 17,780,000 square kilometers (6,890,000 sq mi), or almost 3.5% of the Earth's surface.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The continent of South America is the world's fourth largest continent, with a total surface area of 17,820,900 square kilometres.
  • South America - An Overview 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.mbendi.com [Source type: News]

^ South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers (6,890,000 sq mi), or almost 3.5% of the Earth's surface.
  • South America Travel Information - South America Hotels Reservation - Asia Travel 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC www.asiatravel.com [Source type: Original source]
  • South America - tourist guide for holidays 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC www.mapsguides.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As of 2005, its population was estimated at more than 371,000,000. South America ranks fourth in area (after Asia, Africa, and North America) and fifth in population (after Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America).^ Privately held, with more than 1,300 employees, Altair has offices throughout North America, South America, Europe and Asia/Pacific.
  • South America | ajc.com 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC projects.ajc.com [Source type: General]

^ South America's population more than doubled between 1960 and 1990.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=x-so150900a&article_id=213&chapter_id=5&chapter_title=Geography&article_title=South_America 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Africa and South America firsthand.
  • Articles about South America :: American Way Magazine 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.americanwaymag.com [Source type: News]

Contents

Geography

.
South America comprises the major southern portion of the landmass generally referred to as the New World, the Western Hemisphere, the Americas, or simply America (which is sometimes considered a single continent and South America a subcontinent).
^ WARNING: South America is a unique Continent.
  • Travel to South America Destinations, Holidays, Tours, Business, 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC south-america.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ South America is the southern continent of America, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

^ Located in the Southern Hemisphere the continent is also considered as part of the Western Hemisphere.
  • South America Travel Information, Travel Guide -Beachcomber Pete Travel Adventures 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.beachcomberpete.com [Source type: News]

.The South American continent also includes various islands, many of which belong to countries on the continent.^ The countries that make up this continent include: .
  • Continents - South America - UEN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.uen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ South American continent?
  • Continents - South America - UEN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.uen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The South American continent also includes various islands, many of which belong to countries on the continent.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many of the islands of the Caribbean (or West Indies) – e.g., the Leeward and Lesser Antilles – sit atop the Caribbean Plate, a tectonic plate with a diffuse topography.^ Many of the islands of the Caribbean (or West Indies) – e.g., the Leeward and Lesser Antilles – sit atop the Caribbean Plate, a tectonic plate with a diffuse topography.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the islands of the Caribbean (or West Indies) e.g., the Leeward and Lesser Antilles sit atop the Caribbean Plate, a tectonic plate with a diffuse topography.
  • South America Travel Information - South America Hotels Reservation - Asia Travel 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC www.asiatravel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Off the coast of Venezuela are the states of the Caribbean island of Aruba, the Netherlands Antilles and Trinidad and Tobago.
  • South america countries images, travel deals and news 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.flyawaytrip.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The islands of Aruba, Barbados, Trinidad, and Tobago sit on the northerly South American continental shelf.^ South American couple sitting on chair .
  • South american Stock Photo Images. 30588 South american royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 19 September 2009 7:39 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ The islands of Aruba, Barbados, Trinidad, and Tobago sit on the northerly South American continental shelf.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • South America Travel Information - South America Hotels Reservation - Asia Travel 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC www.asiatravel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Off the coast of Venezuela are the states of the Caribbean island of Aruba, the Netherlands Antilles and Trinidad and Tobago.
  • South america countries images, travel deals and news 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.flyawaytrip.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Netherlands Antilles and the federal dependencies of Venezuela lie along the northerly South American.^ The Netherlands Antilles and the federal dependencies of Venezuela lie along the northerly South American shelf.
  • South America Travel Information - South America Hotels Reservation - Asia Travel 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC www.asiatravel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Netherlands Antilles and the federal dependencies of Venezuela lie along the northerly South American.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Luke's South American Diary : Luke's anecdotes of day-to-day life while bringing up a small child abroad was written while living in Venezuela and Colombia during 1994-9.
  • South America Travel Notes - Latin American Travel Guides @ TravelNotes.org 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.travelnotes.org [Source type: News]

.Geopolitically, the island states and overseas territories of the Caribbean are generally grouped as a part or subregion of North America.^ Geopolitically, the island states and overseas territories of the Caribbean are generally grouped as a part or subregion of North America.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • South America Travel Information - South America Hotels Reservation - Asia Travel 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC www.asiatravel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Off the coast of Venezuela are the states of the Caribbean island of Aruba, the Netherlands Antilles and Trinidad and Tobago.
  • South america countries images, travel deals and news 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.flyawaytrip.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For instance, you could name all the territorial possessions in the Caribbean, or the territories on the UN's official list of Non-self-governing territories, or the list of British overseas territories, and so forth.
  • Can you name the countries of South America? - sporcle 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.sporcle.com [Source type: General]

.[1][2][3] The South American nations that border the Caribbean Sea – including Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana – are also known as Caribbean South America.^ The South American nations that border the Caribbean Sea including Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana are also known as Caribbean South America.
  • South America Travel Information - South America Hotels Reservation - Asia Travel 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC www.asiatravel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Why is French Guiana not included?
  • Can you name the countries of South America? - sporcle 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.sporcle.com [Source type: General]

^ Identify the countries of South America (and their borders).

.Other islands are the Galápagos, Easter Island (in Oceania but belongs to Chile), Robinson Crusoe Island, Chiloé Island, Tierra del Fuego and the Falkland Islands.^ Toured from Tierra del Fuego to Ecuador.
  • South America Bicycle Touring Links - travelogue collection 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.transamazon.de [Source type: General]

^ It is in Argentina on the island of Tierra del Fuego.
  • South America - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The closest point to Antarctica, Argentina's Ushuaia has a population of just 40,000 and is on the island of Tierra del Fuego (the "Land of Fire" - a strange name because it is very, very cold down there).
  • South America - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

.
The largest country in South America by far, in both area and population, is Brazil, followed by Argentina.
^ Bolivia, with a population of 8.3 million, is the poorest of the countries in South America.
  • SOUTH AMERICA 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC maps.unomaha.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the 10 countries with the highest population density, which ones are in South America?
  • Continents - South America - UEN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.uen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brazil , the largest country with 50% of the population of the 13 countries, speaks Portuguese.
  • South America Travel Information, Travel Guide -Beachcomber Pete Travel Adventures 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.beachcomberpete.com [Source type: News]

.Regions in South America include the Andean States, the Guianas, the Southern Cone, and Brazil.^ Southern Seas, Southern Skies: Voyage from South America to South Africa $5000 OFF! departure on Feb 25, 10 .
  • South America Cruises - Cruise adventures of South America! Small expedition ships tour the shores of Brazil, Peru, Amazon, Chile & more. 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.alvoyages.com [Source type: General]

^ These things are greater in Latin America as a whole; especially in the Southern Cone area of South America - - more so than it is in any other section of the world.
  • Moving To South America ~ Living In South America ~ Real Estate In South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.escapeartist.com [Source type: News]

^ The rain forests in these regions are the largest forests in the world, covering much of equatorial South America, including the Brazilian coast and the lower slopes of the Andes.
  • South America - An Overview 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.mbendi.com [Source type: News]

Usage

.Among people in some English-speaking countries, there is a tendency to confuse the linguistic and geographic divisions of the Americas: thus, Mexico, some Central American and Caribbean territories, despite their location in North America, are mistakenly included in South America.^ Printout Label the countries of South America.

^ Identify the countries of South America (and their borders).

^ Tours of South America & other countries .
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

.The term Latin America is correctly used when referring to those territories whose official or national languages come from Latin (namely Portuguese, Spanish, and French).^ Although the primary language in South America is Spanish, the official language spoken in Brazil is Portuguese.
  • South America - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Spanish and Portuguese America in 1784.
  • South America -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Spanish and Portuguese are the two languages which are mainly spoken in South America , though Dutch, French, and English are other languages which also spoken.
  • South America - Blogs, Pictures, and more on Blogged 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.blogged.com [Source type: News]

.Conversely, Anglo-America is used to refer to areas whose major languages are Germanic (namely English) such as Guyana, Suriname, Belize, Jamaica, and much of the West Indies.^ South American Country Report Graphic Organizer Printout #2 This printout helps the student do a short report on a South American country, prompting the student to draw a map of the country, locate it on a map of South America, draw the country's flag, and write the country's continent, capital city, area, population, name of currency, language(s), climate, type of government, and major industries.

^ As used by Waldseemüller, America specifically referred to the lands discovered by Christopher Columbus, Vespucci, and other early explorers of the West Indies and the northeastern coast of the southern continent.
  • South America 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC www.sacayonda.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The official language of Brazil is Portuguese, English is the official language of Guyana, Dutch of Suriname, French of French Guiana and both Guaraní and Spanish of Paraguay.
  • South America - An Overview 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.mbendi.com [Source type: News]

Similarly, areas where English is prominent are considered part of the Anglosphere.

History

The rise of agriculture and domestication of animals

.South America is thought to have been first inhabited by people crossing the Bering Land Bridge, which is now the Bering Strait.^ South America--the land and its products .
  • South America--pictorial relief with merging colors - Copyright Info 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ South America: land of many faces .
  • South America--pictorial relief with merging colors - Copyright Info 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ I have grown up with the people of South America.

.Some archaeological finds do not fit this theory, and have led to an alternative theory Pre-Siberian American Aborigines.^ Some archaeological finds do not fit this theory, and have led to an alternative theory Pre-Siberian American Aborigines.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some archaeological finds do not fit this theory and have led to an alternative theory of Pre-Siberian American Aborigines.
  • South America Travel Information - South America Hotels Reservation - Asia Travel 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC www.asiatravel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Special thanks to my American friend who helped me proofread my writing.It’s taken me almost a year to find some pieces of this information.

.The first evidence for the existence of agricultural practices in South America date back to circa 6500 BCE, when potatoes, chillies and beans began to be cultivated for food in the highlands of the Amazon Basin.^ The first evidence for the existence of agricultural practices in South America dates back to circa 6500 BC, when potatoes, chillies and beans began to be cultivated for food in the highlands of the Amazon Basin.
  • South America Travel Information - South America Hotels Reservation - Asia Travel 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC www.asiatravel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first evidence for the existence of agricultural practices in South America date back to circa 6500 BCE, when potatoes, chillies and beans began to be cultivated for food in the highlands of the Amazon Basin.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beginning in the 1530s, the people and natural resources of South America were repeatedly exploited by foreign conquistadors, first from Spain and later from Portugal.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Pre-Columbian civilizations

.The rise of agriculture and the subsequent appearance of permanent human settlements allowed for the multiple and overlapping beginnings of civilizations in South America.^ The rise of agriculture and the subsequent appearance of permanent human settlements allowed for the multiple and overlapping beginnings of civilizations in South America.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ South America ) hunting ( in hunting (human predation): South America.
  • South America -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Beginning in the 1530s, the people and natural resources of South America were repeatedly exploited by foreign conquistadors, first from Spain and later from Portugal.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The earliest known South American civilization was at Norte Chico, on the central Peruvian coast.^ The earliest known South American civilization no was at Norte Chico, on the central Peruvian coast.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though Tiwanaku art was known all over the western coast of South America, it is not known if Tiwanaku was part of an Empire politically, or simply an independent cultural and commercial entity.
  • South America: The Original Cultures - Ancient Man and His First Civilizations 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC www.realhistoryww.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The South American nations that border the Caribbean Sea including Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana are also known as Caribbean South America.
  • South America Travel Information - South America Hotels Reservation - Asia Travel 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC www.asiatravel.com [Source type: Original source]

Chavín civilization spanned 900 BCE to 300 BCE.
.From their capital city of Cusco, the Inca civilization dominated the Andes region from 1438 to 1533.^ Andes region and culminated with the Inca empire.
  • South America -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Holding their capital at the great cougar-shaped city of Cusco, the Inca civilization dominated the Andes region from 1438 to 1533.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The famous Inca city of Machu Picchu was found high in those Andes in 1911.
  • South America Vacations, Tour Vacations, South America Vacation Packages 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.travelwizard.com [Source type: News]

.Known as Tawantinsuyu, or "the land of the four regions," in Quechua, the Inca culture was highly distinct and developed.^ Known as Tawantin suyu , or "the land of the four regions," in Quechua, the Inca civilization was highly distinct and developed.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cities were built with precise, unmatched stonework, constructed over many levels of mountain terrain.^ Cities were built with precise, unmatched stonework, constructed over many levels of mountain terrain.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Terrace farming was a useful form of agriculture.^ Terrace farming was a useful form of agriculture.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The project has also set up an integrated organic farm in the reserve buffer zone to provide alternatives to the slash-and-burn agriculture that was previously used.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And amazingly, they were all were terraced for farming use -- their edges looked pixelated from all the right-angles.
  • Summerized: South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.summerized.com [Source type: General]

.There is evidence of excellent metalwork in Inca civilization.^ Temperate climates also exist at mid-altitudes in the Andes, where there was quite extensive agriculture associated with the Inca civilization .
  • http://www.esd.ornl.gov/projects/qen/nercSOUTHAMERICA.html 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.esd.ornl.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Nevertheless, the Inca never discovered the wheel, and there is no evidence that they utilized written language, although they did use the quipu for record-keeping and communication.^ Furthermore, the Spaniards did impose their language to the degree they did their religion, although the Roman Catholic Church's evangelization in Quechua, Aymara and Guaraní actually contributed to the continuous use of these native languages albeit only in the oral form.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "But apparently this morning the Swiss said they had never asked the FBI to seize the servers, just that they were looking at the photos (of undercover police)," David Meieran of Indymedia Pittsburgh told IPS. "Ten to 15 days ago there was a communication between the FBI and Rackspace, although we were not informed of this.
  • SOUTH AMERICA: Indymedia Seizure Hits Two Nations - IPS ipsnews.net 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC ipsnews.net [Source type: News]

^ Ships There's no better way to discover South America than aboard Celebrity's consistently top-ranked fleet.
  • South America Cruises | Cruise Destinations | Celebrity Cruises 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.celebritycruises.com [Source type: General]

.The Muisca were the main indigenous civilization in what is now modern Colombia.^ Chavín civilization spanned 900 BCE to 300 BCE. The Muisca were the main indigenous civilization in what is now modern Colombia.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They established a confederation of many clans, or cacicazgos, that had a free trade network among themselves.^ They established a confederation of many clans, or cacicazgos, that had a free trade network among themselves.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Besides, how many “nuclear weapons” do they have themselves?

^ In 1994 the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was established between Canada, Mexico, and the United States.
  • South America - An Overview 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.mbendi.com [Source type: News]

.They were goldsmiths and farmers.^ They were goldsmiths and farmers.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other important Pre-Columbian cultures include: Valdivia (Ecuador), Moche (100 BCE - 700 CE, at the northern coast of Peru); Tiuahuanaco or Tiwanaku (100 BCE - 1200 BCE, Bolivia); Paracas - Nazca (400 BCE - 800 CE, Peru); Wari or Huari Empire (600 - 1200, Central and northern Peru); Chimu Empire (1300 - 1470, Peruvian northern coast); Chachapoyas; and the Aymaran kingdoms (1000 - 1450, Bolivia and southern Peru).^ Other important Pre-Columbian cultures include: Moche (100 BCE – 700 CE, at the northern coast of Peru); Tiuahuanaco or Tiwanaku (100 BCE – 1200 BCE, Bolivia); the Cañaris (in south central Ecuador), Paracas and Nazca (400 BCE – 800 CE, Peru); Wari or Huari Empire (600 – 1200, Central and northern Peru); Chimu Empire (1300 – 1470, Peruvian northern coast); Chachapoyas; and the Aymaran kingdoms (1000 – 1450, Bolivia and southern Peru).
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The mountainous regions of South America include Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.
  • SOUTH AMERICA 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC maps.unomaha.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We provide volunteer projects throughout Central and South America including Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

European colonization

Map of South America in 1750 by Robert de Vaugondy.
.In 1494, Portugal and Spain, the two great maritime powers of that time, on the expectation of new lands being discovered in the west, signed the Treaty of Tordesillas, by which they agreed that all the land outside Europe should be an exclusive duopoly between the two countries.^ In 1494, Portugal and Spain, the two great maritime powers of that time, on the expectation of new lands being discovered in the west, signed the Treaty of Tordesillas, by which they agreed that all the land outside Europe should be an exclusive duopoly between the two countries.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The name Ciudad Perdida really is fitting as Colombia’s “lost city” went centuries without being discovered by the outside world.
  • South America Travel Guide - Plan your South America vacation. South America flights, tours & hotel reviews 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.vivatravelguides.com [Source type: General]

^ We go through Chilean customs and immigration by horse and, once the paperwork is completed, ride between the two borders – ‘no man’s land’!
  • Horse Riding Holiday | Horseback Riding Vacations Chile + Argentina 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.rideandes.com [Source type: General]

.The Treaty established an imaginary line along a north-south meridian 370 leagues west of Cape Verde Islands, roughly 46° 37' W. In terms of the treaty, all land to the west of the line (which is now known to comprehend most of the South American soil), would belong to Spain, and all land to the east, to Portugal.^ The Treaty established an imaginary line along a north-south meridian 370 leagues west of Cape Verde Islands, roughly 46° 37' W. In terms of the treaty, all land to the west of the line known to comprehend most of the South American soil), would belong to Spain, and all land to the east, to Portugal.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That was in the antediluvian days of South America when all the land belonged to the government.

^ In 1494, Portugal and Spain, the two great maritime powers of that time, on the expectation of new lands being discovered in the west, signed the Treaty of Tordesillas, by which they agreed that all the land outside Europe should be an exclusive duopoly between the two countries.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As accurate measurements of longitude were impossible at that time, the line was not strictly enforced, resulting in a Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian.^ As accurate measurements of longitude were impossible at that time, the line was not strictly enforced, resulting in a Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And the Portuguese Prince-Regent (next in line to become king of Portugal) Pedro I became Brazil's Emperor.
  • Wikijunior:South America/Brazil - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Beginning in the 1530s, the people and natural resources of South America were repeatedly exploited by foreign conquistadors, first from Spain and later from Portugal.^ Beginning in the 1530s, the people and natural resources of South America were repeatedly exploited by foreign conquistadors, first from Spain and later from Portugal.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ South America has diverse mineral resources, many of which have not been extensively exploited.
  • SOUTH AMERICA, 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=x-so150900a&article_id=213&chapter_id=5&chapter_title=Geography&article_title=South_America 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ South America, natural .
  • South America--pictorial relief with merging colors - Copyright Info 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.These competing colonial nations claimed the land and resources as their own and divided it into colonies.^ These competing colonial nations claimed the land and resources as their own and divided it into colonies.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These efforts allow citizens to exercise their constitutional right to own land and increase legal security in places where the state has been absent.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Divide class into pairs or let students choose their own partners.

.European infectious diseases (smallpox, influenza, measles, and typhus) to which the native populations had no immune resistance, and systems of forced labor, such as the haciendas and mining industry's mita, decimated the native population under Spanish control.^ European infectious diseases (smallpox, influenza, measles, and typhus) to which the native populations had no immune resistance, and systems of forced labor, such as the haciendas and mining industry's mita, decimated the native population under Spanish control.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mestizos and the Indian natives were often forced to pay extraordinary taxes to the Spanish crown and were punished more harshly for disobeying the law.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of the Incas were killed through direct confrontation with the Europeans while most succumb to European diseases for which the Incas had no natural immunity.
  • SOUTH AMERICA 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC maps.unomaha.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After this, African slaves, who had developed immunities to these diseases, were quickly brought in to replace them.^ To these races were added Africans, for many years imported as slaves, especially into Portuguese territory.

^ Many African slaves were brought to Brazil to work the fields because sugar cane is a labor-intensive crop.
  • SOUTH AMERICA 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC maps.unomaha.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Africans were first brought in as slaves but when slavery was abolished in the 1800s, Asians were brought in as indentured servants.
  • SOUTH AMERICA 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC maps.unomaha.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Spaniards were committed to converting their native subjects to Christianity, and were quick to purge any native cultural practices that hindered this end.^ The Spaniards were committed to convert their native subjects to Christianity, and were quick to purge any native cultural practices that hindered this end.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, most initial attempts at this were only partially successful, as native groups simply blended Catholicism with traditional idolatry and their polytheistic beliefs.^ However, most initial attempts at this were only partially successful, as native groups simply blended Catholicism with traditional idolatry and their polytheistic beliefs.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bolivia is also the most indigenous country on the continent, with more than 50% of the population maintaining traditional values and beliefs.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ However, in some instances when the exact people group is not identified Joshua Project has made educated attempts at matching.
  • Joshua Project - Countries and Ethnic People Groups of South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.joshuaproject.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Furthermore, the Spaniards did impose their language to the degree they did their religion, although the Roman Catholic Church's evangelization in Quechua, Aymara and Guaraní actually contributed to the continuous use of these native languages albeit only in the oral form.^ Furthermore, the Spaniards did impose their language to the degree they did their religion, although the Roman Catholic Church's evangelization in Quechua, Aymara and Guaraní actually contributed to the continuous use of these native languages albeit only in the oral form.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brazil's Indians Offended by Pope Comments Washington Post Reuters Monday, May 14, 2007; 3:15 PM BRASILIA - Outraged Indian leaders in Brazil said on Monday they were offended by Pope Benedict's "arrogant and disrespectful" comments that the Roman Catholic Church had purified them and a revival of their religions would be a backward step.
  • Indigenous Issues in South America - First Voices Indigenous Radio with Tiokasin Ghosthorse in New York City live radio broadcast on WBAI 99.5 FM every Thursday 10am EST 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.firstvoicesindigenousradio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are the last survivors: all that's left of a once-vibrant civilisation which created its own religion and language, and gave special names to eve...

.Eventually the natives and the Spaniards interbred, forming a mestizo class.^ Eventually the natives and the Spaniards interbred, forming a mestizo class.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Essentially all of the mestizos of the Andean region were offspring of an amerindian mothers and Spanish fathers.^ Essentially all of the mestizos of the Andean region were offspring of an amerindian mothers and Spanish fathers.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mestizos and the Indian natives were often forced to pay extraordinary taxes to the Spanish government and were punished harshly for disobeying their laws.^ In 2009, these images once again provided an extraordinary view of the powerful forces of nature, of the widening footprint of human civilization, and of the point where they often meet.
  • Yale Environment 360: Region 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC e360.yale.edu [Source type: News]

^ This includes agreements related to the 1991 Nilo Massacre of 20 Nasa Indians, where government forces were implicated in the attack.
  • Indigenous Issues in South America - First Voices Indigenous Radio with Tiokasin Ghosthorse in New York City live radio broadcast on WBAI 99.5 FM every Thursday 10am EST 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.firstvoicesindigenousradio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many native artworks were considered pagan idols and destroyed by Spanish explorers.^ Many native artworks were considered pagan idols and destroyed by Spanish explorers, this included many gold and silver sculptures and other artifacts found in South America, which were melted down before their transport to Spain or Portugal.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This included the many gold and silver sculptures and artifacts found in South America, which were melted down before their transport to Spain or Portugal.^ Many native artworks were considered pagan idols and destroyed by Spanish explorers, this included many gold and silver sculptures and other artifacts found in South America, which were melted down before their transport to Spain or Portugal.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where is tin found in South America?
  • South America Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about South America 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Down across the South America .

Independence

.The Spanish colonies won their independence between 1804 and 1824 in the South American Wars of Independence.^ Spain and Portugal maintained their colonies in South America until the first quarter of the 19th cent., when successful revolutions resulted in the creation of independent states.
  • South America Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about South America 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The next great victory of the Wars of Independence was won in Colombia.
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^ At the end of the Wars of Independence the sovereign Spanish states in South America were Great Colombia, Peru, Chile, the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (later Argentina), Paraguay, and Bolivia.
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.Simón Bolívar of Venezuela and José de San Martín of Argentina led the independence struggle.^ Among the outstanding leaders of the fight for independence were the Venezuelans Simón Bolívar and Francisco de Miranda and the Argentinian José de San Martín.
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^ San Martín defeated a Spanish army at Chacabuco, and on the same day the independence of Chile was declared.
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^ Argentina - Chile 2004 Trip Piergiorgio Bertoli, Italy: This page reports on a 5-week bycicle trip started in Santiago de Chile and finished in San Pedro de Atacama, Chile.
  • South America Bicycle Touring Links - travelogue collection 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.transamazon.de [Source type: General]

.Bolívar led a great army southward while San Martín led an army across the Andes Mountains, meeting up with General Bernardo O'Higgins in Chile, and marched northward.^ Iron-ore deposits are plentiful in the Guiana and Brazilian highlands, and copper is abundant in the central Andes mountain region of Chile and Peru.
  • South America Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about South America 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the more adventurous of holidaymakers, take a trip to the spectacular Andes mountain range which gloriously spirals its way through Chile up to Venezuela.
  • South America Vacation Rentals & Holiday Homes Throughout South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.vacationrentalpeople.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Along the Pacific coast, vegetation grades northward from forest through open woodland, to shrubs and grass in central Chile, and eventually to the scrub and desert vegetation that prevails into N Peru and up to the mountain flanks.
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.The two armies finally met in Guayaquil, Ecuador, where they cornered the royal army of Spain and forced its surrender.^ The two armies finally met in Guayaquil, Ecuador, where they cornered the Royal Army of the Spanish Crown and forced its surrender.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the last Royalist forces were not expelled from Peru until January 1826, the Battle of Ayacucho was the final major engagement in the winning of freedom from Spain.
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.In Brazil, a Portuguese colony, Dom Pedro I (also Pedro IV of Portugal), son of the Portuguese king Dom João VI, proclaimed the country's independence in 1822 and became Brazil's first Emperor.^ And the Portuguese Prince-Regent (next in line to become king of Portugal) Pedro I became Brazil's Emperor.
  • Wikijunior:South America/Brazil - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Brazil had achieved independence from Portugal on Oct.
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^ In 1822, Brazil declared its independence from Portugal, becoming the Empire of Brazil.
  • Wikijunior:South America/Brazil - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

This was peacefully accepted by the crown in Portugal. .Although Bolivar attempted to keep the Spanish-speaking parts of the continent politically unified, they rapidly became independent of one another as well, and several further wars were fought, such as the War of the Triple Alliance and the War of the Pacific.^ Although Bolivar attempted to unify politically the Spanish-speaking parts of the continent, they rapidly became independent states without political connections between them, despite some later attempts such as the Peruvian-Bolivian Confederation.
  • South America Guide: List of Things to Do in South America - USA - Hotels in South America, Trips, Destinations and Reviews - TripWiser: Social Trip Planner for Family Trips and Road Trips 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tripwiser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is one of the four non-Spanish-speaking territories on the continent.
  • Moving To South America ~ Living In South America ~ Real Estate In South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.escapeartist.com [Source type: News]

^ Colonized largely by the Spanish in the 16th century (although the British, Dutch, and Portuguese were particularly active in the north-east), much of the continent remained part of Spain's overseas empire until liberated under the leadership of Bolivar and San Martin in the 1820s.
  • South America Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about South America 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A few countries did not gain independence until the 20th century:
.French Guiana remains part of France as of 2007, and hosts the European Space Agency's principal spaceport, the Guiana Space Center.^ It is considered to be an integral part of France and serves as a principal European spaceport.
  • SOUTH AMERICA 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC maps.unomaha.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ French Guiana is an overseas department of France.
  • South America Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about South America 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ French Guiana has strong ties to the Europe Union through the extensive facilities for the European space program.
  • SOUTH AMERICA 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC maps.unomaha.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Territories

.The countries in this table are categorised according to the scheme for geographic regions and subregions used by the United Nations, and data included are per sources in cross-referenced articles.^ As the article states, "Speaking to reporters in Bolivia on Friday [July 17], the populist leader characterized the report as a political tool used by the United States to besmirch his country.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ For lists of species recorded from each country and territory (using SACC classification and criteria) within the SACC region , including downloadable EXCEL file, click SACC Country Lists .
  • Classification of birds of South America Part 01 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.museum.lsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ One of the principal concerns raised by regional governments after news was leaked of the pending agreement had been the possibility of the bases’ use for aggressions against neighboring countries.

.Where they differ, provisos are clearly indicated.^ Postage: is FREE for most UK Orders (some particularly heavy low profit items are excepted - this is clearly indicated for those items - they are mainly books).

SACN member states.
Name of territory,
with flag
Area
Population
(1 July 2005 est.)
Population density
per km² (per sq mi)
Capital
Template:Country data Argentina Argentina 2,766,890 km² (1,068,302 sq mi)  39,537,943 14.3/km² (37/sq mi) Buenos Aires
Template:Country data Bolivia Bolivia 1,098,580 km² (424,164 sq mi)   8,857,870 8.1/km² (21/sq mi) La Paz, Sucre[4]
Template:Country data Brazil Brazil 8,514,877 km² (3,287,612 sq mi) 187,550,726 22.0/km² (57/sq mi) Brasília
Template:Country data Chile Chile[5]   756,950 km² (292,260 sq mi)  15,980,912 21.1/km² (54.6/sq mi) Santiago
Template:Country data Colombia Colombia 1,138,910 km² (439,736 sq mi)  42,954,279 37.7/km² (97.6/sq mi) Bogotá
Template:Country data Ecuador Ecuador   283,560 km² (109,483 sq mi)  13,363,593 47.1/km² (122/sq mi) Quito
Template:Country data Falkland Islands Falkland Islands (UK)[6]    12,173 km² (4,700 sq mi)       2,967 0.24/km² (0.6/sq mi) Stanley
Template:Country data French Guiana French Guiana (France)    91,000 km² (35,135 sq mi)     195,506 2.1/km² (5.4/sq mi) Cayenne
Template:Country data Guyana Guyana   214,970 km² (83,000 sq mi)     765,283 3.6/km² (9.3/sq mi) Georgetown
Template:Country data Paraguay Paraguay   406,750 km² (157,047 sq mi)   6,347,884 15.6/km² (40.4/sq mi) Asunción
Template:Country data Peru Peru 1,285,220 km² (496,226 sq mi)  27,925,628 21.7/km² (56.2/sq mi) Lima
Template:Country data South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia and
South Sandwich Islands (UK)[7]
    3,093 km² (1,194 sq mi)           0a 0/km² (0/sq mi) Grytviken
Template:Country data Suriname Suriname   163,270 km² (63,039 sq mi)     438,144 2.7/km² (7/sq mi) Paramaribo
Template:Country data Uruguay Uruguay   176,220 km² (68,039 sq mi)   3,415,920 19.4/km² (50.2/sq mi) Montevideo
Template:Country data Venezuela Venezuela   912,050 km² (352,144 sq mi)  25,375,281 27.8/km² (72/sq mi) Caracas
Central America[8]:
Template:Country data Panama Panama[9] 25,347 km² (9,787 sq mi) 540,433 21.3/km² (55.2/sq mi) Panama City
Total 17,846,948 km² (6,890,745 sq mi) 371,814,437 20.8/km² (53.9/sq mi)

Culture and language

.Roman Catholicism is the dominant religion of the region as a whole; however Protestantism is growing steadily.^ Roman Catholicism was the sole recognized religion in the colonies, but ecclesiastical policy was determined and controlled by the Crown.
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.Guyana and Suriname have significant Hindu, and Muslim communities.^ Hindus, Muslims, and Buddhists are concentrated in Guyana and Suriname.
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^ Guyana and Suriname are members of the Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM).
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.Jewish communities are found across South America; the largest are in São Paulo, Brazil and Buenos Aires, Argentina.^ Argentina and Brazil are the two biggest countries in South America.
  • South America - Hotels, Flights, Vacations in South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC travel.ticketcomps.com [Source type: General]

^ News about Brazil/South America .
  • South America Flights, 4* & 5* Airpasses & Flights to South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: General]

^ He founded a settlement at Buenos Aires in 1536.
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.There is also a significant community in Montevideo, Uruguay.^ There are few operational trains in Uruguay, and a suburban service has restarted in Montevideo.
  • How to travel by train in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

There are significant numbers of Eastern Orthodox churches founded by immigrants from the Middle East.
.Spanish is the most widespread language of the continent, as Spanish is the official language of most South American nations.^ Spanish is the official language of 9 of the 13 political entities on the continent.
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^ Spanish is the official language of most countries on the continent.
  • SOUTH AMERICA, 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ South American continent.

.However, the majority of South Americans (51%) speak Portuguese, the official language of Brazil.^ Throughout Brazil, which covers little less than half of the entire continent, the language is Portuguese.

^ Spanish is the official language everywhere except in Brazil (Portuguese), French Guiana (French), Guyana (English), and Suriname (Dutch); some Indian languages are spoken.
  • South America -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ At the time of the discovery of the South American continent by Europeans, the races inhabiting it differed greatly among themselves in customs, languages and civilization.

.Dutch is the official language of Suriname; English the official language of Guyana; and French the official language of French Guiana.^ Spanish is the official language everywhere except in Brazil (Portuguese), French Guiana (French), Guyana (English), and Suriname (Dutch); some Indian languages are spoken.
  • South America -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Portuguese is the official language of Brazil; English of Guyana; Dutch of Suriname; and French of French Guiana.
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^ I found myself in a discussion about religion with two Israeli Jews, a French Catholic, a Dutch atheist, and an English Agnostic while sitting around the dinner table.

.Indigenous languages of South America include: Quechua (in Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador); Aymara (Bolivia, Chile and Peru, and Chile); Guaraní (in Paraguay and Bolivia); and Mapudungun (Chile and certain pockets of Argentina).^ The southern regions of South America consist of Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay.
  • SOUTH AMERICA 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC maps.unomaha.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They cycled from Arizona south to Mexico, Central America, then Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Cile and Argentina.
  • South America Bicycle Touring Links - travelogue collection 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.transamazon.de [Source type: General]

^ The mountainous regions of South America include Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.
  • SOUTH AMERICA 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC maps.unomaha.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some countries the continent's upper classes and well-educated people study English and French, and in areas with much tourist commerce English is readily spoken.^ English and environmental education, and much much more).
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Volunteers are needed in three areas: developing new designs and products; teaching English and environmental education; organic gardening and reforestation.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spanish is the official language everywhere except in Brazil (Portuguese), French Guiana (French), Guyana (English), and Suriname (Dutch); some Indian languages are spoken.
  • South America -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.There are small Spanish speaking areas of Southernmost Brazil, due to the proximity of Uruguay.^ There are about 80,000 Mennonites in Latin America, with the largest numbers in South America in Paraguay (15,000), Bolivia (8,000), and Brazil (6,000) and smaller numbers in Uruguay and Argentina.

^ The Sharanahua ("Good people") Indians live in the area of the upper reaches of the Río Purus, primarily in Peru, but there are some in Brazil as well.

^ National rail and highway networks are dense only in SE Brazil and in the Pampas of Argentina and, to a lesser extent, in the populous areas of Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, and Ecuador.
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.South Americans are culturally enriched by the historic connection with Europe, especially Spain, and the impact of mass culture from the United States of America.^ The present tectonic framework of South America consists of three fundamental units: the ancient cratons, the relatively recent Andean ranges, and a number of basins.
  • South America -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Comparable with Western Europe, in fact most of the rolling stock is imported from Spain, clean, modern, well maintained......and probably the only really good track in South America!
  • How to travel by train in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

^ During the recent times, majority of the countries of the continent have united to emerge as Union of South American Nations.

.South American nations have a rich variety of music.^ In 1960 six South American nations and Mexico signed a treaty setting up a Latin American Free Trade Area.
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^ Kidnappings and other violent crimes in the South American nation also have declined.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: News About the US Drug War in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Throughout South and Central America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Locals: Not as friendly as other South American nations .
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

.Some of the most famous genres include cumbia from Colombia, samba and bossa nova from Brazil, and tango from Argentina and Uruguay.^ Click on any of the following destinations to read content from this book online: Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Peru Venezuela .
  • South America :: Rough Guides Shop 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.roughguides.com [Source type: News]

^ More recent trade accords include the Andean Pact, which established (1988) a free trade area that includes Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela; and the Southern Common Market (Mercosur), which created a customs union (1995), that includes Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay.
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^ Most narcotics arrive by land routes from Peru and Bolivia, but some enter through Argentina.
  • South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also well known is the non-commercial folk genre Nueva Canción movement which was founded in Argentina and Chile and quickly spread to the rest of the Latin America.^ Make your reservations now to experience the best of Chile, Argentina and Brazil on Tauck's Essence of South America tour in 2010!
  • South America Tour and adventure including Chile, Argentina, and Brazil from Tauck 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tauck.com [Source type: General]
  • South America Tour and adventure including Chile, Argentina, and Brazil from Tauck 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC www.tauck.com [Source type: General]

^ The commercial relations of South America with the outside world are maintained by a large number of regular and well-equipped lines of steamers running between its ports and European ports.

^ The southern regions of South America consist of Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay.
  • SOUTH AMERICA 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC maps.unomaha.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.People on the Peruvian coast created the fine guitar and cajon duos or trios in the most mestizo (mixed) of South American rhythms such as the Zamacueca (from Lima), the Tondero (from Piura), the 19th century popular Creole Valse or Peruvian Valse and the soulful Arequipan Yaravi.^ The car let us off in the Recolta area where the 19th century Recolta Cemetery is a tourist attraction in itself and most of the wealthy folks are laid to rest.

^ South American Natives have used Suma for centuries to treat wounds, skin rashes, low energy and sexual disinterest.
  • herbal extracts from South American rainforest 19 September 2009 7:39 UTC www.naturesalternatives.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From latitude 29° 30' to 19° 30' the Serra do Mar makes this the most picturesque portion of the east coast of South America.

.In the late 20th century, Rock en español emerged by young hipsters influenced by British pop and American rock in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay.^ The Jewish population in the ten South American countries where they live was as follows in the late 1980s: Argentina, 228,000; Bolivia, 6,000; Brazil, 150,000; Chile, 17,000; Colombia, 7,000; Paraguay, 900; Peru, 5,000; Suriname, 350; Uruguay, 44,000; and Venezuela, 20,000.

^ Chile, Colombia, and Argentina showed impressive growth between 1990 and 1997, and millions of Brazilians emerged from poverty between 1994 and 1999.
  • SOUTH AMERICA, 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ National rail and highway networks are dense only in SE Brazil and in the Pampas of Argentina and, to a lesser extent, in the populous areas of Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, and Ecuador.
  • SOUTH AMERICA, 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=x-so150900a&article_id=213&chapter_id=5&chapter_title=Geography&article_title=South_America 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Brazil has a Portuguese-language pop rock industry as well a great variety of other music genres.^ Throughout Brazil, which covers little less than half of the entire continent, the language is Portuguese.

^ Spanish is the official language everywhere except in Brazil (Portuguese), French Guiana (French), Guyana (English), and Suriname (Dutch); some Indian languages are spoken.
  • South America -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In Brazil, the Portuguese are the predominant Iberian element, and the black and mulatto groups are more numerous than in any other South American country.
  • SOUTH AMERICA, 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=x-so150900a&article_id=213&chapter_id=5&chapter_title=Geography&article_title=South_America 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The literature of South America has attracted considerable critial and popular acclaim, especially with the Latin American Boom of the 1960s and 1970s, and the rise of authors such as Gabriel García Márquez and Mario Vargas Llosa.^ Popular South America destinations .
  • South America Adventure Trips - BootsnAll World Adventures 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC adventures.bootsnall.com [Source type: General]

^ Latin American literature, 848.
  • SOUTH AMERICA, 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With our South America cruise bargains, youll be left wondering how one region can contain such varied landscapes and cultures.
  • South America Cruises, South America Cruise Savings from Montrose Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.montrosetravel.com [Source type: News]

.Because of South America's broad ethnic mix, South American cuisine takes on African, American Indian, Asian and European influences.^ American Indian heritage regions - - - African heritage regions .
  • South America -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Four main ethnic groups have populated South America: Indians, who were the continent’s pre-Columbian inhabitants; Spanish and Portuguese who dominated the continent from the 16th to the early 19th century; Africans imported as slaves; and the postindependence immigrants from overseas, mostly Germans and southern Europeans but also Lebanese, South Asians, and Japanese.
  • South America -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Although South America's population has a diverse ethnic heritage, its principal elements are the indigenous Indians and the descendants of Spaniards, Portuguese, and African blacks, as well as people who combine two or more of these elements.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=x-so150900a&article_id=213&chapter_id=5&chapter_title=Geography&article_title=South_America 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Bahia, Brazil, is especially well-known for its West African-influenced cuisine. .Argentines, Chileans and Uruguayans regularly consume wine, while Argentina along with Paraguay, Uruguay and people in southern Chile and Brazil enjoy a sip of Mate a regional brewed herb cultivated for its drink.^ The southern regions of South America consist of Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay.
  • SOUTH AMERICA 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC maps.unomaha.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Jewish population in the ten South American countries where they live was as follows in the late 1980s: Argentina, 228,000; Bolivia, 6,000; Brazil, 150,000; Chile, 17,000; Colombia, 7,000; Paraguay, 900; Peru, 5,000; Suriname, 350; Uruguay, 44,000; and Venezuela, 20,000.

^ You may also click directly on the map (Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela, Chile and polar region text labels) to see all hotels of the selected area.
  • South America Hotels - South America Travel Guide, Maps, Informations - AsiaRooms.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pisco is a liquor distilled from grapevine produced in Peru and Chile, however, there is a recurring dispute between those countries regarding its origins.^ There are, however, a few islands that belong to European countries, such as Trinidad, Tobago and the Falkland Islands to Great Britain , and Curacao, Buen Ayre and Oruba to Holland .

^ Sorry, we are unable to offer air from countries other than the U.S. However, for those international customers who are able to arrange their own transportation to the tour origination city, we are able to offer the land portion of the package or tour, at the price quoted.
  • South America Tours, South American Tours, South America Travel, South America Vacations, South America Adventure Travel 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.tourvacationstogo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The word gringo originated in the conflict between Mexican and American soldiers in the border between the two countries and comes directly from English 'green go!'
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

Peruvian cuisine mixes elements from both Chinese, Japanese, Spanish, Inca and Amazonic food.

Demographics

.Descendents of Indigenous peoples, such as the Quechua and Aymara, make up the majority of the population in Peru and Bolivia, and are a significant element in most other former Spanish colonies.^ Although South America's population has a diverse ethnic heritage, its principal elements are the indigenous Indians and the descendants of Spaniards, Portuguese, and African blacks, as well as people who combine two or more of these elements.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=x-so150900a&article_id=213&chapter_id=5&chapter_title=Geography&article_title=South_America 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bolivia is also the most indigenous country on the continent, with more than 50% of the population maintaining traditional values and beliefs.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ Both Quechua and Aymara are officially recognized, along with Spanish, in Bolivia, while Spanish and Quechua are the official languages of Peru and Gauraní and Spanish have official status in Paraquay.
  • SOUTH AMERICA, 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Exceptions to this include Argentina and Uruguay. .At least three South American indigenous languages (Quechua in Peru and Bolivia, Aymara also in Bolivia, and Guarani in Paraguay) are recognized along with Spanish as national languages.^ Both Quechua and Aymara are officially recognized, along with Spanish, in Bolivia, while Spanish and Quechua are the official languages of Peru and Gauraní and Spanish have official status in Paraquay.
  • SOUTH AMERICA, 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We provide volunteer projects throughout Central and South America including Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru.
  • Volunteer Projects in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC volunteerlatinamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both Quechua and Aymara are officially recognized, along with Spanish, in those two countries, while Gauraní and Spanish are the official languages of Paraquay.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=x-so150900a&article_id=213&chapter_id=5&chapter_title=Geography&article_title=South_America 23 January 2010 1:47 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ethnic groups

Notable Europen descents of South America
  • Africans
  • Arabs
  • Chinese people
  • Dutch people
  • Germans
  • Italians
  • Japanese people
  • Koreans
  • Lithuanians
  • Poles
  • Portuguese people
  • Spaniards

Indigenous people

File:Emorales.jpg
Indigenous people of South America


  • Alacalufe
  • Atacameños
  • Aymara
  • Awá
  • Banawa
  • Caiapos
  • Chibcha
  • Cocama
  • Diaguitas
  • Chayahuita
  • Enxet
  • Guaraní
  • Jivaroan
  • Juris
  • Mapuche
  • Matsés
  • Mestizo
  • Pehuenche
  • Quechuas
  • Shipibo
  • Xucuru
  • Urarina
  • Yagua
  • Zaparos

References

Content notes

.
^  Continent Model:   In some parts of the world South America is viewed as a subcontinent of America[10] [11](a single continent in these areas), for example Latin America, Latin Europe, and Iran.^ Europe to South America by sea...
  • How to travel by train in Central & South America 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

^ Three of the world's 21 megacities are in South America: So Paulo, Buenos Aires and Rio de Janeiro (WRI, UNEP and UNDP 1994).
  • CPD: South America overview 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC botany.si.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are about 80,000 Mennonites in Latin America, with the largest numbers in South America in Paraguay (15,000), Bolivia (8,000), and Brazil (6,000) and smaller numbers in Uruguay and Argentina.

.In most of the countries with English as an official language, however, it is considered a continent.^ Spanish is the official language of most countries on the continent.
  • SOUTH AMERICA, 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bolivia is also the most indigenous country on the continent, with more than 50% of the population maintaining traditional values and beliefs.
  • South America - travel > Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, Ecuador 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC travelindependent.info [Source type: General]

^ Spanish is the language of the country from the eastern end of Venezuela through all the northern and western parts of the continent and over a large part of the Paraguay basin.

See Continent

Notes

  1. ^ Atlas National Geographic
  2. ^ Atlas National Geographic
  3. ^ Unstats Americas
  4. ^ La Paz is the administrative capital of Bolivia; Sucre is the judicial seat.
  5. ^ Includes Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean, a Chilean territory frequently reckoned in Oceania. Santiago is the administrative capital of Chile; Valparaíso is the site of legislative meetings.
  6. ^ Claimed by Argentina.
  7. ^ Also claimed by Argentina, the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands in the South Atlantic Ocean are commonly associated with Antarctica (due to proximity) and have no permanent population, only hosting a periodic contingent of about 100 researchers and visitors.</small>
  8. ^ Continental region as per UN categorisations/map; depending on definitions, Aruba, Netherlands Antilles, Panama, and Trinidad and Tobago have territory in one or both of South and North America.</small>
  9. ^ Panama is generally considered a transcontinental country in Central America (UN region) and South America; population and area figures are for South American portion only, east of the Panama Canal.</small>
  10. ^ South America Travel, Tour To South America Continent. Retrieved on 2007-05-19.
  11. ^ Ambassador Rubens A. Barbosa. MERCOSUL IN THE REGIONAL CONTEXT. Retrieved on 2007-05-19.

Sources

.
  • "South America". The Columbia Gazetteer of the World Online.^ Despite the fact that it has the largest GNP in South America of $8,030, Argentina still face numerous economic problems along with their influence on the outside world.
    • SOUTH AMERICA 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC maps.unomaha.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The commercial relations of South America with the outside world are maintained by a large number of regular and well-equipped lines of steamers running between its ports and European ports.

    ^ South America has an estimated population (2003) of 358 million, less than 6% of the world’s people.
    • SOUTH AMERICA, 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    2005. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • GeoHive: The population of continents, regions and countries

See also

Wikibooks' [[Wikipedia:wikibooks:|]]Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif has more about this subject:
Wikijunior South AmericaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
  • Americas (terminology)
  • History of the Americas
  • Flags of South America
  • Latin America
  • Latin American culture
  • Middle America

External links

News


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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 13, 2010

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