South West Africa: Wikis

  
  

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Suidwes-Afrika
Südwestafrika
South-West Africa
Mandate of South Africa

1915 — 1990
Flag (from 1928) Coat of arms
Location of South-West Africa
Capital Windhoek
Language(s) English, Afrikaans, German (1984-1990)
Political structure League of Nations Mandate
History
 - Established 1915
 - Treaty of Versailles 1919
 - Independence 21 March 1990
Currency South West African Pound (1920-1961)
South African Rand (1961-1993)
Namibian dollar 1993-present

South-West Africa (Afrikaans: Suidwes-Afrika; German: Südwestafrika) was the name of what is today the Republic of Namibia. The name has been given to several government entities in modern history, all of which were dependent areas connected to a colonial power (First the German Empire, then later the United Kingdom and South Africa).

Contents

German colony

As a German colony from 1884 it was known as German South-West Africa (Deutsch-Südwestafrika). Germany had a difficult time administering the territory, which, owing to the Germans' native policy, experienced many insurrections, especially those led by guerilla leader Jacob Morenga. The main port, Walvis Bay, and the Penguin islands had been annexed by Britain as part of the Cape Colony in 1878, and became part of the Union of South Africa in 1910.

During 1915 the region was taken from German control in the South-West Africa Campaign of World War I. After the war it was declared a League of Nations Mandate territory under the Treaty of Versailles, with South Africa responsible for the administration of South-West Africa, including Walvis Bay.

UN trust territory

The Mandate was supposed to become a United Nations Trust Territory when League of Nations Mandates were transferred to the United Nations following World War II. The Union of South Africa objected to South-West Africa coming under UN control and refused to allow the territory's transition to independence, regarding it as a fifth province (even though it was never actually incorporated into South Africa).[1]

International law

These South African actions gave rise to several rulings at the International Court of Justice, which in 1950 ruled that South Africa was not obliged to convert South-West Africa into a UN trust territory, but was still bound by the League of Nations Mandate with the United Nations General Assembly assuming the supervisory role. The ICJ also clarified that the General Assembly was empowered to receive petitions from the inhabitants of South-West Africa and to call for reports from the mandatory nation, South Africa.[2] The General Assembly constituted the Committee on South-West Africa to perform the supervisory functions.[3] In another advisory opinion issued in 1955, the Court further ruled that the General Assembly was not required to follow League of Nations voting procedures in determining questions concerning South-West Africa.[4] In 1956, the Court further ruled that the Committee had the power to grant hearings to petitioners from the mandated territory.[5] In 1960, Ethiopia and Liberia filed a case in the International Court of Justice against South Africa alleging that South Africa had not fulfilled its mandatory duties. This case did not succeed, with the Court ruling in 1966 that they were not the proper parties to bring the case.[6][7]

Mandate terminated

In 1966, the General Assembly passed resolution 2145 (XXI) which declared the Mandate terminated and that South Africa had no further right to administer South-West Africa. In 1971, acting on a request for advisory opinion from the United Nations Security Council, the ICJ ruled that the continued presence of South Africa in Namibia was illegal and that South Africa was under an obligation to withdraw from Namibia immediately. It also ruled that all member states of the United Nations were under an obligation to recognize the invalidity of any act performed by South Africa on behalf of Namibia.[8]

South-West Africa became known internationally as Namibia when the UN General Assembly changed the territory's name by Resolution 2372 (XXII) of 12 June 1968.[9]

There was a protracted struggle between South Africa and forces fighting for independence, particularly after the formation of the South-West Africa People's Organisation in 1960.

The territory became the independent Republic of Namibia on 21 March 1990, with Walvis Bay only becoming part of Namibia in 1994.

Bantustans

The South African authorities established 10 bantustans in Namibia in the late 1960s and early 70s three of which were granted self-rule [10]. These bantustans were replaced with separate ethnicity based governments in 1980.

Map of the black homelands in Namibia as of 1978

The bantustans were:

See also

References


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

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Proper noun

Singular
South West Africa

Plural
-

South West Africa

  1. (historical) A former province of South Africa, which gained independence in 1990 and was renamed to Namibia.







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