Southern United States: Wikis

  
  
  

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

map of United States with southeastern states highlighted in shades of red
.
Modern definition The states in dark red are almost always included in modern day definitions of the South, while those in medium red are usually included.
^ Those who donate or join the Federation of States will receive Certificates of Appreciation which some day could have, at least, historical value.

^ United States ; in glassware: United States ) containers ( in industrial glass: Container making ) South Jersey glass ( in South Jersey glass ) graphic design ( in graphic design: The Industrial Revolution and design technology ) industrial design ( in industrial design: Modern design in the United States ) interior design .
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Of almost inexhaustible fertility and of immense area is the region included by the Prairie States.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some sources classify Maryland and Missouri as Southern, with Delaware only rarely grouped within the region.^ Southern Delaware and eastern Maryland.
  • Ethnologue report for United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Some do not consider Maryland despite the fact that many parts of the state especially Southern Maryland and the Eastern Shore are very Southern in history and culture.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still, our Southern civilization can be preserved only by safeguarding the unique ethnic and cultural core of each of these ethnic groups from which Southern culture sprang.

.West Virginia is often considered Southern, because it was once part of Virginia.^ Some do not consider Maryland despite the fact that many parts of the state especially Southern Maryland and the Eastern Shore are very Southern in history and culture.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, West Virginia broke away from Virginia during the Civil War and remained loyal to the Union; thus, purists do not consider West Virginia to be part of the South.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charleston has a statue of Stonewall Jackson because it is the capital of West Virginia and Stonewall Jackson wasfrom...WEST VIRGINIA. Well technically it was Clarksburg Virginia at the time but I guess he is still considered a native son.
  • West Virginia...Southern or Northern? (Wheeling, Morgantown: sales, taxes, live in) - (WV) - Page 5 - City-Data Forum 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: Original source]

[1][2][3]
map of United States with southeastern states highlighted in shades of red
.
Historic Southern United States.
^ The United States has options to free itself from strategic dependence on South Africa thereby allowing more flexibility in foreign policy matters in southern Africa.
  • United States Foreign Policy In Southern Africa--A Closer Look 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Southern United States .
  • Amazon.com: travel the Southern United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ This is the militia we can have; the State National Guard units of ten or fifteen Southern States who re-affirm their Statehood in the Confederate States of America.

.The states in red were in the Confederacy and have historically been regarded as forming "the South."^ If Congress attempted to reduce the state to obedience, South Carolina would regard her connexion with the Union as dissolved.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Rather, we believe the United States in general and the South in particular are defined by their historically Western and Biblical-Christian cultural core.

^ Southern United States The states shown in dark red are usually included in the South, while all or portions of the striped states may or may not be considered part of the Southern United States.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Those in stripes were considered "Border" states, and gave varying degrees of support to the Southern cause although they remained in the Union.^ Many do not consider Delaware to be a Southern state.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although these elements are not entirely independent of one another, each produces on a map patterns that are so profoundly different that essentially they remain two separate geographies.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Some do not consider Maryland despite the fact that many parts of the state especially Southern Maryland and the Eastern Shore are very Southern in history and culture.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(This image depicts the original, trans-Allegheny borders of Virginia, and so does not show West Virginia separately. .See image below for post-1863 Virginia and West Virginia borders.^ The new commonwealth, which was called West Virginia , was proclaimed a member of the Union, 20 June, 1863.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ West Virginia was the last slave state admitted to the Union, annexed in 1863.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As a final step before posting your comment, enter the letters and numbers you see in the image below.
  • Postwatch (Cameroon): The United States Government Stand on Southern Cameroons Declassified 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.postwatchmagazine.com [Source type: Original source]

) While Oklahoma was aligned with and controlled by the Confederacy, it is not shaded because at the time, the region was Indian Territory, and thus not a state.
map of the United States divided and separated into four major areas for taking of the census
The South is one of four Census Bureau Regions.
.The Southern United States—commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, Down South, or simply the South—constitutes a large distinctive region in the southeastern and south-central United States.^ The Southern United States or the South constitutes a distinctive region covering a large portion of the United States .
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The constitution differed but slightly from the Constitution of the United States.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ American literature › Southern States (16) .
  • Southern States | LibraryThing 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.librarything.com [Source type: Original source]

.Because of the region's unique cultural and historic heritage, including Native Americans, early European settlements of English, Irish, Scottish, French, and German heritage,[4] importation of hundreds of thousands of enslaved Africans, growth of a large proportion of African Americans in the population, reliance on slave labor, and legacy of the Confederacy after the American Civil War, the South developed its own customs, literature, musical styles, and varied cuisines that have profoundly shaped traditional American culture.^ Social developments - - - Birth of American Culture .
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The culture of the South has its origins with the settlement of the region by British colonists .
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Due to the region's unique cultural and historic heritage, including the doctrine of states' rights , the institution of slavery and the legacy of the American Civil War , the South has developed its own customs, literature, musical styles (such as country music and jazz , rock 'n' roll and blues ), and cuisine .
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the last few decades, the South has become more industrialized and urban, attracting numerous national and international migrants.^ The International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers & Associations is a non-profit, non-governmental Organization (NGO) representing national industry associations and companies from both developed and developing countries.
  • allAfrica.com: Other Sources 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC allafrica.com [Source type: News]

^ National press attention has praised an aggressive industrial development program for attracting new industries to the state.
  • Article - Southern Changes Digital Archive 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC beck.library.emory.edu [Source type: News]

^ The opening of Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport qv in 1974 attracted numerous corporate headquarters to Dallas and consolidating the city's reputation as a national financial and business center.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - DALLAS, TX 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The American South is among the fastest-growing areas in the United States.^ Britain's American colonies broke with the mother country in 1776 and were recognized as the new nation of the United States of America following the Treaty of Paris in 1783.
  • Flag Counter » United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC flagcounter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With these statistics, it is obvious to see that South Africa is strategic to the United States economy and national security.
  • United States Foreign Policy In Southern Africa--A Closer Look 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We have restored part of the national government of the Confederate States of America and we are growing in numbers of registered citizens across the South and in our claimed territories as well.

.Despite rapid economic growth, the South still has persistent poverty, and every Southern state with the exceptions of Virginia and Florida has a higher poverty rate than the American average.^ Southern States › Economic policy (2 works) .
  • Southern States | LibraryThing 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.librarything.com [Source type: Original source]

^ American literature › Southern States (16) .
  • Southern States | LibraryThing 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.librarything.com [Source type: Original source]

^ African Americans › Southern States › Economic conditions (5) .
  • Southern States | LibraryThing 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.librarything.com [Source type: Original source]

[5] Poverty is especially prevalent in rural areas.

Contents

Geography

.As defined by the United States Census Bureau,[6] the Southern region of the United States includes sixteen states.^ United States Forest Regions , 1901 Forest regions in the United States.
  • Complete Maps of United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC etc.usf.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United States (2000 census), decreasing.
  • Ethnologue report for United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ United States (1990 census), decreasing.
  • Ethnologue report for United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

.Thirty-six percent of all U.S. residents lived in the South, the nation's most populous region.^ Having annexed the neighboring town of East Dallas on January 1, 1890, Dallas ranked as the most populous city in Texas in 1890, with 38,067 residents.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - DALLAS, TX 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While our attention is drawn to another region of the world, we must keep in mind that we live in this hemisphere, and its continued progress as a region of democracy and prosperity is paramount to our national security.
  • Testimony of General James T. Hill, Commander, United States Southern Command, hearing of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee: "Challenges for U.S. Policy Toward Colombia:Is Plan Colombia Working?" October 29, 2003 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC ciponline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the six million white people living in the south, it is probable that only three hundred and fifty thousand were slaveholders.
  • United States of America@Everything2.com 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

The Census Bureau defined three smaller units, or divisions:
Other terms related to the South include:
.
  • The Old South: usually the original Southern colonies: Virginia, Delaware, Maryland, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina.^ North Carolina - South Carolina .
    • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Green, "Democracy in the Old South," Journal of Southern History , XII (Feb., 1946), 3-23.

    ^ The historical path taken by the Old South is only explained by the economic, demographic, political, and religious changes in the North in the 19th century.
    • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

    [7]
  • .
  • The New South: usually including the South Atlantic States.
  • The Solid South: region controlled by the U.S. Democratic Party from 1877 to 1964. Includes at least all the 11 former Confederate States.
  • Southern Appalachia: mainly refers to areas situated in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, namely Eastern Kentucky, East Tennessee, Western North Carolina, Western Maryland, West Virginia, Southwest Virginia, North Georgia, and Northwestern South Carolina.
  • Southeastern United States: usually including the Carolinas, Virginia, Tennessee, Kentucky, West Virginia, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida
  • The Deep South: various definitions, usually including Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, and South Carolina.^ It was the main cash crop in North Carolina, Virginia, Kentucky and Maryland.
    • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ United States › Personal narratives, Confederate.
    • Southern States | LibraryThing 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.librarything.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Southern California presents a varied and somewhat unique region of the state.
    • California Indian History 10 September 2009 20:34 UTC ceres.ca.gov [Source type: Original source]

    .Occasionally, parts of adjoining states are included (sections of East Texas, delta areas of Arkansas and Tennessee, and parts of Florida such as the Panhandle and the north-central part of the state).
  • The Gulf South: various definitions, usually including Gulf coasts of Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas and Alabama.
  • The Upper South: Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Tennessee, and North Carolina.^ East central Alaska, upper Tanana River area.
    • Ethnologue report for United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Upper Michigan west to North Dakota.
    • Ethnologue report for United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Feb 1861 - 10 May 1865 Independence of 11 southern states ( Confederate States of America )(Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina Texas, Arkansas, North Carolina, Virginia, Tennessee, and parts of Missouri and Kentucky).

    [8]
  • .
  • Dixie: various definitions, but most commonly associated with the 11 states of the Old Confederacy.
  • The Mid-South: defined by the Census as the South Central United States; in another informal definition, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, and sometimes adjoining areas of other states.^ United States (2000 census), decreasing.
    • Ethnologue report for United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

    ^ United States (1990 census), decreasing.
    • Ethnologue report for United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

    ^ United States (2000 census), increasing.
    • Ethnologue report for United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

    [9][10][11][12]
  • .
  • Border South: Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware were states on the outer rim of the Confederacy that did not secede from the United States but did have significant numbers of residents who joined the Confederate armed forces.^ In all, the seceding states numbered eleven.
    • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ United States › Personal narratives, Confederate.
    • Southern States | LibraryThing 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.librarything.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Except for Dr. Endeley and Premier Foncha, who have attended United Nations Sessions, no leading political figure is known to have traveled or studied in the United States.
    • Postwatch (Cameroon): The United States Government Stand on Southern Cameroons Declassified 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.postwatchmagazine.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Kentucky and Missouri had such important pro-Confederate regions that they were represented by stars on the Confederate battle flag.^ Note : The states making up the Confederate States of America previously seceded from the United States; the secession of Missouri and Kentucky affected only geographic parts of those states.

    ^ Southern Illinois , notably ( Little Egypt and Buda ), forms a coherent cultural region with the Missouri Bootheel , east Missouri , and Kentucky 's Purchase .
    • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [citation needed] West Virginia was formed by western Virginians who opposed the secession of their state from the Union.
.The popular definition of the "South" is more informal and is generally associated with those states that seceded during the Civil War to form the Confederate States of America.^ The border states of the Civil War constitute a major definitional problem for the South.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They formed the Confederate States of America , and in 1861 were joined by four more states.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Confederate States of America (1860-1865) .

.Those states share commonalities of history and culture that carry on to the present day.^ Some do not consider Maryland despite the fact that many parts of the state especially Southern Maryland and the Eastern Shore are very Southern in history and culture.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This does not mean that it is Southern in culture, but that it shares more in common with these border regions than with the Upper Midwest .
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United States ) history ( in broadcasting: The United States ) newscasts ( in newscast ) television and radio ( in broadcasting: The art of radio ) Voice of America ( in Voice of America ) censorship ( in censorship: Censorship in the United States ) influence on Canadian culture ( in Canada: Cultural life ) magazines .
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Biologically, the South is a vast, diverse region, having numerous climatic zones, including temperate, sub-tropical, tropical, and arid – though the South is generally regarded as being hot and humid, with long summers and short mild winters, being significantly warmer than the regions to its north (and generally exhibiting the nation's highest heat indices).^ Cabbage palmetto is desirable for horticulture in regions with zone 8 or warmer winters.
  • State Trees 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.usna.usda.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Biologically, the South is a vast, diverse region, having numerous climatic zones ranging from alpine, to temperate, to sub-tropical, to tropical, to arid.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Why, general, we people up north have regarded the Ku-Klux as an organization which existed only in the frightened imagination of a few politicians" THE KU-KLUX KLAN "Well, sir, there is such an organization, not only in Tennessee, but all over the South, and its numbers have not been exaggerated."
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.Many crops grow easily in its soils and can be grown without frost for at least six months of the year.^ Many crops grow easily in its soils and can be grown without frost for at least six months of the year.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (CORPUS CHRISTI, Texas) - A Corpus Christi area psychologist has been sentenced to five years of probation and six months house arrest for defrauding Medicaid ( Read more ) .
  • United States Attorneys' Office - Southern District of Texas 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.justice.gov [Source type: General]

^ Unfavourable weather for screwworm survival for at least three months of each year eliminated the need to release sterile flies over the entire expanse all through the year.
  • Screwworm control and eradication in the southern United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some parts of the South, particularly the Southeast, have landscapes characterized by the presence of live oaks, magnolia trees, yellow jessamine vines, Spanish moss, cabbage palms and flowering dogwoods.^ Some parts of the South, particularly the Southeast, have landscape characterized by the presence of live oak s, magnolia trees, jessamine vines, and flowering dogwood s.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A typical tree associated with the South, the live oak is native to the southeastern coastal plain from Virginia to Texas.
  • State Trees 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.usna.usda.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Other symbols of the Antebellum South such as the Bonnie Blue Flag , Magnolia trees, and Palmetto trees, are met with less controversy.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another common environment is the bayous and swampland of the Gulf Coast, especially in Louisiana and Texas.^ Another common environment is the bayou s and swampland of the Gulf Coast, especially in Louisiana, which looms large in American film history.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other major storage sites include: Bryan Mound and Big Hill in Texas and Bayou Choctaw in Louisiana.
  • Energy profile of the United States - Encyclopedia of Earth 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Importantly, the Gulf Coast regions of Texas , Mississippi , Alabama , and northern Florida also share a similar French/Spanish colonial history but lack the heavy concentration of French influences present in Louisiana, especially from the Cajuns and their descendants.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The South is a victim of kudzu, an invasive fast-growing vine which covers large amounts of land and kills indigenous plant life.^ The South is famously a victim of kudzu , a fast-growing vine which covers large amounts of land and kills indigenous plant life.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is a fast-growing plant, but usually requires over ten years to grow to tree-size before producing its charismatic flowers.
  • State Trees 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.usna.usda.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Southern United States or the South constitutes a distinctive region covering a large portion of the United States .
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Kudzu is a particularly big problem in the piedmont regions of Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia.^ Serologic evidence indicates that 27% of 535 cotton mice from North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi that were tested had antibodies to B. burgdorferi ( 14 ).
  • Genetic Heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in the Southern United States Based on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Sequence Analysis -- Lin et al. 39 (7): 2500 -- Journal of Clinical Microbiology 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC jcm.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When you have Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi within a stone's throw of Atlanta (also NOT the South--head on out), head that way.
  • Southern US Tour | United States Forum | Fodor's Travel Talk Forums 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.fodors.com [Source type: General]

^ Feb 1861 Confederate States of America founded by Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina.

[13]

History

.The first well-dated evidence of human occupation in the south United States occurs around 9500 BC with the appearance of the earliest documented Americans, who are now referred to as Paleo-Indians.^ Except for Dr. Endeley and Premier Foncha, who have attended United Nations Sessions, no leading political figure is known to have traveled or studied in the United States.
  • Postwatch (Cameroon): The United States Government Stand on Southern Cameroons Declassified 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.postwatchmagazine.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first major oil well in the South was drilled at Spindletop near Beaumont, Texas , on the morning of January 10 , 1901 .
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These people engaged in warfare, trade and cultural exchanges with the Native Americans who were already in the region (such as the Creek Indians and Cherokee s).
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] Paleoindians were hunter-gathers that roamed in bands and frequently hunted megafauna. Several cultural stages, such as Archaic (ca. 8000 -1000 BC) and the Woodland (ca. 1000 BC-AD 1000), preceded what the Europeans found at the end of the 15th century — the Mississippian culture.[14]
.The Mississippian culture was a complex, mound-building Native American culture that flourished in what is now the southeastern United States from approximately 800 AD to 1500 AD. Natives had elaborate and lengthy trading routes connecting their main residential and ceremonial centers extending through the river valleys and from the East Coast to the Great Lakes.^ The Caddos of East Texas lived in permanent villages and may have descended from the Mound Builders of the Mississippi and Ohio River basins.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Britain's American colonies broke with the mother country in 1776 and were recognized as the new nation of the United States of America following the Treaty of Paris in 1783.
  • Flag Counter » United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC flagcounter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Around desirable harbours and in situations favourable for defence the first European settlements were made in what is now the United States.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

[14] .Some noted explorers who encountered and described the Mississippian culture, by then in decline, included Pánfilo de Narváez (1528), Hernando de Soto (1540), and Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville (1699).^ Soto, Hernando de, ca.
  • Southern States | LibraryThing 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.librarything.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington proceeded to Fort Le Boeuf, where he delivered Dinwiddie's letter to the commandant, Saint-Pierre, who promised to forward the letter to the authorities in Canada .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Native American descendants of the mound-builders include Alabama, Apalachee, Caddo, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Guale, Hitchiti, Houma, and Seminole peoples, many of whom still reside in the South.^ The Caddos of East Texas lived in permanent villages and may have descended from the Mound Builders of the Mississippi and Ohio River basins.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other major storage sites include: Bryan Mound and Big Hill in Texas and Bayou Choctaw in Louisiana.
  • Energy profile of the United States - Encyclopedia of Earth 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These people engaged in warfare, trade and cultural exchanges with the Native Americans who were already in the region (such as the Creek Indians and Cherokee s).
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

European colonization

.The predominant culture of the South was rooted in the settlement of the region by British colonists.^ Settlements in the North tended to be clustered, whereas communities in the South were more widely scattered because of the predominance of agriculture.
  • History of Wetlands in the Conterminous United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC water.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Preserving the current cultural, ethnic and religious fabric of the South will ensure that our region remains a high-trust society.

.In the seventeenth century, most voluntary immigrants were of English origins who settled chiefly along the coastal regions of the Eastern seaboard.^ Other French immigrants continued to arrive in the colony throughout the seventeenth century.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the 17th century most were of English origins, but in the 18th century large numbers of Scots-Irish settled in Appalachia and the Piedmont .
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How do dishes typically served in this region today reflect the culture if the people who settled the region?
  • Food in United States Southern Region - Southern American Food, Southern American Cuisine - traditional, popular, dishes, recipe, diet, history, common, meals, staple, rice, famous, main, people, favorite, make, customs, country, vegetables, drink, typical 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.foodbycountry.com [Source type: General]

.The majority of early British settlers were indentured servants, who gained freedom after enough work to pay off their passage.^ A native of Malaysia and Polynesia, the tree was brought to Hawaii and many other tropical locations by early Polynesian settlers who valued its many uses.
  • State Trees 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.usna.usda.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ They were not slaves any more than were the approximately four thousand white indentured "servants" working out their loans for passage money to Virginia, and who were granted 50 acres of land each when freed from their indenture.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By 1623 he had earned his freedom and by 1651 he was prosperous enough to import five "servants" of his own.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

The wealthier men who paid their way received land grants known as headrights, to encourage settlement.[15]
.The French and Spanish established colonies in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas.^ Trade with the French and the Spanish West Indies not only stimulated the prosperity of the commercial centres in every colony, but was a chief source of wealth to all New England.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The city began as a supply depot for Spanish missions in East Texas and Louisiana in 1718.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Few records exist because the original English, French, and Spanish settlements were established before the land was surveyed.
  • History of Wetlands in the Conterminous United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC water.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Spanish colonized Florida in the 16th century, with their communities reaching a peak in the late 17th century. .In the British and French colonies, most immigrants arrived after 1700. They cleared land, built houses and outbuildings, and worked on the large plantations that dominated export agriculture.^ After 1700 large numbers of African slaves were brought in to work on the large plantations that dominated export agriculture of tobacco, rice, and indigo.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other French immigrants continued to arrive in the colony throughout the seventeenth century.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Most slaves arrived in the 1700-1750 period.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many were involved in the labor-intensive cultivation of tobacco, the first cash crop of Virginia. .With a decrease in the number of British willing to go to the colonies in the eighteenth century, planters began importing more enslaved Africans, who became the predominant labor force on the plantations.^ More than 80 percent of U.S. natural gas imports come from Canada , mainly from the western provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan.
  • Energy profile of the United States - Encyclopedia of Earth 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in course of time these restrictive laws in England were repealed, and it then became easier to import than to educate labor and skill.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ British troops began to arrive in the colonies, and encountered constant abuse from the colonists.
  • United States of America@Everything2.com 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Tobacco exhausted the soil quickly, requiring new fields to be cleared on a regular basis.^ His mind was adapted to the simple operations required in the tobacco and rice fields, while his body was well suited to its semi-tropical climate.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Old fields were used as pasture and for crops such as corn and wheat, or allowed to grow into woodlots.^ The tractors could be used more effectively than animals for drainage operations, and the old pasture land then became available for improvement and production of additional crops.
  • History of Wetlands in the Conterminous United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC water.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Deep South and the Old South used to be known colloquially as Dixie , and may still be referred to nostalgically as such.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]
Also in the seventeenth century, colonists started importing African laborers. In the coastal and other settlements, early workers lived closely together in a multiracial society. .Europeans married and made unions with Africans and Native Americans.^ Capital: Washington, D.C. The population includes people of European and Middle Eastern ancestry, African Americans, Hispanics, Asians, Pacific Islanders, American Indians (Native Americans), and Alaska Natives.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Ethnic European-Americans - - African-Americans .
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.The colonies gradually passed laws that hardened early conditions of indenture into lifelong racial slavery attached to African descent.^ The legislature passed several laws to carry the ordinance into effect.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Africans contributed to the economy of rice and indigo cultivation with their skilled knowledge, technology and labor, as well as to all the commodity crops; and to every aspect of culture (food, music, stories and religion).^ After 1700 large numbers of African slaves were brought in to work on the large plantations that dominated export agriculture of tobacco, rice, and indigo.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hyperpowers affect every sovereign state in the world; when they are economic and cultural hyperpowers, they affect their people as well.
  • United States of America@Everything2.com 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the economy began to recover, most African Americans were not allowed to share in the newfound wealth and continued to eat the simple foods that were available during the war.
  • Food in United States Southern Region - Southern American Food, Southern American Cuisine - traditional, popular, dishes, recipe, diet, history, common, meals, staple, rice, famous, main, people, favorite, make, customs, country, vegetables, drink, typical 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.foodbycountry.com [Source type: General]

.Rice cultivation in South Carolina became another major commodity crop.^ Isolation, cultivation, and characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi from rodents and ticks in the Charleston area of South Carolina.
  • Genetic Heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in the Southern United States Based on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Sequence Analysis -- Lin et al. 39 (7): 2500 -- Journal of Clinical Microbiology 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC jcm.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Yancey studied law and, in 1834, was admitted to the bar in Greenville, South Carolina, where he also became editor of the Greenville Mountaineer.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

Some historians have argued that slaves from the lowlands of western Africa, where rice was a basic crop, provided key skills, knowledge and technology for irrigation and construction of earthworks to support rice cultivation. .The early methods and tools used in South Carolina were congruent with those in Africa.^ Moreover, strains genetically similar to those of B. bissettii from New York, California, South Carolina, and Florida have been isolated from several humans in Slovenia.
  • Genetic Heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in the Southern United States Based on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Sequence Analysis -- Lin et al. 39 (7): 2500 -- Journal of Clinical Microbiology 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC jcm.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Out of deference to the wishes of some Southern delegates in Congress, especially those from South Carolina and Georgia, Jefferson's denunciation was stricken from the final draft of the Declaration.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1754, South Carolina authorized the drainage of Cacaw Swamp for agricultural use (Beauchamp, 1987).
  • History of Wetlands in the Conterminous United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC water.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.British immigrants would have had little or no familiarity with the complex process of growing rice in fields flooded by irrigation works.^ Tickets are a little harder to come by now but if you really want a chance to experience what real baseball is in a real baseball stadium, look no further than Wrigley Field.

[17] Africans were instrumental in the development of major earthworks for cultivating these commodities, as well as in the knowledge of technology and techniques for processing. The earthworks included extensive, elaborate systems of dams and irrigation for rice.
.In the mid- to late-18th century, large groups of Ulster-Scots (later called the Scotch-Irish) and people from the Anglo-Scottish border region immigrated and settled in the back country of Appalachia and the Piedmont.^ In the 17th century most were of English origins, but in the 18th century large numbers of Scots-Irish settled in Appalachia and the Piedmont .
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Collectively this group of oral history interviews reflects upon the growth of professional forestry in the American South during the early to mid-twentieth century.
  • Guide to The Development of Forestry in the Southern United States Oral History Interview Collection, 1958 - 1976 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.foresthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The population of the Southern United States is made up of many different peoples who came to the region in a variety of ways, each contributing to what is now called "Southern cooking."
  • Food in United States Southern Region - Southern American Food, Southern American Cuisine - traditional, popular, dishes, recipe, diet, history, common, meals, staple, rice, famous, main, people, favorite, make, customs, country, vegetables, drink, typical 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.foodbycountry.com [Source type: General]

.They were the largest group of non-English immigrants from the British Isles before the American Revolution.^ Political unrest caused by British colonial policy culminated in the American Revolution (1775–83) and the Declaration of Independence (1776).
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Galveston was a success and developed as a rowdy port city with a variety of ethnic groups-particularly American, English, German, and African-and with a commercial focus upon the harbor.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] .In a census taken in 2000 of Americans and their self-reported ancestries, areas where people reported 'American' ancestry were the places where, historically, many Scotch-Irish, Scottish, and English Borderer Protestants settled in America, and especially the Appalachian region.^ These people engaged in warfare, trade and cultural exchanges with the Native Americans who were already in the region (such as the Creek Indians and Cherokee s).
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See: Geography of Texas ) [[Image:Census-2000-Data-Top-US-Ancestries-by-County.jpg|400px|thumb|right|{{Plurality}} ancestry per US county, 2000: German English Norwegian Finnish Dutch Mexican Spanish Native "American" African Irish French Italian ]] * Before its statehood in 1907 , Oklahoma was known as "Indian Territory."
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While South Florida is seen by many as not truly part of the South (or in some cases, not even a part of Anglo-America , but rather a Latin American region) in terms of culture, the Florida Panhandle , northeastern areas , North Central Florida , Nature Coast , and Central Florida remain culturally tied to the South.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The population with some Scots and Scotch-Irish ancestry may number 47 million, as most people have multiple heritages, some of which they may not know.^ In the 17th century most were of English origins, but in the 18th century large numbers of Scots-Irish settled in Appalachia and the Piedmont .
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After 1800, most mission populations were a hodgepodge of different tribes speaking a multiplicity of languages.
  • California Indian History 10 September 2009 20:34 UTC ceres.ca.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Consequently, the weekly number of flies dispersed over Puerto Rico and Vieques from July 1973 to May 1975 was increased to about 13.5 million.
  • Screwworm control and eradication in the southern United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19]
.The early colonists, especially the Scotch-Irish in the back-country, engaged in warfare, trade, and cultural exchanges.^ These people engaged in warfare, trade and cultural exchanges with the Native Americans who were already in the region (such as the Creek Indians and Cherokee s).
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Those living in the backcountry were more likely to join with Creek Indians, Cherokee, and Choctaws and other regional native groups.^ These people engaged in warfare, trade and cultural exchanges with the Native Americans who were already in the region (such as the Creek Indians and Cherokee s).
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is found in American Samoa, Australia, Guam, Indonesia, Madagascar, Polynesia, and other regions around the Indian Ocean.
  • State Trees 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.usna.usda.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Southern churches evangelize more than churches in other regions, which many non-Protestants consider hostile, but few southerners question the actual freedom of worship or non-worship.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The oldest university in the South, The College of William & Mary, was founded in 1693 in Virginia; it pioneered in the teaching of political economy and educated future U.S. Presidents Jefferson, Monroe and Tyler, all from Virginia.^ He graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1818, and studied law at William and Mary College, Virginia.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The region dominated politics in the 1790-1836 era, as typified by Presidents Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe and Jackson.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Monroe sought the advice of ex-Presidents Jefferson and Madison, and was encouraged by both in the stand which he was about to take.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Indeed, the entire region dominated politics in the First Party System era: for example, four of the first five PresidentsWashington, Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe — were from Virginia.^ The region dominated politics in the 1790-1836 era, as typified by Presidents Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe and Jackson.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Monroe sought the advice of ex-Presidents Jefferson and Madison, and was encouraged by both in the stand which he was about to take.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The great patriots and statesmen of Virginia , Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Mason, and others, hoped to see the institution quietly disappear.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The two oldest public universities are also in the South: the University of North Carolina (1795) and the University of Georgia (1785).^ University of North Carolina Press, 1989.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nearly 40 percent of U.S. nuclear output was generated in just five states: Illinois, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, North Carolina, and New York.
  • Energy profile of the United States - Encyclopedia of Earth 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On April 15th Governor Ellis was notified by the secretary of war that North Carolina would be expected to furnish two regiments of troops to make war on the seceded States.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

American Revolution

.The American Revolution provided a shock to slavery in the South.^ When benevolent people and wise statesmen of the South expected the gradual extinction of slavery , the invention of the cotton gin created an industrial revolution in that section.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, Americans have been taught that the South's actions leading up this struggle not only were unconstitutional but devious attempts on the part of white planters to preserve chattel slavery.

^ A typical commercial street in the American South during the …[Credits : Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. (LC-B8171-3608 LC)] Compromises over extension of slavery into the territories.
  • United States: southern Mountain region :: United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

Tens of thousands of slaves took advantage of wartime disruption to find their own freedom, catalyzed by the British governor Dunmore of Virginia's promise of freedom for service. Many others simply escaped. .Estimates are that five thousand slaves escaped from the Chesapeake Bay area, and thirteen thousand from South Carolina reached the British.^ Nearly 40 percent of U.S. nuclear output was generated in just five states: Illinois, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, North Carolina, and New York.
  • Energy profile of the United States - Encyclopedia of Earth 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Isolation, cultivation, and characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi from rodents and ticks in the Charleston area of South Carolina.
  • Genetic Heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in the Southern United States Based on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Sequence Analysis -- Lin et al. 39 (7): 2500 -- Journal of Clinical Microbiology 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC jcm.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A study by Gavin Wright concludes that cotton areas of the slave South were characterized by a more unequal distribution of agricultural wealth than was true of the agricultural North.

."The extent of the loss to the slave owners in the lower South is indicated by the sharp decline between 1770 and 1790 in the proportion of population made up of black people (almost all of whom were slaves): from 60.5 percent to 43.8 percent in South Carolina and from 45.2 percent to 36.1 percent in Georgia."^ This appears to be an amazingly large, rather than small base of support for any economic order, and the figures are more impressive when we consider the seven states of the lower South in the precise order of their secession from the Union: South Carolina with 48.7 percent of the white families owning slaves; Mississippi with 48 percent; Florida with 36 percent; Alabama with 35.1 percent; Georgia with 38 percent; Louisiana with 32.2 percent; and Texas with 28.5 percent.

^ The 185 claimed by the Republican manager could be made up only by including the electoral votes of Florida , South Carolina , and Louisiana .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Okra, black-eyed peas, and collard greens are all common Southern-grown vegetables that were brought to the region by African slaves.
  • Food in United States Southern Region - Southern American Food, Southern American Cuisine - traditional, popular, dishes, recipe, diet, history, common, meals, staple, rice, famous, main, people, favorite, make, customs, country, vegetables, drink, typical 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.foodbycountry.com [Source type: General]

[20]
In addition, some slaveholders were inspired to free their slaves after the Revolution. .They were moved by the principles of the Revolution, and Quaker and Methodist preachers worked to encourage slaveholders to free their slaves.^ If the western counties of Virginia stuck with the Confederacy, they'd be forced to free their slaves by the Emancipation Proclamation.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Union soldiers robbed, raped and murdered Free Black and slave Southerners they had come to "emancipate."
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the principle of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill the people dwelling in the territory were to decide whether it should be a free or a slave territory.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

Planters often freed slaves by their wills. .In the upper South, more than 10 percent of all blacks were free by 1810, a significant expansion from pre-war proportions of less than 1 percent free.^ This does not mean that it is Southern in culture, but that it shares more in common with these border regions than with the Upper Midwest .
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The resulting "Oil Boom" permanently transformed the economy of the West South Central States , and led to the first significant economic expansion after the Civil War.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fact is that the enslavement of black people did provide extensive economic opportunities for whites, and viewed from its own racist context, slavery appears a good bit less oligarchical in several significant economic respects than twentieth-century free labor capitalism.

[21]

Antebellum years

.Cotton became dominant in the lower South after 1800. After the invention of the cotton gin, short staple cotton could be grown more widely.^ Cotton became dominant after 1800.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When benevolent people and wise statesmen of the South expected the gradual extinction of slavery , the invention of the cotton gin created an industrial revolution in that section.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The tractors could be used more effectively than animals for drainage operations, and the old pasture land then became available for improvement and production of additional crops.
  • History of Wetlands in the Conterminous United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC water.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This led to an explosion of cotton cultivation, especially in the frontier uplands of Georgia, Alabama and other parts of the Deep South, as well as riverfront areas of the Mississippi Delta.^ A die-hard element resisted integration, led by Democratic governors Orval Faubus of Arkansas, Ross Barnett of Mississippi, Lester Maddox of Georgia, and, especially George Wallace of Alabama.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the Deep South is a cultural and geographic subregion of the American South which consists of that part of the Mississippi delta region found in East Arkansas and the states of South Carolina , Mississippi , Florida , Alabama , Georgia , and Louisiana (six of the seven original states of the Confederate States of America , the seventh state being Texas ).
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We have restored part of the national government of the Confederate States of America and we are growing in numbers of registered citizens across the South and in our claimed territories as well.

.Migrants poured into those areas in the early decades of the 19th century, when county population figures rose and fell as swells of people kept moving west.^ I moved to the Washington DC area four years ago right after college and people up here consider WV to be a southern state.
  • West Virginia...Southern or Northern? (Wheeling, Morgantown: sales, taxes, live in) - (WV) - Page 5 - City-Data Forum 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Early in the century, land developers dug drainage ditches in an attempt to drain a huge area for development in the vast peatlands north of Red Lake, Minn.
  • History of Wetlands in the Conterminous United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC water.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unfortunately the BIA's investigator failed to visit 12 other counties, thus ignoring the luckless Indians in those areas.
  • California Indian History 10 September 2009 20:34 UTC ceres.ca.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The expansion of cotton cultivation required more slave labor, and the institution became even more deeply an integral part of the South's economy.^ Parts of the south can even be a little dangerous.
  • Southern US Tour | United States Forum | Fodor's Travel Talk Forums 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.fodors.com [Source type: General]

^ Even in parts of the South it was unpopular.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The explosion of cotton cultivation [ 1 ] made the "peculiar institution" of slavery an integral part of the South's early 19th century economy.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22]
.With the opening up of frontier lands after the government forced most Native Americans to move west of the Mississippi, there was a major migration of both whites and blacks to those territories.^ Native American Indians and self-government ( in Native American: Reorganization ) migration and immigration .
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The problem was that the land was inhabited by the native Americans .
  • United States of America@Everything2.com 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The cession of the territory was on the express condition: "That the Government of the United States cause the lands so set apart to be properly surveyed and to be divided among the said Indians in severalty .

.From the 1820s through the 1850s, more than one million enslaved African Americans were transported to the Deep South in forced migration, two-thirds of them by slave traders and the others by masters who moved there.^ Today more than two million Americans are in prison , more than in any other nation on Earth.
  • United States of America@Everything2.com 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the tour through the JSC is much more than that one room.

^ Many white Southerners who had actively supported the Confederacy lost many of the basic rights of citizenship (such as the ability to vote) while with the passage of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States (which outlawed slavery), the 14th Amendment (which granted full U.S. citizenship to African American s) and the 15th amendment (which extended the right to vote to black males), African Americans in the South began to enjoy more rights than they had ever had in the region.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Planters in the Upper South sold slaves excess to their needs as they shifted from tobacco to mixed agriculture.^ Donald is even more emphatic elsewhere when he complains that "writers speak of the Southern interest in slavery, even when they perfectly well know that in the 'plantation' South o­nly o­ne fourth of the white families owned any slaves at all."

^ Reynolds sold large quantities of chewing tobacco, though that market peaked about 1910 as people shifted to cigarettes.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While o­ne seldom can quarrel with the statistics presented by these many writers, serious questions can be raised respecting the significance of this degree of slave distribution in the South.

Many enslaved families were broken up, as planters preferred mostly strong males for field work.[23]
.Two major political issues that festered in the first half of the 19th century caused political alignment along sectional lines, strengthened the identities of North and South as distinct regions with certain strongly opposed interests, and fed the arguments over states' rights that culminated in secession and the Civil War.^ The border states of the Civil War constitute a major definitional problem for the South.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Secession and the politics of the Civil War, 1860–65 - - - The coming of the war .
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Sectional dissatisfaction - - Fighting the Civil War .
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.One of these issues concerned the protective tariffs enacted to assist the growth of the manufacturing sector, primarily in the North.^ "The real issues between the North and South in antebellum politics were the tariff government subsidy to transportation and manufacturing, public land sales and related questions on which manufacturing and planting interests had clashing view points."
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ North was not making war, as many pretended, for the abolition of slavery, but to subjugate the South in order to reestablish their protective tariff and to restore their monopoly of Southern markets.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1832, in resistance to federal legislation increasing tariffs, South Carolina passed an ordinance of nullification, a procedure in which a state would in effect repeal a Federal law.^ A second convention met in South Carolina , and repealed the Ordinance of Nullification.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1832 South Carolina passed an ordinance of nullification , a procedure in which a state could in effect repeal a Federal law, directed against the most recent tariff acts.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The legislature passed several laws to carry the ordinance into effect.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Soon a naval flotilla was sent to Charleston harbor, and the threat of landing ground troops was used to compel the collection of tariffs.^ Soon a naval flotilla was sent to Charleston harbor, and the threat of ground troops was used to compel the collection of tariffs.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A compromise was reached by which the tariffs would be gradually reduced, but the underlying argument over states' rights continued to escalate in the following decades.^ Some of the eastern States continued to reduce.
  • Complete Maps of United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC etc.usf.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A compromise was reached by which the tariffs would be gradually reduced, but the underlying argument over state's rights would continue to escalate in the coming decades.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As he had during his political career, he continued to rule in favor of states rights, forcefully opposing political power of the federal government.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.The second issue concerned slavery, primarily the question of whether slavery would be permitted in newly admitted states.^ European interference with the emerging states of Latin and Central America would not be permitted, and would be considered an act of war against the United States.
  • United States of America@Everything2.com 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In his inaugural address President Buchanan referred to a forthcoming decision of the United States Supreme Court, which would set at rest the slavery agitation.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When such refusal action is taken, a declaration shall be made to the C.S.A. Office of Immigration by the refusing State or County explaining the reasons for the refusal, (except for State issued Work Permit Visas) and the C.S.A. Office of Immigration shall amend the visa in question to reflect this restriction on travel to the refusing State or County.

.The issue was initially finessed by political compromises designed to balance the number of "free" and "slave" states.^ The geographical concentration of slavery also increased its political power in key regions within the various states, while that power was sometimes further strengthened by slave or property representation at the state level.

^ In Kansas the struggle between free-state and slave-state men continued, the administration giving its support to the latter.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Maine was admitted as a free state, thus preserving in the United States Senate the balance between the two sections.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The issue resurfaced in more virulent form, however, around the time of the Mexican–American War, which raised the stakes by adding new territories primarily on the Southern side of the imaginary geographic divide.^ Feb 1848 Mexican cession territories annexed (modern states of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah).

^ Victory in the Mexican War (1846–48) brought the territory of seven more future states (including California and Texas) into U.S. hands.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Perhaps not more than one-third of the Southern people were interested in the institution of slavery , but the large slave-holders formed a powerful aristocracy.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Congress opposed allowing slavery in these territories.^ A typical commercial street in the American South during the …[Credits : Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. (LC-B8171-3608 LC)] Compromises over extension of slavery into the territories.
  • United States: southern Mountain region :: United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ One candidate was an advocate of squatter sovereignty, the other was opposed to the extension of slavery into the territories.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These demanded the extinction of slavery not only in the territories but in the states.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Before the Civil War, the number of immigrants arriving at Southern ports began to increase, although the North continued to receive the most immigrants.^ Before the Civil War the South produced most of the presidents.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This habit had been widespread among the agricultural population of America both North and South before the war.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most influential historical contribution to the standard view was undoubtedly made by James Ford Rhodes' multivolume history of the Civil War era.

.Numerous Irish immigrants flooded New Orleans, so much so that one of the sections of the city became known as the Irish Channel.^ Because of industrial dumping and city sewage, in addition, the Houston Ship Channel in the 1960s ranked as one of the worst polluted waterways in the world.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Besides, the many Broadway shows and great avenues for shopping and dining make New York City one of the most visited cities of the world.
  • United States Destinations - United States Attractions - United States Travel Guide - United States Places To Visit | Travel & Places 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC ayushveda.com [Source type: News]

^ The services of the latter have been noticed, while those of the Spaniards of New Orleans would require much space to describe.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Germans also went to New Orleans and its environs, resulting in a large area north of the city (along the Mississippi) becoming known as the German Coast; however, still greater numbers immigrated to Texas (especially after 1848), where many bought land and were farmers.^ Surprisingly many are from the Northeast and especially from the New York metropolitan area.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It owns branches in Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Oregon, and many in California.
  • FindLaw for the Public: United States Case Law 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Importantly, the Gulf Coast regions of Texas , Mississippi , Alabama , and northern Florida also share a similar French/Spanish colonial history but lack the heavy concentration of French influences present in Louisiana, especially from the Cajuns and their descendants.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many more German immigrants arrived in Texas after the Civil War, where they created the brewing industry in Houston and elsewhere, became grocers in numerous cities, and also established wide areas of farming.^ Because of industrial dumping and city sewage, in addition, the Houston Ship Channel in the 1960s ranked as one of the worst polluted waterways in the world.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Victory in the Mexican War (1846–48) brought the territory of seven more future states (including California and Texas) into U.S. hands.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ However, two notable exceptions to the "Southern Line" are the city of Palm Coast , (one of the fastest growing cities in the United States and with most of its growth coming from New York and New Jersey ), and the Orlando metropolitan area, which contains many more retirees and immigrants from the North as well as a growing Hispanic population.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tennessee was the last state to secede from the union, and it was the first to rejoin after the war.^ Map of the United States in 1860 , 1860 Map of the United States in 1860 showing the states that seceded to form the Confederate States.— A Bird's-Eye View of our Civil War, 1897 .
  • Complete Maps of United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC etc.usf.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The resulting "Oil Boom" permanently transformed the economy of the West South Central States , and led to the first significant economic expansion after the Civil War.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Abraham Lincoln , infamous in the south for his opposition to slavery was elected in 1860, seven states seceded from the Union shortly thereafter.
  • United States of America@Everything2.com 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

Civil War

.By 1856, the South was losing political power to the more populated North and was locked in a series of constitutional and political battles with the North regarding states' rights and the status of slavery in the territories.^ Constitution from the old regarding the status of the .
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This lock on power was so strong the region was politically called the Solid South .
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The geographical concentration of slavery also increased its political power in key regions within the various states, while that power was sometimes further strengthened by slave or property representation at the state level.

.President James K. Polk imposed a low-tariff regime on the country (Walker Tariff of 1846), which angered Pennsylvania industrialists, and blocked proposed federal funding of national roads and port improvements.^ By 1850 the South saw it was losing power to the fast-growing North, and waged a series of Constitutional battles regarding states rights and the status of slavery in the territories, The South imposed a low-tariff regime on the country ( Walker Tariff of 1846) (which angered Pennsylvania industrialists) and blocked proposed federal funding of national roads and port improvements.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 16 June, 1908; at Chicago , the Republican National Nominating Convention selected as its candidates for the presidency and vice-presidency William H. Taft and James S. Sherman.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In August, 1846, President Polk asked Congress for $2,000,000 "for the settlement of the boundary question with Mexico".
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Once the North came to power in 1861, many Southerners felt it was time to secede from the union.^ North Carolina seceded from the Union on May 20, 1861 but only after they were forced to war.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Confederate Postal Service After decades of sectional divisions between the North and the South, on December 20, 1860, South Carolina became the first of thirteen Southern states to secede from the Union.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ North was not making war, as many pretended, for the abolition of slavery, but to subjugate the South in order to reestablish their protective tariff and to restore their monopoly of Southern markets.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.Seven cotton states decided on secession after the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 (often known as the pre-Sumter Seven).^ Seven cotton states decided on secession after the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 .
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the election of Abraham Lincoln, Lamar favoured secession from the United States.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Lincoln was not elected in 1860 in the name of freedom over Slavery, rather his election represented the ascendancy of tariff's and railroads and factories over agriculture and the graces of rural society.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.They formed the Confederate States of America.^ They formed the Confederate States of America , and in 1861 were joined by four more states.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Confederate States of America (1860-1865) .

^ Note : The states making up the Confederate States of America previously seceded from the United States; the secession of Missouri and Kentucky affected only geographic parts of those states.

.In early 1861, they were joined by four more states immediately following the firing on Fort Sumter (splinter governments from two more states, Missouri and Kentucky, would join later that year but were unable to fully participate).^ They formed the Confederate States of America , and in 1861 were joined by four more states.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States government refused to recognize the new country, and kept in operation its second to last fort in the South, which the Confederacy captured in April 1861 at the Battle of Fort Sumter , in the port of Charleston, South Carolina , triggering the Civil War.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note : The states making up the Confederate States of America previously seceded from the United States; the secession of Missouri and Kentucky affected only geographic parts of those states.

.The United States government refused to recognize the seceding states.^ The members are sworn to recognize the government of the United States.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States government refused to recognize the new country, and kept in operation its second to last fort in the South, which the Confederacy captured in April 1861 at the Battle of Fort Sumter , in the port of Charleston, South Carolina , triggering the Civil War.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Map of the United States in 1860 , 1860 Map of the United States in 1860 showing the states that seceded to form the Confederate States.— A Bird's-Eye View of our Civil War, 1897 .
  • Complete Maps of United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC etc.usf.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It continued to operate several federal military installations in the South, including Fort Sumter, which the Confederacy captured in April 1861 at the Battle of Fort Sumter, in the port of Charleston.^ It also appears on the state flag of South Carolina, “the Palmetto State.” The tree symbol commemorates the defense of Charleston by the palmetto-log fort on Sullivan’s Island.
  • State Trees 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.usna.usda.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Two months later, April 12 the Confederates opened fire on Fort Sumter, in an event recorded as "symbolic as the Boston Tea Party."
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In their eagerness to extend their authority over the entire South the Confederate officials decided to seize Fort Sumter, which was the property of the United States.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.That act triggered the Civil War.^ In 1964 Congress passed the Civil Rights Act and authorized U.S. entry into the Vietnam War .
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.In the four years of war which followed, the South found itself as the primary battleground, with all but two of the major battles taking place on Southern soil.^ In the four years of Civil War which followed, the South found itself as the primary battleground, with all but one of the main battles taking place on Southern soil.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The appearance from within the South of Hinton Rowan Helper's The Impending Crisis of the South the following year immeasurably strengthened this conception.

^ It was signed by all southern senators except Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson and Albert Gore, Sr.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Confederacy retained a low tariff regime for European imports but imposed a new tax on all imports from the North.^ The absolute prohibition of all bounties from the Federal treasury, and all duties or taxes on imported goods intended to promote or foster any branch of home industry.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Early in the conflict Congress increased the duties on imports; imposed a tax of 3 percent on all incomes over $800; created an internal revenue; taxed trades, professions, occupations, and even sales and purchases.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I The first state to actual exercise its right to secede was not South Carolina, not even one from the South at all, but low and behold one from New England.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Union blockade stopped most commerce from entering the South, so the Confederate taxes hardly mattered.^ The Union blockade stopped most commerce from entering the South, so the Confederate taxes hardly mattered.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But even the figure of 10 percent hardly equals the 31 percent of white families holding slaves in the Confederate South who may be classed as employers.

.Because of low investment in railroads, the Southern transportation system depended primarily on river and coastal traffic by boat; both were shut down by the Union Navy.^ The Southern transportation system depended primarily on river and coastal traffic by boat; both were shut down by the Union Navy.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many people at every social and political level regarded the Union cause primarily as an opportunity to make money or to advance their public careers, or both."
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Brownsville became the terminus of the Missouri Pacific and the Southern Pacific, while Matamoros, across the river in Tamaulipas, became the terminal of the Mexican National Railroad.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The small railroad system virtually collapsed, so that by 1864 internal travel was so difficult that the Confederate economy was crippled.^ The small railroad system virtually collapsed, so that by 1864 internal travel was so difficult that the Confederate economy was crippled.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Union (the name often used in referring to the United States of America during this time) eventually defeated the Confederate States of America (the formal name of the southern American states during the Civil War).^ It was defeated, even though the Southern states were not in the Union.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Confederate States of America (1860-1865) .

^ This fort expanded during the Spanish-American War and was the largest in the United States by 1900.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The South suffered much more than the North overall, primarily because the war was fought almost entirely in the South.^ The South suffered much more than the North did - primarily because the war was fought almost entirely on southern soil.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the cause of secession the loss of life must have been quite as great, and the amount of suffering very much greater, because the South, in the era preceding the war , obtained almost everything in the way of manufactures from the North or from Europe .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One day in Savannah and 3 in Charleston would be much more to my liking than 5 in Atlanta.
  • Southern US Tour | United States Forum | Fodor's Travel Talk Forums 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.fodors.com [Source type: General]

.The economic loss and civilian toll has never been fully realized, although the Confederacy suffered military losses of 95,000 men killed in action and 165,000 who died of disease, for a total of 260,000,[24] out of a total white Southern population at the time of around 5.5 million.^ Population total all countries: 24.
  • Ethnologue report for United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Overall, the Confederates had 95,000 killed in action and 165,000 who died of disease, for a total of 260,000 [ 2 ], out of a total white Southern population at the time of around 5.5 million [ 3 ] After the Civil War, the South had become devastated in terms of its population, infrastructure and economy.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [H]e was startled to discover the presence of 'over 3,000 negroes' who were "manifestly an integral portion of the Southern Confederacy Army.'
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

[25] .Based on 1860 census figures, 8% of all white males aged 13 to 43 died in the war, including 6% in the North and an extraordinary 18% in the South.^ In addition, the white population to the north and south of the strip was increasing and the resulting lines of commerce cut across the strip.
  • United States v. Southern Ute Tribe, 402 U.S. 159, 91 S.Ct. 1336, 28 L.Ed.2d 695 (1971) 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.utulsa.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • FindLaw | Cases and Codes 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This habit had been widespread among the agricultural population of America both North and South before the war.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Georgia, utilizing census figures, he reported far more accurately, but with the same emphasis, that "only twenty-seven in a hundred of the white families ...

[26] However, Northern military casualties exceeded Southern casualties in absolute numbers.

Reconstruction and Jim Crow

.After the Civil War the South was devastated in terms of population, infrastructure and economy.^ Overall, the Confederates had 95,000 killed in action and 165,000 who died of disease, for a total of 260,000 [ 2 ], out of a total white Southern population at the time of around 5.5 million [ 3 ] After the Civil War, the South had become devastated in terms of its population, infrastructure and economy.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Examples include: West Virgina broke away from the South during the civil war so there is an argument that it could be northern.
  • West Virginia...Southern or Northern? (Wheeling, Morgantown: sales, taxes, live in) - (WV) - Page 5 - City-Data Forum 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Allan Nevins states in his distinguished history of the Civil War era that "from the terms used in the angry discussion of slavery, it might have been supposed that almost the whole Southern population had a direct interest in it.

.Because of states' reluctance to grant voting rights to freedmen, Congress instituted Reconstruction governments.^ From the NEW YORK HERALD: "The ultimatum of the seceded States is now before the Government at Washington, in this new Constitution adopted by the Congress at Montgomery, Alabama.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The roads were always separate and distinct corporations; they were so recognized in the acts of Congress making land grants to them, authorizing their construction and operation from one state or territory to another, and otherwise conferring rights on them which only Congress could confer.
  • FindLaw for the Public: United States Case Law 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of the states reconstructed according to this plan only Tennessee was recognized by Congress.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.It established military districts and governors to rule over the South until new governments could be established.^ This was was the type of government the founders established in 1776, and the South was trying to preserve it as handed to them.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At different dates until May, 1861, other commonwealths cast their fortunes with the new government.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Congressional plan of reconstruction provided for a division of the South into eleven military districts, and the establishment in each of troops commanded by a major-general.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Many white Southerners who had actively supported the Confederacy were temporarily disfranchised.^ Many white Southerners who had actively supported the Confederacy lost many of the basic rights of citizenship (such as the ability to vote) while with the passage of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States (which outlawed slavery), the 14th Amendment (which granted full U.S. citizenship to African American s) and the 15th amendment (which extended the right to vote to black males), African Americans in the South began to enjoy more rights than they had ever had in the region.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [H]e was startled to discover the presence of 'over 3,000 negroes' who were "manifestly an integral portion of the Southern Confederacy Army.'
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Again there appears to be less need to wonder at southern white support for slavery than most historians have assumed.

.Rebuilding was difficult as people grappled with the effects of a new labor economy of a free market in the midst of a widespread agricultural depression.^ The stock market crash of 1929 led to the Great Depression , which New Deal legislation combated by increasing the federal government’s role in the economy.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Many on the verge of actual starvation dispersed throughout their territories and sought to support themselves through agriculture and ranch labor for the new "owners" of California.
  • California Indian History 10 September 2009 20:34 UTC ceres.ca.gov [Source type: Original source]

.In addition, what limited infrastructure the South had was mostly destroyed by the war.^ Also, during the war of Northern aggression about 85% of the manufacturing was in the north with mostly cotton fields and tobacco in the South.

^ With the region devastated by its loss and the destruction of its civil infrastructure, much of the South was generally unable to recover economically until World War II ( 1939 - 1945 ).
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

At the same time, the North was rapidly industrializing.
.There were thousands of people on the move, as African Americans tried to reunite families separated by slaves sales, and sometimes migrated for better opportunities in towns or other states.^ Culture Culture of the United States American culture is a Western culture, with influences from Europe, the Native American peoples, African Americans and young groups of immigrants.

^ In the South, people sometimes dress more casually, although formality in certain contexts is valued some parts of the region, a trend which may also influence ethnic groups outside the South, including African Americans.

^ As proof of this, some people cite the fact that a second Great Migration appears to be underway, with African Americans whose ancestors left the South two generations ago moving back to the region in record numbers.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other freedpeople moved from plantation areas to cities or towns for a chance to get different jobs and out from under white control.^ This was reinforced by the fact colonial officials might move to different jobs in any of the thirteen colonies, but never to London .
  • United States of America@Everything2.com 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In August 2005, Hurricane Katrina flooded parts of the city of New Orleans and heavily damaged other areas of the gulf coast, including major damage to the Mississippi coast.

^ Many of these difficulties are common in the other urbanized areas of the nation, and the solutions, personnel, and technology for modern Texas cities are often borrowed from someplace else.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

At the same time, whites returned from refuges to reclaim plantations or town dwellings. .In some areas, many whites returned to the land to farm for a while.^ A substantial amount of land in Royce Area 617 was settled by whites, and disposed of by the United States Government.
  • United States v. Southern Ute Tribe, 402 U.S. 159, 91 S.Ct. 1336, 28 L.Ed.2d 695 (1971) 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.utulsa.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • FindLaw | Cases and Codes 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Uncompahgre and White River Utes, Royce Area 616, were now public lands to be disposed of for the benefit of the Utes in accordance with the Act of 1880.
  • United States v. Southern Ute Tribe, 402 U.S. 159, 91 S.Ct. 1336, 28 L.Ed.2d 695 (1971) 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.utulsa.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • FindLaw | Cases and Codes 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some freedpeople left the South altogether for states such as Ohio and Indiana, and later, Kansas.^ The South offers some of the richest music in the United States.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Oklahoma, Virginia, West Virginia, and Florida, and new communities in other states.
  • Ethnologue report for United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ But this statement by the State of New Jersey, and similar ones by Ohio and Oregon do present some insight.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.Thousands of others joined the migration to new opportunities in the Mississippi and Arkansas Delta bottomlands and Texas.^ In many parts of Georgia, Alabama, Arkansas, Texas and other parts of the South, the term "soft drink" is discarded in favor of "Coke").
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In August 2005, Hurricane Katrina flooded parts of the city of New Orleans and heavily damaged other areas of the gulf coast, including major damage to the Mississippi coast.

^ This meant an opening of business opportunities, an ease of migration, more information, and greater social mixing for the people of Texas cities.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With passage of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States (which outlawed slavery), the 14th Amendment (which granted full U.S. citizenship to African Americans) and the 15th amendment (which extended the right to vote to African American males), African Americans in the South were made free citizens and were given the right to vote.^ The constitution differed but slightly from the Constitution of the United States.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ History of slavery in the United States ).
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many white Southerners who had actively supported the Confederacy lost many of the basic rights of citizenship (such as the ability to vote) while with the passage of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States (which outlawed slavery), the 14th Amendment (which granted full U.S. citizenship to African American s) and the 15th amendment (which extended the right to vote to black males), African Americans in the South began to enjoy more rights than they had ever had in the region.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Under Federal protection, white and black Republicans formed constitutional conventions and state governments.^ By the Constitution the United States is required to guarantee to every state in this Union a republican form of government, and to protect each of them against invasion, and, in certain circumstances, against domestic violence .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They shall also have the right of access to our courts and to go to court to petition the Government for a redress of grievances and shall enjoy the other rights and protections of the Constitution of the C.S.A. and of the State of their residence.

^ Ten Commandments: "I believe that the Ten Commandments are the moral, legal, and cultural foundations of our Georgia republic and that their public display is a States' Rights issue that does not lie within the constitutional jurisdiction of the federal government."

.Among their accomplishments was creating the first public education systems in Southern states, and providing for welfare through orphanages, hospitals and similar institutions.^ The United States created a new reservation for them, while still permitting allotments to those Southern Utes willing and qualified to engage in farming.

^ This was accomplished first by you citizens as the basic units of your own State Confederate governments.

^ For example, it is provided that full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

Northerners came south to participate in politics and business. .Some were representatives of the Freedmen's Bureau and other agencies of Reconstruction; some were humanitarians with the intent to help black people.^ However, as Reconstruction ended, Southern Redeemers moved to prevent black people from holding power.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A. I knew I could not carry it through without the help of the Southern Pacific; or some other railroad company, in case the Southern Pacific had not come to assist.
  • United States Supreme Court Reports - UNITED STATES v. SOUTHERN PAC. CO., 259 U.S. 214 (1922) 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.loislaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of these other indigenous peoples in the United States, including the Inuit, Yupik Eskimos, and Aleuts, are not usually counted as Native Americans.

Also, as is often the case in volatile environments, some were adventurers who hoped to benefit themselves by questionable methods. They were all condemned with the pejorative term of carpetbagger. .Some Southerners also took advantage of the disrupted environment and made money off various schemes, including bonds and financing for railroads.^ A. I knew I could not carry it through without the help of the Southern Pacific; or some other railroad company, in case the Southern Pacific had not come to assist.
  • United States Supreme Court Reports - UNITED STATES v. SOUTHERN PAC. CO., 259 U.S. 214 (1922) 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.loislaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of the Southern Utes took allotments in severalty.
  • United States v. Southern Ute Tribe, 402 U.S. 159, 91 S.Ct. 1336, 28 L.Ed.2d 695 (1971) 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.utulsa.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • FindLaw | Cases and Codes 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Central Pacific's bonded debt amounted to $57,471,000, largely secured by first mortgages on its various lines of railroad.
  • United States Supreme Court Reports - UNITED STATES v. SOUTHERN PAC. CO., 259 U.S. 214 (1922) 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.loislaw.com [Source type: Original source]

[27]
.Secret vigilante organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan—an organization sworn to perpetuate white supremacy— had arisen quickly after the war's end and used lynching, physical attacks, house burnings and other forms of intimidation to keep African Americans from exercising their political rights.^ Organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan , a clandestine organization sworn to perpetuate white supremacy , used lynchings , cross burning s and other forms of violence and intimidation to keep African Americans from exercising their political rights, while the Jim Crow law s were created to legally do the same thing.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Condi Rice was right to compare Palestinians to the Ku Klux Klan Condi Rice was right to compare Palestinians to the Ku Klux Klan .
  • Report: Rice compares life in U.S. south to Palestinians' plight - Haaretz - Israel News 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.haaretz.com [Source type: General]

^ It was at that time the Ku Klux Klan was at work in the South.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.Although the Klan was defeated by prosecution by the Federal government in the early 1870s, other groups persisted.^ Along with many other Progressives, he called for the redistribution of wealth by the government, and the reinterpretation of the Constitution to allow the federal government more leeway in such matters.
  • United States of America@Everything2.com 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

By the mid- to late-1870s, elite white Southerners created increasing resistance to the altered social structure. .Paramilitary organizations such as the White League in Louisiana (1874), the Red Shirts in Mississippi (1875) and rifle clubs, all "White Line" organizations, used organized violence against Republicans, blacks and whites, to turn Republicans out of office, repress and bar black voting, and restore Democrats to power.^ Organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan , a clandestine organization sworn to perpetuate white supremacy , used lynchings , cross burning s and other forms of violence and intimidation to keep African Americans from exercising their political rights, while the Jim Crow law s were created to legally do the same thing.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lamar organized the 19th Mississippi Regiment of Volunteers and saw action against Union General George McClellan during his 1862 Peninsula campaign in Virginia.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With no voting rights and no voice in government, blacks were subjected to what was known as the Jim Crow law s, a system of universal segregation and discrimination in all public facilities.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28] .In 1876 white Democrats regained power in most of the state legislatures.^ Buoyed by victories in World Wars I and II and the end of the Cold War in 1991, the US remains the world's most powerful nation state.

^ This is why the United States is currently employing its power as much as possible to bring, in co-operation with Middle Eastern nations, democratisation and economic development to the Middle East .
  • United States of America@Everything2.com 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.They began to pass laws designed to strip African Americans and poor whites from the voter registration rolls.^ Massachusetts once passed a law that stated that if a Negro, native American or mulatto entered their state and stayed for more than two months they would be publicly flogged.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In examining the constitutionality of a state law one is to assume that the state legislature has power to pass all acts whatever, unless they are prohibited by the Constitution of the United States or by the constitution of the state.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The wretched condition of the reconcentrados excited the sympathy of the American people, and they began to send food and medical aid to the stricken island.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The success of late-19th century interracial coalitions in several states made white Democrats work harder to prevent both groups from voting.^ The U.S. states and several of the inhabited insular areas that are not part of the continental U.S. also contain indigenous groups.

^ In the century after Reconstruction , the white South strongly identified with the Democratic Party .
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Credits : Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.] Swedish immigrants en route to the western United States in the mid-19th century.
  • United States: southern Mountain region :: United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

[29]
.Despite discrimination, many blacks became property owners in areas that were still developing.^ Hispanic barrios and black residential areas are still common in Texas cities and have attracted recent study.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For instance, 90% of the Mississippi's bottomlands were still frontier and undeveloped after the war. .By the end of the century, two-thirds of the farmers in Mississippi's Delta bottomlands were black.^ Between 1889 and 1922, the NAACP calculates that lynchings reached their worst level in history, with almost 3,500 people, two-thirds of them black men, murdered.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They had cleared the land themselves and often made money in early years by selling off timber.^ We do not doubt that the Southern Utes regarded the lands they occupied as "our reservation," but we fail to see how this nullifies the conveyance of the strip made by the Act of 1880.

^ For the conduct of the war in which they found themselves engaged they were wretchedly prepared: they had no money, no system of taxation, no navy.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We do not doubt that the Southern Utes regarded the lands they occupied as 'our reservation,' but we fail to see how this nullifies the conveyance of the strip made by the Act of 1880.
  • United States v. Southern Ute Tribe, 402 U.S. 159, 91 S.Ct. 1336, 28 L.Ed.2d 695 (1971) 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.utulsa.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Tens of thousands of migrants went to the Delta, both to work as laborers to clear timber for lumber companies, and many to develop their own farms.^ James Hart was a logger who worked for the Alger-Sullivan Lumber Company from 1932 to about 1940.
  • Guide to The Development of Forestry in the Southern United States Oral History Interview Collection, 1958 - 1976 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.foresthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Inventory of the Development of Forestry in the Southern United States Oral History Interviews, 1958 - 1976 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.foresthistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Immediately out of school, Porter was offered a job at the Wheeler and Dusenberry Lumber Company, where he worked until 1923.
  • Guide to The Development of Forestry in the Southern United States Oral History Interview Collection, 1958 - 1976 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.foresthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Inventory of the Development of Forestry in the Southern United States Oral History Interviews, 1958 - 1976 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.foresthistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ McGowin also served as a director or president of many Alabama lumber supply companies and industry trade associations, including a stint as president of the Southern Pine Association from 1941 to 1943.
  • Guide to The Development of Forestry in the Southern United States Oral History Interview Collection, 1958 - 1976 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.foresthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Inventory of the Development of Forestry in the Southern United States Oral History Interviews, 1958 - 1976 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.foresthistory.org [Source type: Academic]

[30]
.Nearly all Southerners, black and white, suffered as a result of the Civil War.^ It is worth noting, though, that nearly all southerners, black and white, suffered as a result of the Civil War.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The resulting "Oil Boom" permanently transformed the economy of the West South Central States , and led to the first significant economic expansion after the Civil War.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The Civil War was a War of Northern aggression against Southern rights, not a war to preserve the American Nation and ultimately to abolish Slavery."
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.Within a few years cotton production and harvest was back to pre-war levels, but low prices through much of the 19th century hampered recovery.^ U.S. crude oil production, which averaged 5.4 million bbl/d during the first eight months of 2005, is now at 50-year lows.
  • Energy profile of the United States - Encyclopedia of Earth 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Locked into low productivity agriculture, the region's growth was slowed by limited industrial development, low levels of entrepreneurship, and the lack of capital investment.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Imports of LNG exhibited little change through the first half of 2005 compared to year-ago levels.
  • Energy profile of the United States - Encyclopedia of Earth 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They encouraged immigration by Chinese and Italian laborers into the Mississippi Delta. .While the first Chinese entered as indentured laborers from Cuba, the majority came in the early-20th century.^ European immigrants came to the United States in large numbers in the early 20th century.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ [Credits : Copyright © 2004 AIMS Multimedia (www.aimsmultimedia.com)] In the late 19th and early 20th century, many immigrants came to America by way of New York and …[Credits : Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Since the early 20th century the United States has had an enormous effect on global affairs, and is now widely recognised as the world's major (perhaps only) superpower.
  • United States of America@Everything2.com 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

Neither group stayed long at rural farm labor.[31] .The Chinese became merchants and established stores in small towns throughout the Delta, establishing a place between white and black.^ The barracks were taken over and used by the merchants who had established a small village around the fort.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32]
.Migrations continued in the late-19th and early 20th-centuries among both blacks and whites.^ Domestic policy - - The late 20th century .
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ European immigrants came to the United States in large numbers in the early 20th century.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ [Credits : The Granger Collection, New York] Early 19th-century Methodist camp meeting.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

In the last two decades oth the 19th century about 141,000 blacks left the South, and more after 1900, totaling a loss of 537,000. After that the movement increased in what became known as the Great Migration from 1910–1940, and the Second Great Migration through 1970. ven more whites left the South, some going to California for opportunities and others heading to Northern industrial cities after 1900. Between 1880 and 1910, the loss of whites totaled 1,243,000.[33] Five million more left between 1940 and 1970.
.From 1890 to 1908, 10 of the 11 states passed disfranchising constitutions or amendments which had provisions for voter registration, such as poll taxes, residency requirements and literacy tests, which were hard for many poor to meet.^ They shall also have the right of access to our courts and to go to court to petition the Government for a redress of grievances and shall enjoy the other rights and protections of the Constitution of the C.S.A. and of the State of their residence.

^ Accordingly, many amendments were proposed; these were grouped under ten heads, familiar as the first ten amendments, and known to students of the Constitution as the Bill of Rights.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I will support a Constitutional Amendment establishing a "sunset clause" (expiration date) for all laws and regulations with force of law passed.

.Most African Americans, Mexican Americans and tens of thousands of poor whites were disfranchised, losing the vote for decades.^ The racial and ethnic mix of Mexican Americans, African Americans, qv and Anglo-Americans, for example, is noticeable and varied.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Black Southerners fought alongside white, Hispanic, Native American, Jewish, and thousands of foreign-born Southerners.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.In some states grandfather clauses were temporarily used to exempt white illiterates from literacy tests.^ Eastern white pine has a long history of timber use in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada.
  • State Trees 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.usna.usda.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Some northern states such as Michigan were originally covered by ancient old-growth forests of white pine.
  • State Trees 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.usna.usda.gov [Source type: Original source]

The numbers of voters dropped drastically throughout the South as a result. .This can be seen on the feature "Turnout in Presidential and Midterm Elections" at the University of Texas Politics: Barriers to Voting.^ Char Miller and Heywood T. Sanders, eds., Urban Texas: Politics and Development (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1990).
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Alabama, which had established universal white suffrage in 1819 when it became a state, also substantially reduced voting by poor whites.^ A substantial amount of land in Royce Area 617 was settled by whites, and disposed of by the United States Government.
  • United States v. Southern Ute Tribe, 402 U.S. 159, 91 S.Ct. 1336, 28 L.Ed.2d 695 (1971) 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.utulsa.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • FindLaw | Cases and Codes 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC caselaw.lp.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

[34][35] .Legislatures passed Jim Crow laws to segregate public facilities and services, including transportation.^ With no voting rights and no voice in government, blacks were subjected to what was known as the Jim Crow law s, a system of universal segregation and discrimination in all public facilities.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many other states, particularly in the South, have passed various laws aimed at curtailing illegal immigration or the hiring of such including fines for employer violators.

^ A Grace period for illegals to voluntarily leave the C.S.A. of 60 days after these laws are passed and signed and publicized shall apply.

.While African Americans, poor whites and civil rights groups started litigation against such provisions in the early-20th century, for decades Supreme Court decisions overturning such provisions were rapidly followed by new state laws with new devices to restrict voting.^ Groups such as the Humbolt Home Guard, the Eel River Minutemen and the Placer Blades among others terrorized local Indians and caused the premier 19th century historian Hubert Howe Bancroft to describe them as follows.
  • California Indian History 10 September 2009 20:34 UTC ceres.ca.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a state shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Public libraries, along with the Texas State Library, qv flourished in the early twentieth century along with the public secondary schools that benefited from state reorganization in the 1880s.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most blacks in the South could not vote until 1965, after passage of the Voting Rights Act and Federal enforcement to ensure people could register.^ The 185 claimed by the Republican manager could be made up only by including the electoral votes of Florida , South Carolina , and Louisiana .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Such Sheriffs do not answer to Federal nor State officials, but to the people of his county with assistance from the County Attorney, the County Commissioners and most importantly, support from the voting public.

^ They are empowered to act for the people of their County and may even arrest Federal Agents who might try to interfere.

.Not until the late 1960s did all American citizens regain protected civil rights by passage of legislation following the leadership of the American Civil Rights Movement.^ The organization worked under the leadership of Bonnel Stone to convince the Georgia legislature to pass fire protection legislation.
  • Guide to The Development of Forestry in the Southern United States Oral History Interview Collection, 1958 - 1976 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.foresthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Inventory of the Development of Forestry in the Southern United States Oral History Interviews, 1958 - 1976 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.foresthistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The period saw the birth of feminism and the environmental movement as political forces, and continued progress toward Civil Rights.

^ The mid- to late 1960s were marked by widespread civil disorder, including race riots and antiwar demonstrations.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

20th century - Industrialization and Great Migration

.At the end of the 19th century, white Democrats in the South had created state constitutions that were hostile to industry and business development.^ When benevolent people and wise statesmen of the South expected the gradual extinction of slavery , the invention of the cotton gin created an industrial revolution in that section.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The historical path taken by the Old South is only explained by the economic, demographic, political, and religious changes in the North in the 19th century.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ United States ; in glassware: United States ) containers ( in industrial glass: Container making ) South Jersey glass ( in South Jersey glass ) graphic design ( in graphic design: The Industrial Revolution and design technology ) industrial design ( in industrial design: Modern design in the United States ) interior design .
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

Banking was limited, as was access to credit. States persisted in agricultural economies. .As in Alabama, rural minorities held control in many state legislatures long after population had shifted to industrializing cities, and the legislators resisted business and modernizing interests.^ In 1876 Colorado became a state; the camp on Cherry Creek, Denver , is now a populous city.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cuba continued under the military control of the United States for many months.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In a minor way many Texas towns and cities benefited by hosting a political unit.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For instance, Alabama refused to redistrict from 1901 to 1972, long after major population and economic shifts to cities. .For decades Birmingham generated the majority of revenue for the state, for instance, but received little back in services or infrastructure.^ He received a pardon for his services to the Confederacy, and in 1872 he was re-elected to the United States House of Representatives.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "When the colored regiment was first organized by General Hunter no provision was made for its payment, and the men were discharged after several months' service, receiving nothing for it.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Plaintiff: DERIAN DOUGLAS HICKMAN Defendant: UNITED STATES MINT, INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, UNITED STATES TAX COURT, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE   .
  • Docket Search: "united states department of justice" - Justia Federal District Court Filings and Dockets 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC dockets.justia.com [Source type: Original source]

[36]
Business interests were ignored by the Bourbon class. .Nonetheless, major new industries started developing in cities such as Atlanta, GA; Birmingham, AL; and Dallas, Fort Worth and Houston, Texas.^ In the larger places such as Austin, Dallas, Fort Worth, Lubbock, Houston, Waco, and San Antonio other colleges and universities gave diversity to the economy and leaven to the culture.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Music was taught in the early Texas cities and various bands performed, but the first symphony orchestra started in San Antonio in 1904, followed by Dallas in 1911 and Houston in 1913.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of industrial dumping and city sewage, in addition, the Houston Ship Channel in the 1960s ranked as one of the worst polluted waterways in the world.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Growth began occurring at a geometric rate. .Birmingham became a major steel producer and mining town, with major population growth in the early decades of the 20th century.^ Automobiles appeared as curiosities on Texas city streets early in the twentieth century, but shortly began to influence the growth of suburbs and shopping areas.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Collectively this group of oral history interviews reflects upon the growth of professional forestry in the American South during the early to mid-twentieth century.
  • Guide to The Development of Forestry in the Southern United States Oral History Interview Collection, 1958 - 1976 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.foresthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the Mexican-American population of Houston began to rebuild in the early twentieth century, for example, a barrio developed near the cotton compresses at the railroad tracks and became a city within a city.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the late 19th century, Texas rapidly expanded its railroad network, creating a network of cities connected on a radial plan and linked to the port of Galveston.^ The Southern Pacific system extends from San Francisco Bay by way of El Paso to Galveston, Texas, and to New Orleans, there connecting with steamship lines to New York City controlled by the Southern Pacific.
  • United States Supreme Court Reports - UNITED STATES v. SOUTHERN PAC. CO., 259 U.S. 214 (1922) 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.loislaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Automobiles appeared as curiosities on Texas city streets early in the twentieth century, but shortly began to influence the growth of suburbs and shopping areas.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Railroads diverted trade to Galveston, and devastating hurricanes qv in 1875 and 1886 persuaded the survivors to abandon the site and make Port Lavaca county seat again.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It was the first state in which urban and economic development proceeded independently of rivers, the primary transportation network of the past. .A reflection of increasing industry were strikes and labor unrest: "in 1885 Texas ranked ninth among forty states in number of workers involved in strikes (4,000); for the six-year period it ranked fifteenth.^ Abusive industrial practices led to the often violent rise of the labor movement in the United States.

^ (CORPUS CHRISTI, Texas) - A Corpus Christi area psychologist has been sentenced to five years of probation and six months house arrest for defrauding Medicaid ( Read more ) .
  • United States Attorneys' Office - Southern District of Texas 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.justice.gov [Source type: General]

^ An unprecedented wave of immigration to the United States served both to provide the labor for American industry and to create diverse communities in previously undeveloped areas.

Seventy-five of the 100 strikes, chiefly interstate strikes of telegraphers and railway workers, occurred in the year 1886."[37]
.In 1890 Dallas was the largest city in Texas.^ Planning and zoning of the cityscape began with Dallas in 1910 and has spread to most of the larger cities, with the exception of Houston, which stubbornly has chosen to remain the nation's largest unzoned city.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 1900 it had a population of more than 42,000, which more than doubled to over 92,000 a decade later.^ (HOUSTON) – A Canadian citizen responsible for distributing more than 200,000 Ecstasy pills in the Houston area has been sentenced to 20 years in federal prison ( Read more ) .
  • United States Attorneys' Office - Southern District of Texas 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.justice.gov [Source type: General]

^ Demographer S.F, Cook determined the California Indian population declined to fewer than 16,000 individuals in 1900.
  • California Indian History 10 September 2009 20:34 UTC ceres.ca.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The largest in 1920, all with more than 50,000 population, were Dallas, El Paso, Fort Worth, Houston, and San Antonio.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Dallas was the harnessmaking capital of the world and center of other manufacturing. As an example of its ambitions, in 1907 Dallas built the Praetorian Building, 15 stories tall and the first skyscraper west of the Mississippi. Others soon followed.[38] .Texas was transformed by a railroad network linking five important cities, among them Houston with its nearby port at Galveston, Dallas, Fort Worth, San Antonio, and El Paso.^ Passenger service among Dallas, Fort Worth, San Antonio, Houston, and Galveston started in 1928.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The largest in 1920, all with more than 50,000 population, were Dallas, El Paso, Fort Worth, Houston, and San Antonio.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Texas cities were now nationally important.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Each exceeded 50,000 in population by 1920, with the major cities having three times that population.^ In 1948 Houston was the fastest-growing city in the country, and in 1954 its metropolitan population exceeded a million.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The largest in 1920, all with more than 50,000 population, were Dallas, El Paso, Fort Worth, Houston, and San Antonio.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Within ninety days the population increased three times, to about 3,000 people, and Fort Worth acquired the same sort of wild reputation as other frontier cattle towns.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]
.The first major oil well in the South was drilled at Spindletop near Beaumont, Texas, on the morning of January 10, 1901. Other oil fields were later discovered nearby in Arkansas, Oklahoma, and under the Gulf of Mexico.^ Now Fort Worth could become a shipping point, for cattle and local businessmen built the Fort Worth Stockyards, qv which made Fort Worth the first major Texas cowtown.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The gusher at Spindletop oilfield qv in 1901 started the rush and brought refineries and oil companies to Houston, Beaumont, and Port Arthur.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the Houston, and Texas Central reached Denison near the Texas-Oklahoma border in 1873 and joined the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railway, a new era opened.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The resulting "Oil Boom" permanently transformed the economy of the West/South Central states and led to the most significant economic expansion after the Civil War.^ Attitudes toward expansionism - The Civil War .
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Court of Claims' opinion acknowledges this, stating that: "The most significant aspects to be gleaned from this 1880.

^ Buoyed by victories in World Wars I and II and the end of the Cold War in 1991, the US remains the world's most powerful nation state.

.In the early 20th century, invasion of the boll weevil devastated cotton crops in states of the South.^ Public libraries, along with the Texas State Library, qv flourished in the early twentieth century along with the public secondary schools that benefited from state reorganization in the 1880s.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Collectively this group of oral history interviews reflects upon the growth of professional forestry in the American South during the early to mid-twentieth century.
  • Guide to The Development of Forestry in the Southern United States Oral History Interview Collection, 1958 - 1976 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.foresthistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ European immigrants came to the United States in large numbers in the early 20th century.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

This was an additional catalyst to African Americans' decisions to leave the South. .From 1910 to 1940, and then from the 1940s to 1970, more than 6.5 million African Americans left the South in the Great Migration to northern and midwestern cities, making multiple acts of resistance against persistent lynching and violence, segregation, poor education, and inability to vote.^ Indeed, there were cast against him almost a million more votes than were cast for him.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When the king and his friends heard of the proceedings of the Congress, they were more determined than ever to make them submit.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Indiana placed a Negro-exclusion article in her constitution of 1851, the people approved it by the tremendous vote of more than five to one.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.Their movements transformed many cities, creating new cultures and music in the North.^ The North stated that the South had created no new nation so that they considered their actions to be a police action of putting down a rebellion against lawful government.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Besides, the many Broadway shows and great avenues for shopping and dining make New York City one of the most visited cities of the world.
  • United States Destinations - United States Attractions - United States Travel Guide - United States Places To Visit | Travel & Places 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC ayushveda.com [Source type: News]

^ The culture flowed mainly from the cresting wave of the American westward movement, and it was this Anglo-American influence that set the pattern for modern Texas cities.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many African Americans, like other groups, became industrial workers; others started their own businesses within the communities.^ In Cuba upwards of $50,000,000 of American capital were invested in plantations, mines, railways and other lines of business.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Culture Culture of the United States American culture is a Western culture, with influences from Europe, the Native American peoples, African Americans and young groups of immigrants.

^ They are also the Americans most loyal to their own region and their own states, and the most likely to remain in their native territory.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.Southern whites also migrated to industrial cities, especially Chicago and Detroit, where they took jobs in the booming new auto industry.^ In other words, the treatment of the Southern Utes would be precisely that accorded the Uncompahgre and White River Utes when they left Colorado.
  • United States v. Southern Ute Tribe, 402 U.S. 159, 91 S.Ct. 1336, 28 L.Ed.2d 695 (1971) 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.utulsa.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Republicans controlled the White House and the Southern Democrats left the Congress, the Republicans, as former Whigs, did what they had been itching to do for decades: go on a protectionist frenzy.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Coastal region from Jacksonville, North Carolina to Jacksonville, Florida; Sea Islands off Georgia coast; New York City, Detroit.
  • Ethnologue report for United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

.Later the southern economy was dealt additional blows by the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl.^ The stock market crash of 1929 led to the Great Depression , which New Deal legislation combated by increasing the federal government’s role in the economy.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Stock Market crash in 1929 and the ensuing Great Depression led to government efforts to re-start the economy and help its victims, with Roosevelt's New Deal.

.After the Wall Street Crash of 1929, the economy suffered significant reversals and millions were left unemployed.^ The stock market crash of 1929 led to the Great Depression , which New Deal legislation combated by increasing the federal government’s role in the economy.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Stock Market crash in 1929 and the ensuing Great Depression led to government efforts to re-start the economy and help its victims, with Roosevelt's New Deal.

.Beginning in 1934 and lasting until 1939, an ecological disaster of severe wind and drought caused an exodus from Texas and Arkansas, the Oklahoma Panhandle region and the surrounding plains, in which over 500,000 Americans were homeless, hungry and jobless.^ It also has been noted to have denser foliage, slower growth, and a greater tolerance to heat and drought, making this a desirable variety to plant in the upper plains region.
  • State Trees 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.usna.usda.gov [Source type: Original source]

[40] .Thousands left the region forever to seek economic opportunities along the West Coast.^ Thousands left the region forever to seek economic opportunities along the West Coast.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Farther along the coast to the west, military action established Corpus Christi as another port city.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The urban expansion of American settlement in Texas came from east to west, along the coast, and up the rivers from the seacoast in a sequential pattern of seaports, river towns, and railroad towns.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - URBANIZATION 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.President Franklin D. Roosevelt noted the South as the "number one priority" in terms of need of assistance during the Great Depression.^ The Stock Market crash in 1929 and the ensuing Great Depression led to government efforts to re-start the economy and help its victims, with Roosevelt's New Deal.

^ During the progress of these negotiations the president had heard that a force of men from a United States vessel had landed and given assistance to the revolutionists.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During President Roosevelt's administration was passed an act authorizing the construction of a ship canal across the narrow isthmus connecting North and South America.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.His administration created programs such as the Tennessee Valley Authority in 1933 to provide rural electrification and stimulate development.^ The South was noted by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt as the "number one priority" in terms of need of assistance during the Great Depression ( 1929 - 1939 ), instituting programs such as the Tennessee Valley Authority in 1933 .
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, the creation of computer programming and communications companies (such as the Cable News Network , which is based in Atlanta) have helped to fuel the "New South" economy.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Locked into low productivity agriculture, the region's growth was slowed by limited industrial development, low levels of entrepreneurship, and the lack of capital investment.^ Industrial production growth rate: .

^ After Reconstruction (1865–77) the U.S. experienced rapid growth, urbanization, industrial development, and European immigration.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.World War II marked a time of change in the South as new industries and military bases were developed by the Federal government, providing badly needed capital and infrastructure in many regions.^ World War II - - - The road to war .
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The federal government was in distress; many of the states were on the verge of civil war .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States government refused to recognize the new country, and kept in operation its second to last fort in the South, which the Confederacy captured in April 1861 at the Battle of Fort Sumter , in the port of Charleston, South Carolina , triggering the Civil War.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.People from all parts of the US came to the South for military training and work in the region's many bases and new industries.^ In the South nearly all the unskilled labour was performed by negro slaves ; in the North much of that work was done by a class of men known as "Redemptioners".
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the South, people sometimes dress more casually, although formality in certain contexts is valued some parts of the region, a trend which may also influence ethnic groups outside the South, including African Americans.

^ In the late 19th and early 20th century, many immigrants came to America by way of New York and …[Credits : Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

Farming shifted from cotton and tobacco to include soybeans, corn, and other foods.
This growth increased in the 1960s and greatly accelerated into the 1980s and 1990s. .Large urban areas with over 4 million people rose in Texas, Georgia, and Florida.^ Spain claimed or controlled a large part of the central and western United States as part of New Spain which included Spanish Florida, California and Texas.

.Rapid expansion in industries such as autos, telecommunications, textiles, technology, banking, and aviation gave some states in the South an industrial strength to rival large states elsewhere in the country.^ American anthropology since the 1950s ) automotive industry ( in automobile: The United States ; in automobile: V-8s and chrome in America ) aviation and space .
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Today, 85% of the oil and petrochemical industry is in the South along with all manner of other manufacturing including endeavors such as NASA, etc.

^ These claims, reinforced by American occupation, ultimately gave the vast Oregon country to the United States.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.By the 2000 census, The South (along with the West) was leading the nation in population growth.^ According to the 2000 U.S. Census, more than 97% of Americans can speak English "well," and for 81% of the population, it is the only language spoken at home.

.However, with this growth has come long commute times and serious air pollution problems in cities such as Dallas, Houston, Atlanta, Miami, Austin, Charlotte, and others which have relied on sprawling development and highway networks.^ An example of such a rivalry exists between the Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota, another one with two similar sized Texas cities of Dallas, Texas and Houston, Texas.

^ The time has come and is long overdue for a change which I offer the people of the 88 th Alabama District."

.In the last two generations, the South has changed dramatically.^ In the last two generations, the South has changed dramatically.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the last two years of the War, Lamar served as a Judge Advocate for the Army of Northern Virginia under General Robert E. Lee.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1978, the two countries formed the Combined Forces Command (CFC), based in Seoul and with a U.S. general at the helm, to defend South Korea.
  • The U.S.-South Korea Alliance - Council on Foreign Relations 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC www.cfr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In recent decades it has seen a boom in its service economy, manufacturing base, high technology industries, and the financial sector. .Examples of this include the surge in tourism in Florida and along the Gulf Coast; numerous new automobile production plants such as Mercedes-Benz in Tuscaloosa, Alabama; Hyundai in Montgomery, Alabama; the BMW production plant in Spartanburg, South Carolina; the GM manufacturing plant in Spring Hill, Tennessee; and the Nissan North American headquarters in Franklin, Tennessee; the two largest research parks in the country: Research Triangle Park in North Carolina (the world's largest) and the Cummings Research Park in Huntsville, Alabama (the world's fourth largest); and the corporate headquarters of major banking corporations Bank of America and Wachovia in Charlotte; Regions Financial Corporation, AmSouth Bancorporation, and BBVA Compass in Birmingham; SunTrust Banks and the district headquarters of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta; and BB&T in Winston-Salem; and several Atlanta-based corporate headquarters and cable television networks, such as CNN, TBS, TNT, Turner South, Cartoon Network, and The Weather Channel.^ The first of these divisions includes the middle Appalachian region, or that between the Hudson and the James Rivers; the north-eastern Appalachian region, which overlaps New England at many points; the south-western Appalachian, which includes the country from Maryland to the Carolinas.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The 185 claimed by the Republican manager could be made up only by including the electoral votes of Florida , South Carolina , and Louisiana .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ From the NEW YORK HERALD: "The ultimatum of the seceded States is now before the Government at Washington, in this new Constitution adopted by the Congress at Montgomery, Alabama.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.This economic expansion has enabled parts of the South to boast of some of the lowest unemployment rates in the United States.^ We have restored part of the national government of the Confederate States of America and we are growing in numbers of registered citizens across the South and in our claimed territories as well.

^ During the progress of the war with Spain the people of the United States began to take a different view of territorial expansion.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States is generally skeptical or hostile toward socialist and communist ideologies, but some of the related movements, such as the labor movement, became a defining part of America's heritage after the New Deal.

[41]

Growth and poverty

.The South's early cash crops of tobacco, indigo and rice created enormous wealth for many planters in the coastal areas.^ After 1700 large numbers of African slaves were brought in to work on the large plantations that dominated export agriculture of tobacco, rice, and indigo.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

While city development was limited, Richmond, Charleston, Savannah and others developed a sophisticated society. .The wealthiest planters sent their sons to college in England and later to the best schools in the South, and sometimes the North.^ The efforts he made provoked incidents which brought England to the brink of recognition of the South and war with the North.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

They imported furniture and furnishings from Europe, as well as employing the best colonial craftsmen. .For many it was a mostly rural society, but by the 19th century, some families moved back and forth between plantations and town houses.^ In the late 19th and early 20th century, many immigrants came to America by way of New York and …[Credits : Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

The planter class controlled the state legislatures and kept taxes low. Their wealth went mostly for private purposes. .They invested in no system of public education and little infrastructure.^ With no voting rights and no voice in government, blacks were subjected to what was known as the Jim Crow law s, a system of universal segregation and discrimination in all public facilities.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Salaries ) elementary education ( in elementary education ) monitorial system ( in monitorial system ) No Child Left Behind ( in No Child Left Behind ) normal school ( in normal school ) open classroom ( in free school ) pedagogy .
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For the conduct of the war in which they found themselves engaged they were wretchedly prepared: they had no money, no system of taxation, no navy.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the antebellum years, by 1840 New Orleans was the wealthiest city in the country and the third largest in population, based on the growth of international trade associated with products being shipped to and from the interior of the country down the Mississippi River.^ By that treaty France gave to Spain for her assistance in the war , all that part of the country lying west of the middle of the Mississippi River from its source to a point almost as far south as New Orleans .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers & Associations is a non-profit, non-governmental Organization (NGO) representing national industry associations and companies from both developed and developing countries.
  • allAfrica.com: Other Sources 20 September 2009 5:55 UTC allafrica.com [Source type: News]

^ In addition, there are significant Catholic populations in most cities in the South, with larger concentrations in cities such as New Orleans , whereas areas like Arkansas and Mississippi have stronger concentrations of Baptists.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It had the largest slave market in the country, as traders brought slaves to New Orleans by ship and overland to sell to planters across the Deep South.^ The traders could buy a slave in Africa for a few gallons of rum and sell him in this country at fantastic profit.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By that treaty France gave to Spain for her assistance in the war , all that part of the country lying west of the middle of the Mississippi River from its source to a point almost as far south as New Orleans .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The South's musical history actually starts before the Civil War, with the songs of the African slaves and the traditional folk music brought from Britain and Ireland.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The city was a cosmopolitan port with a variety of jobs that attracted more immigrants than did other areas of the South.^ (CORPUS CHRISTI, Texas) – A Corpus Christi area crack cocaine dealer with be serving more than 15 years in federal prison without parole ( Read more ) .
  • United States Attorneys' Office - Southern District of Texas 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.justice.gov [Source type: General]

^ (HOUSTON) – A Canadian citizen responsible for distributing more than 200,000 Ecstasy pills in the Houston area has been sentenced to 20 years in federal prison ( Read more ) .
  • United States Attorneys' Office - Southern District of Texas 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.justice.gov [Source type: General]

^ There are more than 300 languages besides English which can claim native speakers in the United States--some of which are spoken by the indigenous peoples (about 150 living languages) and others which were imported by immigrants.

[42] Because of lack of investment, construction of railroads to span the region lagged behind that in the North. .People relied most heavily on river traffic for getting their crops to market and for transportation.^ The Southern transportation system depended primarily on river and coastal traffic by boat; both were shut down by the Union Navy.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Mississippi before the war, for instance, most plantations were developed along the Mississippi and other navigable rivers.^ [Credits : Thomas Hovland/Grant Heilman Photography] A grain barge traveling on the Mississippi River along Missouri’s border.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.The bottomlands were not developed until after the war, when the chance to buy land attracted tens of thousands of migrants, both black and white.^ During the Revolutionary War, black and white fought together, on both sides.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Black Southerners fought alongside white, Hispanic, Native American, Jewish, and thousands of foreign-born Southerners.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.By the end of the century, two-thirds of farm owners in the Delta bottomlands were black.^ Between 1889 and 1922, the NAACP calculates that lynchings reached their worst level in history, with almost 3,500 people, two-thirds of them black men, murdered.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The long agricultural depression meant that many had to take on too much debt - together with disfranchisement and lack of access to credit, by 1910 many had lost their property and by 1920, most blacks in the Delta were sharecroppers or landless workers. .More than two generations of free African Americans had lost their stake in property.^ As proof of this, some people cite the fact that a second Great Migration appears to be underway, with African Americans whose ancestors left the South two generations ago moving back to the region in record numbers.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His residence in Minnesota had not made him free; that Congress could not exclude from the territories slave property any more than other sort of property ; the Missouri Compromise of 1820 was null and void.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Massachusetts once passed a law that stated that if a Negro, native American or mulatto entered their state and stayed for more than two months they would be publicly flogged.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

[43]
.After the Civil War, nearly the entire economic infrastructure of the region was in ruins.^ The resulting "Oil Boom" permanently transformed the economy of the West South Central States , and led to the first significant economic expansion after the Civil War.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the region devastated by its loss and the destruction of its civil infrastructure, much of the South was generally unable to recover economically until World War II ( 1939 - 1945 ).
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is worth noting, though, that nearly all southerners, black and white, suffered as a result of the Civil War.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As agriculture had been the foundation of the Southern economy, disruption of slavery by the Civil War meant that planters had to learn to deal with free labor, a challenge as freedmen wanted most to take care of their own crops and land.^ The resulting "Oil Boom" permanently transformed the economy of the West South Central States , and led to the first significant economic expansion after the Civil War.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is worth noting, though, that nearly all southerners, black and white, suffered as a result of the Civil War.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Due to the central role of agriculture in the antebellum economy, society remained stratified according to land ownership.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Additionally, since there were few industrial businesses located in the south, there were not many other possible sources of income.^ In many parts of Georgia, Alabama, Arkansas, Texas and other parts of the South, the term "soft drink" is discarded in favor of "Coke").
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A native of Malaysia and Polynesia, the tree was brought to Hawaii and many other tropical locations by early Polynesian settlers who valued its many uses.
  • State Trees 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.usna.usda.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ American holly plays a major role in the horticulture industry, and there are over 1,000 different cultivars -- many of them hybrids with other holly species to confuse identification.
  • State Trees 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.usna.usda.gov [Source type: Original source]

Textile mills in the Piedmont of Georgia rebuilt rapidly, but it was not until the 20th century that the region dominated the industry. Some areas rapidly rebuilt—Atlanta, for example—through railroads.
.After World War II, with the development of the Interstate Highway System, household air conditioning and later, passage of civil rights bills, the South was successful in attracting industry and business from other parts of the country.^ World War II - - - The road to war .
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ "The Civil War was a War of Northern aggression against Southern rights, not a war to preserve the American Nation and ultimately to abolish Slavery."
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Mosquito bomber, used in World War II, and Howard Hughes’s Spruce Goose were built using Sitka spruce from Alaska and British Columbia.
  • State Trees 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.usna.usda.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Industry from the Rust Belt region of the Northeast and the Great Lakes moved into the region because of lower labor costs and less unionization.^ Like other California Indian communities, society was divided into three classes, the elite, a middle class and finally a less successful lower class.
  • California Indian History 10 September 2009 20:34 UTC ceres.ca.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Even still, Southern influence can still be found in Oklahoma, particularly in the southeastern region of the state, but the influence becomes less apparent as you move north and west of this area.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Locked into low productivity agriculture, the region's growth was slowed by limited industrial development, low levels of entrepreneurship, and the lack of capital investment.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Poverty rates and unemployment declined as a result of new job growth. Federal programs such as the Appalachian Regional Commission also contributed to economic growth.
.While the Southern United States has advanced considerably since World War II, significant poverty still persists in the more isolated and rural areas.^ World War II - - - The road to war .
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The new U.S. role in world affairs - The United States since 1945 .
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The United States at war - - - War production .
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Areas like the Black Belt, the eastern Kentucky and southern West Virginia areas in Appalachia, the Mexican border area along the Rio Grande in Texas, and the Deltas of Mississippi and Arkansas suffer the most poverty in the South today.^ Senator Hayne, of South Carolina , chose to regard this as a manifestation of the Eastern jealousy of the West.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Southern Louisiana west of the Mississippi as far north as Avoyelles, Evangeline, Allen, and Calcasieu parishes.
  • Ethnologue report for United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ (BROWNSVILLE, Texas) – Sergio Lopez Hernandez, 40, a Brownsville Customs and Border Protection (CBP) inspector was indicted by a federal grand jury on Wednesday Feb.
  • United States Attorneys' Office - Southern District of Texas 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.justice.gov [Source type: General]

Culture

.The predominant culture of the South has its origins with the settlement of the region by British colonists in the 17th century, large groups of Scots and Ulster-Scots (later called the Scotch-Irish) who settled in Appalachia and the Piedmont in the 18th century, and the many African slaves who were part of the Southern economy.^ In the 17th century most were of English origins, but in the 18th century large numbers of Scots-Irish settled in Appalachia and the Piedmont .
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This debate is influenced, in part, by the fact that the South is such a large region.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The culture of the South has its origins with the settlement of the region by British colonists .
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.African-American descendants of the slaves brought into the South comprise the United States' second-largest racial minority, accounting for 12.1 percent of the total population according to the 2000 census.^ Ethnic population: 490 (2000 census).
  • Ethnologue report for United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Ethnic population: 165 (2000 census).
  • Ethnologue report for United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Ethnic population: 74 (2000 census).
  • Ethnologue report for United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

.Despite Jim Crow era outflow to the North (see Great Migration (African American)) the majority of the black population remains concentrated in the southern states, and have heavily contributed to the cultural blend (the charismatic brand of Christianity, foods, art, music [see "Spiritual (music)", blues, jazz and rock and roll]) that characterize Southern culture today.^ Rudolph Young, in writing recently about "Black Confederates In Lincoln County, North Carolina" says, "Students of African American history should have been able to predict with a great degree of certainty that some, if not most, black Southerners would support their country, as did most white Southerners.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Due to the region's unique cultural and historic heritage, including the doctrine of states' rights , the institution of slavery and the legacy of the American Civil War , the South has developed its own customs, literature, musical styles (such as country music and jazz , rock 'n' roll and blues ), and cuisine .
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chuck Berry , sometimes considered the most important early rock n' roll figure along with Elvis, is from St. Louis, Missouri, a state that is sometimes considered Southern, and a city with an undeniable Southern influence, largely due to its large African American population and location on the Mississippi River.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Politics

.In the first decades after Reconstruction, when white Democrats regained power in the state legislatures, they began to make voter registration more complicated, to reduce black voting.^ The selection of Colorado’s state tree began when the Colorado Horticultural Society initiated a campaign to educate Colorado school children about local trees and to vote on one to represent the state.
  • State Trees 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.usna.usda.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The citizens should decide who they want to vote for, not the Legislature."

^ When the Republicans controlled the White House and the Southern Democrats left the Congress, the Republicans, as former Whigs, did what they had been itching to do for decades: go on a protectionist frenzy.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.With a combination of intimidation, fraud and violence by paramilitary groups, they turned Republicans out of office and suppressed black voting.^ The Republican "returning boards" of those states had it in their power to determine the result of the election by throwing out the votes of any places where, in their judgment, fraud or intimidation had occurred.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.From 1890 to 1908, ten of eleven states ratified new constitutions or amendments that effectively disfranchised most black voters and many poor white voters.^ Many white Southerners who had actively supported the Confederacy lost many of the basic rights of citizenship (such as the ability to vote) while with the passage of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States (which outlawed slavery), the 14th Amendment (which granted full U.S. citizenship to African American s) and the 15th amendment (which extended the right to vote to black males), African Americans in the South began to enjoy more rights than they had ever had in the region.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the NEW YORK HERALD: "The ultimatum of the seceded States is now before the Government at Washington, in this new Constitution adopted by the Congress at Montgomery, Alabama.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is interesting to note in this connection that this is the only proposed (and not ratified) amendment to the Constitution to have been signed by the President.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.This disfranchisement persisted for six decades into the 20th century, depriving blacks and poor whites of all political representation.^ It is worth noting, though, that nearly all southerners, black and white, suffered as a result of the Civil War.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blues was developed in the rural South by Blacks at the beginning of the 20th century.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Political South in the 20th Century.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because they could not vote, they could not sit on juries.^ Blacks were not called to serve on juries, and they were not allowed to vote in the Democratic primary elections (which usually decided the election outcome).
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But while they voted against a convention they did make a hold to the belief that the Federal government could not force one State to fight another.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.They had no one to represent their interests, resulting in state legislatures consistently underfunding programs and services, such as schools, for blacks and poor whites.^ The selection of Colorado’s state tree began when the Colorado Horticultural Society initiated a campaign to educate Colorado school children about local trees and to vote on one to represent the state.
  • State Trees 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.usna.usda.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In construing an act of the National Legislature one is to assume that it has no power to pass such act unless the authority is conferred by the Constitution, or may be fairly derived from some grant of powers enumerated therein.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Gingrich, then the Minority Whip of the U.S. House of Representatives , created the document to detail what the Republican Party would do if they won the that year's United States Congressional election.
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the Supreme Court began to find such disfranchisement provisions unconstitutional, southern legislatures quickly passed other measures to keep blacks disfranchised, even after suffrage was extended more widely to poor whites.^ In many of the Southern States it was forbidden to teach slaves to read and write, but oftentimes the more humane masters taught them the meaning of the Scripture and even the elements of knowledge .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a state shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By the Constitution the judicial power of the United States is vested in a supreme court, and such inferior courts as the Congress may, from time to time, ordain and establish.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Because white Democrats controlled all the seats apportioned to their states, they had outsize power in Congress and filibustered or defeated efforts by others to pass legislation against lynching, for example.^ They had previously obtained control of Congress.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a state shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress had elected two Republican and two Democratic justices, and they were to choose a fifth.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

The region became known as the Solid South. .The Republicans controlled parts of the Appalachian Mountains and competed for power in the Border States.^ The Republican "returning boards" of those states had it in their power to determine the result of the election by throwing out the votes of any places where, in their judgment, fraud or intimidation had occurred.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Spain claimed or controlled a large part of the central and western United States as part of New Spain which included Spanish Florida, California and Texas.

.From the late 1870s to the 1960s, it was rare for a state or national Southern politician to be Republican.^ This is easy enough, in order to be a war of "conquest" then the Southern States would have to be in reality a foreign nation.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Southern magnolia ( Magnolia grandiflora ) is grown in the National Grove of State Trees to represent Mississippi.
  • State Trees 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.usna.usda.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Join the Federation of States and help Regain our Southern Heritage and our Free and Independent Nation.

.Increasing support for civil rights legislation by the national Democratic Party beginning in the 1940s caused conservative Southern Democrats to take notice.^ I will support legislation that will increase competition in elections.

^ "The Civil War was a War of Northern aggression against Southern rights, not a war to preserve the American Nation and ultimately to abolish Slavery."
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cold War Beginnings and the Civil Rights Movement (1945–1964) Following World War II, the United States emerged as one of the two dominant superpowers.

.Until the passage of the Civil Rights laws of the 1960s, conservative Southern Democrats ("Dixiecrats") argued that only they could defend the region from the onslaught of northern liberals and the civil rights movement.^ Until the passage of the Civil Rights laws of the 1960s, the Democrats argued that only they could defend the region from the onslaught of northern liberals and the civil rights movement .
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For a long time the waterways not only influenced the social and political life of the people, but determined the direction of their movements when they went to new regions.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cardy is a Modern Conservative on fiscal Issues and a Classical Liberal on defending GOD-given Rights and civil Liberties and Constitutional issues.

In response to the Brown v. .Board of Education ruling of 1954, southern legislators developed the Southern Manifesto.^ In response to the Brown decision of 1954, the "Southern Manifesto" was issued in March 1956, by 101 southern congressmen (19 senators, 82 House members).
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was issued in March 1956, by 101 southern congressmen (19 senators, 82 House members of which 99 were Southern Democrats and 2 were Republicans).^ In response to the Brown decision of 1954, the "Southern Manifesto" was issued in March 1956, by 101 southern congressmen (19 senators, 82 House members).
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bill passed the House of Representatives, the Southern members voting almost solidly against it; in the Senate it never came to a vote.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As a democrat he served in the Louisiana House from 1829 - 1833 and failed in three attempts for the U.S. Senate.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.It denounced the Brown decisions as a "clear abuse of judicial power [that] climaxes a trend in the federal judiciary undertaking to legislate in derogation of the authority of Congress and to encroach upon the reserved rights of the states and the people."^ It denounced the Brown decisions as a "clear abuse of judicial power [that] climaxes a trend in the federal judiciary undertaking to legislate in derogation of the authority of Congress and to encroach upon the reserved rights of the states and the people."
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As he had during his political career, he continued to rule in favor of states rights, forcefully opposing political power of the federal government.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By the Constitution the judicial power of the United States is vested in a supreme court, and such inferior courts as the Congress may, from time to time, ordain and establish.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The manifesto lauded "those states which have declared the intention to resist enforced integration by any lawful means."^ The manifesto lauded "those states which have declared the intention to resist enforced integration by any lawful means."
  • Southern United States at AllExperts 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This part of the law was afterward declared by the United States Supreme Court to be unconstitutional.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At that time it was costing the United States much money to enforce the neutrality laws .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

It was signed by all southern senators except Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson, and Tennessee senators Albert Gore, Sr. and Estes Kefauver. .Virginia closed schools in Warren County, Prince Edward County, Charlottesville, and Norfolk rather than integrate, but no other state followed suit.^ No other state has its identity so closely linked to its state tree.
  • State Trees 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.usna.usda.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Other states followed her example, and in Feb., 1861, at Montgomery, Alabama , organized the Confederate States of America.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, the government under the confederation had no independent income, but depended entirely upon the contributions of the various states.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

Democratic governors Orval Faubus of Arkansas, Ross Barnett of Mississippi, Lester Maddox of Georgia, and, especially, George Wallace of Alabama resisted integration and appealed to a blue-collar electorate.
.The Democratic Party's national support of civil rights issues culminated when Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson signed into law the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.^ In pushing their measures through Congress they were constantly opposed by President Johnson, who was a Democrat and a "strict constructionist" of the Constitution .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cardy is a Modern Conservative on fiscal Issues and a Classical Liberal on defending GOD-given Rights and civil Liberties and Constitutional issues.

^ The great Democratic victory of that year is generally ascribed to the attitude of that party toward the Compromise measures, especially its position on the Fugitive Slave Law.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some Republicans began to develop their Southern strategy to attract conservative white Southerners.^ When the Republicans controlled the White House and the Southern Democrats left the Congress, the Republicans, as former Whigs, did what they had been itching to do for decades: go on a protectionist frenzy.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.Southern Democrats took notice that 1964 Republican Presidential candidate Barry Goldwater had voted against the Civil Rights Act.^ The bill passed the House of Representatives, the Southern members voting almost solidly against it; in the Senate it never came to a vote.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Authorized Immigrants should be entitled to most of the civil rights enjoyed by Citizens except not the right to vote, hold office nor to become involved in protests against the government or industries therein.

^ After 1860, however, they won all the presidential elections except those of 1884 and 1892, when Grover Cleveland, the Democratic candidate, was chosen.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the presidential election of 1964, Goldwater's only electoral victories outside his home state of Arizona were in the states of the Deep South.^ The 185 claimed by the Republican manager could be made up only by including the electoral votes of Florida , South Carolina , and Louisiana .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The legislation designating Arizona’s state tree does not select a particular species of palo verde, but only specifies the genus Cercidium .
  • State Trees 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.usna.usda.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Black Hills spruce is the only spruce native to South Dakota, and it is not widely distributed in the state.
  • State Trees 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.usna.usda.gov [Source type: Original source]

The transition to a Republican stronghold in the South took decades. .First, the states started voting Republican in presidential elections, except for favorite sons Jimmy Carter in 1976, Bill Clinton in 1992 and 1996.Then the states began electing Republican senators and finally governors.^ The selection of Colorado’s state tree began when the Colorado Horticultural Society initiated a campaign to educate Colorado school children about local trees and to vote on one to represent the state.
  • State Trees 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.usna.usda.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ After 1860, however, they won all the presidential elections except those of 1884 and 1892, when Grover Cleveland, the Democratic candidate, was chosen.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1822 he was elected to the state senate before going on to become one of the judges of the supreme court of Louisiana in 1846.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

Georgia was the last state to do so, with Sonny Perdue taking the governorship in 2002. In addition to the middle class and business base, Republicans cultivated the religious right and attracted strong majorities from the evangelical Christian vote, which had not been a distinct political demographic prior to 1980.
.The region's resistance to giving African Americans basic citizens' rights of voting and integration in public places broke out in renewed violence and murders during the 1960s, and major resistance to desegregation extending into the 1970s.^ When the last conflict broke out the lower states of the south sent troops into Pennsylvania .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Republican "returning boards" of those states had it in their power to determine the result of the election by throwing out the votes of any places where, in their judgment, fraud or intimidation had occurred.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

The political realignment of conservatives aligning with the Republicans has created partisan reasons for challenging voter registration and elections. .African Americans in the South mostly have strongly supported Democratic Party candidates, since this is the party that helped secure their active citizenship.^ In 1860 the excuse for this step was the election of Abraham Lincoln, the candidate of the Republican party who was regarded by the South as a sectional candidate, now a sectional president-elect.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the meantime the silver party had endorsed the Democratic candidates (Bryan and Sewall), and the Populists had nominated Bryan and Thomas E. Watson.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This time the Democratic party had control of the two political departments of the government, its first complete triumph since 1856.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

Presidential history

.The South has produced the first winning presidential candidates for all but two major political parties in the history of the United States.^ The United States ) international relations ( in international relations: Scholarship and policy ) neoconservatism ( in neoconservatism ) socialism ( in socialism: Anarcho-communism ) radicals ( in radical ) two-party system ( in two-party system ) presidential office ( in presidency of the United States of America ) prisons ( in prison: Types of prisons ; in prison: National trends ; in prison: Prisoners’ rights ) public relations ( in public relations ) purchasing procedures ( in marketing: The civilian establishment ) revenue sharing ( in revenue sharing ) Tocqueville’s view ( in Europe, history of: Early 19th-century social and political thought ) health and welfare .
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This is the first time that a strain from the United States has been reported to be close to B. garinii .
  • Genetic Heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in the Southern United States Based on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Sequence Analysis -- Lin et al. 39 (7): 2500 -- Journal of Clinical Microbiology 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC jcm.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Much of the early history of the United States is concerned with the Atlantic coastal plain.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

The following is a list of presidents who represent their party's first candidate to reach the country's highest office:
.The exceptions are the Federalist Party which claimed its first (and only) presidential victory with John Adams of Massachusetts in 1796, and the Republican Party whose first victory was Abraham Lincoln in 1860. While Lincoln was born in the Southern state of Kentucky, his formative years were spent in Illinois.^ The 185 claimed by the Republican manager could be made up only by including the electoral votes of Florida , South Carolina , and Louisiana .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To this era belong the celebrated joint debates between Senator Douglas and Abraham Lincoln for the United States senatorship for the State of Illinois .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By the Constitution the United States is required to guarantee to every state in this Union a republican form of government, and to protect each of them against invasion, and, in certain circumstances, against domestic violence .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.(Note: The first President, George Washington, of Virginia, was unaffiliated with any political party.^ George Washington, a renowned hero of the American Revolutionary War, commander and chief of the Continental Army, and president of the Constitutional Convention, became the first President of the United States under the new U.S. Constitution.

^ This time the Democratic party had control of the two political departments of the government, its first complete triumph since 1856.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The first National Nominating Convention of this party (1856), its candidates, and some of its principles have been noticed in the sketch of political parties.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

)
.Additionally, the South produced most of the U.S. Presidents prior to the Civil War.^ During the Revolutionary War, President Lincoln declared Martial Law, which most folks understand "temporarily" replaces our U.S. Constitution in times of "emergency".

^ In the early 1970s, Johnson's successor, President Richard Nixon brought the Vietnam War to a close, and the American-backed South Vietnamese government collapsed.

^ The two most traumatic experiences in the nation's history were the Civil War (1861-65) and the Great Depression of the 1930s.

.Memories of the war made it impossible for a Southerner to become President unless he either moved North (like Woodrow Wilson) or was a vice president who moved up (like Lyndon B. Johnson).^ In a little while, however, they ceased to exercise such discretion, and nominations for both the presidency and vice-presidency were made in congressional caucuses.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the beginning of 1865 there was an attempt to end the war by a conference of Southern statesmen and President Lincoln, with his Secretary of State, at Hampton Roads, Virginia .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You cannot understand the conflict that led to the War of Southern Independence unless you know something about the Old North.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

In 1976, Jimmy Carter defied this trend and became the first Southerner to break the pattern since Zachary Taylor in 1848.
.Two recent American Presidents, George W. Bush and Bill Clinton were residents of southern states when elected president: William Jefferson ("Bill") Clinton is the only one of the two who is a native southerner.^ His majority over Jefferson, who was elected to the vice-presidency, was very slight.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The U.S. is a federal republic with two legislative houses; its head of state and government is the president.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In the beginning of 1865 there was an attempt to end the war by a conference of Southern statesmen and President Lincoln, with his Secretary of State, at Hampton Roads, Virginia .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

Clinton was Governor of Arkansas when elected. .Clinton moved to New York City following the end of his administration (1993-2001).^ The author, Julia Ward Howe, was born in 1819 in New York City.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Spectators are showered with confetti during the Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade in New York City.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ [Credits : Stock Montage/Hulton Archive/Getty Images] Barge near the western end of the Erie Canal, New York, mid-1800s.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

George W. Bush was Governor of Texas when elected. .George W. Bush is a native of Connecticut and moved with his family to the Permian Basin region of West Texas after World War II, while still a toddler.^ World War II - - - The road to war .
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Mosquito bomber, used in World War II, and Howard Hughes’s Spruce Goose were built using Sitka spruce from Alaska and British Columbia.
  • State Trees 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.usna.usda.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The War of the Austrian Succession (1744-1748), occurring in the reign of George II, is known in American history as King George's War.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

George H. W. Bush was once a resident of Texas and an American Congressional Representative from Texas. .He is a native of Massachusetts, but moved to the Permian Basin of West Texas after World War II. However, George H.W. Bush was a resident of Maine, since the 1970s, when elected American President in 1988, throughout his administration, 1989-93, and since.^ World War II - - - The road to war .
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Mosquito bomber, used in World War II, and Howard Hughes’s Spruce Goose were built using Sitka spruce from Alaska and British Columbia.
  • State Trees 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.usna.usda.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The War of the Austrian Succession (1744-1748), occurring in the reign of George II, is known in American history as King George's War.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.His state of origin as American President was his state of residence when elected: Officially Maine.^ Abraham Lincoln was elected president, the South seceded to form the Confederate States of America, the Civil War followed, with the ultimate defeat of the South.

^ Names The citizens and many other residents of the United States refer to themselves and each other as Americans, and to their country as the United States or as America.

Other politicians and political movements

The South has produced numerous other well-known politicians and political movements.
.In 1948, a group of Democratic congressmen, led by Governor Strom Thurmond of South Carolina, split from the Democrats in reaction to an anti-segregation speech given by Senator Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota.^ Senator Hayne, of South Carolina , chose to regard this as a manifestation of the Eastern jealousy of the West.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The effect of this decision was to split the Democratic party in the North and to attract great numbers of anti-slavery men to the new Republican organization.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Senator Pickering of Massachusetts wrote: "I rather anticipate a new Confederacy exempt from the corrupt influence of this aristocratic Democrats of the South.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.They founded the States Rights Democratic or Dixiecrat Party.^ They shall also have the right of access to our courts and to go to court to petition the Government for a redress of grievances and shall enjoy the other rights and protections of the Constitution of the C.S.A. and of the State of their residence.

^ As early as 1841 a state convention in Louisiana founded the Native American or Knownothing party.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In his view the states had no right to secede, but, if they did so, there was no authority conferred by the Constitution of the United States to prevent such action.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.During that year's Presidential election, the party ran Thurmond as its candidate, but he was unsuccessful.^ From the results of the presidential election of 1852 the Whig party never recovered.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1860 the excuse for this step was the election of Abraham Lincoln, the candidate of the Republican party who was regarded by the South as a sectional candidate, now a sectional president-elect.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After 1860, however, they won all the presidential elections except those of 1884 and 1892, when Grover Cleveland, the Democratic candidate, was chosen.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the 1968 Presidential election, Alabama Governor George C. Wallace ran for President on the American Independent Party ticket.^ Results of the American presidential election, 2004…[Credits : Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The presidential election in 2000 was one of the closest in American history, and helped lay the seeds for political polarization to come.

^ Results of the American presidential election, 2000…[Credits : Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Wallace ran a "law and order" campaign similar to that of Republican candidate, Richard Nixon.^ Georgia State Flag : "I support the same FAIR Vote Referendum, promised to the People of Georgia in the 2002 Campaign by Republican candidate Sonny Perdue in 2002.

Nixon's Southern Strategy of gaining electoral votes downplayed race issues and focused on culturally conservative values, such as family issues, patriotism, and cultural issues that appealed to Southern Baptists.
In 1994, another Southern politician, Newt Gingrich, ushered in 12 years of GOP control of the House. .Gingrich became Speaker of the United States House of Representatives in 1995, but was forced to resign.^ United States (Krauss 1995), decreasing.
  • Ethnologue report for United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ United States (Krauss 1995).
  • Ethnologue report for United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ He received a pardon for his services to the Confederacy, and in 1872 he was re-elected to the United States House of Representatives.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.Tom DeLay was the most powerful Republican leader in Congress until he was indicted under criminal charges in 2005. Most recent Republican Senate leaders are from the South, including Howard Baker of Tennessee, Trent Lott of Mississippi, Bill Frist of Tennessee, and Mitch McConnell of Kentucky.^ The 185 claimed by the Republican manager could be made up only by including the electoral votes of Florida , South Carolina , and Louisiana .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This raised an important constitutional question, namely, whether under the Constitution, Congress had the power to impose conditions upon the admission of new states which were not imposed by the Constitution on the original states.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

Race relations

History

De Batz, 1735, watercolor paintings of southeastern and northern Indians and a non-slave African descendant child.
.Native Americans, who had lived in the south for nearly 12,000 years, had an enormously complex impact on southern history and racial relations.^ The natives of the Philippines , who had been restless under Spanish rule, expected their political independence after the success of the Americans.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The territory was originally inhabited for several thousand years by numerous American Indian peoples who had probably migrated from Asia.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ After the acquisition of the South-West from Mexico, they insisted that the restriction of slavery in the territories was a discrimination against those Southern citizens who were interested in the institution.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1540 CE, the first racial strife was with Spainard Hernando de Soto's expedition who enslaved and murdered many New World communities.^ Many of the new technological innovations in the modern world were either first invented in the United States and/or first widely adopted by Americans.

^ Besides, the many Broadway shows and great avenues for shopping and dining make New York City one of the most visited cities of the world.
  • United States Destinations - United States Attractions - United States Travel Guide - United States Places To Visit | Travel & Places 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC ayushveda.com [Source type: News]

^ It is not, however, as religious as many of its neighbors in the New World.

In the early 1700s, the English had enslaved nearly 800 Choctaws.[44] .After the creation of the United States, the idea of Indian removal gained momentum.^ An unprecedented wave of immigration to the United States served both to provide the labor for American industry and to create diverse communities in previously undeveloped areas.

^ When the United States entered World War I, it created one of the most confident fighting machines …[Credits : Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, which authorized the president to negotiate treaties that exchanged Indian tribal lands in the eastern states for lands west of the Mississippi River.

.However, some Native Americans chose to remain in their ancient Deep South homeland where they were subjected to racist institutions.^ This is childishly elementary American history, but some liberals in the North seem painfully in need of some education on the subject."
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After the acquisition of the South-West from Mexico, they insisted that the restriction of slavery in the territories was a discrimination against those Southern citizens who were interested in the institution.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They are also the Americans most loyal to their own region and their own states, and the most likely to remain in their native territory.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Choctaws describe their situation in 1849, "we have had our habitations torn down and burned, our fences destroyed, cattle turned into our fields and we ourselves have been scourged, manacled, fettered and otherwise personally abused, until by such treatment some of our best men have died."^ Some of these men displayed amazing ability in their field despite poor resources.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

[45] .Joseph B. Cobb, who moved to Mississippi from Georgia, described Choctaws as having "no nobility or virtue at all, and in some respect he found blacks, especially native Africans, more interesting and admirable, the red man's superior in every way.^ In some respects the British government had no more enlightened a conception of colonization than did contemporary governments.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Georgia, Mississippi and Russia L.Q.C. Lamar was a famous politician and judge who strongly favoured the Confederate cause.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He won election to the Georgia legislature the next year, but in 1855 they moved back to Mississippi.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Choctaw and Chickasaw, the tribes he knew best, were beneath contempt, that is, even worse than black slaves."^ There were , after all, more slaves in Africa in 1807 than in the Americas, even though there were also many more gradations of enslavement in the former.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

[46]
.The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U.S. citizenship to all Native Americans.^ Capital: Washington, D.C. The population includes people of European and Middle Eastern ancestry, African Americans, Hispanics, Asians, Pacific Islanders, American Indians (Native Americans), and Alaska Natives.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ One example of conflict between Native Americans and English settlers was the 1622 Powhatan uprising in Virginia, in which Indians had killed hundreds of English settlers.

^ Native American Indians and self-government ( in Native American: Reorganization ) migration and immigration .
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Prior to the passage of the act, nearly two-thirds of Native Americans were already U.S. citizens.^ These people became the indigenous people who inhabited the Americas prior to the arrival of European explorers in the 1400s and who are now called Native Americans.

[47] .The earliest recorded date of Native Americans becoming U.S. citizens was in 1831 when the Mississippi Choctaw became citizens after the United States Congress ratified the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek.^ On 6 Feb., 1899, the treaty was ratified by the United States Senate.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Together, we have recruited many others to formally and legally become C.S.A. Registered Citizens and thus part of the Confederate States of America.

^ Culture Culture of the United States American culture is a Western culture, with influences from Europe, the Native American peoples, African Americans and young groups of immigrants.

.Under article XIV of that treaty, any Choctaw who elected not to move to Native American Territory could become an American citizen when he registered and if he stayed on designated lands for five years after treaty ratification.^ We have restored part of the national government of the Confederate States of America and we are growing in numbers of registered citizens across the South and in our claimed territories as well.

^ For the necessary concessions generous terms were offered to Colombia but, under a belief that a much larger sum could be obtained, that Government failed to ratify the proposed treaty.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The natives of the Philippines , who had been restless under Spanish rule, expected their political independence after the success of the Americans.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

Citizenship could also be obtained by:
.1. Treaty Provision (as with the Mississippi Choctaw)
2. Allotment under the Act of February 8, 1887
3. Issuance of Patent in Fee Simple
4. Adopting Habits of Civilized Life
5. Minor Children
6. Citizenship by Birth
7. Becoming Soldiers and Sailors in the U.S. Armed Forces
8. Marriage
9. Special Act of Congress.
^ When Congress met in December, 1832, the president wanted the passage of an act giving him power to collect tariff duties by force of arms.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ WHEREAS, in October 2002, the United States Congress adopted a joint resolution to authorize the use of United States armed forces in Iraq and Afghanistan; and .

^ Congress adopted the following resolution: "That this Congress approve the opposition of the inhabitants of the Massachusetts Bay to the execution of the late Acts of Parliament; and, if the same shall be attempted to be carried into execution by force, in such case all America ought to support them in their opposition."
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]


Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That all noncitizen Native Americans born within the territorial limits of the United States be, and they are hereby, declared to be citizens of the United States: Provided, That the granting of such citizenship shall not in any manner impair or otherwise affect the right of any Native American to tribal or other property.

—-Indian Citizenship Act of 1924

.
Members of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation in Oklahoma around 1877. Notice the European and African ancestry members.
^ Capital: Washington, D.C. The population includes people of European and Middle Eastern ancestry, African Americans, Hispanics, Asians, Pacific Islanders, American Indians (Native Americans), and Alaska Natives.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

The Creek were originally from the Alabama region.
.Before removal, some Southern Native American tribes owned black slaves.^ Union soldiers robbed, raped and murdered Free Black and slave Southerners they had come to "emancipate."
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They are also the Americans most loyal to their own region and their own states, and the most likely to remain in their native territory.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Native American tribes were generally forced onto small reservations as white farmers and ranchers took over their lands.

The Cherokee, Choctaw, and Chickasaw were known to have had slaves. .Just as they adopted Western culture (Christianity, yeoman farming techniques, and educational institutions), they also adopted slavery.^ After the acquisition of the South-West from Mexico, they insisted that the restriction of slavery in the territories was a discrimination against those Southern citizens who were interested in the institution.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They were fighting not to overthrow or to interfere with the institution of slavery.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.August 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] But unlike the United States before Emancipation, African Americans (and European Americans) were allowed to become citizens of their respective Native American nations; however, it was rare for African Americans to become citizens of Native American nations.^ United States national parks .
  • United States Destinations - United States Attractions - United States Travel Guide - United States Places To Visit | Travel & Places 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC ayushveda.com [Source type: News]

^ We have restored part of the national government of the Confederate States of America and we are growing in numbers of registered citizens across the South and in our claimed territories as well.

^ New York City No trip to the United States is complete without a visit to the heart of this great nation – New York City.
  • United States Destinations - United States Attractions - United States Travel Guide - United States Places To Visit | Travel & Places 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC ayushveda.com [Source type: News]

.For example, a small number of "Free People of Color" lived in many Native American nations as Cherokee, Choctaw, or Creek citizens.^ According to many recent opinion polls, a great majority of the American people are losing faith in both parties of the federal government and are dissatisfied about the present state of the nation.

^ Culture Culture of the United States American culture is a Western culture, with influences from Europe, the Native American peoples, African Americans and young groups of immigrants.

^ As increasing numbers of settlers arrived in Virginia, many conflicts arose between the Native Americans and the colonists.

[48]
.African Americans have a long history in the South, when they accompanied some of the earliest European settlers to the region.^ Civil War Era (1849–1865) This period of United States history saw the breakdown of the ability of white Americans of the North and South to reconcile fundamental differences in their approach to government, economics, society and African American slavery.

^ In the South, people sometimes dress more casually, although formality in certain contexts is valued some parts of the region, a trend which may also influence ethnic groups outside the South, including African Americans.

^ This is childishly elementary American history, but some liberals in the North seem painfully in need of some education on the subject."
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

Beginning in the early 17th century, planters imported Africans for labor. .Some were purchased as slaves; many others served terms as indentured servants and could earn their freedom.^ By 1623 he had earned his freedom and by 1651 he was prosperous enough to import five "servants" of his own.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.Slave traders handled transportation from Africa or the Caribbean, where large plantations had already been established.^ The traders could buy a slave in Africa for a few gallons of rum and sell him in this country at fantastic profit.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ European slave traders in Africa did not seize land from natives and colonize the coast, as they did in their New World settlements.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.As economic conditions in England improved, there were fewer people who wanted to emigrate as indentured servants to the colonies.^ "There is a class of people[in the South], men, women and children, who must be killed or banished before you can hope for peace and order."..Gen.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.With the rise of tobacco as a lucrative, if labor-intensive, cash crop in the Chesapeake Bay Colony, planters needed more labor and increased their importation of enslaved Africans.^ The first truly successful English colony was established in 1607, on the James River near the Chesapeake Bay.

Most slaves arrived in the 1700–1750 period. .At the same time, the colony hardened the lines between slavery and other forms of labor, passing legislation that associated slavery with race and passed on through the mother.^ The same wisdom, that has been the hearth and soul of the Southern people from the Colonial period through today.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And although she was devoted to the anti-slavery movement, like many other Northern radicals of her time, such as Abraham Lincoln, her own words reveal her to be a hypocrite on the subject of race.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.After the American Civil War, Congress and the states passed constitutional amendments that ended slavery, and granted full citizenship and suffrage to African Americans.^ It granted suffrage to women in 1920 and citizenship to American Indians in 1924.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Culture Culture of the United States American culture is a Western culture, with influences from Europe, the Native American peoples, African Americans and young groups of immigrants.

^ From the NEW YORK HERALD: "The ultimatum of the seceded States is now before the Government at Washington, in this new Constitution adopted by the Congress at Montgomery, Alabama.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.During the Reconstruction period that followed, African Americans saw advancements in the civil rights and political power in the South, against a background of wholesale violence and attacks on them.^ Civil rights legislation - - - The South during Reconstruction .
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ At the same time, institutionalized racism across the United States, but especially in the American South, was increasingly challenged by the growing Civil Rights movement and African American leaders such as Martin Luther King, Jr. During the 1960s, the Jim Crow laws that legalized racial segregation between Whites and Blacks came to an end.

^ As he had during his political career, he continued to rule in favor of states rights, forcefully opposing political power of the federal government.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, as Reconstruction ended, Southern Redeemers moved to prevent freedpeople from holding power, using fraud, voter intimidation and violence to secure majorities at the polls.^ The Republican "returning boards" of those states had it in their power to determine the result of the election by throwing out the votes of any places where, in their judgment, fraud or intimidation had occurred.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ July 21, 2009 - Curtis LEADER OF RING THAT USED CHILDREN’S SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBERS IN MORTGAGE FRAUD SCHEME SENTENCED TO 12 YEARS IN PRISON .
  • United States Attorneys' Office - Southern District of Texas 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.justice.gov [Source type: General]

.From 1890 to 1908, white Democrats in legislatures passed new disfranchising constitutions that completed provisions for making voter registration and voting more difficult.^ Indiana placed a Negro-exclusion article in her constitution of 1851, the people approved it by the tremendous vote of more than five to one.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The names of the friends of the Constitution would make a considerable list, and no list would be complete.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With all of these things in mind, please redouble your efforts to enlist more of your friends and neighbors in our continuing voter’s registration drive for C.S.A. Citizens.

.Most blacks and many poor whites were disfranchised, a condition which the state legislatures maintained for six decades into the 20th century.^ European immigrants came to the United States in large numbers in the early 20th century.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In the late 19th and early 20th century, many immigrants came to America by way of New York and …[Credits : Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Hubert Humphrey discusses the personalities of some of the 20th century’s most memorable presidents.
  • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.The leading white demagogue was Senator Benjamin Tillman of South Carolina, who proudly proclaimed in 1900, "We have done our level best [to prevent blacks from voting]...^ The 185 claimed by the Republican manager could be made up only by including the electoral votes of Florida , South Carolina , and Louisiana .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Senator Hayne, of South Carolina , chose to regard this as a manifestation of the Eastern jealousy of the West.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, Americans have been taught that the South's actions leading up this struggle not only were unconstitutional but devious attempts on the part of white planters to preserve chattel slavery.

we have scratched our heads to find out how we could eliminate the last one of them. We stuffed ballot boxes. We shot them. We are not ashamed of it."[49]
.Without the ability to vote and no representation in government, blacks had virtually no formal recourse as white Democrats passed Jim Crow laws, creating a system of legal segregation and discrimination in all public facilities.^ At the same time, institutionalized racism across the United States, but especially in the American South, was increasingly challenged by the growing Civil Rights movement and African American leaders such as Martin Luther King, Jr. During the 1960s, the Jim Crow laws that legalized racial segregation between Whites and Blacks came to an end.

^ This body had met, of course, in virtue of no existing law .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ From the perspective of this State, there was no noble cause; there was only the all too familiar ursurption of power, which has been the plague of human government from time immortal.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

Blacks were given separate schools (in which all students, teachers and administrators were black). Most hotels and restaurants served only whites. Movie theaters had separate seating; railroads had separate cars; buses were divided forward and rear. Neighborhoods were segregated as well. Blacks and whites did shop in the same stores, but there were separate water fountains and restrooms, and blacks were not allowed to try on clothes at the stores. .Those who could not vote could not sit on juries.^ Those who donate or join the Federation of States will receive Certificates of Appreciation which some day could have, at least, historical value.

^ Were she living now, or could speak to me from those high realms where are gathered the Sainted dead, she would tell me to vote for this bill.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

.As some Supreme Court decisions began to strike down constitutional provisions that disfranchised blacks, the state Democratic parties began to use all-white primaries.^ In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a state shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition to these powers he can nominate, and, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the United States Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States whose appointments are not otherwise provided for in the Constitution.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By the Constitution the judicial power of the United States is vested in a supreme court, and such inferior courts as the Congress may, from time to time, ordain and establish.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The few black voters who managed to register were not allowed to vote in the only contest in which there was competition.^ The 185 claimed by the Republican manager could be made up only by including the electoral votes of Florida , South Carolina , and Louisiana .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are only two kings in Africa, Ashanti and Dahomey: I am King of all the Blacks.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]

Civil Rights

.In response to this treatment, the South witnessed two major events in the lives of 20th century African Americans: the Great Migration and the American Civil Rights Movement.^ At the same time, institutionalized racism across the United States, but especially in the American South, was increasingly challenged by the growing Civil Rights movement and African American leaders such as Martin Luther King, Jr. During the 1960s, the Jim Crow laws that legalized racial segregation between Whites and Blacks came to an end.

^ Meanwhile, the American people completed their great migration from the farms into the cities, and experienced a period of sustained economic expansion.

^ The two most traumatic experiences in the nation's history were the Civil War (1861-65) and the Great Depression of the 1930s.

The Great Migration began during World War I, hitting its high point during World War II. During this migration, blacks left the racism and lack of opportunities in the South and settled in northern cities like Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, Milwaukee, St. Louis, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, New York City, and Boston, where they found work in factories and other sectors of the economy. (Katzman, 1996) However, Chicago quickly became the most segregated city in the north. This migration produced a new sense of independence in the Black community and contributed to the vibrant black urban culture seen during the Harlem Renaissance.
.The migration also empowered the growing Civil Rights Movement.^ The period saw the birth of feminism and the environmental movement as political forces, and continued progress toward Civil Rights.

^ Cold War Beginnings and the Civil Rights Movement (1945–1964) Following World War II, the United States emerged as one of the two dominant superpowers.

.While the movement existed in all parts of the United States, its focus was against disfranchisement and the Jim Crow laws in the South.^ At the same time, institutionalized racism across the United States, but especially in the American South, was increasingly challenged by the growing Civil Rights movement and African American leaders such as Martin Luther King, Jr. During the 1960s, the Jim Crow laws that legalized racial segregation between Whites and Blacks came to an end.

^ Abusive industrial practices led to the often violent rise of the labor movement in the United States.

^ He has power to grant reprieves and pardons for all offences against the United States, except in cases of impeachment; by and with the advice and consent of the Senate he has the power to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

Most of the major events in the movement occurred in the South, including the Montgomery Bus Boycott, the Mississippi Freedom Summer, the March on Selma, Alabama, and the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.. .In addition, some of the most important writings to come out of the movement were written in the South, such as King's "Letter from Birmingham Jail". Most of the civil rights landmarks can be found around the South.^ At the same time, institutionalized racism across the United States, but especially in the American South, was increasingly challenged by the growing Civil Rights movement and African American leaders such as Martin Luther King, Jr. During the 1960s, the Jim Crow laws that legalized racial segregation between Whites and Blacks came to an end.

^ The period saw the birth of feminism and the environmental movement as political forces, and continued progress toward Civil Rights.

^ Cold War Beginnings and the Civil Rights Movement (1945–1964) Following World War II, the United States emerged as one of the two dominant superpowers.

.The Martin Luther King, Jr., National Historic Site in Atlanta includes a museum that chronicles the American Civil Rights Movement as well as Martin Luther King, Jr.'s boyhood home on Auburn Avenue.^ At the same time, institutionalized racism across the United States, but especially in the American South, was increasingly challenged by the growing Civil Rights movement and African American leaders such as Martin Luther King, Jr. During the 1960s, the Jim Crow laws that legalized racial segregation between Whites and Blacks came to an end.

^ Cold War Beginnings and the Civil Rights Movement (1945–1964) Following World War II, the United States emerged as one of the two dominant superpowers.

^ The period saw the birth of feminism and the environmental movement as political forces, and continued progress toward Civil Rights.

Additionally, Ebenezer Baptist Church is located in the Sweet Auburn district as is the King Center, location of Martin Luther and Coretta Scott King's gravesites.
.As a result of the Civil Rights Movement, Jim Crow laws across the South were dropped.^ At the same time, institutionalized racism across the United States, but especially in the American South, was increasingly challenged by the growing Civil Rights movement and African American leaders such as Martin Luther King, Jr. During the 1960s, the Jim Crow laws that legalized racial segregation between Whites and Blacks came to an end.

^ The result was the triumph of acquisitive power hungry robber barons over the highest type of civilization America had ever known----the Old South."
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The period saw the birth of feminism and the environmental movement as political forces, and continued progress toward Civil Rights.

.A second migration appears to be underway, with African Americans from the North moving to the South in record numbers.^ Civil War Era (1849–1865) This period of United States history saw the breakdown of the ability of white Americans of the North and South to reconcile fundamental differences in their approach to government, economics, society and African American slavery.

^ At that time there were a number of abolition societies in the South, though very few in the North.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

[50] .While race relations are still a contentious issue in the South, the region surpasses the rest of the country in many areas of integration and racial equality.^ Dialects or closely-related languages derived from ASL, are used in many other countries.
  • Ethnologue report for United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ The first of these divisions includes the middle Appalachian region, or that between the Hudson and the James Rivers; the north-eastern Appalachian region, which overlaps New England at many points; the south-western Appalachian, which includes the country from Maryland to the Carolinas.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

According to 2003 report by researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Virginia Beach, Charlotte, Nashville-Davidson, and Jacksonville were the four most integrated of the nation's fify largest cities, with Memphis at number six.[51] .Southern states tend to have a low disparity in incarceration rates between blacks and whites relative to the rest of the country.^ In the endeavour to administer the government other compromises were adopted between 1789 and 1860 when the Southern States were convinced that further compromises would be useless.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As possible evidence of this trait, comparatively few books from European countries or Japan are translated for sale in the United States, and sales of those that are translated tend to be slow.

^ After the election of Abraham Lincoln, eleven Southern states seceded from the union between late 1860 and 1861, establishing a rebel government, the Confederate States of America on February 9, 1861.

[52]

Symbolism

The "Confederate Flag", This pattern is the one most often thought of as the "Confederate Flag" today. Originally, it was used as the Battle Flag of the Army of Tennessee, and as the Confederate Naval Jack
.The Battle Flag of the Confederacy has become a highly controversial image throughout the United States because of its use as a symbol of defiance by many in the South who opposed the Civil Rights Movement.^ At the same time, institutionalized racism across the United States, but especially in the American South, was increasingly challenged by the growing Civil Rights movement and African American leaders such as Martin Luther King, Jr. During the 1960s, the Jim Crow laws that legalized racial segregation between Whites and Blacks came to an end.

^ Abusive industrial practices led to the often violent rise of the labor movement in the United States.

^ As he had during his political career, he continued to rule in favor of states rights, forcefully opposing political power of the federal government.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

Although it and other reminders of the Old South can be found on automobile bumper stickers, on tee shirts, and flown from homes, restrictions (notably on public buildings) have been imposed. .As a result, groups such as the League of the South continue to promote secession from the United States, citing a desire to protect and defend the heritage of the South.^ Culture Culture of the United States American culture is a Western culture, with influences from Europe, the Native American peoples, African Americans and young groups of immigrants.

^ President Cleveland inherited from his predecessor the results of a revolution in the Hawaiian Islands , a revolution in which the United States was involved.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By the Constitution the judicial power of the United States is vested in a supreme court, and such inferior courts as the Congress may, from time to time, ordain and establish.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

[53] On the other side of this issue are groups like the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), which believe that the League of the South is a hate group. .However, many Southerners use the flag to identify themselves with the South, states' rights and Southern tradition.^ In many of the Southern States it was forbidden to teach slaves to read and write, but oftentimes the more humane masters taught them the meaning of the Scripture and even the elements of knowledge .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The phrase is also occasionally used in contemporary discussions of American federalism and states' rights.

^ How ironic that such a joyous traditional Southern song as "Dixie" is now all but banned throughout the South, while a vicious Anti-Southern war song such as "The Battle Hymn of the Republic" is sung in churches and patriotic ceremonies all over the Confederate states.
  • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

Other symbols of the Antebellum South include the Bonnie Blue Flag, Magnolia trees, and the song Dixie.

Largest cities in the southern U.S.

Rank City State(s) and/or Territory July 1, 2008
Population Estimate
1 Houston Texas 2,242,193
2 San Antonio Texas 1,351,305
3 Dallas Texas 1,279,910
4 Jacksonville Florida 807,815
5 Austin Texas 757,688
6 Fort Worth Texas 703,073
7 Charlotte North Carolina 687,456
8 Memphis Tennessee 671,588
9 El Paso Texas 613,190
10 Nashville* Tennessee 596,462
*Counts only the balance of the city.

Major metropolitan areas in the Southern U.S.

Rank Metropolitan Statistical Area State(s) and/or Territory July 1, 2008
Population Estimate
1 Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington TX 6,300,006
2 Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown TX 5,728,143
3 Miami–Fort Lauderdale–West Palm Beach FL 5,414,772
4 Atlanta–Sandy Springs–Marietta GA 5,376,285
5 Washington–Arlington–Alexandria DCVAMDWV 5,358,130
6 Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater FL 2,733,761
7 Baltimore–Towson MD 2,667,117
8 Orlando-Kissimmee FL 2,054,574
9 San Antonio TX 2,031,445
10 Charlotte–Gastonia–Concord NCSC 1,701,799
11 Virginia Beach–Norfolk–Newport News VANC 1,658,292
12 Austin–Round Rock TX 1,652,602
13 Nashville-Davidson–Murfreesboro–Franklin TN 1,550,733
14 Jacksonville FL 1,313,228
15 Memphis TNMSAR 1,285,732
16 Louisville–Jefferson County KYIN 1,244,696
17 Richmond VA 1,225,626
18 Oklahoma City OK 1,206,142
19 New Orleans–Metairie–Kenner LA 1,134,029
20 Birmingham–Hoover AL 1,117,608
21 Raleigh–Cary NC 1,088,765
22 Tulsa OK 916,079
23 Baton Rouge LA 774,327
24 El Paso TX 742,062
25 Columbia SC 728,063

See also

 

Notes

  1. ^ Charles & William Ferris Encyclopedia of Southern Culture ISBN 9780807818237; Univ. of Pennsylvania Telsur Project Telsur Map of Southern Dialect
  2. ^ Vance, Rupert Bayless, Regionalism and the South, Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1982, pg. 166 "West Virginia is found to have its closest attachment to the Southeast on the basis of agriculture and population."
  3. ^ David Williamson (June 2, 1999). "UNC-CH surveys reveal where the ‘real’ South lies". http://www.unc.edu/news/archives/jun99/reed16.htm. Retrieved 22 Feb 2007. 
  4. ^ http://www.dalhousielodge.org/Thesis/scotstonc.htm
  5. ^ http://www.statemaster.com/graph/eco_per_bel_pov_lev-economy-percent-below-poverty-level
  6. ^ U.S. Census Bureau: Official Map.
  7. ^ Johnston, Mary. "Pioneers of the Old South, A Chronicle of English Colonial Beginnings." Accessed 19 May 2007.
  8. ^ "United States: The Upper South." Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  9. ^ "GOP eyes potential for picking up U.S. House seats in Mid-South", Memphis Commercial Appeal
  10. ^ GAO Report: "resource allocations to medical centers in the Mid South"
  11. ^ The Mid-South: a regional profile of social, economic and health characteristics
  12. ^ The Tchula period in the mid-South and lower Mississippi Valley
  13. ^ Britton, Kerry O.; Orr, David; Sun, Jianghua (2002), "Kudzu", in Van Driesche, R., Biological Control of Invasive Plants in the Eastern United States, USDA Forest Service, FHTET-2002-04, http://www.invasive.org/eastern/biocontrol/25Kudzu.html, retrieved 2008-05-03 
  14. ^ a b c Prentice, Guy. "NATIVE AMERICAN ARCHEOLOGY AND CULTURE HISTORY". http://www.nps.gov/history/seac/SoutheastChronicles/NISI/NISI%20Cultural%20Overview.htm. Retrieved 11 February 2008. 
  15. ^ "Indentured Servitude in Colonial America"
  16. ^ Isaac, Rhys (1982). The Transformation of Virginia 1740-1790. University of North Carolina Press. pp. 22–23. ISBN 0-8078-4814-X. 
  17. ^ Meinig, D.W. (1986). The Shaping of America: A Geographical Perspective on 500 Years of History, Volume 1: Atlantic America, 1492-1800. Yale University Press. pp. 175–176. ISBN 0-300-03548-9. 
  18. ^ David Hackett Fischer, Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America, New York: Oxford University Press, 1989, pp.361-368
  19. ^ "Population by Selected Ancestry Group and Region: 2005". http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/cats/population/ancestry_language_spoken_at_home.html. Retrieved 22 Aug 2006. 
  20. ^ Peter Kolchin, American Slavery: 1619-1877, New York: Hill and Wang, 1994, p. 73
  21. ^ Peter Kolchin, American Slavery: 1619-1877, New York: Hill and Wang, 1994, p. 81
  22. ^ "The Peculiar Institution of American Slavery". http://home.earthlink.net/~gfeldmeth/lec.slavery.html. Retrieved 11 June 2008. 
  23. ^ Walter Johnson, Soul by Soul: Life Inside the Antebellum Slave Market, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999, pp.5 and 215
  24. ^ "Nineteenth Century Death Tolls: American Civil War". http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/wars19c.htm#ACW. Retrieved 22 Aug 2006. 
  25. ^ American Civil War, Those Confederate States
  26. ^ The Deadliest War
  27. ^ Carpetbaggers
  28. ^ Nicholas Lemann, Redemption: The Last Battle of the Civil War, New York: Farrar Strauss & Giroux, 2002, pp.70-75
  29. ^ Richard H. Pildes, "Democracy, Anti-Democracy, and the Canon", Constitutional Commentary, Vol.17, 2000,, p. 27, accessed 10 Mar 2008
  30. ^ John Solomon Otto, The Final Frontiers, 1880-1930: Settling the Southern Bottomlands, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1999
  31. ^ "Italians in Mississippi", Mississippi History Now, accessed 28 Nov 2007
  32. ^ Vivian Wong, "Somewhere Between White and Black: The Chinese in Mississippi", Organization of American Historians Magazine of History, accessed 15 Nov 2007
  33. ^ Edward L. Ayers, The Promise of the New South: Life after Reconstruction, New York: Oxford University Press, 1992; 15th Anniversary Edition (pbk), 2007, p.24
  34. ^ Richard H. Pildes, "Democracy, Anti-Democracy, and the Canon", Constitutional Commentary, Vol.17, 2000,, pp.12-13, accessed 10 Mar 2008
  35. ^ Glenn Feldman, The Disfranchisement Myth: Poor Whites and Suffrage Restriction in Alabama, Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2004
  36. ^ Dr. Michael McDonald, US Elections Project: Alabama Redistricting Summary, George Mason University, accessed 6 Apr 2008
  37. ^ "Strikes", Texas Handbook On-Line, accessed 6 Apr 2008
  38. ^ Jackie McElhaney and Michael V. Hazel, "Dallas", Handbook of Texas Online, accessed 6 Apr 2008
  39. ^ David G. McComb, "Urbanization", Handbook of Texas Online, accessed 6 Apr 2008
  40. ^ "First Measured Century: Interview: James Gregory". http://www.pbs.org/fmc/interviews/gregory.htm. Retrieved 22 Aug 2006. 
  41. ^ "State jobless rate below US average". The Decatur Daily. August 19, 2005. http://www.decaturdaily.com/decaturdaily/news/050819/jobless.shtml. Retrieved 2007-02-12. 
  42. ^ Walter Johnson, Soul by Soul: Life Inside the Antebellum Slave , Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999, pp. 2-7
  43. ^ John C. Willis, Forgotten Time: The Yazoo-Mississippi Delta after the Civil War, Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2000.
  44. ^ Brescia, William (Bill). "Chapter 2, French-Choctaw Contact, 1680s-1763". Tribal Government, A New Era. Philadelphia, Mississippi: Choctaw Heritage Press. p. 8. 
  45. ^ Walter, Williams. "Three Efforts at Development among the Choctaws of Mississippi". Southeastern Indians: Since the Removal Era. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press. 
  46. ^ Hudson, Charles. "The Ante-Bellum Elite". Red, White, and Black; Symposium on Indians in the Old South. University of Georgia Press. p. 80. SBN 820303089. 
  47. ^ Kappler, Charles (1904). "Indian affairs: laws and treaties Vol. IV, Treaties". Government Printing Office. http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol4/html_files/v4p1165.html. Retrieved 2008-10-14. 
  48. ^ We-sa ( The Cat ). "Cherokee by Blood". http://www.cherokeebyblood.com/blackindians.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-11. 
  49. ^ Rayford Logan (1997). The Betrayal of the Negro from Rutherford B. Hayes to Woodrow Wilson. New York: Da Capo Press. pp. 91. ISBN 0-306-80758-0. 
  50. ^ "Tracking New Trends in Race Migration". NPR. 2006-03-14. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5261746. Retrieved 2008-04-04. 
  51. ^ "Study shows Memphis among most integrated cities". Memphis Business Journal. January 13, 2003. http://memphis.bizjournals.com/memphis/stories/2003/01/13/daily9.html. 
  52. ^ http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/rd_stateratesofincbyraceandethnicity.pdf
  53. ^ "League of the South Core Beliefs Statement". League of the South. June 1994. http://dixienet.org/New%20Site/corebeliefs.shtml. Retrieved 2008-06-12. 

References

  • Cash, Wilbur J. The Mind of the South (1941),
  • Richard N. Current, et al. (1987). American History: A Survey 7th ed.. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-394-31549-9. 
  • Flynt, J. Wayne Dixie's Forgotten People: The South's Poor Whites (1979). deals with 20th century.
  • David M. Katzman. "Black Migration". The Reader's Companion to American History. Houghton Mifflin Company. 
  • James Grossman (1996). "Chicago and the 'Great Migration'". Illinois History Teacher 3 (2). http://www.lib.niu.edu/ipo/1996/iht329633.html. 
  • Grady McWhiney. .In Cracker Culture: Celtic Ways in the Old South (1988)
  • Mary Odem "Global Lives, Local Struggles: Latin American Immigrants in Atlanta'" Southern Spaces 2006
  • John O. Allen and Clayton E. Jewett (2004).^ Culture Culture of the United States American culture is a Western culture, with influences from Europe, the Native American peoples, African Americans and young groups of immigrants.

    ^ The South is entirely different from the Northeast, which is itself in many ways foreign to the Mid-West, which adheres to an entirely different cultural attitude than the West.

    ^ From: The South and Southern History by Clyde Wilson One of the most important works in Southern history is Frank L. Owsley's Plain Folk of the Old South.
    • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Slavery in the South: A State-by-State History.^ Civil War Era (1849–1865) This period of United States history saw the breakdown of the ability of white Americans of the North and South to reconcile fundamental differences in their approach to government, economics, society and African American slavery.

    Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-32019-5. 
  • Rayford Logan (1997). The Betrayal of the Negro from Rutherford B. Hayes to Woodrow Wilson. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80758-0. 
  • William B. Hesseltine (1936). A History of the South, 1607-1936. Prentice-Hall. 
  • George Sanchez "Latinos, the American South, and the Future of U.S. Race Relations" Southern Spaces 2007
  • Robert W. Twyman. and David C. Roller, ed., ed (1979). Encyclopedia of Southern History. LSU Press. ISBN 0-8071-0575-9. 
  • Winders, Jamie. "Latino Migration and Nashville, Tennessee," Southern Spaces 2004.
  • Charles Reagan Wilson and William Ferris, ed., ed (1989). Encyclopedia of Southern Culture. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-1823-2. 

External sources

Further reading

  • Edward L. Ayers (1993). .The Promise of the New South: Life after Reconstruction.^ Aftermath - Reconstruction and the New South, 186...
    • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Reconstruction and the New South, 1865–1900 - - Reconstruction, 1865–77 .
    • United States -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-508548-5.
     
  • Monroe Lee Billington (1975). The Political South in the 20th Century. Scribner. ISBN 0-684-13983-9. 
  • Earl Black and Merle Black (2002). The Rise of Southern Republicans. Belknap press. ISBN 0-674-01248-8. 
  • W. J. Cash (1935). The Mind of the South. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 0-679-73647-6. 
  • Pete Daniel (2000). Lost Revolutions: The South in the 1950s. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-4848-4. 
  • Michael Kreyling (1998). Inventing Southern Literature. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 1-57806-045-1. 
  • Heather A. Haveman (2004). "Antebellum literary culture and the evolution of American magazines" ( – Scholar search). Poetics 32: 5–28. doi:10.1016/j.poetic.2003.12.002. http://www.columbia.edu/~hah15/H_2004_Poetics.pdf. 
  • Eugene D. Genovese (1976). Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 0-394-71652-3. 
  • Lawrence W. Levine (1978). Black Culture and Black Consciousness: Afro-American Folk Thought from Slavery to Freedom. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-502374-9. 
  • Peter J. Parish (1989). Slavery: History and Historians. Westview Press. ISBN 0-06-430182-6. 
  • Howard N. Rabinowitz (September 1976). ."From Exclusion to Segregation: Southern Race Relations, 1865-1890". Journal of American History 43: 325–50. 
  • Nicol C. Rae (1994).^ Eastern Central Sierra, 6 Western Central Sierra (1994 L. Hinton); Census (2000) lists 50 “Sierra Miwok” which may include Northern Sierra [ nsq ] and Southern Sierra [ skd ].
    • Ethnologue report for United States 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

    Southern Democrats. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-508709-7. 
  • Jeffrey A. Raffel (1998). Historical Dictionary of School Segregation and Desegregation: The American Experience. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-29502-6. 
  • C. Vann Woodward (1955). The Strange Career of Jim Crow. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514690-5. 
  • Richard Wright (1945). Black Boy. Harper & Brothers.  a novel.
  • Gavin Wright (1996). .Old South, New South: Revolutions in the Southern Economy Since the Civil War.^ The result was the triumph of acquisitive power hungry robber barons over the highest type of civilization America had ever known----the Old South."
    • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "The Civil War was a War of Northern aggression against Southern rights, not a war to preserve the American Nation and ultimately to abolish Slavery."
    • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ North was not making war, as many pretended, for the abolition of slavery, but to subjugate the South in order to reestablish their protective tariff and to restore their monopoly of Southern markets.
    • Southern Messenger � Constitution of the United States of America 13 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.southernmessenger.org [Source type: Original source]

    LSU Press. ISBN 0-8071-2098-7.
     
  • Michael Andrew Grissom (1989). Southern by the Grace of God. Pelican. ISBN 0-88289-761-6. 

External links


Simple English

[[File:|States in the Southern United States are in maroon or red. States that are sometimes thought of as Southern are in light red|thumb|right|250px]] The "Southern United States" (also known as The Southern States or "The South" among Americans) is a term for the Southeastern part of the United States. All Confederate States were in the South, but not all Southern States joined the Confederacy. The States farthest to the south are called the "Deep South". Most of the South is a land of longhot summers.Winters are short and cool.There is abundant rainfull.This combination gives the South a long growing season. The States that make up "The South" are usually:

and some states that are sometimes thought of as part of the South include:

The South and Slavery

Demographics

Expect for Florida and Texas, most of the South was not touched by people immigrating to the United States in the 19th and 20th centuries. Most of the people in the South are of English, Scottish, or Irish ancestry, or the descendents of African-American slaves. Some of these people identify themselves as being of "American" ancestry.

Culture of the Southern United States

File:Pecan pie
A slice of pecan pie

The Southern United States has a culture somewhat different from the rest of the United States. They cook different foods such as pecan pie, pork and beef barbecue, and collard greens.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 22, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Southern United States, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message