The Full Wiki

Sovereignty: Wikis

  
  

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The frontispiece of Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan, depicting the Sovereign as a massive body wielding a sword and crozier and composed of many individual people.
.Sovereignty is the quality of having supreme, independent authority over a territory.^ It is the supreme authority within its territory.

^ The supreme political authority of an independent state.
  • Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.citizensalliance.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Jack Donnelly, HUMAN RIGHTS AND STATE SOVEREIGNTY 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Supreme authority within a territory — this is the general definition of sovereignty.
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It can be found in a power to rule and make law that rests on a political fact for which no purely legal explanation can be provided.^ It did so by making up an argument that had no basis in fact or law.
  • Blue Corn Comics -- The Facts About Tribal Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.bluecorncomics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is used predominantly to define a form of political power, whether manifested in an individual, a king, a nation state or for another example, international bodies of law.

^ They might also eliminate the international legal sovereignty of the entity or control treaty-making powers in whole or in part (e.g., in specific areas such as security or trade).
  • Stephen D. Krasner - Sharing Sovereignty: New Institutions forCollapsed and Failing States - International Security 29:2 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.alanalexandroff.com [Source type: Original source]

.The concept has been discussed, debated and questioned throughout history, from the time of the Romans through to the present day, although it has changed in its definition, concept, and applicatiodfmhddk7itckv ypy;olyvclbil n throughout, especially during the Age of Enlightenment.^ We've also lowered the caching time of this page from six hours to one and, since sovereignty changes will happen when they happen (not just during down-time), the age-old problem of out-dated sovereignty information should be a not-so-glorious part of EVE's glorious history.
  • EVE Sovereignty Updates 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.warcry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Historical shifts are not locatable in this way ; any time you try to put your finger on the moment of change it slips away into the broad sweeps of history.
  • Multitudes Web - 02. Sovereignty, theory and event 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC multitudes.samizdat.net [Source type: Original source]

^ While the relationship between man and the social compact known by many names, to name but a few i.e., Alliance, Empire, Kingdom, Nation, Organization, Confederacy and State has been a hotly debated topic throughout known history, little has changed over time in their relationship except for the means used to control the alien masses of such compacts.
  • Sovereignty, sovereign, illusion, government, tyranny, redemption book 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.nmcservices.net [Source type: Original source]

.The current notion of state sovereignty was laid down in the Treaty of Westphalia (1648), which, in relation to states, codified the basic principles of territorial integrity, border inviolability, and supremacy of the state (rather than the Church).^ State power : total territorial sovereignty .
  • Paradigm : from territorial sovereignty to personal seigniory 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.polyarchy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the theory of sovereignty, the first privilege of a state is the integrity of its territory.
  • Redefining Sovereignty | NewAmerica.net 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.newamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The basic principle of Calvinism is the sovereignty of God.
  • The Reformed Faith Part 1 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.reformed.org [Source type: Original source]

.A sovereign is a supreme lawmaking authority.^ Actors with supreme authority are, by definition, sovereign.
  • Jack Donnelly, HUMAN RIGHTS AND STATE SOVEREIGNTY 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But here, absoluteness refers not to the extent or character of sovereignty, which must always be supreme, but rather to the scope of matters over which a holder of authority is sovereign.
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It does, however, point to the extremely relevant fact that sovereigns need not have supreme authority over all matters within a territory.
  • Jack Donnelly, HUMAN RIGHTS AND STATE SOVEREIGNTY 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

Contents

History

.Different cultures and governments have, understandably, had different ideas about sovereignty.^ Popular sovereignty is the idea that the government is of the people...
  • Questions about Popular Sovereignty in the Constitution - Ask.com 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Robert Wright argues that Canadians'' understanding of notions such as art, culture, unity, identity and sovereignty have always been informed by conflicting forces, most of them beyond the control of ordinary citizens, many beyond the control of governments.
  • chapters.indigo.ca: virtual sovereignty in Books 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.chapters.indigo.ca [Source type: General]

^ Marshall based his ideas of tribal sovereignty on political theory and international law about weaker nations allying themselves with stronger nations in a so-called "protectorate" relationship.
  • Wabanaki Legal News-Online 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.ptla.org [Source type: Original source]

Classical

The Roman jurist Ulpian observed that:
  • The imperium of the people is transferred to the Emperor,
  • The Emperor is not bound by the law,
  • The Emperor's word is law.
.Ulpian was expressing the idea that the Emperor exercised a rather absolute form of sovereignty, although he did not use the term expressly.^ "Sovereignty" is a rather abstract, legalistic term.
  • The Meaning of Sovereignty: What Our Founding Fathers Could Tell Us About Current Events 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.heritage.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The concept of sovereignty was closely related to the growth of the modern nation-state, and today the term is used almost exclusively to describe the attributes of a state rather than a person.
  • sovereignty Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although property rights aren't a traditional concept, the idea can be useful.
  • Rethinking tribal sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.airpi.org [Source type: Original source]

.Ulpian's statements were known in medieval Europe, but sovereignty was not an important concept in medieval times.^ The concept of sovereignty is typically dated to the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, which ended the Thirty Years' War in Europe.
  • FindLaw's Writ - Raustiala: Restoring Iraqi Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC writ.news.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The modern conception of sovereignty originated in Europe in the 17th century.
  • Redefining Sovereignty | NewAmerica.net 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.newamerica.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Nor was sovereignty an issue in medieval Europe, since the defining character of that period was overlapping authority and a lot of confusion about which authority had primary claims.
  • Hillsdale College - Imprimis Issue 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.hillsdale.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Medieval monarchs were not sovereign, at least not strongly so, because they were constrained by, and shared power with, their feudal aristocracy.^ However, in practice, political leaders abuse their power because they consider themselves sovereigns, instead of public servants.
  • WikiAnswers - What is popular sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ If person believes that God sovereign in that He allows everything in their lives, they are submitting themselves to the works of the devil because they aren’t resisting them.
  • The Sovereignty Of God - Audio Teaching - Andrew Wommack Ministries 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.awmi.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We speak of countries such as the United States as being sovereign political powers because they are completely independent of any other political entity.
  • Indian Country Wisconsin - Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.mpm.edu [Source type: Original source]

Furthermore, both were strongly constrained by custom.

Medieval

.Sovereignty existed during the Medieval Period as the de jure rights of nobility and royalty, and in the de facto right and capability of an individual to make their own choices in life.^ Individual Rights and Individual Sovereignty goes hand-in-hand.
  • Individual Rights & Sovereignty - IRIS - powered by Reason and Principle 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.individual-sovereignty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Welcome to Individual-Rights.com and Individual- Sovereignty.com .
  • Individual Rights & Sovereignty - IRIS - powered by Reason and Principle 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.individual-sovereignty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is true that states have the right to impose certain restrictions on abortion, but I’m talking about making it legal or illegal totally within the individual state legislatures.
  • Texas Gov. Rick Perry: 10th Amendment, State Sovereignty (Video) » Right Pundits 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.rightpundits.com [Source type: Original source]

Around c. 1380-1400, the issue of feminine sovereignty was addressed in Geoffrey Chaucer's Middle English collection of Canterbury Tales, specifically in The Wife of Bath's Tale.[1]
A later English Arthurian romance, The Wedding of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnell (c. .1450)[2], uses much of the same elements of the Wife of Bath's tale, yet changes the setting to the court of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table.^ Stories of a king's, or a potential king's, lovemaking with the goddess of Sovereignty are so widespread in early Ireland and elsewhere in Europe, such as Geoffrey Chaucer's ‘Wife of Bath's Tale’, as to merit their own international folk- motif number, D732.
  • Sovereignty, Lady – Dictionary definition of Sovereignty, Lady | Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then He shall speak to them in His wrath, And distress them in His deep displeasure: Yet I have set My King on My holy hill of Zion...
  • Our God Reigns 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.crossroad.to [Source type: Original source]

.The story revolves around the knight Sir Gawain granting to Dame Ragnell, his new bride, what is purported to be wanted most by women: sovereignty.^ In one of the loveliest Arthurian stories, Sir Gawain, a knight of the Round Table, agrees to marry Ragnall, a most hideously ugly hag, in exchange for her telling the king a secret that will save him from death.
  • Love and Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC members.cox.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Interested parties are encouraged to show up early, as the devs want to give players a short demo of the new Sovereignty system beforehand.
  • Posts tagged Sovereignty at Massively 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.massively.com [Source type: General]

^ There are dozens of boilerplate propaganda stories floating around today about Iraqis regaining their sovereignty because U.S. troops are being pulled out of Iraqi cities.
  • cryptogon.com » Clarifying News Stories Using the Iraqis-Regaining-Their-Sovereignty Meme 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC cryptogon.com [Source type: News]

.We desire most from men,
From men both rich and poor,
To have sovereignty without lies.
^ They make poor men rich and rich men poor.
  • Consumer Sovereignty: What Mises Meant - Robert P. Murphy - Mises Institute 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His sovereignty appears glorious, in that it reaches their most important affairs, even the eternal state and condition of the souls of men.
  • The Sovereignty of God in Salvation  -  Jonathan Edwards 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.biblebb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ God in His sovereignty withheld salvation from the rich man, who lived luxuriously every day, and bestowed it on poor Lazarus, who sat begging at his gate.
  • The Sovereignty of God in Salvation  -  Jonathan Edwards 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.biblebb.com [Source type: Original source]


.For where we have sovereignty, all is ours,
Though a knight be ever so fierce,
And ever win mastery.
^ But what does all this have to do with our National Sovereignty?
  • RJ Harris Oklahoma 4th - Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.rjharris2010.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All of this has happened in Europe in a very short period, and is the reason we should be concerned about the loss in our own country of a consensus regarding constitutional sovereignty.
  • Hillsdale College - Imprimis Issue 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.hillsdale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ How is all this affected by our belief in the sovereignty of God?
  • Evangelism and the Sovereignty of God 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC gospelpedlar.com [Source type: Original source]


It is our desire to have master
Over such a sir.
.Such is our purpose.^ The fact that He has such a purpose, and that it is (so we believe) a sovereign purpose that cannot be thwarted, does not imply that, after all, our evangelizing is not needed for its fulfilment.
  • Evangelism and the Sovereignty of God 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC gospelpedlar.com [Source type: Original source]

—The Wedding of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnell (c. 1450), [2]

Reformation

.Sovereignty reemerged as a concept in the late 1500s, a time when civil wars had created a craving for stronger central authority, when monarchs had begun to gather power into their own hands at the expense of the nobility, and the modern nation state was emerging.^ The concept of sovereignty has to do with the relationship of political power to other forms of authority.
  • James J. Sheehan | Presidential Address: The Problem of Sovereignty in European History | The American Historical Review, 111.1 | The History Cooperative 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sovereignty, Islamic and modern; conception of sovereignty in Islam.

^ Responses to “The emerging state sovereignty movement” .
  • The emerging state sovereignty movement | Conservative Heritage Times 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC conservativetimes.org [Source type: Original source]

.Jean Bodin, partly in reaction to the chaos of the French wars of religion; and Thomas Hobbes, partly in reaction to the English Civil War, both presented theories of sovereignty calling for strong central authority in the form of absolute monarchy.^ The following are some people associated with "sovereignty" Jean Bodin (French political philosopher) Thomas Hobbes (English philosopher) Other .
  • sovereignty (politics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both Bodin and Hobbes argued for sovereignty as supreme authority.
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Fall 2004 Edition) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.seop.leeds.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Another illustration of the breakdown of sovereignty derives from the appearance, especially since World War II, of transnational regimes in both the public and private spheres.
  • Sovereignty - Obsolescence Of Sovereignty? 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC science.jrank.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In his 1576 treatise Six livres de la république ("Six Books of the Republic") Bodin argued that it is inherent in the nature of the state that sovereignty must be:
.
  • Absolute: On this point he said that the sovereign must not be hedged in with obligations and conditions, must be able to legislate without his (or its) subjects' consent, must not be bound by the laws of his predecessors, and could not, because it is illogical, be bound by his own laws.
  • Perpetual: Not temporarily delegated as to a strong leader in an emergency or to a state employee such as a magistrate.^ Under its influence, we are led to believe that there must in every municipal legal system be a sovereign legislator subject to no legal limitations; just as we are led to believe that international law must be of a certain character because states are sovereign and incapable of legal limitation save by themselves."
    • Legal Dictionary 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.duhaime.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Legal Dictionary Duhaime.org Law · Legal Information · Justice Current Page: Home  »  Legal Dictionary   Sovereignty A state's ability to legislate without legal limitation save as set by themselves and the reach of international law.
    • Legal Dictionary 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.duhaime.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "The federal government must honor and obey the Constitution, just like the states and this citizens of this country are obligated to do, or our system of government begins to fall apart."
    • Oklahoma House passes sovereignty bill 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.wnd.com [Source type: Original source]

    He held that sovereignty must be perpetual because anyone with the power to enforce a time limit on the governing power must be above the governing power: impossible if the governing power is absolute.
.Bodin rejected the notion of transference of sovereignty from people to sovereign ; natural law and divine law confer upon the sovereign the right to rule.^ In constitutional government, it is the people ruling through a body of law that is sovereign.
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Fall 2004 Edition) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.seop.leeds.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ But contrary to Bodin, Hobbes’ sovereign was unlimited by natural, divine, or customary law.
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Fall 2004 Edition) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.seop.leeds.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Is sovereignty a divine right, or a Natural Law?
  • Untitled Document 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.elijahnet.net [Source type: Original source]

.And the sovereign is not above divine law or natural law.^ Is sovereignty a divine right, or a Natural Law?
  • Untitled Document 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.elijahnet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Common Law -- a law of sovereigns, based on the idea of self-responsibility and natural rights.
  • Spiritual Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.halexandria.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But contrary to Bodin, Hobbes’ sovereign was unlimited by natural, divine, or customary law.
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Fall 2004 Edition) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.seop.leeds.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.He is above (ie. not bound by) only positive law, that is, laws made by humans.^ You can be fined or punished only when you have given away your rights in exchange for privileges; then you are bound by the laws.
  • Spiritual Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.worldtrans.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Spiritual Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.halexandria.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Today, in addition to international human rights norms, states, largely irrespective of their will, are bound by the norms of customary international law, obligations erga omnes , and jus cogens .
  • Jack Donnelly, HUMAN RIGHTS AND STATE SOVEREIGNTY 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Those of us that chose to remain sovereign and free men on the land, only bound by common law and the conscience that God puts in all man’s hearts?
  • Texas Representatives Introduce Resolution Asserting Sovereignty Under Tenth Amendment 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

.The fact that the sovereign must obey divine and natural law imposes ethical constraints on him.^ To be sovereign is, in fact, the natural state of man.
  • State Sovereignty Movement Quietly Growing | The Republic of Dave 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.fontcraft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Common Law -- a law of sovereigns, based on the idea of self-responsibility and natural rights.
  • Spiritual Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.halexandria.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This remains the basic legal position of federal Indian law, despite the fact that "divine right" is not accepted elsewhere in United States law.
  • SOVEREIGNTY - in the Context of U.S. "Indian law" 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.umass.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Bodin also held that the lois royales, the fundamental laws of the French monarchy which regulated matters such as succession, are natural laws and are binding on the French sovereign.^ For example, Bodin "by no means desired that the sovereign should be freed from obligation to any and all law, but, on the contrary, expressly declares that every ruler in the world is subject to the laws of God, of nature, and of nations."
  • Untitled Document 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.elijahnet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It envisions sovereign authority, over immigrants in national territory and over domestic law-making or migrant regulation, as exclusive and without limitations.
  • SSRN-International Migration and Sovereignty Reinterpretation in Mexico by Ernesto Hernandez Lopez 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC papers.ssrn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Like Bodin's sovereign, Hobbes’ Leviathan was above the law, a mortal god unbound by any constitution or contractual obligations with any external party.
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.How divine and natural law could in practice be enforced on the sovereign is a problematic feature of Bodin's philosophy: any person capable of enforcing them on him would be above him.^ Those laws would have been enforced.
  • Borderless Continent - United States Sovereignty - THE AMERICAN RESISTANCE FOUNDATION - Security and Prosperity Partnership Of North America SPP 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.theamericanresistance.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But contrary to Bodin, Hobbes’ sovereign was unlimited by natural, divine, or customary law.
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Fall 2004 Edition) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.seop.leeds.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Is sovereignty a divine right, or a Natural Law?
  • Untitled Document 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.elijahnet.net [Source type: Original source]

.Despite his commitment to absolutism, Bodin held some moderate opinions on how government should in practice be carried out.^ How does that work out practically?
  • Sovereignty & frailty :: CSTHEA 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC csthea.org [Source type: General]

^ Governments agree to accept the rulings of the World Trade Organisation because on balance they benefit from an international trading order, even if a particular decision requires that they alter a practice that is their sovereign right to carry out.
  • Sovereignty and globalisation - Council on Foreign Relations 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.cfr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Governments agree to accept the rulings of the World Trade Organization because on balance they benefit from an international trading order even if a particular decision requires that they alter a practice that is their sovereign right to carry out.
  • Project Syndicate - Rethinking Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.project-syndicate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He held that although the sovereign is not obliged to, it is advisable for him, as a practical expedient, to convene a senate from whom he can obtain advice, to delegate some power to magistrates for the practical administration of the law, and to use the Estates as a means of communicating with the people.^ God is sovereign in the delegation of his power to others.
  • The Sovereignty of God 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC unionlife.org [Source type: Original source]

^ God is sovereign in the delegation of His power to others.
  • 1. God's Sovereignty Defined 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.pbministries.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sovereignty as ownership is an ancient concept, and only recently (very recently in some places) has there been any formalization of limits to the internal powers of a sovereign.
  • OpenPolitics.ca : sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC openpolitics.ca [Source type: Original source]

.With his doctrine that sovereignty is conferred by divine law, Bodin predefined the scope of the divine right of kings.^ Is sovereignty a divine right, or a Natural Law?
  • Untitled Document 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.elijahnet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The doctrine of divine sovereignty does not affect the situation in any way.
  • Evangelism and the Sovereignty of God 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC gospelpedlar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The personification of the...physical sexual union between the male king and a divine female sovereignty are widespread in early Indo-European culture, as far away...
  • Sovereignty, Lady – Dictionary definition of Sovereignty, Lady | Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Age of Enlightenment

.Hobbes, in Leviathan (1651) introduced an early version of the social contract (or contractarian) theory, arguing that to overcome the "nasty, brutish and short" quality of life without the cooperation of other human beings, people must join in a "commonwealth" and submit to a "Soveraigne [sic] Power" that is able to compel them to act in the common good.^ Either they must govern themselves or they must submit to being governed by others.
  • CITES BY TOPIC: sovereinty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC famguardian.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A contradictory Act respecting the exercise of the fundamental rights and prerogatives of the Québec people and the Québec State was introduced in the National Assembly of Quebec only two days after the Clarity Act had been introduced in the House of Commons .
  • OpenPolitics.ca : Quebec sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC openpolitics.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Hobbes, like other social-contract theorists, asserted that the king derives his power from a populace who have collectively given up their own former personal sovereignty and power and placed it irretrievably in the king.
  • sovereignty Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.This expediency argument attracted many of the early proponents of sovereignty.^ Many other female personalities from early Irish literature also carry associations with sovereignty, often linked with specific territory.
  • Sovereignty, Lady – Dictionary definition of Sovereignty, Lady | Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a Catholic philosopher, Maritain’s arguments run similar to Christian philosophers of early modern Europe who criticized absolute sovereignty.
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Fall 2004 Edition) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.seop.leeds.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ As a Catholic philosopher, Maritain's arguments run similar to Christian philosophers of early modern Europe who criticized absolute sovereignty.
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

Hobbes deduced from the definition of sovereignty that it must be:
.
  • Absolute: because conditions could only be imposed on a sovereign if there were some outside arbitrator to determine when he had violated them, in which case the sovereign would not be the final authority.
  • Indivisible: The sovereign is the only final authority in his territory; he does not share final authority with any other entity.^ In this case or in any other case God is no less than absolutely sovereign.
    • Sovereignty and Free Will - Jack Cottrell 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.dabar.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ These sovereigns recognized each other, not abstract territorial entities.
    • Jack Donnelly, HUMAN RIGHTS AND STATE SOVEREIGNTY 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For God there is only absolute actuality.
    • Sovereignty and Free Will - Jack Cottrell 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.dabar.org [Source type: Original source]

    Hobbes held this to be true because otherwise there would be no way of resolving a disagreement between the multiple authorities.
.Hobbes' hypothesis that the ruler's sovereignty is contracted to him by the people in return for his maintaining their safety, led him to conclude that if the ruler fails to do this, the people are released from their obligation to obey him.^ By this means sovereignty is returned to the people.
  • sovereig.htm 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.navi.net [Source type: Original source]

^ For Hobbes, the people established sovereign authority through a contract in which they transferred all of their rights to the Leviathan, which represented the abstract notion of the state.
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Fall 2004 Edition) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.seop.leeds.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Daniel 7:27 Then the sovereignty, the dominion, and the greatness of all the kingdoms under the whole heaven will be given to the people of the saints of the Highest One; His kingdom will be an everlasting kingdom, and all the dominions will serve and obey Him.
  • Sovereignty Scriptures 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.tentmaker.org [Source type: Original source]

.Bodin's and Hobbes's theories would decisively shape the concept of sovereignty, which we can find again in the social contract theories, for example, in Rousseau's (1712-1778) definition of popular sovereignty (with early antecedents in Francisco Suárez's theory of the origin of power), which only differs in that he considers the people to be the legitimate sovereign.^ Popular sovereignty of the people has been downgraded and or shelved.
  • Sovereignty vs democracy - Dr. Solomon Terfa - MediaETHIOPIA 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.mediaethiopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Popular sovereignty” of the people has been downgraded and or shelved.
  • Ethiopia - Democracy or Sovereignty? 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The theory of earned sovereignty is an evolving concept.
  • Earned Sovereignty: Bridging the Gap between Self Determination and Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Likewise, it is inalienable – Rousseau condemned the distinction between the origin and the exercise of sovereignty, a distinction upon which constitutional monarchy or representative democracy are founded.^ Alan James similarly conceives of external sovereignty as constitutional independence — a state's freedom from outside influence upon its basic prerogatives.
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Sovereignty -- the notion of "absolute, unlimited power held permanently in a single person or source, inalienable, indivisible, and original" -- is today a theory under siege.
  • American Indian Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.umass.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Sovereignty resides exclusively in the people, whose will -- exercised through the organs of public power and the democratic means stated in the Constitution -- is the basis of authority.
  • Indigenous Sovereignty: an Ecuadorian Perspective | Cultural Survival 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.culturalsurvival.org [Source type: Original source]

.Niccolò Machiavelli, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Montesquieu are also key figures in the unfolding of the concept of sovereignty.^ This modern idea of sovereignty stems from the older concept of a sovereign ruler who held absolute power over his state: an idea advanced by Thomas Hobbes in Leviathan , where sovereignty is a " monopoly of coercive power ...
  • Sovereignty@Everything2.com 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Sovereignty@Everything2.com 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Hobbes later furthered the concept of kingly sovereignty by stating that the king not only declares law but creates it; he thereby gave the sovereign both absolute moral and political power.
  • sovereignty Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Not until the coming of political philosophers like Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean Jacques Rousseau that sovereignty was advocated.
  • Sovereignty vs democracy - Dr. Solomon Terfa - MediaETHIOPIA 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.mediaethiopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ethiopia - Democracy or Sovereignty? 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

.The second book of Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Du Contrat Social, ou Principes du droit politique (1762) deals with sovereignty and its rights.^ On sovereignty : four chapters from The Six Books of the Commonwealth / Jean Bodin ; edited and translated by Julian H. Franklin.

^ Not until the coming of political philosophers like Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean Jacques Rousseau that sovereignty was advocated.
  • Sovereignty vs democracy - Dr. Solomon Terfa - MediaETHIOPIA 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.mediaethiopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ethiopia - Democracy or Sovereignty? 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Souveraineté, droit et gouvernementalité : lectures du politique moderne à partir de Bodin / Thomas Berns.

.Sovereignty, or the general will, is inalienable, for the will cannot be transmitted; it is indivisible, since it is essentially general; it is infallible and always right, determined and limited in its power by the common interest; it acts through laws.^ Therefore, the acts of the United States and the consequences called for in international law is seen as one beyond the competence of the U.S. Civil Rights Commission.
  • Perspectives on Hawaiian Sovereignty : US Apology within a Civil Rights Frameworkby Poka Laenui 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.opihi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The second movement is the circumscription of the sovereign state, which began in practice after World War II and has since continued through European integration and the growth and strengthening of laws and practices to protect human rights.
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Fall 2004 Edition) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.seop.leeds.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Sovereignty -- the notion of "absolute, unlimited power held permanently in a single person or source, inalienable, indivisible, and original" -- is today a theory under siege.
  • American Indian Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.umass.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Law is the decision of the general will in regard to some object of common interest, but though the general will is always right and desires only good, its judgment is not always enlightened, and consequently does not always see wherein the common good lies; hence the necessity of the legislator.^ It does raise some interesting questions.
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Whither Pakistani sovereignty? 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC hotair.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For each man can still think, though he is obstructed and reduced to powerlessness, that his obedience is only to himself and that it is to one of his desire that he is sacrificing all the others.
  • Popular Sovereignty (Informational Paper) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.learningtogive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ See Walter Kalin, Report of the Representative of the Secretary-General on the human rights of internally displaced persons, UN Doc.
  • Humanitarian Imperatives are Transforming Sovereignty - Brookings Institution 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.brookings.edu [Source type: Original source]

.But the legislator has, of himself, no authority; he is only a guide who drafts and proposes laws, but the people alone (that is, the sovereign or general will) has authority to make and impose them.^ NO the UN should not have the authority to determine who is sovereign and who is not.
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Whither Pakistani sovereignty? 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC hotair.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No, that’s for each individual person to do, only individuals are sovereign.
  • Texas Representatives Introduce Resolution Asserting Sovereignty Under Tenth Amendment 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only people who are fully independent are truly sovereign.
  • The Hawaiian Sovereignty Movement: Non-Hawaiians - 2. SOVEREIGNTY AND SELF-DETERMINATION 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.hookele.com [Source type: Original source]

.Rousseau, in his 1763 treatise Of the Social Contract[3] argued, "the growth of the State giving the trustees of public authority more and means to abuse their power, the more the Government has to have force to contain the people, the more force the Sovereign should have in turn in order to contain the Government," with the understanding that the Sovereign is "a collective being of wonder" (Book II, Chapter I) resulting from "the general will" of the people, and that "what any man, whoever he may be, orders on his own, is not a law" (Book II, Chapter VI) – and furthermore predicated on the assumption that the people have an unbiased means by which to ascertain the general will.^ The people are Sovereign State Citizens already.
  • 21 States Claiming Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It’s a democracy, and democracy means convincing people, not forcing people.
  • Macleans.ca » Blog Archive Maclean’s Interview: Louise Beaudoin « 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www2.macleans.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ A government of, by, and for the people, formed by the states, to serve the states and the people.
  • Texas Representatives Introduce Resolution Asserting Sovereignty Under Tenth Amendment 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thus the legal maxim, "there is no law without a sovereign."^ But within the Empire, Charles V was not sovereign, either, for princes and nobles there retained prerogatives over which he exercised no control.
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Fall 2004 Edition) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.seop.leeds.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus you will know that I am in the midst of Israel, and that I am the Lord your God and there is no other; And My people will never be put to shame.
  • Sovereignty Scriptures 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.tentmaker.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As no less a realist than Georg Schwarzenberger put it, "State practice is unanimous in its affirmation of the existence of legal rules in the relations between sovereign States."
  • Jack Donnelly, HUMAN RIGHTS AND STATE SOVEREIGNTY 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The 1789 French Revolution shifted the possession of sovereignty from the sovereign ruler to the nation and its people.^ SOVEREIGN. A chief ruler with supreme power; one possessing sovereignty.
  • CITES BY TOPIC: sovereinty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC famguardian.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If they hear the term sovereignty, they think of King George the Third and the American Revolution - they don't think of the federal government's relationship with Indian nations.

^ A king or queen might be referred to as the "sovereign" of a particular nation of peoples.
  • SOVEREIGNTY OF GOD. An outline study of what the Bible says about sovereignty of God. 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.christinyou.net [Source type: Original source]

.Carl Schmitt (1888-1985) defined sovereignty as "the power to decide the state of exception", in an attempt, argues Giorgio Agamben, to counter Walter Benjamin's theory of violence as radically disjoint from law.^ Creating a sovereignty of violence, and not of law.
  • b o r d e r l a n d s e-journal 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.borderlands.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Sovereignty and international law Nonsovereign states .
  • sovereignty (politics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ State power : total territorial sovereignty .
  • Paradigm : from territorial sovereignty to personal seigniory 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.polyarchy.org [Source type: Original source]

.Georges Bataille's heterodox conception of sovereignty, which may be said to be an "anti-sovereignty", also inspired many thinkers, such as Jacques Derrida, Agamben or Jean-Luc Nancy.^ Reviewer: jgaliano - - May 21, 2007 Subject: Thinking Biblical The Sovereignty of God is the right way to see God, in such a world of distorted christian teaching on God!
  • Internet Archive: Free Download: The Sovereignty of God 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: General]

^ These justifications attempt to reconcile collective action concerns, such as global threats of terrorism or weapons of mass destruction, with the traditional conception of sovereignty.
  • Reconstructing Sovereignty: at Bologna Center Journal of International Affairs 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC bcjournal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Not until the coming of political philosophers like Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean Jacques Rousseau that sovereignty was advocated.
  • Sovereignty vs democracy - Dr. Solomon Terfa - MediaETHIOPIA 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.mediaethiopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ethiopia - Democracy or Sovereignty? 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

Definition and types

.There exists perhaps no conception the meaning of which is more controversial than that of sovereignty.^ Sovereignty levels will be no more.
  • EVE Online - Dominion: New Sovereignty Details - MMORPG.com 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.mmorpg.com [Source type: General]

^ There's no end to sovereignty.
  • Spiritual Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.worldtrans.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sovereignty is a contested concept, however, and does not have a fixed meaning.
  • Circumpolar Inuit Declaration on Arctic Sovereignty | Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.itk.ca [Source type: Original source]

.It is an indisputable fact that this conception, from the moment when it was introduced into political science until the present day, has never had a meaning which was universally agreed upon.^ Federalism offers a means of introducing essential features of the market into politics.
  • FEDERALISM AND INDIVIDUAL SOVEREIGNTY 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This is a little unsatisfactory, and this section marks an attempt to put a little more flesh on the concept's bones, beyond the widely agreed notion that food sovereignty isn't what we have at the moment.
  • What Does Food Sovereignty Look Like? 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.organicconsumers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The concept of sovereignty—one of the most controversial ideas in political science and international law —is closely related to the difficult concepts of state and government and of independence and democracy.
  • sovereignty (politics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

 
— Lassa Oppenheim[4], an authority on international law

Absoluteness

.An important factor of sovereignty is its degree of absoluteness.^ Although the FSIA plays an important role in United States' policy on absolute sovereignty, it is only one of many laws that have influence in this area.
  • Deconstruction of National Sovereignty - Taking down the barriers between nations 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.princeton.edu [Source type: Original source]

.A sovereign power has absolute sovereignty if it has the unlimited right to control everything and every kind of activity in its territory.^ He explains sovereignty as a kind of analogue to rights, and rights as an analogue to sovereignty.
  • Redefining Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.heritage.org [Source type: Original source]

^ State power : total territorial sovereignty .
  • Paradigm : from territorial sovereignty to personal seigniory 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.polyarchy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But their right is not absolute and unlimited.
  • The Sovereignty of God in Salvation  -  Jonathan Edwards 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.biblebb.com [Source type: Original source]

.This means that it is not restricted by a constitution, by the laws of its predecessors, or by custom, and no areas of law or behavior are reserved as being outside its control.^ Apart from lacking a constitution, the EU doesn’t have an army or a police force or any means of exercising common control of its borders.
  • Hillsdale College - Imprimis Issue 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.hillsdale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Can a country claim sovereignty over areas that they have little to no control over?
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Whither Pakistani sovereignty? 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC hotair.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This means that on reservation land, the law of the tribal government supercedes American law.
  • MilkandCookies - Bush on Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.milkandcookies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, parents are not guaranteed the right to decide some matters in the upbringing of their children independently of the sovereign power, municipalities are not guaranteed freedom from its interference in some local matters, etc.^ I firmly believe, that the idea of sovereign power in the government of a republic, is incompatible with the existence and permanent foundation of civil liberty, and the rights of property.
  • CITES BY TOPIC: sovereinty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC famguardian.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Another example is common-law marriage -- marriage in the eyes of God (never mind the piece of paper) - retaining your rights to educate your children.
  • Spiritual Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.worldtrans.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The transactions of independent states between each other are governed by other laws than those which municipal courts administer; such courts have neither the means of deciding what is right, nor the power of enforcing any decision which they may make.” 13 Moore, P. C. 75.
  • CITES BY TOPIC: sovereinty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC famguardian.org [Source type: Original source]

Theorists have diverged over the necessity or desirability of absoluteness. .Historically, it is doubtful whether a sovereign power has ever claimed complete absoluteness, let alone had the power to actually enforce it.^ Like the rulers of Europe's colonial empires, the Nazis wanted "the expansion of political power without the foundation of a body politic," that is, power without the limitations that had always been inherent in sovereign claims.
  • James J. Sheehan | Presidential Address: The Problem of Sovereignty in European History | The American Historical Review, 111.1 | The History Cooperative 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Krasner claims that his purpose is to "understand what sovereign statehood has meant in actual practice."
  • Jack Donnelly, HUMAN RIGHTS AND STATE SOVEREIGNTY 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Sovereigns drew upon all of these traditions, weaving them into a body of legal theory and practice that justified and advanced their claims to power.
  • James J. Sheehan | Presidential Address: The Problem of Sovereignty in European History | The American Historical Review, 111.1 | The History Cooperative 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]

Exclusivity

.The key element of sovereignty in the legalistic sense is that of exclusivity of jurisdiction.^ Sovereignty arises not from a pre-existing internal power or authority that imposes itself on other states but from the mutual recognition of exclusive jurisdictions.
  • Jack Donnelly, HUMAN RIGHTS AND STATE SOVEREIGNTY 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Krasner actually identifies four senses of sovereignty, but focuses on what he calls international legal sovereignty and Westphalian sovereignty, which are concerned exclusively with issues of supreme authority.
  • Jack Donnelly, HUMAN RIGHTS AND STATE SOVEREIGNTY 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Specifically, when a decision is made by a sovereign entity, it cannot generally be overruled by a higher authority, usually another state.^ While choices are made for a reason, the indeterminist cannot provide a causal explanation why an individual would act according to one particular reason or another.
  • Human Freedom and the Sovereignty of God 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC withchrist.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An early court decision, Chisholm v Georgia (1793), includes Justice Wilson's famous words: "To the Constitution of the United States the term sovereign is totally unknown.

^ It is indeed a mark of the resilience and flexibility of the sovereign state that it has accommodated such diverse sorts of authority.
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Fall 2004 Edition) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.seop.leeds.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

De jure and de facto

.De jure, or legal, sovereignty is the theoretical right to exercise exclusive control over one's subjects.^ Unlike a kingdom where this power was easily exercised by the will of one person; today governments are bought by the corporations who control the means of communication, the educational institutions, and the press.
  • OpEdNews - Article: Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.opednews.com [Source type: General]

^ They might also eliminate the international legal sovereignty of the entity or control treaty-making powers in whole or in part (e.g., in specific areas such as security or trade).
  • Stephen D. Krasner - Sharing Sovereignty: New Institutions forCollapsed and Failing States - International Security 29:2 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.alanalexandroff.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was indeed after the Holocaust that meaningful legal and institutional circumscriptions of sovereignty in fact arose, many of which have come to abridge the rights of sovereign states quite significantly.
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Fall 2004 Edition) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.seop.leeds.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.De facto, or actual, sovereignty is concerned with whether control in fact exists.^ As juridical statehood became universal, most states were deprived either de jure or de facto of prerogatives historically associated with national sovereignty.
  • G. Arrighi, "Globalization, State Sovereignty, and the'Endless' Accumulation of Capital" 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC fbc.binghamton.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The possibilities for new institutional forms -- notably shared sovereignty and some de facto form of trusteeship -- are examined.
  • Stephen D. Krasner - Sharing Sovereignty: New Institutions forCollapsed and Failing States - International Security 29:2 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.alanalexandroff.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Putting the test for sovereignty into the hands of the UN would make it a de facto world government.
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Whither Pakistani sovereignty? 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC hotair.com [Source type: Original source]

It can be approached in two ways:
.
  1. Does the governing power have sufficient strength (police, etc.^ Bigger and Badder government, Increasing Civil Rights / Privacy Violations, Police State / Martial Law etc.
    • 21 States Claiming Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The law does not mean much because the government lacks power to enforce it or ensure protection for those who obey it.
    • The Meaning of Sovereignty: What Our Founding Fathers Could Tell Us About Current Events 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.heritage.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But, surely, the question whether they may resume and modify the powers granted to government, does not remain to be settled in this country.
    • CITES BY TOPIC: sovereinty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC famguardian.org [Source type: Original source]

    ) to compel its subjects to obey it? .(If so, a type of de facto sovereignty called coercive sovereignty exists.^ As juridical statehood became universal, most states were deprived either de jure or de facto of prerogatives historically associated with national sovereignty.
    • G. Arrighi, "Globalization, State Sovereignty, and the'Endless' Accumulation of Capital" 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC fbc.binghamton.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The possibilities for new institutional forms -- notably shared sovereignty and some de facto form of trusteeship -- are examined.
    • Stephen D. Krasner - Sharing Sovereignty: New Institutions forCollapsed and Failing States - International Security 29:2 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.alanalexandroff.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Putting the test for sovereignty into the hands of the UN would make it a de facto world government.
    • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Whither Pakistani sovereignty? 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC hotair.com [Source type: Original source]

    )
  2. Are the subjects of the governing power in the habit of obeying it?
.It is generally held that sovereignty requires not only the legal right to exercise power, but the actual exercise of such power.^ What it means is this - the US federal government is authorized to exercise only those powers which are specifically given to it in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution.
  • Minnesota Sovereignty Project 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC mnsovereignty.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Not only did the Korean and Vietnam wars reveal the limits of the actual power wielded by the US warfare-welfare state.
  • G. Arrighi, "Globalization, State Sovereignty, and the'Endless' Accumulation of Capital" 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC fbc.binghamton.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Those powers and rights that allow us to express that sovereignty are sacred.
  • Wabanaki Legal News-Online 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.ptla.org [Source type: Original source]

.That is, "No de jure sovereignty without de facto sovereignty."^ Putting the test for sovereignty into the hands of the UN would make it a de facto world government.
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Whither Pakistani sovereignty? 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC hotair.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first would be to revive the idea of trusteeship or protectorate, probably de facto rather than de jure.
  • Stephen D. Krasner - Sharing Sovereignty: New Institutions forCollapsed and Failing States - International Security 29:2 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.alanalexandroff.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In some cases, decent governance may require some new form of trusteeship, almost certainly de facto rather than de jure.
  • Stephen D. Krasner - Sharing Sovereignty: New Institutions forCollapsed and Failing States - International Security 29:2 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.alanalexandroff.com [Source type: Original source]

.In other words, neither claiming/being proclaimed Sovereign, nor merely exercising the power of a Sovereign is sufficient; sovereignty requires both elements.^ He is sovereign in the exercise of his power.
  • The Sovereignty of God 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC unionlife.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When we speak of the Sovereignty of God, we mean that He is sovereign in the manifestation, or the exercise, of His power .

^ God is sovereign in the delegation of his power to others.
  • The Sovereignty of God 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC unionlife.org [Source type: Original source]

Internal

.Internal sovereignty is the relationship between a sovereign power and its own subjects.^ The problem of sovereignty resides in the relationship between sovereign theory and practice.
  • James J. Sheehan | Presidential Address: The Problem of Sovereignty in European History | The American Historical Review, 111.1 | The History Cooperative 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Unfortunately, it seems to me that in order to understand sovereignty we have to examine the relationship between the abstract and the concrete, that is, between sovereign theory and sovereign practice, between sovereignty as a way of thinking and sovereignty as a way of acting.
  • James J. Sheehan | Presidential Address: The Problem of Sovereignty in European History | The American Historical Review, 111.1 | The History Cooperative 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The sovereign powers exercised by a tribe are mostly based on its unique relationship with the federal government and any particular agreements entered into between the parties.
  • Wabanaki Legal News-Online 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.ptla.org [Source type: Original source]

.A central concern is legitimacy: by what right does a political body (or individual) exercise authority over its subjects?^ Calhoun was simply exercising what he recognized to be his state’s right to defend liberty within its borders by rejecting the dictates of an overbearing central government.
  • sovereignty // Current 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC current.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No longer would the Church and those who acted in its name exercise political or economic authority.
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Fall 2004 Edition) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.seop.leeds.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Almost everywhere in Europe, the legal order replaced monarchical or religious authority as the most important source of political legitimacy.
  • James J. Sheehan | Presidential Address: The Problem of Sovereignty in European History | The American Historical Review, 111.1 | The History Cooperative 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.Possible answers include: by the divine right of kings or by social contract (popular sovereignty).^ The personification of the...physical sexual union between the male king and a divine female sovereignty are widespread in early Indo-European culture, as far away...
  • Sovereignty, Lady – Dictionary definition of Sovereignty, Lady | Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The problem this poses for economic and social rights arises not from a loss of sovereignty but from the purposes for which states exercise their sovereignty.
  • Jack Donnelly, HUMAN RIGHTS AND STATE SOVEREIGNTY 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The only answer we can find is in the Divine Sovereignty, and we must bow before it, for has he not a right to do as he wills with his own?
  • Divine Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.spurgeon.org [Source type: Original source]

External

.External sovereignty concerns the relationship between a sovereign power and other states.^ The concept of sovereignty has to do with the relationship of political power to other forms of authority.
  • James J. Sheehan | Presidential Address: The Problem of Sovereignty in European History | The American Historical Review, 111.1 | The History Cooperative 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ God is sovereign in the delegation of his power to others.
  • The Sovereignty of God 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC unionlife.org [Source type: Original source]

^ State power : total territorial sovereignty .
  • Paradigm : from territorial sovereignty to personal seigniory 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.polyarchy.org [Source type: Original source]

The United Kingdom uses the following criteria when deciding under what conditions other states recognise a political entity as having sovereignty over some territory, as an example of typical criteria used by state when deciding this:
"Sovereignty." .A government which exercises de facto administrative control over a country and is not subordinate to any other government in that country is a foreign sovereign state.^ The deeds created sovereign states.
  • MilkandCookies - Bush on Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.milkandcookies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SOVEREIGN STATE. One which governs itself independently of any foreign power.
  • CITES BY TOPIC: sovereinty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC famguardian.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "The federal government must honor and obey the Constitution, just like the states and this citizens of this country are obligated to do, or our system of government begins to fall apart."
  • Oklahoma House passes sovereignty bill 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.wnd.com [Source type: Original source]

 
— (The Arantzazu Mendi, [1939] A.C. 256), Strouds Judicial Dictionary
.External sovereignty is connected with questions of international law, such as: when, if ever, is intervention by one country onto another's territory permissible?^ History Sovereignty and international law .
  • sovereignty (politics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The law that operates in such cases is one soweth, and another reapeth.
  • Evangelism and the Sovereignty of God 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC gospelpedlar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But international law doesn't recognize any "sovereign right" of one country to invade another.

.Following the Thirty Years' War, a European religious conflict that embroiled much of the continent, the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 established the notion of territorial sovereignty as a doctrine of noninterference in the affairs of other nations, so-called Westphalian sovereignty.^ The concept of sovereignty is typically dated to the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, which ended the Thirty Years' War in Europe.
  • FindLaw's Writ - Raustiala: Restoring Iraqi Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC writ.news.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the principle of nonintervention is traditionally associated with the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, the doctrine was not explicitly articulated until a century later by the Swiss jurist Emmerich de Vattel in his The Law of Nations or Principles of the Law of Nature Applied to the Conduct and Affairs of Nations and Sovereigns, originally published in French in 1758.
  • Stephen D. Krasner - Sharing Sovereignty: New Institutions forCollapsed and Failing States - International Security 29:2 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.alanalexandroff.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And, finally, there's a last definition which is generally referred to as Westphalian sovereignty, in my view a total misnomer, which refers to the notion that states have the right to autonomously determine their own domestic authority structures -- the corollary of that being no intervention in the internal affairs of other states.
  • Conversation with Stephen D. Krasner, p. 3 of 6 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC globetrotter.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This resulted as a natural extension of the principle of cuius regio, eius religio (Whose realm, his religion), leaving the Roman Catholic Church with little ability to interfere with the internal affairs of many European states.^ And, in theory, sovereignty protects a state from interference in its internal affairs by other states.
  • FindLaw's Writ - Raustiala: Restoring Iraqi Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC writ.news.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sovereignty entitles states to non-interference in their internal affairs.
  • Jack Donnelly, HUMAN RIGHTS AND STATE SOVEREIGNTY 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Many European states have done so with regard to the European Union.
  • FindLaw's Writ - Raustiala: Restoring Iraqi Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC writ.news.findlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

.In international law, sovereignty means that a government possesses full control over its own affairs within a territorial or geographical area or limit.^ History Sovereignty and international law .
  • sovereignty (politics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Sovereignty is a legal status within but not above public international law.
  • Jack Donnelly, HUMAN RIGHTS AND STATE SOVEREIGNTY 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Sovereignty and international law Nonsovereign states .
  • sovereignty (politics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Determining whether a specific entity is sovereign is not an exact science, but often a matter of diplomatic dispute.^ Indeed, there is much to recommend the criterion of independence as the only one relevant in determining whether or not a state is fully sovereign.
  • The Hawaiian Sovereignty Movement: Non-Hawaiians - 2. SOVEREIGNTY AND SELF-DETERMINATION 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.hookele.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no definitive answer as to whether IRA entities are recognized tribes as a matter of law, and if so, what legal consequences result.
  • A Primer on Alaska Native Sovereignty, by Douglas K. Mertz 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.alaska.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But consider, that though God's grace is sufficient, yet He is sovereign, and will use His own pleasure to determine whether He will save you or not.
  • The Sovereignty of God in Salvation  -  Jonathan Edwards 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.biblebb.com [Source type: Original source]

.There is usually an expectation that de jure and de facto sovereignty exist at the place and time of concern, and rest in the same organization.^ Only one IH can exist in a system at any one time, and sovereignty must be claimed before one can be anchored.
  • Sovereignty guide - EVElopedia - The EVE Online Wiki 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC wiki.eveonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Putting the test for sovereignty into the hands of the UN would make it a de facto world government.
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Whither Pakistani sovereignty? 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC hotair.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You're not dependent on the other person for your attainment of sovereignty, but at the same time their reflection of sovereignty to you is crucial.
  • Spiritual Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.worldtrans.org [Source type: Original source]

.Foreign governments recognize the sovereignty of a state over a territory, or refuse to do so.^ State power : total territorial sovereignty .
  • Paradigm : from territorial sovereignty to personal seigniory 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.polyarchy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Calhoun was simply exercising what he recognized to be his state’s right to defend liberty within its borders by rejecting the dictates of an overbearing central government.
  • sovereignty // Current 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC current.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The classical concept of "sovereignty" envisions a world order in which all states exercise supreme authority over all subjects within their territories and recognize no worldly authority superior to themselves.

.For instance, in theory, both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China considered themselves sovereign governments over the whole territory of mainland China and Taiwan.^ I firmly believe, that the idea of sovereign power in the government of a republic, is incompatible with the existence and permanent foundation of civil liberty, and the rights of property.
  • CITES BY TOPIC: sovereinty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC famguardian.org [Source type: Original source]

^ People of each state **delegated** certain powers to the federal government, as listed in the Constitution, while reserving the remainder to their respective state governments or to themselves.
  • State Sovereignty Movement Quietly Growing | Tenth Amendment Center 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.tenthamendmentcenter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In international law a state is considered sovereign when it is organized for political purposes and permanently occupies a fixed territory .
  • CITES BY TOPIC: sovereinty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC famguardian.org [Source type: Original source]

.Though some foreign governments recognize the Republic of China as the valid state, most now recognize the People's Republic of China.^ Calhoun was simply exercising what he recognized to be his state’s right to defend liberty within its borders by rejecting the dictates of an overbearing central government.
  • sovereignty // Current 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC current.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We now have a trio of states (California, Georgia & Texas) that are being proactive against the imperialistic federal government of the United States of America.
  • Texas Representatives Introduce Resolution Asserting Sovereignty Under Tenth Amendment 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While for many years the United States recognized some elements of sovereignty in the Indian tribes and dealt with them by treaty, Congress by Act of March 3, 1871 (16 Stat.
  • American Indian Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.umass.edu [Source type: Original source]

.However, de facto, the People's Republic of China has jurisdiction only over mainland China but not Taiwan, while the Republic of China has jurisdiction only over Taiwan and some outlying islands but not mainland China.^ However, God knows that some people will reject Salvation and the Divine Design of God.

^ The possibilities for new institutional forms -- notably shared sovereignty and some de facto form of trusteeship -- are examined.
  • Stephen D. Krasner - Sharing Sovereignty: New Institutions forCollapsed and Failing States - International Security 29:2 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.alanalexandroff.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Arguably, some local authorities in Zaire (and in Bosnia) possess capabilities to create separate states by virtue of de facto control.
  • Sovereignty and Personal Rule in Zaire 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.africa.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since ambassadors are only exchanged between sovereign high parties, the countries recognizing the People's Republic often entertain de facto but not de jure diplomatic relationships with the Republic by maintaining "offices of representation", such as the American Institute in Taiwan, rather than embassies there.^ By your logic, there are only about 4 sovereign countries in the world.
  • ‘Sovereignty Day’: Iraq Reclaims Green Zone, Airspace | Danger Room | Wired.com 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ The most dramatic evidence of this is the well publicized fact that in his "embassy" Ambassador Negroponte will have the largest staff in American diplomatic history, variously estimated at between 2000 and 3000 people.
  • Tomgram: Schwartz on symbolic sovereignty in Iraq | TomDispatch 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.tomdispatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The sovereign powers exercised by a tribe are mostly based on its unique relationship with the federal government and any particular agreements entered into between the parties.
  • Wabanaki Legal News-Online 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.ptla.org [Source type: Original source]

.Sovereignty may be recognized even when the sovereign body possesses no territory or its territory is under partial or total occupation by another power.^ Territorial sovereignty becomes then, under the state, total territorial sovereignty.
  • Paradigm : from territorial sovereignty to personal seigniory 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.polyarchy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ State power : total territorial sovereignty .
  • Paradigm : from territorial sovereignty to personal seigniory 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.polyarchy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Power : territorial sovereignty .
  • Paradigm : from territorial sovereignty to personal seigniory 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.polyarchy.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Holy See was in this position between the annexation in 1870 of the Papal States by Italy and the signing of the Lateran Treaties in 1929, when it was recognised as sovereign by many (mostly Roman Catholic) states despite possessing no territory – a situation resolved when the Lateran Treaties granted the Holy See sovereignty over the Vatican City.^ The classical concept of "sovereignty" envisions a world order in which all states exercise supreme authority over all subjects within their territories and recognize no worldly authority superior to themselves.

^ The sovereign powers exercised by a tribe are mostly based on its unique relationship with the federal government and any particular agreements entered into between the parties.
  • Wabanaki Legal News-Online 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.ptla.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Those who insist that the age of sovereignty is behind us can say—as they have, quite insistently, since the early 1990s—that international politics is no longer restricted to sovereign states.
  • The Meaning of Sovereignty: What Our Founding Fathers Could Tell Us About Current Events 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.heritage.org [Source type: Original source]

.Another case, sui generis, though often contested, is the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, the third sovereign mini-state based in an enclave in the Italian capital (since in 1869 the Palazzo di Malta and the Villa Malta receive extraterritorial rights, in this way becoming the only "sovereign" territorial possessions of the modern Order), which is the last existing heir to one of several once militarily significant, crusader states of sovereign military orders.^ A sovereign state is often described as one that is free and independent.
  • sovereignty Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The State Soverieghty is the only way to get the job done.
  • State Sovereignty Movement Quietly Growing | The Republic of Dave 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.fontcraft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The only social responsibility one has, is to not violate another's individual rights.
  • Individual Rights & Sovereignty - IRIS - powered by Reason and Principle 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.individual-sovereignty.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1607 its Grand masters were also made Reichsfürst (princes of the Holy Roman Empire) by the Holy Roman Emperor, granting them seats in the Reichstag, at the time the closest permanent equivalent to a UN-type general assembly; confirmed 1620).^ First, states emerged as virtually the sole form of substantive constitutional authority in Europe, their authority no longer seriously challenged by the Holy Roman Empire.
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Fall 2004 Edition) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.seop.leeds.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Via Campesina Statement to the UN General Assembly on The Global Food Crisis and the Right to Food - 4/6/09 in New York City .

.These sovereign rights never deposed, only the territories were lost.^ The rights of the sovereign are not only limited but contingent and variable.
  • Jack Donnelly, HUMAN RIGHTS AND STATE SOVEREIGNTY 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If they never told us that we would be losing these rights then they did not fully disclose the terms of the contract and thus, the contract is null and void.
  • Texas Representatives Introduce Resolution Asserting Sovereignty Under Tenth Amendment 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yes, but nations should not be able to claim sovereign rights when they cannot control territory from which terrorist attacks are launched.
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Whither Pakistani sovereignty? 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC hotair.com [Source type: Original source]

.100 modern states still maintain full diplomatic relations with the order[5] (now de facto "the most prestigious service club"), and the UN awarded it observer status.^ The concept of sovereignty was closely related to the growth of the modern nation-state, and today the term is used almost exclusively to describe the attributes of a state rather than a person.
  • sovereignty Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As juridical statehood became universal, most states were deprived either de jure or de facto of prerogatives historically associated with national sovereignty.
  • G. Arrighi, "Globalization, State Sovereignty, and the'Endless' Accumulation of Capital" 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC fbc.binghamton.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Now on the heels of the financial crisis, which is still ongoing and even increasing in magnitude, the States (20 of them) are putting their foot down and saying no to the Federal Government.
  • US States Filing State Sovereignty Laws 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.panamalaw.org [Source type: Original source]

.Another case is also the International Committee of the Red Cross.^ The International Committee of the Red Cross has dealt with missing persons.
  • Stephen D. Krasner - Sharing Sovereignty: New Institutions forCollapsed and Failing States - International Security 29:2 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.alanalexandroff.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To be sure, since the 1950s the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) had a special mandate to protect civilians in armed conflicts, and beginning in the 1970s could explicitly act in non-international armed conflicts.
  • Humanitarian Imperatives are Transforming Sovereignty - Brookings Institution 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.brookings.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It is not something which we can out­source to lawyers at the International Red Cross in Geneva or U.N. Headquarters in New York or any­where else.
  • Redefining Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.heritage.org [Source type: Original source]

.Similarly, the governments-in-exile of many European states (for instance, Norway, Netherlands or Czechoslovakia) during the Second World War were regarded as sovereign despite their territories being under foreign occupation; their governance resumed as soon as the occupation had ended.^ This has not occurred all at once, nor has it meant the end of European sovereign states.
  • Sovereignty, Human Rights and Legitimacy in the Post-Cold War World 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.faculty.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In this respect European nations were not sovereign during the Cold War.

^ Some domains of this territory are still under the occupation of the Eritrean government.

The government of Kuwait was in a similar situation vis-à-vis the Iraqi occupation of its country during 1990-1991.

Shared

.Just like the office of Head of state (whether sovereignty is vested in it or not) can be vested jointly in several persons within a state, the sovereign jurisdiction over a single political territory can be shared jointly by two or more consenting powers, notably in the forms of a condominium or of (as still in Andorra) a co-principality.^ The concept of sovereignty has to do with the relationship of political power to other forms of authority.
  • James J. Sheehan | Presidential Address: The Problem of Sovereignty in European History | The American Historical Review, 111.1 | The History Cooperative 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ State power : total territorial sovereignty .
  • Paradigm : from territorial sovereignty to personal seigniory 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.polyarchy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The state is the political institution in which sovereignty is embodied.
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Fall 2004 Edition) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.seop.leeds.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

Tribal

Nation-states

.Nations, claiming the right of self-determination, often establish sovereign states for themselves, thus creating nation-states.^ The deeds created sovereign states.
  • MilkandCookies - Bush on Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.milkandcookies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All peoples have the right of self-determination.
  • The Hawaiian Sovereignty Movement: Non-Hawaiians - 2. SOVEREIGNTY AND SELF-DETERMINATION 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.hookele.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Self determination, National.
  • Project MUSE - Subject Browse 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC muse.jhu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.An aspiring nation-state must have sovereignty recognised by other nation-states in order to become one.^ State sovereignty and humanitarian intervention : does one negate the other?

^ The sovereignty of nations must be respected.
  • Redefining Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.heritage.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, according to Calvinism, one must be born again in order to be born again!
  • Sovereignty and Responsibility 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC withchrist.org [Source type: Original source]

Federations

.In federal systems of government, sovereignty also refers to powers which a state government possesses independently of the national government.^ State power : total territorial sovereignty .
  • Paradigm : from territorial sovereignty to personal seigniory 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.polyarchy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Indians' sovereignty predates both federal and state governments.

^ There are state governments, which derive their sovereignty from the federal government, and there are Indian governments.

.Whether state sovereignty is superior to the sovereignty of the national government or vice versa determines whether the country is considered a federation (such as the United States) or a confederation (such as the Iroquois Confederacy).^ Some state lawmakers are pushing for sovereignty from the federal government.
  • Stimulus raises state sovereignty issues - CNN.com 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ The point is that "American Indian sovereignty" in federal Indian law is a tool for limiting the powers of indigenous self-determination and for allowing the United States to determine the structure of indigenous government.
  • American Indian Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.umass.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Might we not need to stop at ascension of State sovereignty, and continue on to a possible thought of succeeding from a union of states, governed by an oppressive socialist regime, which is hell bent on destroying the United States of America, and reducing OUR country to another communist government controlled , state owned gulag for those, once of a free nation of the people, by the people, and for the people.
  • State Sovereignty Movement Quietly Growing | The Republic of Dave 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.fontcraft.com [Source type: Original source]

.Controversy over states' rights ultimately contributed to the start of the American Civil War.^ Sponsored by a coalition of four major civil rights organizations, the summer project was intended to break the back of white supremacy in the worst of the Southern states.
  • Free Speech Movement and the Mississippi Sovereignty Commission 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.jofreeman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An American Citizen has complete soverignty therefore has inalienable rights garanteed by the United States Constitution of America.
  • Texas Representatives Introduce Resolution Asserting Sovereignty Under Tenth Amendment 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bigger and Badder government, Increasing Civil Rights / Privacy Violations, Police State / Martial Law etc.
  • 21 States Claiming Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

Acquisition

.A number of methods of acquisition of sovereignty are presently or have historically been recognised by international law as lawful methods by which a state may acquire sovereignty over territory.^ State power : total territorial sovereignty .
  • Paradigm : from territorial sovereignty to personal seigniory 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.polyarchy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ War (International law) Sovereignty.
  • Project MUSE - Subject Browse 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC muse.jhu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Territorial acquisition, disputes, and international law / Surya P. Sharma.

Justifications

.There exist vastly differing views on the moral basis of sovereignty.^ For the first time in human history, a government was established on the explicit basis that all men are equal, that sovereignty lay with the people, and that unjust governments were there to be overturned.

^ If there are sufficient moral justifications, such a people could even resort to political sovereignty as part of this process.
  • Intellectuals for the Sovereignty of Quebec 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.rocler.qc.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ It has become clear that there is a coordinated Democrat campaign to oppose the sovereignty movement on a nationwide basis in the state legislatures.
  • State Sovereignty Movement - “The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.” 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC statesovereignty.org [Source type: Original source]

.A fundamental polarity is between theories that assert that sovereignty is vested directly in the sovereign by divine right or natural right, and theories that assert it is vested in the people.^ The problem of sovereignty resides in the relationship between sovereign theory and practice.
  • James J. Sheehan | Presidential Address: The Problem of Sovereignty in European History | The American Historical Review, 111.1 | The History Cooperative 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The relationship between sovereignty and economic and social rights in contemporary international relations is complex.
  • Jack Donnelly, HUMAN RIGHTS AND STATE SOVEREIGNTY 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Sovereignty and human rights typically are seen as fundamentally opposed: the rights of states pitted against the rights of individuals; 1648 (the Peace of Westphalia) versus 1948 (the Universal Declaration of Human Rights).
  • Jack Donnelly, HUMAN RIGHTS AND STATE SOVEREIGNTY 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In the latter case there is a further division into those that assert that the people transfer their sovereignty to the sovereign (Hobbes), and those that assert that the people retain their sovereignty (Rousseau).^ Decolonized peoples did not fit into the structure of the sovereign state.
  • American Indian Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.umass.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For Hobbes, the people established sovereign authority through a contract in which they transferred all of their rights to the Leviathan, which represented the abstract notion of the state.
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Fall 2004 Edition) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.seop.leeds.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Ethiopians should unite under the banner of the respect of the SOVEREIGNTY OF THE ETHIOPIAN PEOPLE: the people must make their own CONSTITUTION; this is their sovereign right.
  • Ethiopia - Democracy or Sovereignty? 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

.
  • Democracy is based on the concept of popular sovereignty.^ Describes and analyzes the concept of sovereignty and the relationship of sovereignty to treaties and tribal governments of Minnesota based American Indian tribes in a historical context.
    • Department of Education | American Indian Learner Outcomes 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.d.umn.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Ethiopian democracy or Slttunhzbnna is the key concept which fuses democracy and sovereignty: this is to say that: 1.
    • Ethiopia - Democracy or Sovereignty? 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC nazret.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In conventional discourse, the idea of local democracy -- of popular sovereignty -- "fades as an object of political theory" and along with it fade "the ...
    • American Indian Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.umass.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Representative democracies permit (against Rousseau's thought) a transfer of the exercise of sovereignty from the people to the parliament or the government.^ Government has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to defend with laws the rights of the people which cannot be Annihilated, or have returned to the People these rights for their exercise.
    • Texas Representatives Introduce Resolution Asserting Sovereignty Under Tenth Amendment 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Our revolution broke up the foundations of sovereignty in government; and our written constitutions have carefully guarded against the baneful influence of such an idea henceforth and forever.
    • CITES BY TOPIC: sovereinty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC famguardian.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Community's institutional structure suggests that it aspires to do both: a Council of Ministers represented the states, but the Commission and Court represented the community as a whole, and the Parliament represented the "peoples of Europe."
    • James J. Sheehan | Presidential Address: The Problem of Sovereignty in European History | The American Historical Review, 111.1 | The History Cooperative 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Parliamentary sovereignty refers to a representative democracy where the Parliament is, ultimately, the source of sovereignty, and not the executive power.
  • The republican form of government acknowledges that the sovereign power is founded in the people, individually, not in the collective or whole body of free citizens, as in a democratic form.^ The people are Sovereign State Citizens already.
    • 21 States Claiming Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Strictly speaking, in our republican forms of government, the absolute sovereignty of the nation is in the people of the nation; (q.v.
    • CITES BY TOPIC: sovereinty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC famguardian.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In constitutional government, it is the people ruling through a body of law that is sovereign.
    • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Fall 2004 Edition) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.seop.leeds.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

    Thus no majority can deprive a minority of their sovereign rights and powers.
  • Absolute monarchies are typically based on belief in the divine right of kings.

Views on

.
  • Realists view sovereignty as being untouchable and as guaranteed to legitimate nation-states.
  • Rationalists see sovereignty similarly to Realists.^ Alan James similarly conceives of external sovereignty as constitutional independence — a state's freedom from outside influence upon its basic prerogatives.
    • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Viewed from the perspective of the 1920s and 1930s, it is difficult to see how anyone could believe in the inexorable rise of the sovereign state.
    • James J. Sheehan | Presidential Address: The Problem of Sovereignty in European History | The American Historical Review, 111.1 | The History Cooperative 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Covenant of the League of Nations recognized the normative character of the sovereign state by guaranteeing its members' sovereign independence.
    • James J. Sheehan | Presidential Address: The Problem of Sovereignty in European History | The American Historical Review, 111.1 | The History Cooperative 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    .However, Rationalism states that the sovereignty of a nation-state may be violated in extreme circumstances, such as human rights abuses.
  • Internationalists believe that sovereignty is outdated and an unnecessary obstacle to achieving peace, in line with their belief of a 'global community'. Supporting this is their belief that the concept of nation-states, based on the Treaty of Westphalia, is also outdated and should be abolished.
  • Anarchists and some libertarians deny the sovereignty of states and governments.^ That case concerns an alleged violation of the Maine Human Rights Act by the Nation's government.
    • Wabanaki Legal News-Online 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.ptla.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Sovereignty is not merely a question of national rights.
    • The Meaning of Sovereignty: What Our Founding Fathers Could Tell Us About Current Events 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.heritage.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The human rights and humanitarian communities contributed substantially to this concept.
    • Humanitarian Imperatives are Transforming Sovereignty - Brookings Institution 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.brookings.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Anarchists often argue for a specific individual kind of sovereignty, such as the Anarch as a sovereign individual.^ They might also eliminate the international legal sovereignty of the entity or control treaty-making powers in whole or in part (e.g., in specific areas such as security or trade).
    • Stephen D. Krasner - Sharing Sovereignty: New Institutions forCollapsed and Failing States - International Security 29:2 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.alanalexandroff.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Blackfeet Tribe argued that it is sovereign and that the jurisdiction of the tribal court flows directly from this sovereignty.
    • American Indian Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.umass.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Sovereignty of God allows man to make such decisions and commit such actions, but the Sovereign Design of God is independent of them.

    .Salvador Dalí, for instance, talked of "anarcho-monarchist" (as usual for him, tongue in cheek); Antonin Artaud of Heliogabalus: Or, The Crowned Anarchist; Max Stirner of The Ego and Its Own; Georges Bataille and Jacques Derrida of a kind of "antisovereignty". Therefore, anarchists join a classical conception of the individual as sovereign of himself, which forms the basis of political consciousness.^ The concept of sovereignty has to do with the relationship of political power to other forms of authority.
    • James J. Sheehan | Presidential Address: The Problem of Sovereignty in European History | The American Historical Review, 111.1 | The History Cooperative 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In his classic, The King's Two Bodies (1957), medievalist Ernst Kantorowicz describes a profound transformation in the concept of political authority over the course of the Middle Ages.
    • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ State governments are a creation of these sovereign, free and independent individuals; these governments derive their power from the people and are therefore subordinate to the people, the sovereign, free and independent individuals that granted them their very existence.
    • State Sovereignty Movement Quietly Growing | The Republic of Dave 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.fontcraft.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The unified consciousness is sovereignty over one's own body, as Nietzsche demonstrated (see also Pierre Klossowski's book on Nietzsche and the Vicious Circle).^ We will see from these events how God demonstrated His sovereignty over the nations of the earth, and we shall see how God is sovereign in history.
    • The Sovereignty of God in History | Bible.org; NET Bible, Bible Study 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC bible.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When God by His Spirit inclines one to Christ, that one, in so doing, acts only in the consciousness of his own choice.
    • Sovereignty and Responsibility 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC withchrist.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Therefore, God has determined to manifest His own glory, by exercising His sovereignty over men, especially over their souls and bodies, even in this most important matter of their eternal salvation.
    • The Sovereignty of God in Salvation  -  Jonathan Edwards 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.biblebb.com [Source type: Original source]

    .See also self-ownership and Sovereignty of the individual.
  • Imperialists hold a view of sovereignty where power rightfully exists with those states that hold the greatest ability to impose the will of said state, by force or threat of force, over the populace or other states with weaker military or political will.^ The concept of sovereignty has to do with the relationship of political power to other forms of authority.
    • James J. Sheehan | Presidential Address: The Problem of Sovereignty in European History | The American Historical Review, 111.1 | The History Cooperative 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The state is the political institution in which sovereignty is embodied.
    • Sovereignty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Marshall based his ideas of tribal sovereignty on political theory and international law about weaker nations allying themselves with stronger nations in a so-called "protectorate" relationship.
    • Wabanaki Legal News-Online 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.ptla.org [Source type: Original source]

    They effectively deny the sovereignty of the individual in deference to either the 'good' of the whole, or to divine right.

Relation to rule of law

.Another topic is whether the law is held to be sovereign, that is, whether it is above political or other interference.^ In international law a state is considered sovereign when it is organized for political purposes and permanently occupies a fixed territory .
  • CITES BY TOPIC: sovereinty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC famguardian.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Whether this trend is beneficial or perilous for the future of world politics and international law has yet to be determined.
  • Reconstructing Sovereignty: at Bologna Center Journal of International Affairs 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC bcjournal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Among nation-states today equally sovereign rights are at least implied under international law, while states pride themselves on their independence from each other.
  • The Hawaiian Sovereignty Movement: Non-Hawaiians - 2. SOVEREIGNTY AND SELF-DETERMINATION 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.hookele.com [Source type: Original source]

.Sovereign law constitutes a true state of law, meaning the letter of the law (if constitutionally correct) is applicable and enforceable, even when against the political will of the nation, as long as not formally changed following the constitutional procedure.^ Marshall based his ideas of tribal sovereignty on political theory and international law about weaker nations allying themselves with stronger nations in a so-called "protectorate" relationship.
  • Wabanaki Legal News-Online 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.ptla.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus few believe deeply that nation-states should be the sole focus and source of our political values, but accept pragmatically that the system of sovereign states works to preserve domestic values.
  • Sovereignty, Human Rights and Legitimacy in the Post-Cold War World 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.faculty.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ An early court decision, Chisholm v Georgia (1793), includes Justice Wilson's famous words: "To the Constitution of the United States the term sovereign is totally unknown.

Strictly speaking, any deviation from this principle constitutes a revolution or a coup d'état, regardless of the intentions.

Sovereign as a title

.In some cases, the title sovereign is not just a generic term, but an actual (part of the) formal style of a Head of state.^ An early court decision, Chisholm v Georgia (1793), includes Justice Wilson's famous words: "To the Constitution of the United States the term sovereign is totally unknown.

^ The powers of the general government, it has been said, are delegated by the states, who alone are truly sovereign; and must be exercised in subordination to the states, who alone possess supreme dominion.
  • CITES BY TOPIC: sovereinty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC famguardian.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Krasner contends that states have never been as sovereign as some have supposed.

Thus from 22 June 1934, to 29 May 1953, (the title "Emperor of India" was dropped as of 15 August 1947, by retroactive proclamation dated 22 June 1948), the King of South Africa was styled in the Dominion of South Africa: "By the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India and Sovereign in and over the Union of South Africa." Upon the accession of Elizabeth II to the Throne of South Africa in 1952, the title was changed to Queen of South Africa and Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth, parallel to the style used in almost all the other Commonwealth realms. .The pope holds ex officio the title "Sovereign of the Vatican City State" in respect to Vatican City.^ The people should avoid being that PERSON and remain in their respective State as Sovereign as can be.
  • 21 States Claiming Sovereignty 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I just think that it is unlikely that they would be sovereign “city-states.” And, this makes me particulalry interested in the parameters that may shape an eventual political bargain.
  • Opinio Juris » Blog Archive » Seasteading: Constructed Sovereignty? 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC opiniojuris.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As being a creation of sovereign states, the federal government possesses no negative powers over the states or the sovereign individuals that reside in those states respectively.
  • State Sovereignty Movement Quietly Growing | The Republic of Dave 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC www.fontcraft.com [Source type: Original source]

The adjective form can also be used in a Monarch's full style, as in pre-imperial Russia, 16 January 1547 – 22 November 1721: Bozhiyeyu Milostiyu Velikiy/Velikaya Gosudar'/Gosudarynya Tsar'/Tsaritsa i Velikiy/Velikaya Knyaz'/Knyaginya N.N. vseya Rossiy Samodyerzhets "By the Grace of God Great Sovereign Tsar/Tsarina and Grand Prince/Princess, N.N., of All Russia, Autocrat"

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ "Chaucer's tale of the Wife of Bath.". http://www.dhushara.com/book/renewal/bath.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-10. 
  2. ^ a b "The Wedding of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnell". http://www.lone-star.net/mall/literature/gawain.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-10. 
  3. ^ Of the Social Contract, Book II, Chapter III.
  4. ^ 1 Lassa Oppenheim, International Law 66 (Sir Arnold D. McNair ed., 4th ed. 1928)
  5. ^ Bilateral diplomatic relations of SMOM

References

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

(There is currently no text in this page)


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

.
of God, his absolute right to do all things according to his own good pleasure (Dan.
^ Cite This Source Bible Dictionary Sovereignty of God, his absolute right to do all things according to his own good pleasure (Dan.
  • Sovereignty Definition | Definition of Sovereignty at Dictionary.com 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If he is not in absolute control of all things, then he is not God and does not deserve to be worshipped as God.

^ His absolute right to do all things according to His own good pleasure ( Dan.
  • Sovereignty (WebBible™ Encyclopedia) - ChristianAnswers.Net 11 January 2010 2:15 UTC christiananswers.net [Source type: Original source]

4:25, 35; Rom. 9:15-23; 1 Tim. 6:15; Rev. 4:11).
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)

Simple English

The English Wiktionary has a dictionary definition (meanings of a word) for:

Sovereignty is the right of a government to have complete control over its area.

James Otis in his defense of the American colonists against the writs of assistance stated that "every man is his own sovereign". The United States Declaration of Independence, states "We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal".Or were they som men highly doubted that.

krc:Суверенитет


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 26, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Sovereignty, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message