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Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Other names
1922–1991
Flag Coat of arms
.Motto
Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь!
^ Motto Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь!
  • Soviet Union - Familypedia 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


(Translit.: Proletarii vsekh stran, soyedinyaytes'!)
English: Workers of the world, unite!
Anthem
The Internationale (1922–1944)
Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944–1991)
The Soviet Union after World War II
Capital Moscow
Language(s) Russian, many others
Government Federal socialist republic, Single-party communist state
General Secretary
 - 1922–1953 (first) Joseph Stalin
 - 1985–1991 (last) Mikhail Gorbachev
Premier
 - 1923–1924 (first) Vladimir Lenin
 - 1991 (last) Ivan Silayev
History
 - Established December 30, 1922
 - Disestablished December 26, 1991
Area
 - 1991 22,402,200 km2 (8,649,538 sq mi)
Population
 - 1991 est. 293,047,571 
     Density 13.1 /km2  (33.9 /sq mi)
Currency Soviet ruble (руб) (SUR)
Internet TLD .su2
Calling code +7
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Russian SFSR
Transcaucasian SFSR
Ukrainian SSR
Byelorussian SSR
Tuvan People's Republic
Kresy
Bessarabia
Finnish Karelia
Carpathian Ruthenia
Estonia3
Latvia3
Lithuania3
Russia
Belarus
Ukraine
Moldova
Georgia
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Kazakhstan
Uzbekistan
Turkmenistan
Kyrgyzstan
Tajikistan
Estonia3
Latvia3
Lithuania3
.1On December 21, 1991, eleven of the former socialist republics declared in Alma-Ata (with the 12th republic – Georgia – attending as an observer) that with the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ceases to exist.^ The Library has had numerous requests for information regarding the former Soviet Union .
  • SOVIET UNION, 1917-1991 � UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (USSR) 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC www.reagan.utexas.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In: The cinema of Russia and the former Soviet Union / edited by Birgit Beumers ; [preface by Sergei Bodrov].
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ And as far as supporting former Soviet republics militarily against Russian influence: I hope "Saracuda" realizes that the day that happens she has completely sold out her home state of Alaska.
  • Sarah Palin: Russian offense augurs war: The Swamp 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]


2Assigned on September 19, 1990, existing onwards.
.3The governments of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania view themselves as continuous and unrelated to the respective Soviet republics.^ The Polish annexation was soon followed by domination of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Traditionally, the republics’ governmental structure resembled that of the central government of the USSR, but the upheavals of the early 1990s brought increasing divergence from the Soviet pattern.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The next day the council recognized the full independence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


.Russia views the Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian SSRs as legal constituent republics of the USSR and predecessors of the modern Baltic states.^ "Soviet Occupation of the Baltic States and Their Incorporation into the USSR: Political and Legal Aspects," East European Quarterly , 19, September 1985, 289- 304.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ For the first time in the history of Russia public opinion in the modern sense became a power in the state and influenced strongly the policy of the government.


The Government of the United States and a number of other countries did not recognize the legal inclusion of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in the USSR.
.The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991. The name is a translation of the Russian: About this sound Союз Советских Социалистических Республик , tr. Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, IPA [sɐˈjʊs sɐˈvʲeʦkʲɪx səʦɪəlʲɪˈstʲiʨɪskʲɪx rʲɪsˈpʊblʲɪk], abbreviated СССР, SSSR.^ The Soviet Union doesn't exist anymore.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Our beloved Holy Russia remains always one and the same Motherland of ours, disregarding whatever official name she might have borne during the centuries: either Kievan Rus, or Muscovite Principality, or Russian Tsardom, or Russian Empire, or the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics, or finally the present-day Russian Federation.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ We used to live in brotherly concord with all of our non-Russian neighbours within the Russian Empire, as well as within the Soviet Union.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

.The common short name is Soviet Union,[1] from Советский Союз, Sovetskiy Soyuz.^ The exigencies of war against a common enemy, Nazi Germany, necessitated a rehabilitation of the Soviet Union in American eyes.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ After the break-up of the Soviet Union, its name was changed to Action for Post-Soviet Jewry.
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

A soviet is a council, the theoretical basis for the socialist society of the USSR.
.Emerging from the Russian Empire after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Russian Civil War of 1918–1921, the USSR was a union of several Soviet republics, but the synecdoche Russia—after the Russian SFSR, its largest and most populous constituent state—continued to be commonly used throughout the country's existence.^ The Russian Empire, 1801-1917 .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The Cambridge encyclopedia of Russia and the soviet Union .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The Jews in the Soviet Union since 1917 .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The geographic boundaries of the USSR varied with time, but after the last major territorial annexations of the Baltic states, eastern Poland, Bessarabia, and certain other territories during World War II, from 1945 until dissolution, the boundaries approximately corresponded to those of late Imperial Russia, with the notable exclusions of Poland and Finland.^ RUSSIA AT WAR 1941 1945 .
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ RUSSIA AT WAR 1941 - 1945 .
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Veronica eventually succumbs to the seduction of Boris' cousin, Mark, but subsequently redeems herself by nursing the wounded amidst the terrible suffering of the Russian civilian population during World War II. 91 min.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.Initially established as a union of four Soviet Socialist Republics, the USSR grew to contain 15 constituent or "union republics" by 1956: Armenian SSR, Azerbaijan SSR, Byelorussian SSR, Estonian SSR, Georgian SSR, Kazakh SSR, Kirghiz SSR, Latvian SSR, Lithuanian SSR, Moldavian SSR, Russian SFSR, Tajik SSR, Turkmen SSR, Ukrainian SSR and Uzbek SSR.^ We used to live in brotherly concord with all of our non-Russian neighbours within the Russian Empire, as well as within the Soviet Union.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ The higher were to be established in the cities and were to contain the equivalent of the first four or five grades of a classical gymnasium.

^ The subseries contains memoranda and published materials related to the Soviet Jewry Movement and the USSR. .
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

.From annexation of the Estonian SSR on August 6, 1940 up to the reorganization of the Karelo-Finnish SSR into the Karelian ASSR on July 16, 1956, the count of union republics numbered 16. As the largest and oldest constitutional communist-led socialist state, the Soviet Union became the primary model for a number of ideologically close Marxist-Leninist nations during the Cold War.^ Inversion of History during the Cold War.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ In July 1924 the Ossetian AO was created and in December 1936 it became the North Ossetian ASSR. Ossetian Muslims, the Digor, were deported in 1944 along with other Muslim peoples of the North Caucasus.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Russian Federation : Ossetians 11 January 2010 1:16 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ An early silent satirical film produced in the Soviet Union which points up the social consequences of the Soviet housing shortage.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.The government and the political organization of the country were defined by the Bolsheviks and their successor, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.^ A large section of the administrative Series contains outgoing and incoming faxes that reflect the activities of the organization from mid-1980s to 1991, the collapse of the Soviet Union.
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It emerged as a member organization of the Union of Council for Soviet Jews (UCSJ), on the basis of the New England Student Struggle for Soviet Jewry (NESSSJ).
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

^ CO165 entire category (Countries Soviet Union) .
  • SOVIET UNION, 1917-1991 � UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (USSR) 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC www.reagan.utexas.edu [Source type: Reference]

.From 1945 until dissolution in 1991—a period known as the Cold War—the Soviet Union and the United States of America were the two world superpowers that dominated the global agenda of economic policy, foreign affairs, military operations, cultural exchange, scientific advancements including the pioneering of space exploration, and sports (including the Olympic Games and various world championships).^ Soviet Foreign Policy in the 1980s .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Soviet Foreign Trade: Organization, Operations, and Policy, 1918-1971 .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ "Will the Soviet Union Survive until 1994?"
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The Russian Federation is the so called continuation state in exercising the rights and fulfilling the obligations of the former USSR. Russia is the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States and a recognised global power, inheriting former Soviet foreign representatives and much of Soviet military.^ Soviet Military Power, 1989 .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Soviet Military Power, 1987 .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It had to be divided, therefore, into a number of independent principalities, but it continued to be loosely held together by the dynastic sentiment of the descendants of Rurik and by the patriarchal authority - a sort of patria potestas - of the senior member of the family, called the grand-prince, who ruled in Kiev, " the mother of Russian cities."

Contents

History

.The Soviet Union is traditionally considered to be the successor of the Russian Empire and of its short-lived successor, The Provisional Government under Georgy Yevgenyevich Lvov and then Alexander Kerensky.^ The collapse of the Tsarist regime and the failure of the Kerensky Provisional Government nearly led to the complete (though temporal) disintegration of the Russian state.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ We used to live in brotherly concord with all of our non-Russian neighbours within the Russian Empire, as well as within the Soviet Union.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Provisionally, then, the Russian governmental system may perhaps be best defined - as M. Chasles suggests 3 - as " a limited monarchy under an autocratic emperor."

.The last Russian Tsar, Nicholas II, ruled until March 1917, when the Empire was overthrown and a short-lived Russian provisional government took power, the latter to be overthrown in November 1917 by Vladimir Lenin.^ The Russian Empire, 1801-1917 .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ L'Empire des tsars, ii.

^ The collapse of the Tsarist regime and the failure of the Kerensky Provisional Government nearly led to the complete (though temporal) disintegration of the Russian state.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

.From 1917 to 1922, the predecessor to the Soviet Union was the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR), which was an independent country, as were other Soviet republics at the time.^ The Jews in the Soviet Union since 1917 .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Our beloved Holy Russia remains always one and the same Motherland of ours, disregarding whatever official name she might have borne during the centuries: either Kievan Rus, or Muscovite Principality, or Russian Tsardom, or Russian Empire, or the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics, or finally the present-day Russian Federation.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ We used to live in brotherly concord with all of our non-Russian neighbours within the Russian Empire, as well as within the Soviet Union.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

.The Soviet Union was officially established in December 1922 as the union of the Russian (colloquially known as Bolshevist Russia), Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Transcaucasian Soviet republics ruled by Bolshevik parties.^ The Cambridge encyclopedia of Russia and the soviet Union .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Just look at the way they coerced and forced a few of the old Soviet Republics into being part of a CIS dominated by Russia.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain: Putin wants ‘to restore the old Russian empire’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The subseries contains trip information and trip reports by official delegations and groups that visited the Soviet Union.
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

Revolution and the foundation of a Soviet state

.Modern revolutionary activity in the Russian Empire began with the Decembrist Revolt of 1825, and although serfdom was abolished in 1861, its abolition was achieved on terms unfavorable to the peasants and served to encourage revolutionaries.^ In 1893 district committees for the management of the peasants' affairs, similar to those in the purely Russian governments, were introduced into this part of the empire.

.A parliament—the State Duma—was established in 1906 after the Russian Revolution of 1905, but the Tsar resisted attempts to move from absolute to constitutional monarchy.^ Based on a Maxim Gorky story, Mother recreates the abortive Russian revolution of 1905.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Education: A systematic and organized attempt was made by the Russian government in 1840 to raise the intellectual and moral condition of its Jewish subjects by the establishment of modern Jewish schools.

^ The establishment of a judicial system on these principles ,constituted, as M. Leroy-Beaulieu justly observes, a fundamental change in the conception of the Russian state, which, by placing the administration of justice outside the sphere of the executive power, ceased to be a despotism.

.Social unrest continued and was aggravated during World War I by military defeat and food shortages in major cities.^ MYTH IV: The mainstream Western narrative on the Eastern Front during the Second World War was formed by academic historians and is fundamentally fair and objective.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Depicts a small group of gypsies escaping the German army during World War II. The group is fleeing south from Poland through Czechoslovakia and Hungary.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ The overwhelming majority of the German prisoners-of-war were contained not in the Siberian camps, but they were working on the reconstruction sites in the European part of the USSR, just in the cities and towns which were badly destroyed by the Germans during the war.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

Vladimir Lenin addressing a crowd in 1920.
.A spontaneous popular uprising in Saint Petersburg, in response to the wartime decay of Russia's economy and morale, culminated in the "February Revolution" and the toppling of the imperial government in March 1917.^ RUSSIAN WISDOM Reverend Elder Monk Anatol the Junior of the Optina Pustyn' (Opta's Reclusive Friary), in the very first days of the Revolution, in February 1917, made a prophecy on the future of Russia: "There will be a storm.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Between the February and October revolutions in 1917, Russian cinema reflected urgent new themes, as in The Revolutionary.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Shows changing conditions in Russia as seen by a young peasant who lived through the upheaval in St. Petersburg that culminated in the revolution of 1917.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

The tsarist autocracy was replaced by the Provisional Government, whose leaders intended to conduct elections to Russian Constituent Assembly and to continue participating on the side of the Entente in World War I.
.At the same time, to ensure the rights of the working class, workers' councils, known as Soviets, sprang up across the country.^ I never would have believed that this country could fall so low in such a short time, but it's not the same country I used to be proud to live in.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the same time it pointed out that this work for the Jewish population would prove useful to the world at large also.

^ It has fought with unvarying courage for civil rights for the Jews, and has at the same time fearlessly exposed Jewish national defects as well as the failings of certain social groups.

The Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, pushed for socialist revolution in the Soviets and on the streets. .In November 1917, during the "October Revolution," they seized power from the Provisional Government.^ Between the February and October revolutions in 1917, Russian cinema reflected urgent new themes, as in The Revolutionary.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ They descend upon W. and S. Russia in the beginning of October, and are felt on the Caucasus about the middle of November.

^ Smith, Clarence J. The Russian Struggle for World Power, 1914-1917: A Study of Russian Foreign Policy During World War I .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

In December, the Bolsheviks signed an armistice with the Central Powers. But, by February 1918, fighting had resumed. .In March, the Soviets quit the war for good and signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.^ If the Ukraine were inducted into NATO, they would be signing a treaty that says "If any member is invaded by another country, all of the other members will go to war to defend it."
  • Sarah Palin: Russian offense augurs war: The Swamp 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

.Only after the long and bloody Russian Civil War was the new Soviet power secure.^ Compare these figures with the cruel fate of the Soviet POWs: out of a total of 4,559,000 Russian prisoners-of-war – 3,300,000 died in German captivity.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Issue 3, p212-218, 7p UC users only Youngblood, Denise J. "A war remembered: Soviet films of the Great Patriotic War."
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ The infant Soviet regime faced large 'White' armies of anti-Communist Russians, Anarchist mutineers, break-away nationalist minorities and invading armies of most of the major powers of the First World War.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

.The civil war between the Reds and the Whites started in 1917 and ended in 1923. It included foreign intervention and the execution of Nicholas II and his family.^ In foreign affairs Nicholas II. likewise continued the policy of his predecessor, with certain modifications suggested by the change of circumstances.

^ It should be clearly understood and remembered that many, if not all, of the White Generals were those traitors who forced Emperor Nicholas II to abdicate in February 1917.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ A love story between two Poles at the end of World War II portraying the destructive effects of war on the human spirit.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.In March 1921, during a related conflict with Poland, the Peace of Riga was signed and split disputed territories in Belarus and Ukraine between the Republic of Poland and Soviet Russia.^ In these circumstances the tsar was induced to accept a compromise, and signed in 1667 the treaty of Andrussovo, by which the territory in dispute was partitioned and the middle course of the Dnieper became the frontier between Russia and Poland.

^ During this period the relations between the two governments and the two countries became much more cordial.

^ If Russia invades either Poland or the Ukraine, we will have no other choice BUT to take action militarily.
  • Sarah Palin: Russian offense augurs war: The Swamp 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

.The Soviet Union had to resolve similar conflicts with the newly established Republic of Finland, the Republic of Estonia, the Republic of Latvia, and the Republic of Lithuania.^ Finland's Relations with the Soviet Union, 1944-1984 .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Former Soviet republics Ladispoli, Italy Soviet Union -- Politics and government -- 1953-1985 .
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Politburo: Leading Organs of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Leading Organs of the Republics .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

Early relationship with Nationalist China

The Qing Dynasty, the last of the ruling Chinese dynasties, collapsed in 1911 and China was left under the control of several major and lesser warlords during the "Warlord era." To defeat these warlords, who had seized control of much of Northern China, the anti-monarchist and national unificationist Kuomintang (KMT) party and the President of the Republic of China, Sun Yat-sen, sought the help of foreign powers.
However, Sun's efforts to obtain aid from the Western democracies were ignored. In 1921, Sun turned to the Soviet Union. .For political expediency, the Soviet leadership initiated a dual policy of support for both the KMT and the newly established Communist Party of China (CPC).^ "Soviet Party Leadership Endorses Sweeping Economic Restructuring," Washington Post , June 27, 1987, A24.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ "The Language Policy of the Soviet Communist Party: Comments and Observations," East European Quarterly , 21, June 1987, 231-57.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

The USSR hoped for Communist consolidation, but were prepared for either side to emerge victorious. .Thus the struggle for power in China began between the KMT and the CPC. In 1923, a joint statement by Sun and Soviet representative Adolph Joffe in Shanghai pledged Soviet assistance for China's unification.^ Alexius had been twice married and had left several children by each of his wives, and, as generally happened in such cases, a struggle for power ensued between the two rival families.

Unification of the Soviet Republics

.On December 28, 1922, a conference of plenipotentiary delegations from the Russian SFSR, the Transcaucasian SFSR, the Ukrainian SSR and the Byelorussian SSR approved the Treaty of Creation of the USSR[2] and the Declaration of the Creation of the USSR, forming the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.^ We used to live in brotherly concord with all of our non-Russian neighbours within the Russian Empire, as well as within the Soviet Union.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ The subseries contains trip information and trip reports by official delegations and groups that visited the Soviet Union.
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

^ February 11th, 2008 1:27 pm ET Huckabee compared the declaration of victory to the old Soviet Union.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

[3] These two documents were confirmed by the 1st Congress of Soviets of the USSR and signed by heads of delegations[4]Mikhail Kalinin, Mikha Tskhakaya, Mikhail Frunze and Grigory Petrovsky, Aleksandr Chervyakov[5] respectively on December 30, 1922.
On February 1, 1924, the USSR was recognized by the British Empire. .Also in 1924, a Soviet Constitution was approved, legitimizing the December 1922 union of the Russian SFSR, the Ukrainian SSR, the Belarusian SSR, and the Transcaucasian SFSR to form the "Union of Soviet Socialist Republics" (USSR).^ We used to live in brotherly concord with all of our non-Russian neighbours within the Russian Empire, as well as within the Soviet Union.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ I drink primarily to the health of the Russian people because it is the most outstanding of all the nations that constitute the Soviet Union.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ I drink to the health of the Russian people, because, during this war, it has earned universal recognition as the guiding force of the Soviet Union among all the peoples of our country.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

.The intensive restructuring of the economy, industry and politics of the country began in the early days of Soviet power in 1917. A large part of this was performed according to Bolshevik Initial Decrees, documents of the Soviet government, signed by Vladimir Lenin.^ Until the country had completely recovered from the exhaustion of the Crimean War the government remained in the back ground of European politics.

^ They have also peopled large parts of the government of Stavropol and of N. Caucasia.

^ From the governments of Vyatka and Vladimir large numbers of bricklayers, carpenters and Other handicraftsmen migrate temporarily to the S. governments every year, and similarly plasterers and painters from the government of Moscow.

.One of the most prominent breakthroughs was the GOELRO plan, that envisioned a major restructuring of the Soviet economy based on total electrification of the country.^ Based on the novel by Henryk Sienkiewicz, it is set in 17th century Poland when Poland was the largest, the most democratic, and the most tolerant country in Europe.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ One of the most serious mistakes of German propaganda on the Eastern Front was the legend of the "Soviet Sub-Humans".
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Film is notable as it is regarded as an accurate portrayal of this period of Soviet history and constitutes one of the first attempts to create a film based upon contemporary Soviet "everyday life".
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.The Plan was developed in 1920 and covered a 10- to 15-year period.^ Basic Directions for the Economic and Social Development of the USSR for 1986-1990 and for the Period to the Year 2000 .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is covered with a thick sheet of black earth, a kind of loess, mixed with 5 to 15% of humus , due to the decomposition of an herbaceous vegetation, which developed luxuriantly during the Lacustrine period on a continent relatively dry even at that epoch.

^ Guidelines for the Economic and Social Development of the USSR for 1986-1990 and the Period to the Year 2000 .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

It included construction of a network of 30 regional power plants, including ten large hydroelectric power plants, and numerous electric-powered large industrial enterprises.[6] The Plan became the prototype for subsequent Five-Year Plans and was basically fulfilled by 1931.[7]

Stalin's rule

.
The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow during its 1931 demolition.
^ We Russians had a lot to do within the borders of our Homeland, including Collectivization and Industrialization, which were absolutely necessary in order to secure the revival and development of our country, and the preparations for the military defense of the USSR. The ruins of the Christ the Saviour Cathedral in Moscow, blown up by the Bolshevik Destructivists in 1931.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

Organized religion was suppressed in the Soviet Union.
.From its beginning years, government in the Soviet Union was based on the one-party rule of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks).^ Three years ago Hitler publicly stated that his task included the dismemberment of the Soviet Union and the severance from it of the Caucasus, the Ukraine, Byelorussia, the Baltic and other regions.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Film is notable as it is regarded as an accurate portrayal of this period of Soviet history and constitutes one of the first attempts to create a film based upon contemporary Soviet "everyday life".
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ In the Soviet Union of 1936 revolutionary hero, Colonel Kotov, is spending an idyllic summer in his dacha with his wife and their 6 year old daughter.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[8] .After the economic policy of War Communism during the Civil War, the Soviet government permitted some private enterprise to coexist with nationalized industry in the 1920s and total food requisition in the countryside was replaced by a food tax (see New Economic Policy).^ That is a far cry from Lincoln's mournful, painful and conflicted quote, admitting that the sins of the nation as a whole in permitting slavery made even the horrors of the Civil War just punishment enough from the almighty.
  • Sarah Palin: Russian offense augurs war: The Swamp 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ Compare these figures with the cruel fate of the Soviet POWs: out of a total of 4,559,000 Russian prisoners-of-war – 3,300,000 died in German captivity.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ The real question is why Palin would want Georgia, a nation in the midst of a civil war, to join NATO? .
  • Sarah Palin: Russian offense augurs war: The Swamp 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

.Soviet leaders argued that one-party rule was necessary because it ensured that 'capitalist exploitation' would not return to the Soviet Union and that the principles of Democratic Centralism would represent the people's will.^ I think we might need secessionist parties in other areas of the country, namely Democratic areas, because she is warmongering, and it is foolish, and some of us don't need that.
  • Sarah Palin: Russian offense augurs war: The Swamp 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ It was believed that the Jewish question, if indeed there really was one, was in reality only a part of the general Russian problem; that the fortunes of the Jews would be modified only with a change in the fortunes of the Russian people; and that therefore it was necessary to work with the latter in endeavoring to realize the common Russian aims.

^ Because the Soviet Union was really a great Family of Nations.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

.Debate over the future of the economy provided the background for Soviet leaders to contend for power in the years after Lenin's death in 1924. Initially, Lenin was to be replaced by a "troika" composed of Grigory Zinoviev of Ukraine, Lev Kamenev of Moscow, and Joseph Stalin of Georgia.^ The Soviet Economy: Toward the year 2000 .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The Soviet Leader, Marshal Joseph Stalin, summoned Metropolitan Sergius Stragorodsky, the head of the Moscow Patriarchate, and Metropolitan Aleksey Simansky of Leningrad and promised them that everything Metropolitan Elias Karam of the Lebanon Hills had conveyed would be fulfilled.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Putin has been peeling back democracy in Russia for many years and the conflict in Georgia is a land/power grab.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain: Putin wants ‘to restore the old Russian empire’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 3 April 1922, Stalin had been named the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.^ Stalin's Successors: Leadership, Stability, and Change in the Soviet Union .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The Soviet Union, with Stalin's leadership, made an extraordinary recovery from unparalleled devastation.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

Lenin had appointed Stalin to be the head of the Workers' and Peasants' Inspectorate, known by the acronym Rabkrin, which gave Stalin considerable power. .By gradually consolidating his influence and isolating and out-maneuvering his rivals within the party, Stalin became the undisputed leader of the Soviet Union by the end of the 1920s establishing totalitarian rule.^ We used to live in brotherly concord with all of our non-Russian neighbours within the Russian Empire, as well as within the Soviet Union.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Hukabee was going to loose anyway, the rules exist to maintain order and to keep away the spectre of "election rigging, " that did indeed happen in totalitarian countries such as the mentioned Soviet Union.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Under Stalin's rule our beloved country Russia became a superpower!
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

In October 1927, Grigory Zinoviev and Leon Trotsky were expelled from the Central Committee and forced into exile.
.In 1928, Stalin introduced the First Five-Year Plan for building a socialist economy.^ "Geographic Aspects of the New Soviet Five-Year Plan, 1986-90," Soviet Geography , 27, No.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This lyrical sound and musical documentary celebrates the enthusiasm with which the peasants and miners of the Don River basin in Russia fulfilled their first five-year plan quotas following the October Revolution.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Elek, Peter S. "Soviet Capital Strategy and Performance During the Eleventh Five-Year Plan: Past, Present, and Prospective."
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.While encompassing the internationalism expressed by Lenin throughout the course of the Revolution, it also aimed for building socialism in one country.^ The overwhelming majority of the Russian people within and without the Party supported Stalin's constructive-positivist drive with his very progressive slogan "Socialism in One Country!"
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

.In industry, the state assumed control over all existing enterprises and undertook an intensive program of industrialization; in agriculture collective farms were established all over the country.^ The Axis states were supported by all the manpower, industry and resources of almost all Continental Europe, North Africa, and South-East Asia under their control.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ They at once began to conquer the surrounding country in all directions, and before two centuries had passed they had established themselves firmly at Kiev on the Dnieper, invaded.

^ A tale in which peasant settlements were forcibly reorganized into state affliated collective farms.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.Famines occurred, causing millions of deaths and surviving kulaks were politically persecuted and many sent to Gulags to do forced labour.^ Among the many criminals freed from the Soviet gulags in 1953 are two political prisoners, the middle-aged Kopalych and the young Luzga.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Many accounts allege that the Soviets sent all their returned POW's to the Gulag, if they didn't shoot them for treason.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ There were an additional estimated 3.0 million famine deaths in the USSR not under German occupation.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

.A wide range of death tolls has been suggested, from as many as 60 million kulaks being killed (suggested by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn) to as few as 700 thousand (according to Soviet news sources).^ The subseries consist of the wide range of information related to the Refuseniks and prisoners of conscience, Soviet politics, American-Soviet relations, materials on the boycott of the Moscow Olympics (1980) and more.
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

^ To save as many lives as possible, thousands of leaflets issued by the Red Army Command (like this one shown below) were suggesting that the Germans should surrender.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the Novgorodian annalists as many as 1500 persons were sometimes put to death in a single day.

Social upheaval continued in the mid-1930s. .Stalin's Great Purge of the party killed many "Old Bolsheviks" who had participated in the October Revolution with Lenin.^ Yaroslav, surnamed the Great, a man of commanding personality , was the last grand-prince who upheld vigorously the old system.

^ Before Stalin concenrated the state power in his hands in the late 1930s, the enemies of the Russian people – the so-called "Lenin's Guard" or the "Old Bolsheviks" – had managed to inflict a great damage to the country's economy, and caused the Christian people much of grief.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Based on Eisenstein's memoirs, this autobiographical film reflects the inner world of the great Russian film director during the tragic years of two Russian revolutions and the Stalin terror.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.Yet despite the turmoil of the mid- to late 1930s, the Soviet Union developed a powerful industrial economy in the years before World War II.^ Despite the large production of wood, the Soviet Union never had highly developed wood-products industries.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the end of the war, the Soviet Union was recognized as one of the great powers of the world.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet Union was the world's largest country.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The 1930s
.The early 1930s saw closer cooperation between the West and the USSR. From 1932 to 1934, the Soviet Union participated in the World Disarmament Conference.^ An early silent satirical film produced in the Soviet Union which points up the social consequences of the Soviet housing shortage.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Statements of World and Community Leaders on the Plight of Jews in the Soviet Union .
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

.In 1933, diplomatic relations between the United States and the USSR were established.^ And now, at a time when relations between the United States and Russia have been strained by the Bush administration's designs on a missile defense shield in Poland and by Russia's incursion into neighboring Georgia, it seems that McCain's running mate has another message for Russia.
  • Sarah Palin: Russian offense augurs war: The Swamp 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ "United States-Soviet Relations: Current Trends."
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In September 1934, the Soviet Union joined the League of Nations.^ "The Interplay of Religious Policy and Nationalities Policy in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe."
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Because the Soviet Union was really a great Family of Nations.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ I drink primarily to the health of the Russian people because it is the most outstanding of all the nations that constitute the Soviet Union.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

After the Spanish Civil War broke out in 1936, the USSR actively supported the Republican forces against the Nationalists. The Nationalists were supported by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany.
.In December 1936, Stalin unveiled a new Soviet Constitution.^ "Key Soviet Official Urges New Rights for Religious Believers," Washington Post , December 23, 1988, A12.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.This constitution provided economic rights not included in constitutions in the western democracies.^ One man, one vote is THE most fundamental right we share in our Constitutional democracy.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

The constitution was seen as a personal triumph for Stalin, who on this occasion was described by Pravda as "genius of the new world, the wisest man of the epoch, the great leader of communism." By contrast, western historians and historians from former Soviet occupied countries have seen the constitution as a meaningless propaganda document.
The late 1930s saw a shift towards the Axis powers. In 1938 and 1939, armed forces of the USSR won several decisive victories during border clashes with the armed forces of the Japanese Empire. .In 1938, after the United Kingdom and France concluded the Munich Agreement with Germany, the USSR dealt with Germany as well.^ The two best customers of Russia are Germany, which takes 23.3% of her total exports, and the United Kingdom , which takes 22.9%.

^ The countries from which Russia buys most extensively are Germany (34%), the United Kingdom (152) and the United States (92).

^ He strengthened the cordial understanding with France by a formal agreement, the terms of which were not divulged, but he never encouraged the French government in any aggressive designs, and he maintained friendly relations with Germany.

World War II
.The USSR dealt with Germany both militarily and economically during extensive talks and by concluding the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact and the German–Soviet Commercial Agreement.^ The Soviet to Axis loss ratio was 1.3:1 and the USSR outproduced Germany in every weapons system throughout the war.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

.The conclusion of the nonaggression pact made possible the Soviet occupation of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Bessarabia, northern Bukovina, and eastern Poland.^ They first entered Poland from Germany during the era of the crusades , and soon spread through Lithuania, Courland, the Ukraine, and, in the 18th century, Bessarabia.

^ Their chief abodes, however, continue to be Poland, the W. provinces of Lithuania, White and Little Russia, and Bessarabia.

^ Jones, Christopher D. Soviet Influence in Eastern Europe: Political Autonomy and the Warsaw Pact .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In late November of the same year, unable to force the Republic of Finland into agreement to move its border 25 kilometres (16 mi) back from Leningrad by diplomatic means, Stalin ordered the invasion of Finland.^ Just look at the way they coerced and forced a few of the old Soviet Republics into being part of a CIS dominated by Russia.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain: Putin wants ‘to restore the old Russian empire’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many families were ordered to leave Riga and Libau in 1893; and in the same year all the Jewish residents of Yalta were directed to leave that city.

^ When she rejects his advances he seeks revenge by trying to move a Nazi clerk into their home, forcing the couple to tell a lie that will change their lives forever.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.On April 1941, USSR signed the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact with the Empire of Japan, recognizing the territorial integrity of Manchukuo, a Japanese puppet state.^ "Soviet Occupation of the Baltic States and Their Incorporation into the USSR: Political and Legal Aspects," East European Quarterly , 19, September 1985, 289- 304.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ On national the 30th of July 1907 she signed a convention with position Japan of mutual respect for treaty and territorial of Russia.

^ Religion and the Soviet State: A Report on Religious Repression in the USSR on the Occasion of the Christian Millenium .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

Although it has been debated whether the Soviet Union had the intention of invading Germany once it was strong enough,[9] Germany itself broke the treaty and invaded the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941 and started what was known in the USSR as the "Great Patriotic War." The Red Army stopped the initial German offensive during the Battle of Moscow. .The Battle of Stalingrad, which lasted from late 1942 to early 1943, was a major defeat for the Germans and became a major turning point of the war.^ He was taking part in the Battle of Stalingrad as an artillery captain (Hauptman) of the German Wehrmacht.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Such was their USUAL abhorrent practice, being especially rife in the occupied Belorussian, Ukrainian and Russian lands BEFORE the Stalingrad's derout of Germany in early 1943.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ After the battle, the Soviets recovered 250,000 German, Romanian, and other corpses in and around Stalingrad.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

.After Stalingrad, Soviet forces drove through Eastern Europe to Berlin before Germany surrendered in 1945.^ The victory over Nazi Germany was achieved through the lives of millions of Soviets, who for reasons that defy logic made the ultimate sacrifice .
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Such was their USUAL abhorrent practice, being especially rife in the occupied Belorussian, Ukrainian and Russian lands BEFORE the Stalingrad's derout of Germany in early 1943.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Soviet Armed Forces Review (annuals 1977 through 1985).
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The same year, the USSR, in fulfilment of its agreement with the Allies at the Yalta Conference, denounced the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact in April 1945[10] and invaded Manchukuo and other Japan-controlled territories on August 9, 1945.[11] This conflict ended with a decisive Soviet victory, contributing to the unconditional surrender of Japan and the end of World war II. Although ravaged by the war, the Soviet Union emerged victorious from the conflict and became an acknowledged military superpower.^ (Various issues of the following publication were also used in the preparation of this appendix: Joint Publications Research Service, Soviet Union: Military Affairs .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The murderous Civil War with huge casualties left the Soviets with a lasting mistrust of the outside world, which remained in force until the end of the regime 65 years later.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ The exigencies of war against a common enemy, Nazi Germany, necessitated a rehabilitation of the Soviet Union in American eyes.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

The Cold War
.During the immediate postwar period, the Soviet Union first rebuilt and then expanded its economy, while maintaining its strictly centralized control.^ A Cuban propaganda film first exhibited outside of Cuba and the Soviet Union in 1992.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Film is notable as it is regarded as an accurate portrayal of this period of Soviet history and constitutes one of the first attempts to create a film based upon contemporary Soviet "everyday life".
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ During the first part of the Glacial period Russia seems to have been covered by an immense ice- sheet , which extended also over central Germany , and of which the E. limits cannot yet be determined.

.The Soviet Union aided post-war reconstruction in the countries of Eastern Europe while turning them into Soviet satellite states, founded the Warsaw Pact in 1955. Later, the Comecon supplied aid to the eventually victorious Communists in the People's Republic of China, and saw its influence grow elsewhere in the world.^ He has in essence taken a democratic country and turned back into a communist country.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain: Putin wants ‘to restore the old Russian empire’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MYTH IV: The mainstream Western narrative on the Eastern Front during the Second World War was formed by academic historians and is fundamentally fair and objective.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ But isolated notices which found their way into the foreign press created a wave of indignation throughout Europe, and forced even Pobiedonostzev to make apologetic explanations.

.Meanwhile, the rising tension of the Cold War turned the Soviet Union's wartime allies, the United Kingdom and the United States, into enemies.^ The exigencies of war against a common enemy, Nazi Germany, necessitated a rehabilitation of the Soviet Union in American eyes.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Three years ago Hitler publicly stated that his task included the dismemberment of the Soviet Union and the severance from it of the Caucasus, the Ukraine, Byelorussia, the Baltic and other regions.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ I was in the Marines during the cold war and trained to fight a soviet army and then volunteered for combat in Desert Storm.
  • Sarah Palin: Russian offense augurs war: The Swamp 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

Post-Stalin period

.Stalin died on March 5, 1953. In the absence of an acceptable successor, the highest Communist Party officials opted to rule the Soviet Union jointly.^ The Soviet Union, with Stalin's leadership, made an extraordinary recovery from unparalleled devastation.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Miller, Marshall L. "Between Moscow and Mecca: Ethnic Minorities in the Soviet Union," Armed Forces Journal International , 124, March 1987, 26-27.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ "The Language Policy of the Soviet Communist Party: Comments and Observations," East European Quarterly , 21, June 1987, 231-57.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Nikita Khrushchev, who had won the power struggle by the mid-1950s, denounced Stalin's use of repression in 1956 and eased repressive controls over party and society.^ From the mid 1920s through the 1930s, Joseph Stalin and his group of the "Constructivists" ( Patriots ) struggled fiercely within the Communist Party against the "Destructivists" ( Aliens ) who operated under the guidance of Leon Trotsky, a notorious enemy of everything Russian and Christian.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ As is known, it was Stalin who began to revive the Russian Orthodox Church in the mid-1930s, despite the rabid opposition of the "Old Bolsheviks."
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ But evidently, not all readers are aware of the fact that it was NOT Stalin, but Nikita Khruschev, who introduced such an evil order, that it was Khruschev who attempted to suppress religion in Russia.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

This was known as de-Stalinization.
.At the same time, Soviet military force was used to suppress nationalistic and anti-communist uprisings in Hungary and Poland in 1956. During this period, the Soviet Union continued to realize scientific and technological pioneering exploits; to launch the first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1; a living dog, Laika; and later, the first human being, Yuri Gagarin, into Earth's orbit.^ It was WE who launched the first satellite – the famous Sputnik in 1957!
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ I cannot but repeat it over and over again that the Stalingrad family shown above, as well as their neighbours and all the others, are the very same Russian people who, in the next 10 years' period of time, would restore our devastated country to life without any help from abroad (no "Marshall Plan", etc), and who would launch the first Sputnik in Space, and the first Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, having left behind the mightiest country in the world – the United States of America.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ I never would have believed that this country could fall so low in such a short time, but it's not the same country I used to be proud to live in.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Valentina Tereshkova was the first woman in space aboard Vostok 6 on June 16, 1963, and Alexey Leonov became the first person to walk in space on March 18, 1965. Khrushchev's reforms in agriculture and administration, however, were generally unproductive, and foreign policy towards China and the United States suffered difficulties, including those that led to the Sino-Soviet split.^ Soviet Foreign Policy in the 1980s .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Her personal evolution is interwoven with archival footage and propaganda films tracing the death throes of the Soviet Empire from the last years of the Brezhnev regime through Gorbachev's perestroika reforms to the first steps toward democracy under Boris Yeltsin.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Three years ago Hitler publicly stated that his task included the dismemberment of the Soviet Union and the severance from it of the Caucasus, the Ukraine, Byelorussia, the Baltic and other regions.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

Khrushchev was retired from power in 1964.
.Following the ousting of Khrushchev, another period of rule by collective leadership ensued, lasting until Leonid Brezhnev established himself in the early 1970s as the preeminent figure in Soviet political life.^ Commissioned by the Moscow Soviet as a documentary and information film for the citizens of Moscow prior to municipal elections, film is a tableau of Soviet life and achievements in the period of reconstruction following the Civil War of 1917-1921.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Film is notable as it is regarded as an accurate portrayal of this period of Soviet history and constitutes one of the first attempts to create a film based upon contemporary Soviet "everyday life".
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ A collection of short excerpts from newsreels and documentary films of Soviet life in the early 1920s made by Vertov and his "Kino-Eye" group.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.Brezhnev presided over a period of Détente with the West while at the same time building up Soviet military strength; the arms buildup contributed to the demise of Détente in the late 1970s.^ At the same time the military and financial requirements dislocated the local and central administration, and consequently a series of radical administrative reforms had to be undertaken.

^ Willerton, John P., Jr. "Patronage Networks and Coalition Building in the Brezhnev Era," Soviet Studies , 39, No.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The Soviet Far East Military Buildup: Nuclear Dilemmas and Asian Security .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

In October 1977, at the Seventh (Special) Session of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR Ninth Convocation, the third and last Soviet Constitution, also known as the "Brezhnev Constitution," was unanimously adopted. .The official name of the Constitution was "Constitution (Fundamental Law) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics."^ I drink primarily to the health of the Russian people because it is the most outstanding of all the nations that constitute the Soviet Union.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Our beloved Holy Russia remains always one and the same Motherland of ours, disregarding whatever official name she might have borne during the centuries: either Kievan Rus, or Muscovite Principality, or Russian Tsardom, or Russian Empire, or the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics, or finally the present-day Russian Federation.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ In this way the fundamental laws were suspended not only in Poland but in St Petersburg and other parts of the empire during the greater part of the four years succeeding the grant of the constitution.

.This was the first Soviet Constitution which explicitly stated the supremacy of the Communist Party.^ Film is notable as it is regarded as an accurate portrayal of this period of Soviet history and constitutes one of the first attempts to create a film based upon contemporary Soviet "everyday life".
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ "The Language Policy of the Soviet Communist Party: Comments and Observations," East European Quarterly , 21, June 1987, 231-57.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In contrast to the revolutionary spirit that accompanied the birth of the Soviet Union, the prevailing mood of the Soviet leadership at the time of Brezhnev's death in 1982 was one of aversion to change.^ In the 1980s the Soviet Union began to change.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the time of Brezhnev's death in November 1982, the USSR was in headlong decline."

^ Soon after the German attack on the Soviet Union, the retreating Soviets had no time to care for their prisoners locked up in prisons in the Ukraine, so they were simply killed.
  • Massacres and Atrocities of WWII in Eastern Europe 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC members.iinet.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The long period of Brezhnev's rule had come to be dubbed one of "standstill" , with an aging and ossified top political leadership.
.After some experimentation with economic reforms in the mid-1960s, the Soviet leadership reverted to established means of economic management.^ Following decades of repression, political favoritism, and bureaucratic and economic stagnation, the Soviet government after 1984 was given an injection of fresh, new leadership.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Soviet Party Leadership Endorses Sweeping Economic Restructuring," Washington Post , June 27, 1987, A24.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ From the very beginning, the new leadership that rose to power in May 1988 in Hungary considered the reduction of military spending to be the primary means of surviving the economic crisis.
  • Parallel History Project on Cooperative Security (PHP) - Hungary and the W'Pact: Introduction 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.php.isn.ethz.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Industry showed slow but steady gains during the 1970s. Agricultural development continued, but could not keep up with the growing consumption and the USSR had to import food products like grain. .Because of the low investment in consumer goods, the USSR was largely only able to export raw materials, notably oil, which made it vulnerable to global price shifts.^ The wealth of Russia consisting mainly of raw produce, the trade of the country turns chiefly on the purchase of this for export, and on the sale of manufactured and imported goods I in exchange.

Moreover, human welfare in the Soviet Union was keeping behind Western levels, after initially converging in the 1950s and 1960s. Even in absolute measurements, Soviet citizens were becoming less healthy between the 1960s and 1985: the crude death rate climbed from 6.9 per 1,000 in 1964 to 10.3 in 1980.[12]

Reforms of Gorbachev and collapse of the Soviet Union

.Two developments dominated the decade that followed: the increasingly apparent crumbling of the Soviet Union's economic and political structures, and the patchwork attempts at reforms to reverse that process.^ Soviet Economic Development since 1917 .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The following year he was banished from the Soviet Union.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meanwhile, Soviet efforts to attract massive aid and investment from the industrialized world were hampered by investors’ concerns over the slow pace of economic reform and uncertainty about the nation’s political future.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Kenneth S. Deffeyes argued in Beyond Oil that the Reagan administration encouraged Saudi Arabia to lower the price of oil to the point where the Soviets could not make a profit from selling their oil, so that the USSR's hard currency reserves became depleted.[13]
.After the rapid succession of Yuri Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko, transitional figures with deep roots in Brezhnevite tradition, beginning in 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev made significant changes in the economy (see Perestroika, Glasnost) and the party leadership.^ "Mikhail Gorbachev Takes Charge of the CMEA," Radio Free Europe, RAD Background Report [Munich], 146, December 20, 1985.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.His policy of glasnost freed public access to information after decades of heavy government censorship.^ For the first time in the history of Russia public opinion in the modern sense became a power in the state and influenced strongly the policy of the government.

.With the Soviet Union in bad economic shape and its satellite states in eastern Europe abandoning communism, Gorbachev moved to end the Cold War.^ The exigencies of war against a common enemy, Nazi Germany, necessitated a rehabilitation of the Soviet Union in American eyes.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Three years ago Hitler publicly stated that his task included the dismemberment of the Soviet Union and the severance from it of the Caucasus, the Ukraine, Byelorussia, the Baltic and other regions.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ I was in the Marines during the cold war and trained to fight a soviet army and then volunteered for combat in Desert Storm.
  • Sarah Palin: Russian offense augurs war: The Swamp 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

.In 1988, the Soviet Union abandoned its nine-year war with Afghanistan and began to withdraw forces from the country.^ The murderous Civil War with huge casualties left the Soviets with a lasting mistrust of the outside world, which remained in force until the end of the regime 65 years later.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ The exigencies of war against a common enemy, Nazi Germany, necessitated a rehabilitation of the Soviet Union in American eyes.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ DVD 8156 Goluboi ogonek (TV, 1981-1988) Selections from the 1980's arranged by year from the soviet television musical variety program Goluboi ogonek.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.In the late 1980s, Gorbachev refused to send military support to defend the Soviet Union's former satellite states, resulting in multiple communist regimes in those states being forced from power.^ Soviet Military Power, 1989 .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Soviet Military Power, 1987 .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ (Various issues of the following publication were also used in the preparation of this appendix: Joint Publications Research Service, Soviet Union: Military Affairs .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.With the tearing down of the Berlin Wall and with East Germany and West Germany pursuing unification, the Iron Curtain took the final blow.^ As Professor Dängler sees it, today's German rulers refer more willingly to the Berlin Wall and other crimes of East Germany than to SS and Wehrmacht atrocities in occupied Russian, Belorussian and Ukrainian areas.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the Iron Curtain has fallen and we have got free access to the immediate information from abroad, we have changed dramatically our stereotypes about the West.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Then, as usually in our thousand-year-long history, we kept chasing the sworn foes farther and farther west, until we had driven them right into their own hideous lair – Berlin – where the final blow was dealt to Nazism.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

.In the late 1980s, the constituent republics of the Soviet Union started legal moves towards or even declaration of sovereignty over their territories, citing Article 72 of the USSR Constitution, which stated that any constituent republic was free to secede.^ Three years ago Hitler publicly stated that his task included the dismemberment of the Soviet Union and the severance from it of the Caucasus, the Ukraine, Byelorussia, the Baltic and other regions.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ "Soviet Occupation of the Baltic States and Their Incorporation into the USSR: Political and Legal Aspects," East European Quarterly , 19, September 1985, 289- 304.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A large section of the administrative Series contains outgoing and incoming faxes that reflect the activities of the organization from mid-1980s to 1991, the collapse of the Soviet Union.
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

[14] .On April 7, 1990, a law was passed allowing a republic to secede if more than two-thirds of that republic's residents vote for secession on a referendum.^ This is more than errant voting machines.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (Delegate Votes) Keep plugging along, it seems to me your only reachable goal is to get more delegates than Romney, even though he quit at half time.........
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the Florida voters had voted in Seattle, Gore would have won with more votes than residents, living or dead.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

[15] Many held their first free elections in the Soviet era for their own national legislatures in 1990. Many of these legislatures proceeded to produce legislation contradicting the Union laws in what was known as the "War of Laws."
.In 1989, the Russian SFSR, which was then the largest constituent republic (with about half of the population) convened a newly elected Congress of People's Deputies.^ After all, we Russians (as a distinct ethnos) constitute the overwhelming majority – about 85 percent of the whole population of the Russian Federation.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ In November 1992 the First World Congress of Finno-Ugrian peoples took place in the Komi Republic.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Russian Federation : Mari 11 January 2010 1:16 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ About this time occurred the first partition of Poland, resulting in the annexation to Russia of the White-Russian territory (1772), with its vast Jewish population.

Boris Yeltsin was elected the chairman of the Congress. .On June 12, 1990, the Congress declared Russia's sovereignty over its territory and proceeded to pass laws that attempted to supersede some of the USSR's laws.^ With the resignation of Ignatiev (June 12, 1882) the number of immigrants from Russia decreased to 6,907; but in 1883-84 it again rose, to 15,122.

^ "To defend the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Russia and its allies, military forces will be used, including preventively, including with the use of nuclear weapons, " four-star General Baluyevsky said.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

.The period of legal uncertainty continued throughout 1991 as constituent republics slowly became de facto independent.^ The Commissioner for Human Rights in Moscow, Alexander Muzykantsk, outlined his proposal: "In recent years, Berlin became de facto the world capital of sexual minorities.
  • Alltop - Top Russia News 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC russia.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Moscow, the capital of Russia was also the capital of the USSR. Boris Yeltsin was elected president of Russia in 1991 when the USSR broke up and Russia became an independent country.
  • Soviet Union | Essays & Term Papers Online 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His real power, however, eroded rapidly, as elected presidents and legislatures in the constituent republics pursued an increasingly independent course.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A referendum for the preservation of the USSR was held on March 17, 1991, with the majority of the population voting for preservation of the Union in nine out of 15 republics.^ On January 5, 2008 Georgia held a non-binding referendum on NATO membership with 77% voting in favor of joining the organization.
  • Sarah Palin: Russian offense augurs war: The Swamp 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ "USSR: Estimates and Projections of the Population by Major Nationality, 1979 to 2050."
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The referendum gave Gorbachev a minor boost, and, in the summer of 1991, the New Union Treaty was designed and agreed upon by eight republics which would have turned the Soviet Union into a much looser federation.^ He embarks upon a new career as a filmmaker and begins to photograph anything that moves...including things the authorities would rather not have exposed.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ She strongly stated that we will protect them, it would be our responsibiltiy, that's what the NATO treaty means, you agree to stand by the group allowed to join, Georgia was in the midst of trying to join.
  • Sarah Palin: Russian offense augurs war: The Swamp 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ By the 10th article of the treaty, moreover, Turkey acceded to the protocol of the 22nd of March 1829, by which the Powers had agreed to the erection of Greece into a tributary principality.

Yeltsin stands on a tank to defy the August Coup in 1991.
.The signing of the treaty, however, was interrupted by the August Coup—an attempted coup d'état against Gorbachev by hardline Communist Party members of the government and the KGB, who sought to reverse Gorbachev's reforms and reassert the central government's control over the republics.^ The two parties began to make false accusations against each other to the government.

^ He took precautions, however, against any of the dead or moribund principalities being resuscitated, and punished with merciless severity any attempt to resist or undermine his authority.

^ But notwithstanding these provisions the few Jewish students who attempted to avail themselves of the privileges were discriminated against.

.After the coup collapsed, Yeltsin—who had publicly opposed it—came out as a hero while Gorbachev's power was effectively ended.^ The folders are arranged alphabetically and contain personal and family information of refugees, most of who came to the U.S. by the end of the 1980s.
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

.The balance of power tipped significantly towards the republics.^ Putin's missile-defense proposal, however, appears to risk tipping the balancing act on Nagorno-Karabakh toward Azerbaijan.
  • The Rise of the Russian Empire: Russo-Armenian Relations - Page 14 - HyeClub Forum 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC forum.hyeclub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In August 1991, Latvia and Estonia immediately declared restoration of full independence (following Lithuania's 1990 example), while the other twelve republics continued discussing new, increasingly looser, models of the Union.^ The first was Kosovo's declaration of independence in February and the new country's subsequent recognition by many Western states.
  • Sarah Palin: Russian offense augurs war: The Swamp 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

.On December 8, 1991, the presidents of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus signed the Belavezha Accords which declared the Soviet Union dissolved and established the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in its place.^ The Cambridge encyclopedia of Russia and the soviet Union .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Three years ago Hitler publicly stated that his task included the dismemberment of the Soviet Union and the severance from it of the Caucasus, the Ukraine, Byelorussia, the Baltic and other regions.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ A large section of the administrative Series contains outgoing and incoming faxes that reflect the activities of the organization from mid-1980s to 1991, the collapse of the Soviet Union.
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

.While doubts remained over the authority of the Belavezha Accords to dissolve the Union, on December 21, 1991, the representatives of all Soviet republics except Georgia, including those republics that had signed the Belavezha Accords, signed the Alma-Ata Protocol, which confirmed the dismemberment and consequential extinction of the USSR and restated the establishment of the CIS. The summit of Alma-Ata also agreed on several other practical measures consequential to the extinction of the Union.^ We used to live in brotherly concord with all of our non-Russian neighbours within the Russian Empire, as well as within the Soviet Union.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Three years ago Hitler publicly stated that his task included the dismemberment of the Soviet Union and the severance from it of the Caucasus, the Ukraine, Byelorussia, the Baltic and other regions.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ A large section of the administrative Series contains outgoing and incoming faxes that reflect the activities of the organization from mid-1980s to 1991, the collapse of the Soviet Union.
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

On December 25, 1991, Gorbachev yielded to the inevitable and resigned as the president of the USSR, declaring the office extinct. He turned the powers that until then were vested in the presidency over to Boris Yeltsin, president of Russia.
.The following day, the Supreme Soviet, the highest governmental body of the Soviet Union, recognized the bankruptcy and collapse of the Soviet Union and dissolved itself.^ (Various issues of the following publication were also used in the preparation of this appendix: Joint Publications Research Service, Soviet Union: Military Affairs .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A small Armenian village faces tough times after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ August 12th, 2008 12:27 pm ET The Soviet Union has been plotting for years on a way to restore their glory days of Russian control.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain: Putin wants ‘to restore the old Russian empire’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is generally recognized as the official, final dissolution of the Soviet Union as a functioning state.^ United States Code (USC): the official restatement of the general and permanent laws of the United States; title 39 USC contains laws relating to the USPS. United States Envelope Company: manufacturer of stamped envelopes.
  • AskPhil -- Stamp Collecting starts here. 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.askphil.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The collapse of the Soviet Union transformed Russia's education system and caused a general exodus from Russia's academic and journalism professions.
  • Russian Federation Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers 23 September 2009 1:45 UTC www.pressreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By decrees of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, issued between August 1 and August 8, the three states were annexed as Union republics.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many organizations such as the Soviet Army and police forces continued to remain in place in the early months of 1992 but were slowly phased out and either withdrawn from or absorbed by the newly independent states.^ As for whether we are or ought to be the "world police" I think many Presidents, Bill Clinton included, have already forced us into that role.
  • Sarah Palin: Russian offense augurs war: The Swamp 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ A German military cemetery, one out of a great many those discovered in the vicinity of Moscow after the Soviet counteroffensive in December 1941.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ The subseries contains publications on the cases of individual Soviet Refuseniks received from the organizations operating outside of the United States.
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

Politics

The Moscow Kremlin, the official residence of the government of the USSR.
.The government of the Soviet Union administered the country's economy and society.^ The Soviet Union was the world's largest country.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Describes trends and most important issues regarding forced displacement in the countries of the former Soviet Union, including Russia.
  • Features - Material on Russian Federation Law in English: Updated | LLRX.com 23 September 2009 1:45 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He also pledged full retaliation against the Soviet Union if even one missile is fired from Cuba toward any country in the Western Hemisphere.
  • Soviet Union | Essays & Term Papers Online 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.It implemented decisions made by the leading political institution in the country, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU).^ The Soviet Union, with Stalin's leadership, made an extraordinary recovery from unparalleled devastation.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ This decision made by the state's party chairman was and will always be in my mind an act of total hipocracy toward's the democratic system that we as Americans choose to live.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com Not from the U.S.?
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the late 1980s, the government appeared to have many characteristics in common with liberal democratic political systems.^ The importance of these incidents, which are very characteristic of political life in the tsardom of Muscovy, will appear in the sequel.

^ Until the late 1980s, the Soviet press, like Soviet radio and television, almost invariably reflected government views.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Government changes introduced by Gorbachev in the late 1980s greatly expanded the president’s authority over domestic and foreign affairs.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For instance, a constitution established all organizations of government and granted to citizens a series of political and civic rights.^ The Constitution provides citizens with the right to change their government, and citizens exercise this right in practice.
  • Russia 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, the only joint declaration concerning the country's foreign orientation that was endorsed by all the opposition organizations over the course of the political transition was point No.
  • Parallel History Project on Cooperative Security (PHP) - Hungary and the W'Pact: Introduction 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.php.isn.ethz.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Documents through archival films, stills, interviews and readings, Poland's struggles to establish a government following the ratification of the new Polish constitution in 1921, and shows how political infighting led to the establishment of a military regime based on right-wing totalitarianism and officially sanctioned anti-Semitism.
  • Eastern Europe: History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A legislative body, the Congress of People's Deputies, and its standing legislature, the Supreme Soviet, represented the principle of popular sovereignty.^ "Report of the Congress of USSR People's Deputies Credentials Commission.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Vanneman, P. The Supreme Soviet: Politics and Legislative Process .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ "USSR SS Resolution `On the Organization of Work to Fulfill the Instructions Given to the USSR SS by the Congress of USSR People's Deputies'."
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The Supreme Soviet, which had an elected chairman who functioned as head of state, oversaw the Council of Ministers, which acted as the executive branch of the government.^ When the minister of the interior, M. Goremykin, who had succeeded Witte at the head of the government, met these preposterous demands with a flat refusal, the House voted, on the motion of M. Kuzmin-Karaviev, for an appeal to the 1 Pogrom = pillage, destruction.

^ This council consists of all the ministers and of the heads of the principal administrations.

^ If by a two-thirds majority the action of a minister be arraigned, the president of the Imperial Council lays the case before the emperor, who decides.

.The chairman of the Council of Ministers, whose selection was approved by the Supreme Soviet, functioned as head of government.^ The Council of Ministers, headed by a premier, oversaw government operations.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Council of Ministers was the chief executive body of Soviet government.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The complexity of this structure probably influenced the decisions of the joint session of the Central Committee, the Council of Ministers and the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, which two hours prior to Stalin's death appointed Georgy Malenkov (s.a.

.A constitutionally based judicial branch of government included a court system, headed by the Supreme Court, that was responsible for overseeing the observance of Soviet law by government bodies.^ The system established by the law of 1864 is remarkable in that it set up two wholly separate orders of tribunals, each having their own courts of appeal and coming in contact only in the senate, as the supreme court of cassation.

^ At the head of the government is the emperor, 4 whose power is limited only by the provisions of the fundamental laws of the empire.

^ It is the supreme court of cassation (see Judicial System, below); an audit office, a high court of justice for all political offences; one of its departments fulfils the functions of a heralds' college.

.According to the 1977 Soviet Constitution, the government had a federal structure, permitting the republics some authority over policy implementation and offering the national minorities the appearance of participation in the management of their own affairs.^ In 1893 district committees for the management of the peasants' affairs, similar to those in the purely Russian governments, were introduced into this part of the empire.

^ While the administration yesterday recalled the days of Soviet empire, the Russians suggested that invaders and occupiers of Iraq lacked the moral authority to offer criticism.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain: Putin wants ‘to restore the old Russian empire’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crimean War, the gradual weakening of the Sultan's authority, and the increase of Russian influence among the minor Slav nationalities; in Asia, the gradual but cautious expansion of Russian domination.

Seat of the Supreme Soviet, the White House, 2006
.In practice, however, the government differed markedly from Western systems.^ If the HSWP falls as a governing party, this would be equivalent with a political transition, a different political system.
  • Parallel History Project on Cooperative Security (PHP) - Hungary and the W'Pact: Introduction 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.php.isn.ethz.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Constitution provides for freedom of religion and the Government generally respects this right in practice; however, in some cases the authorities imposed restrictions on certain groups.
  • Russia Country International Religious Freedom Report 2005 19 September 2009 0:36 UTC moscow.usembassy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tzar Paul however failed to grasp the difference between mechanical drills amd what was really practicable in combat.
  • Russian Army : Napoleonic Wars : History : Recruitment : Organization : Discipline 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the late 1980s, the CPSU performed many functions that governments of other countries usually perform.^ Many, many other splinter governments.
  • Russia 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Until the late 1980s, the Soviet press, like Soviet radio and television, almost invariably reflected government views.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Government changes introduced by Gorbachev in the late 1980s greatly expanded the president’s authority over domestic and foreign affairs.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, the party decided on the policy alternatives that the government ultimately implemented.^ On 1 May 1957 the British government ultimately decided to send V. A. Kamensky, the Soviet trade representative in London, a letter formally refusing the Soviet request, which was delivered on 21 May.
  • Cold War International History Project : Publications : Cold War International History Project Working Paper Series 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In order to be able to conduct a Hungarian foreign policy that would also meet the requirements of this new international situation, government centralization was implemented.
  • Parallel History Project on Cooperative Security (PHP) - Hungary and the W'Pact: Introduction 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.php.isn.ethz.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The government merely ratified the party's decisions to lend them an aura of legitimacy.
.The CPSU used a variety of mechanisms to ensure that the government adhered to its policies.^ But the Russian people did not do that, for they were confident that the policy their government was pursuing was correct; and they made sacrifices in order to ensure the defeat of Germany.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Both education and culture in the Soviet Union were placed under direct government control and were used to foster the goals of national and Communist party policy.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The party, using its nomenklatura authority, placed its loyalists in leadership positions throughout the government, where they were subject to the norms of democratic centralism.^ Meanwhile, Obama likely decided that he is not currently in a position to enter in to negotiations with foreign governments, but his fundamental principles include "preferring diplomacy to aggression" and "not excluding parties from negotiations".
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain: Putin wants ‘to restore the old Russian empire’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the twelve central governments they grow, on the average, sufficient rye- bread for only 200 days in the year - often for only.

^ It placed the latter in a position of isolation, owing to which they were compelled to develop an internal organization of their own.

.Party bodies closely monitored the actions of government ministries, agencies, and legislative organs.^ Select "Materials of Government Agencies" for Reports from various governmental departments, ministries, the Security Council and the President's Office.
  • Features - Material on Russian Federation Law in English: Updated | LLRX.com 23 September 2009 1:45 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Russian Foreign Investment Promotion Centre ( http://fipc.ru/fipc/investment.ru/.home.html ) Official government body under the auspices of the Ministry of the Economy.
  • Features - Material on Russian Federation Law in English: Updated | LLRX.com 23 September 2009 1:45 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Presidium approved or ratified legislation proposed by the ministries and central administrations of government.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The content of the Soviet Constitution differed in many ways from typical Western constitutions.^ Daniil Granin on the Difference Between Soviet and Western Literature Comments by Granin at a 1971 round-table discussion on the character of Soviet art.
  • SovLit.com - Soviet Literature Summarized 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.sovlit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Tourism gradually became a major source of foreign exchange for the Soviet Union, and despite political differences with many Western countries, the Soviet government developed procedures to cater to this activity.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviets built that dam, so in some way, the Egyptian people can thank them for avoiding war, and sparing so many Egyptian lives these last 36 years.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - The USSR's Role in the Middle East Goes Down the Memory Hole: 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

.It generally described existing political relationships, as determined by the CPSU, rather than prescribing an ideal set of political relationships.^ The promulgation of this truncated constitution was greeted by a furious agitation, culminating in September in a general strike, rightly described as the most remarkable political phenomenon of modern times.

^ Rather it it a political affiliation demonstrating set piece - current winner: Russia...
  • Putin wants a new Russian empire - Telegraph 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In this epoch of "great reforms," inspired by general political and progressive ideals, the Jews had no active enemies, neither had they real friends.

The Constitution was long and detailed, giving technical specifications for individual organs of government. .The Constitution included political statements, such as foreign policy goals, and provided a theoretical definition of the state within the ideological framework of Marxism-Leninism.^ This gentle drama manages to get in some political points, including well-placed jibes about the development of a "model socialist state" in Czechoslovakia after the war.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Foreign Policy in World Politics .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The CPSU leadership could radically change the constitution or remake it completely, as it did several times throughout its history.^ A wave of democratization swept throughout Europe, and at the same time East Germany’s communist leadership was slowly but surely becoming ousted from power.
  • Soviet Union | Essays & Term Papers Online 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Egypt was well aware of how radical the Gaza population was and did not want them having an easier time linking up with the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - The USSR's Role in the Middle East Goes Down the Memory Hole: 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This could be brought about by radical changes within the leadership of the Russian Federation or by a collapse of the communist "partocracy" within Dagestan.
  • WRITENET Country Papers - The Russian Federation: Dagestan (Nov 95) 11 January 2010 1:16 UTC www.turkiye.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A 1932 Soviet poster for International Women's Day
.The Council of Ministers acted as the executive body of the government.^ The Council of Ministers, headed by a premier, oversaw government operations.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After proclaiming itself the repository of governmental authority, the congress immediately issued decrees calling for the withdrawal of Russia from World War I, for the nationalization of all land, and for the formation of a Council of People’s Commissars to act as the executive branch of government.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chairmen of the Council of Ministers  31 Mar 1940 - 1940         I.P. Babkin (acting)               (b.
  • Russian S.F.S.R. Autonomous Republics 19 September 2009 0:35 UTC www.worldstatesmen.org [Source type: Academic]

Its most important duties lay in the administration of the economy. .The council was thoroughly under the control of the CPSU, and its chairman—the Soviet prime minister—was always a member of the Politburo.^ Van den Berg, Ger P. "The Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union," Review of Socialist Law [Leiden], 6, No.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The council, which in 1989 included more than 100 members, was too large and unwieldy to act as a unified executive body.^ By contrast, Moscow had grown more spontaneously, and its many large gardens and old churches made it seem more rural, religious, and 'Russian' than St.Petersburg.
  • Russian Army : Napoleonic Wars : History : Recruitment : Organization : Discipline 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Council of Ministers had its own Presidium of a dozen or more members, comparable in size and function to the Politburo on the party side.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Council of Ministers of the USSR has the right, in matters within the jurisdiction of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, to suspend execution of decisions and ordinances of the Councils of Minister of Union Republics, and to rescind acts of ministries and state committees of the USSR, and of the other bodies subordinate to it.
  • Constitution of the United States of America 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.saxetshows.com [Source type: Original source]

.The council's Presidium, made up of the leading economic administrators and led by the chairman, exercised dominant power within the Council of Ministers.^ This council consists of all the ministers and of the heads of the principal administrations.

^ A confrontation between two heads, one shaped out of vegetables and one shaped out of kitchen utensils, leads to a new head made of chopped-up food.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ The principal ecclesiastical authority is the Holy Synod, the head of which, the Procurator, is one of the council of ministers and exercises very wide powers in ecclesiastical matters.

.According to the Constitution, as amended in 1988, the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union was the Congress of People's Deputies, which convened for the first time in May 1989. The main tasks of the congress were the election of the standing legislature, the Supreme Soviet, and the election of the chairman of the Supreme Soviet, who acted as head of state.^ Soviet Union , 1988 .
  • SOVIET UNION, 1917-1991 � UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (USSR) 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC www.reagan.utexas.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Deputies are the plenipotentiary representatives of the people in the Soviets of People's Deputies.
  • Constitution of the United States of America 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.saxetshows.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The expenses involved in holding elections to Soviets of People's Deputies shall be met by the state.
  • Constitution of the United States of America 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.saxetshows.com [Source type: Original source]

.Theoretically, the Congress of People's Deputies and the Supreme Soviet wielded enormous legislative power.^ The Supreme Soviet, the lower house, was a parliament made up of 400 to 450 members, who were selected from the members of the Congress of People's Deputies.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One chamber, the Soviet of the Union, was a body whose 750 deputies were elected on the basis of one representative for every 375,000 people.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ USSR-Congress-Supreme Soviet Contacts 1986 .
  • SOVIET UNION, 1917-1991 � UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (USSR) 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC www.reagan.utexas.edu [Source type: Reference]

.In practice, however, the Congress of People's Deputies met infrequently and only to approve decisions made by the party, the Council of Ministers, and its own Supreme Soviet.^ It was the only party with its own politburo.
  • Why Jews left the Soviet Union - Why the West Betrays Russians 23 September 2009 4:25 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Formerly being under the rule of Stalin, with strict centralization where it was only the highest party levels that made any and all decisions who ruled by decree and enforced with terror, the Soviet people and economy was stagnating.
  • Soviet Union | Essays & Term Papers Online 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The complexity of this structure probably influenced the decisions of the joint session of the Central Committee, the Council of Ministers and the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, which two hours prior to Stalin's death appointed Georgy Malenkov (s.a.

.The Supreme Soviet, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, the chairman of the Supreme Soviet, and the Council of Ministers had substantial authority to enact laws, decrees, resolutions, and orders binding on the population.^ The chief executive of the Presidium of the Council of Ministers was called the chairman, or premier.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ministers previously screened by the party were proposed to the Supreme Soviet by the chairman of the Council of Ministers through the Presidium.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the law of the 18th of October (November i) 1905, to assist the emperor in the supreme administration a Council of Ministers ( Sovyet Ministrov ) was created, under a ministerresident the first a earance of a rime P, PP P minister in Russia.

.The Congress of People's Deputies had the authority to ratify these decisions.^ The Supreme Soviet, the lower house, was a parliament made up of 400 to 450 members, who were selected from the members of the Congress of People's Deputies.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These authorities are supposed to be fair and rational in their decision making, but many times they are arbitrary and sometimes despotic.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In September the Congress of People's Deputies approved a sweeping transfer of power to a State Council, a transitional executive authority composed of President Mikhail Gorbachev and leaders of the ten participating republics.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Judicial system

The judiciary was not independent from the other branches of government. .The Supreme Court supervised the lower courts and applied the law as established by the Constitution or as interpreted by the Supreme Soviet.^ On May 11, 1963, Penkovsky appeared before the Soviet Supreme Court in Moscow, where he was declared guilty of treason and sentenced to be shot to death.
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  • Amplified Mind Power Research In The Former SovietUnion 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The system established by the law of 1864 is remarkable in that it set up two wholly separate orders of tribunals, each having their own courts of appeal and coming in contact only in the senate, as the supreme court of cassation.

^ Russian authorities and courts chose a flexible interpretation of these laws without the protections for which journalists had hoped.
  • Russian Federation Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers 23 September 2009 1:45 UTC www.pressreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Constitutional Oversight Committee reviewed the constitutionality of laws and acts.^ The legal system in Russia is based on the civil law system and also the judicial review of legislative acts.
  • Russia - Economic analysis of government's policies, investment climate and political risk. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Soviet Union lacked an adversarial court procedure known to many common law jurisdictions, but rather utilized the Roman Law inquisitorial system, where judge, procurator, and defense attorney work collaboratively to establish the truth.^ The exigencies of war against a common enemy, Nazi Germany, necessitated a rehabilitation of the Soviet Union in American eyes.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ The system established by the law of 1864 is remarkable in that it set up two wholly separate orders of tribunals, each having their own courts of appeal and coming in contact only in the senate, as the supreme court of cassation.

^ Before WW2, many Americans had deeply ambivalent attitudes towards the Soviet Union.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

.However, globally the inquisitorial system is more widespread than the adversarial system and indeed some countries such as Italy utilize a combination of both systems.^ Indeed it is estimated that there are more than 12,000,000 Dissenters in Great Russia alone.

^ In some cases both ceremonies in two countries were held on the same day, stressing the solidarity.
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Indeed: It is "common knowledge" in the West that the Russians have always been and remain to be dark barbarians, coarse and more than a little mad.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

[16][17]

The Soviet state

.The Soviet Union was a federal state made up of 15 republics (16 between 1946 and 1956) joined together in a theoretically voluntary union; it was this theoretical situation that formed the basis of the Byelorussian and Ukrainian SSRs' membership in the United Nations.^ An early silent satirical film produced in the Soviet Union which points up the social consequences of the Soviet housing shortage.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ It emerged as a member organization of the Union of Council for Soviet Jews (UCSJ), on the basis of the New England Student Struggle for Soviet Jewry (NESSSJ).
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

^ (Report presented to United States Congress, 102d, 1st Session, Joint Economic Committee, Subcommittee on Technology and National Security.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In turn, a series of territorial units made up the republics.^ The Government of the People's Republic of China considers Hong Kong a Chinese territory and believes it should be united with China.
  • Cold War International History Project : Publications : Cold War International History Project Working Paper Series 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The baste operational unit of IA-PVO is the division made up normally of three regiments.
  • AIR DEFENSE OF THE SINO-SOVIET BLOC, 1950-1960 (NIE 11-5-55) - CIA document 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The large Adminis- territorial units of administration created by Peter the trative Great were broken up into so-called " governments " reforms.

.The republics also contained jurisdictions intended to protect the interests of national minorities.^ It is so interesting that, in the wake of the Georgian conflict, Russia and the US/NATO have nimbly switched positions regarding the rights of national minorities to secede from recognized states.

^ CoE-FCNM - Council of Europe - Secretariat of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities .
  • Russian Federation | ecoi.net - European Country of Origin Information Network 11 January 2010 1:16 UTC www.ecoi.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Russian Federation | ecoi.net - European Country of Origin Information Network 11 January 2010 1:16 UTC www.ecoi.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Council of Europe - Secretariat of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (CoE-FCNM) .
  • Russian Federation | ecoi.net - European Country of Origin Information Network 11 January 2010 1:16 UTC www.ecoi.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Russian Federation | ecoi.net - European Country of Origin Information Network 11 January 2010 1:16 UTC www.ecoi.net [Source type: Academic]

.The republics had their own constitutions, which, along with the all-union Constitution, provide the theoretical division of power in the Soviet Union.^ The Soviet Union had its own telecommunications satellites.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Russian Revolution all power to the Soviets!
  • Eastern Europe: History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each of the union republics and autonomous republics had its own constitution, legislature, and judicial institutions.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All the republics except Russian SFSR had their own communist parties.^ They were all Communist Party supporters.
  • Jew Watch - Jewish Occupied Governments - USSR - Jews and Communism 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.jewwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Party abbreviation: RSDLP = Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party (communist) .

^ All of these were heavily subsidized by the Communist Party or the Soviet state and were remarkably cheap and popular—or at least widely read, if not popular in the Western sense.
  • Russian Federation Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers 23 September 2009 1:45 UTC www.pressreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1989, however, the CPSU and the central government retained all significant authority, setting policies that were executed by republic, provincial, oblast, and district governments.^ The State Bank issued notes, controlled currency circulation, and executed the government’s financial credit policy.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although a degree of local autonomy was granted to each republic, a tight control over foreign affairs, defense, and economic planning was reserved to the central Soviet government.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In all, 323 people have died, he said, declining to explain why the number is lower than the one given by the republic's government.

.In the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, there were two chambers that represented the population (in later constitutions).^ Strictly speaking, the title is inapplicable, there being no collective official name for the two chambers.

.One was the Soviet of the Union, which represented people indiscriminately, and the Soviet of Nationalities, which represented the various ethnicities in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.^ (Various issues of the following publication were also used in the preparation of this appendix: Joint Publications Research Service, Soviet Union: Military Affairs .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Because the Soviet Union was really a great Family of Nations.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Great Patriotic War ended in 1945, there were in the Soviet Union 25 million absolutely homeless people who had to take shelter in dug-outs.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

Leaders

.The de facto leader of the Soviet Union was the First Secretary or General Secretary of the CPSU.^ A Cuban propaganda film first exhibited outside of Cuba and the Soviet Union in 1992.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ "Social Change in the Soviet Union and Social Structure of the CPSU." Pages 299-311 in Hans-Joachim Veen (ed.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Statements of World and Community Leaders on the Plight of Jews in the Soviet Union .
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

.The head of government was considered the Premier, and the head of state was considered the chairman of the Presidium.^ The head of the government is appointed by the president with approval of the State Duma.
  • Russia: geography, history, population, economy, and statistics 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.womenrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Council of Ministers, headed by a premier, oversaw government operations.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The chief executive of the Presidium of the Council of Ministers was called the chairman, or premier.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Soviet leader could also have one (or both) of these positions, along with the position of General Secretary of the party.^ The party charter adopted by the 12th party conference in Aug 1922 prescribed to elect the Secretariat of three members, but it did not include a clause on post of General Secretary.

^ General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev promised a vast array of perestroika (restructuring) that in his words was "absolutely essential" if the Soviet Union was to remain competitive in the world economy.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was not even necessarily part of the government, but few doubted that he was the person ruling the country.
  • RUSSIA 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

The last leader of the Soviet Union was Mikhail Gorbachev, serving from 1985 until late December 1991.
List of Soviet Premiers
(Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR (1923–1946); Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1946–1990); Prime Minister of the USSR (1991))
List of Soviet Heads of state
(Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets (1917–1922); Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR (1922–1938); Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR (1938–1989); Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR (1989–1990); President of the Soviet Union (1990–1991))

Foreign relations after World War II

Map of Comecon (1986) which includes the Soviet Union and its allies.
     members      members who did not participate      associates      observers
.Once denied diplomatic recognition by the free world, the Soviet Union had official relations with practically all nations of the world by the late 1940s.^ We used to live in brotherly concord with all of our non-Russian neighbours within the Russian Empire, as well as within the Soviet Union.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ The subseries contains trip information and trip reports by official delegations and groups that visited the Soviet Union.
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Because the Soviet Union was really a great Family of Nations.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

.The Soviet Union also had progressed from being an outsider in international organizations and negotiations to being one of the arbiters of the world's fate after World War II.^ By the end of the war, the Soviet Union was recognized as one of the great powers of the world.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet Union was the world's largest country.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The end of World War II. Soviet Union lost about 27 million people in the war, received vast territories of Kuril islands, Southern Sakhalin, Kenigsberg, Zakarpatie and others.
  • Russia: geography, history, population, economy, and statistics 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.womenrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A member of the United Nations at its foundation in 1945, the Soviet Union became one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council which gave it the right to veto any of its resolutions (see Soviet Union and the United Nations).^ This tragicomedy examines the collapse of the Soviet Union through the goofball misadventures of one Russian soldier stranded in East Berlin after the fall of the wall.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ As we know, tough-worded UN Security Council resolutions have solved tens of problems throughout the last few decades and clearly there is no better alternative.
  • Sarah Palin: Russian offense augurs war: The Swamp 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ ASJ gathered a large database on Refuseniks and prisoners of conscience in the Soviet Union that contains information on Refuseniks, prisoners and their family members.
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

.The Soviet Union emerged from World War II as one of the world's two superpowers, a position maintained for four decades through its hegemony in Eastern Europe (see Eastern Bloc), military strength, economic strength, aid to developing countries, and scientific research, especially into space technology and weaponry.^ Depicts a small group of gypsies escaping the German army during World War II. The group is fleeing south from Poland through Czechoslovakia and Hungary.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Elderly residents of an old apartment house in Hungary which is about to be destroyed recall their lives, dreams and nightmares as they reminisce about their traumatic memories of living through World War II. 97 min.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Hukabee was going to loose anyway, the rules exist to maintain order and to keep away the spectre of "election rigging, " that did indeed happen in totalitarian countries such as the mentioned Soviet Union.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Soviet Union's growing influence abroad in the postwar years helped lead to a Communist system of states in Eastern Europe united by military and economic agreements.^ So Soviet Union helped to crush Hitler.
  • Damn Interesting • In Soviet Russia, Lake Contaminates You 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.damninteresting.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The following year he was banished from the Soviet Union.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And this action paid big dividends, as the USSR’s uncaring, unfeeling governmental machine took over Eastern Europe, plunging that region into years of despotism and stagnation.
  • Damn Interesting • In Soviet Russia, Lake Contaminates You 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.damninteresting.com [Source type: Original source]

It overtook the British Empire as a global superpower, both in a military sense and its ability to expand its influence beyond its borders. .The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (Comecon), 1949–1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more geographically inclusive than—the European Economic Community.^ It is more than technically and economically feasible; and it's cheaper than conventional war, and preferable to nuclear war.
  • Sarah Palin: Russian offense augurs war: The Swamp 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ Organized as they are into a kind of community for mutual protection and mutual help, they soon become masters of the trade wherever they penetrate.

^ Pages 259-95 in United States, Congress, 97th, 1st Session, Joint Economic Committee, East European Economic Assessment .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The military counterpart to the Comecon was the Warsaw Pact, though Comecon's membership was significantly wider.^ The Warsaw Pact: Political Purpose and Military Means .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ "Warsaw Pact/CMEA Military-Economic Trends," Problems of Communism , 36, No.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

[18]
.The descriptive term Comecon was often applied to all multilateral activities involving members of the organization, rather than being restricted to the direct functions of Comecon and its organs.^ In all civil cases involving less than 30 roubles, and in criminal cases punishable by no more than three days' arrest, his judgment is final.

^ All civil cases involving less than z oo roubles value were within their competence, and more important cases by consent of the parties.

^ All I ask is that one study what is probably the correct truth, rather than the truth that ones gut tells them.
  • Sarah Palin: Russian offense augurs war: The Swamp 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

[19] .This usage was sometimes extended as well to bilateral relations among members, because in the system of socialist international economic relations, multilateral accords—typically of a general nature—tended to be implemented through a set of more detailed, bilateral agreements.^ The system of limitations relating to the Jews which had developed in preceding reigns, and which considered them, because they were non-Christians, as the natural exploiters of Christians, assumed under Nicholas I. peculiarly pronounced characteristics.

^ It is but natural that the general causes influencing the economic life of the United States should modify the extent of Russian immigration.

^ The Multilateral Economic Cooperation of Socialist States: A Collection of Documents .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

[18]
.Moscow considered Eastern Europe to be a buffer zone for the forward defense of its western borders and ensured its control of the region by transforming the East European countries into satellite states.^ "Soviet Occupation of the Baltic States and Their Incorporation into the USSR: Political and Legal Aspects," East European Quarterly , 19, September 1985, 289- 304.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Before the Eastern menace had been entirely removed the ambitious Moscow princes had begun to look with envious eyes beyond their western frontier.

^ Pages 259-95 in United States, Congress, 97th, 1st Session, Joint Economic Committee, East European Economic Assessment .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Soviet troops intervened in the 1956 Hungarian Revolution and cited the Brezhnev Doctrine, the Soviet counterpart to the U.S. Johnson Doctrine and later Nixon Doctrine, and helped oust the Czechoslovak government in 1968, sometimes referred to as the Prague Spring.^ "The Hungarian Crisis of 1956: The Soviet Decision."
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

In the late 1950s, a confrontation with China regarding the USSR's rapprochement with the West and what Mao perceived as Khrushchev's revisionism led to the Sino-Soviet split. .This resulted in a break throughout the global Communist movement and Communist regimes in Albania and Cambodia choosing to ally with China in place of the USSR. For a time, war between the former allies appeared to be a possibility; while relations would cool during the 1970s, they would not return to normality until the Gorbachev era.^ And finally - I would also like to point out that the last time Alaska and Russia were connected was during the Ice Age!
  • Sarah Palin: Russian offense augurs war: The Swamp 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ They try to live a relatively normal life, and even find time to play the piano.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ During this period the relations between the two governments and the two countries became much more cordial.

During the same period, a tense confrontation between the Soviet Union and the United States over the Soviet deployment of nuclear missiles in Cuba sparked the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962.
.The KGB (Committee for State Security) served in a fashion as the Soviet counterpart to both the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Central Intelligence Agency in the U.S. It ran a massive network of informants throughout the Soviet Union, which was used to monitor violations in law.^ When in the following reigns the condition of the Jews was improved, they no longer possessed the representative institution which might have served them a useful purpose in securing certain reforms.

^ February 11, 2008 Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union Posted: February 11th, 2008 12:30 PM ET .
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com Not from the U.S.?
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.The foreign wing of the KGB was used to gather intelligence in countries around the globe.^ Used abroad: stamps used outside the issuing country; usually means a stamp posted and cancelled at an office established by a postal administration in a foreign country.
  • AskPhil -- Stamp Collecting starts here. 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.askphil.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We have military bases in over 100 countries around the world and want to put up missile defense shields in Europe, and we are the only country to have used nuclear weapons.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - McCain: Putin wants ‘to restore the old Russian empire’ « - Blogs from CNN.com 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the collapse of the Soviet Union, it was replaced in Russia by the SVR (Foreign Intelligence Service) and the FSB (Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation).^ Russia и Russian также оказываются выражения Soviet-style, Soviet-style regime, etc.
  • Печать страницы - Ещё одна Кондопога 25 September 2009 1:01 UTC forums.lipetsk.ru [Source type: Academic]

^ A small Armenian village faces tough times after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ In: The cinema of Russia and the former Soviet Union / edited by Birgit Beumers ; [preface by Sergei Bodrov].
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

Leonid Brezhnev and Jimmy Carter sign SALT II treaty, June 18, 1979, in Vienna.
The KGB was not without substantial oversight. .The GRU (Main Intelligence Directorate), not publicized by the Soviet Union until the end of the Soviet era during perestroika, was created by Lenin in 1918 and served both as a centralized handler of military intelligence and as an institutional check-and-balance for the otherwise relatively unrestricted power of the KGB. Effectively, it served to spy on the spies, and, not surprisingly, the KGB served a similar function with the GRU. As with the KGB, the GRU operated in nations around the world, particularly in Soviet bloc and satellite states.^ "Will the Soviet Union Survive until 1994?"
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ (Various issues of the following publication were also used in the preparation of this appendix: Joint Publications Research Service, Soviet Union: Military Affairs .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com Not from the U.S.?
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

The GRU continues to operate in Russia today, with resources estimated by some to exceed those of the SVR.[18][19]
.In the 1970s, the Soviet Union achieved rough nuclear parity with the United States, and eventually overtook it.^ The subseries contains publications on the cases of individual Soviet Refuseniks received from the organizations operating outside of the United States.
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The four American klezmer musicians were eventually deported from the Soviet Union by the Soviet authorities for conducting a joint concert with the Phantom Orchestra.
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

It perceived its own involvement as essential to the solution of any major international problem. .Meanwhile, the Cold War gave way to Détente and a more complicated pattern of international relations in which the world was no longer clearly split into two clearly opposed blocs.^ It is no longer America's way or the highway.
  • Sarah Palin: Russian offense augurs war: The Swamp 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ The cold war is over but some Americans are still stuck in it which is why we've lost our way.
  • Sarah Palin: Russian offense augurs war: The Swamp 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ Here new principalities were founded and new agglomerations of principalities came into existence, some of them having a grand prince who no longer professed allegiance to Kiev.

.Less powerful countries had more room to assert their independence, and the two superpowers were partially able to recognize their common interest in trying to check the further spread and proliferation of nuclear weapons (see SALT I, SALT II, Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty).^ The policy of Nicholas II., while no less oppressive, was more evasive.

^ All civil cases involving less than z oo roubles value were within their competence, and more important cases by consent of the parties.

^ Two important classes in Russia stood more or less outside the competence of the above systems: the clergy and the peasants.

.By this time, the Soviet Union had concluded friendship and cooperation treaties with a number of states in the non-Communist world, especially among Third World and Non-Aligned Movement states like India and Egypt.^ "Unrest in the World of Soviet Islam," Third World Quarterly [London], 10, April 1988, 770-86.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ We sound like a third world nation waiting for the next dictator to overthrow the government.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I hope other states will not do something like this especially Texas that already asked Huckabee to drop out.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Notwithstanding some ideological obstacles, Moscow advanced state interests by gaining military footholds in strategically important areas throughout the Third World.^ With Russia essentially taking control of Serbia's energy sector, they have get a military presence there and make Serbia an outpost for Russian geo-strategic interests.
  • The Rise of the Russian Empire: Russo-Armenian Relations - Page 84 - HyeClub Forum 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC forum.hyeclub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet Union not only loomed large on world maps but it also had the Earth's second (or third) largest economy and competed effectively for military superiority.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Best known was the State V. I. Lenin Library of the USSR, located in Moscow, which housed more than 30 million volumes in some 250 languages—one of the largest library collections in the world.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Furthermore, the Soviet Union continued to provide military aid for revolutionary movements in the Third World.^ The Soviet Union was the world's largest country.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Various issues of the following publication were also used in the preparation of this appendix: Joint Publications Research Service, Soviet Union: Military Affairs .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The Soviet Union was a world leader in dairy farming, annually producing about 106.1 million metric tons of milk, 1.8 million metric tons of butter, and 4.7 million metric tons of eggs.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For all these reasons, Soviet foreign policy was of major importance to the non-Communist world and helped determine the tenor of international relations.^ Soviet Foreign Policy in the 1980s .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ One reason being that all Gentile East European immigrants were strongly anti-Communists.
  • Jew Watch - Jewish Occupied Governments - USSR - Jews and Communism 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.jewwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite these limitations, Soviet shipping and fishing encompassed all the seas.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Gorbachev in one-on-one discussions with U.S. President Ronald Reagan.
.Although myriad bureaucracies were involved in the formation and execution of Soviet foreign policy, the major policy guidelines were determined by the Politburo of the Communist Party.^ Soviet Foreign Policy in the 1980s .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In February 1990, with the Soviet economy rapidly deteriorating, the Communist party agreed to give up its monopoly on political power.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of these were heavily subsidized by the Communist Party or the Soviet state and were remarkably cheap and popular—or at least widely read, if not popular in the Western sense.
  • Russian Federation Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers 23 September 2009 1:45 UTC www.pressreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The foremost objectives of Soviet foreign policy had been the maintenance and enhancement of national security and the maintenance of hegemony over Eastern Europe.^ It controlled the Soviet satellite nations of Eastern Europe.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet Foreign Policy in the 1980s .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Soviet NSSD (National Security Study Directive) [NSSD 11-82] II .
  • SOVIET UNION, 1917-1991 � UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (USSR) 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC www.reagan.utexas.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Relations with the United States and Western Europe were also of major concern to Soviet foreign policy makers, and relations with individual Third World states were at least partly determined by the proximity of each state to the Soviet border and to Soviet estimates of its strategic significance.^ The United States and the western alliance.
  • Eastern Europe: History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet Foreign Policy in the 1980s .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Recounts the story of Stalin's attempt to take control of Germany and Western Europe in the aftermath of World War II. Soviet agents and communist officials tell of their efforts to seize political power in the war-torn European states, a goal frustrated by Western resolve and Stalin's own ruthless methods.
  • Eastern Europe: History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Soviet troops withdrawing from Afghanistan in 1988
.After Mikhail Gorbachev succeeded Konstantin Chernenko as General Secretary of the CPSU in 1985, he introduced many changes in Soviet foreign policy and in the economy of the USSR. Gorbachev pursued conciliatory policies towards the West instead of maintaining the Cold War status quo.^ The Soviet Economy: Toward the year 2000 .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Soviet Foreign Policy in the 1980s .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ I was in the Marines during the cold war and trained to fight a soviet army and then volunteered for combat in Desert Storm.
  • Sarah Palin: Russian offense augurs war: The Swamp 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

.The Soviet Union ended its occupation of Afghanistan, signed strategic arms reduction treaties with the United States, and allowed its allies in Eastern Europe to determine their own affairs.^ (Various issues of the following publication were also used in the preparation of this appendix: Joint Publications Research Service, Soviet Union: Military Affairs .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ She strongly stated that we will protect them, it would be our responsibiltiy, that's what the NATO treaty means, you agree to stand by the group allowed to join, Georgia was in the midst of trying to join.
  • Sarah Palin: Russian offense augurs war: The Swamp 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ "Soviet Occupation of the Baltic States and Their Incorporation into the USSR: Political and Legal Aspects," East European Quarterly , 19, September 1985, 289- 304.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.However, soviet republics were treated differently from the satellite states, and troops were used to suppress cessation movements within the Union (see Black January) but ultimately to no avail.^ His orders were, however, of no avail.

^ ASJ was actively gathering information on the Soviet Jews, Refuseniks and prisoners directly through visiting them or their families in the Soviet Union and using for the trips both ASJM activists and Western tourists not associated with the Movement.
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Ivan himself was favorably disposed toward the new religious movement, and for political reasons made no attempt to suppress it.

.Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union on December 25, 1991, Russia was internationally recognized[20] to be the legal successor to the Soviet state on the international stage.^ A large section of the administrative Series contains outgoing and incoming faxes that reflect the activities of the organization from mid-1980s to 1991, the collapse of the Soviet Union.
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Antisemitism Bar mitzvah Bat mitzvah Emigration and immigration Human rights International law Jews, Soviet Political activists Prisoners -- Legal status, laws, etc.
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In: The cinema of Russia and the former Soviet Union / edited by Birgit Beumers ; [preface by Sergei Bodrov].
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.To that end, Russia voluntarily accepted all Soviet foreign debt, and claimed overseas Soviet properties as its own.^ At the end of the article we read that Schiff "used his financial influence to keep Russia from the money markets of the U.S." Also note that Schiff controlled all of the railroads in the U.S. and "suppressed ruinous competition."
  • Jew Watch - Jewish Occupied Governments - USSR - Jews and Communism 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.jewwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Foreign Jews not having right of residence may not own real property in the Pale; and if they inherit any, it must be sold within six months of the notification of the inheritance.

^ Thousands of revolutionary soviets (councils) had sprung up all over Russia.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To prevent subsequent disputes over Soviet property, "zero variant" agreements were proposed to ratify with newly independent states the status quo on the date of dissolution.^ The main organizations for gathering and reporting news in the early 1990s were TASS, the official Soviet telegraph agency; Novosti, which had semiofficial status; and the independent agency Interfax.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agreement on the Establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) ( http://theRussiaSite.org/legal/laws/CISagreement.html ) Unofficial translation by John Fowler.
  • GlobaLex - Material on Russian Federation Law in English: Selection of Sources 11 January 2010 1:16 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Note : Although the U.S.S.R. was "Soviet Socialist" from its founding, all the republics began as "Socialist Soviet" and did not change to the other order until various dates in 1937.

.(Ukraine is the last former Soviet republic not to have entered into such an agreement.^ Former Soviet republics Ladispoli, Italy Soviet Union -- Politics and government -- 1953-1985 .
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

) .The end of the Soviet Union also raised questions about treaties it had signed, such as the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty; Russia has held the position that those treaties remain in force, and should be read as though Russia were the signatory.^ The Cambridge encyclopedia of Russia and the soviet Union .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Both the horses of the Cossacks and the bityug race of S. Russia are fine animals, and those of the Kirghiz, though not big, are famous for their endurance.

^ Thus while the Catholic clergy was the mainstay of the anti-Jewish forces, the king remained at least in semblance the defender of the Jews (see Jew.

[21]

Republics

Soviet Union administrative divisions, 1989
.The Soviet Union was a federation that consisted of Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR).^ Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / Country Studies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography Bibliography -- Soviet Union .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Van den Berg, Ger P. "The Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union," Review of Socialist Law [Leiden], 6, No.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Politburo: Leading Organs of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Leading Organs of the Republics .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The first Republics were established shortly after the October Revolution of 1917. At that time, republics were technically independent from one another but their governments acted in closely coordinated confederation, as directed by the CPSU leadership.^ The Grand Duke of Moscow, Ivan III. (1462-1505) was the first Muscovite prince to abolish the feudal organization and to establish a centralized government.

^ Between the February and October revolutions in 1917, Russian cinema reflected urgent new themes, as in The Revolutionary.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ The empire is governed on the immutable basis of laws issued according to the established order "), argued that the emperor himself could only act within the limits of the order established by those laws.

.In 1922, four Republics (Russian SFSR, Ukrainian SSR, Belarusian SSR, and Transcaucasian SFSR) joined into the Soviet Union.^ Russian film producer Grigori Alexandrov's attempt at importing American musical comedy into Soviet film.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ The four American klezmer musicians were eventually deported from the Soviet Union by the Soviet authorities for conducting a joint concert with the Phantom Orchestra.
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Former Soviet republics Ladispoli, Italy Soviet Union -- Politics and government -- 1953-1985 .
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

.Between 1922 and 1940, the number of Republics grew to 16. Some of the new Republics were formed from territories acquired, or reacquired by the Soviet Union, others by splitting existing Republics into several parts.^ The Soviet Union doesn't exist anymore.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Social Trends in the Soviet Union from 1950 New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It emerged as a member organization of the Union of Council for Soviet Jews (UCSJ), on the basis of the New England Student Struggle for Soviet Jewry (NESSSJ).
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

The criteria for establishing new republics were as follows:
  1. to be located on the periphery of the Soviet Union so as to be able to exercise their right to secession;
  2. be economically strong enough to survive on their own upon secession; and
  3. be named after the dominant ethnic group which should consist of at least one million people.
.The system remained almost unchanged after 1940. No new Republics were established.^ As of May 2002, there was almost no censorship of any kind on foreign correspondents or on foreign news bureaus.
  • Russian Federation Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers 23 September 2009 1:45 UTC www.pressreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In November seven of the republics agreed to form a new Union of Sovereign States, but it remained a shell.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The system is broken down and no longer Democratic in nature and no longer like any Republic that is recognizable.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.One republic, Karelo-Finnish SSR, was disbanded in 1956, and the territory formally became the Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR) within the Russian SFSR. The remaining 15 republics lasted until 1991. Even though Soviet Constitutions established the right for a republic to secede, it remained theoretical and very unlikely, given Soviet centralism, until the 1991 collapse of the Union.^ "Will the Soviet Union Survive until 1994?"
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A large section of the administrative Series contains outgoing and incoming faxes that reflect the activities of the organization from mid-1980s to 1991, the collapse of the Soviet Union.
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The " Cadets," it is true, lost many seats both to the Socialists and to the extreme Right, but they held the balance of the House, of which the Octobrists and the Right together only constituted one-fifth, and their leader, M. Golovin, was elected president of the House.

.At that time, the republics became independent countries, with some still loosely organized under the heading Commonwealth of Independent States.^ On the other hand, some went so far as to demand the expulsion of the Jews from the country, while still others wished to curtail their commercial rights.

^ The first was Kosovo's declaration of independence in February and the new country's subsequent recognition by many Western states.
  • Sarah Palin: Russian offense augurs war: The Swamp 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

.Some republics had common history and geographical regions, and were referred by group names.^ Eastward to the W slopes of the Urals, pines are still common, but firs predominate, and in some regions almost pure stands of birch exist.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These were Baltic Republics, Transcaucasian Republics, and Central Asian Republics.^ "Steps to Combat Infant Mortality in Central Asian Republics," Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Radio Liberty Research Bulletin [Munich], July 14, 1987, 1-3.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

The Republics of the Soviet Union (1956 — 1989)
Flag Republic Capital Map of the Soviet Union
1 Flag of Armenian SSR.svg Armenian SSR Yerevan
Republics of the Soviet Union
2 Flag of Azerbaijan SSR.svg Azerbaijan SSR Baku
3 Flag of Byelorussian SSR.svg Byelorussian SSR Minsk
4 Flag of Estonian SSR.svg Estonian SSR Tallinn
5 Flag of Georgian SSR.svg Georgian SSR Tbilisi
6 Flag of Kazakh SSR.svg Kazakh SSR Alma-Ata
7 Flag of Kyrgyz SSR.svg Kirghiz SSR Frunze
8 Flag of Latvian SSR.svg Latvian SSR Riga
9 Flag of Lithuanian SSR.svg Lithuanian SSR Vilnius
10 Flag of Moldavian SSR.svg Moldavian SSR Kishinev
11 Flag of Russian SFSR.svg Russian SFSR Moscow
12 Flag of Tajik SSR.svg Tajik SSR Dushanbe
13 Flag of Turkmen SSR.svg Turkmen SSR Ashgabat
14 Flag of Ukrainian SSR.svg Ukrainian SSR Kiev
15 Flag of Uzbek SSR.svg Uzbek SSR Tashkent

Economy

USSR and FSU GDP
The DneproGES, one of many hydroelectric power stations in the Soviet Union
.Prior to its dissolution, the USSR had the second largest economy in the world, after the United States.^ Pages 663-77 in United States Congress, 86th, 1st Session, Joint Economic Committee, Soviet Economy in a Time of Change .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Pages 135-51 in United States, Congress, 95th, 1st Session, Joint Economic Committee, East European Economies Post-Helsinki .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

[22] .The economy of the Soviet Union was the modern world's first centrally planned economy.^ A Cuban propaganda film first exhibited outside of Cuba and the Soviet Union in 1992.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

It was based on a system of state ownership and managed through Gosplan (the State Planning Commission), Gosbank (the State Bank) and the Gossnab (State Commission for Materials and Equipment Supply).
.The first major project of economic planning was the GOELRO plan, which was followed by a series of other Five-Year Plans.^ "Geographic Aspects of the New Soviet Five-Year Plan, 1986-90," Soviet Geography , 27, No.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This lyrical sound and musical documentary celebrates the enthusiasm with which the peasants and miners of the Don River basin in Russia fulfilled their first five-year plan quotas following the October Revolution.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Elek, Peter S. "Soviet Capital Strategy and Performance During the Eleventh Five-Year Plan: Past, Present, and Prospective."
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The emphasis was put on a very fast development of heavy industry and the nation became one of the world's top manufacturers of a large number of basic and heavy industrial products, but it lagged behind in the output of light industrial production and consumer durables.^ The peculiar feature of Russian industry is the development out of the domestic petty handicrafts of central Russia of a semifactory on a large scale.

^ This was owing to the fact that large numbers of the men engaged in agricultural pursuits during the summer temporarily move every year into the large industrial centres for the winter.

.Agriculture of the Soviet Union was organized into a system of collective farms (kolkhozes) and state farms (sovkhozes) but it was relatively unproductive.^ "Soviet Occupation of the Baltic States and Their Incorporation into the USSR: Political and Legal Aspects," East European Quarterly , 19, September 1985, 289- 304.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ "Soviet Agriculture: A State Secret," Current History , 83, October 1984, 323-26, 338-39.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com Not from the U.S.?
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Crises in the agricultural sector reaped catastrophic consequences in the 1930s, when collectivization met widespread resistance from the kulaks, resulting in a bitter struggle of many peasants against the authorities, and famine, particularly in Ukraine (see Holodomor), but also in the Volga River area and Kazakhstan.^ He took precautions, however, against any of the dead or moribund principalities being resuscitated, and punished with merciless severity any attempt to resist or undermine his authority.

^ The zemski sobor, which had played a considerable part in the struggle of the tsars against the great boyars in the 17th century, had met but once since the days of Peter the Great.

Comparison between USSR and US economies (1989)
according to 1990 CIA World Factbook[22]
USSR US
GDP (1989 – million $) 2,659,500 5,233,300
Population (July 1990) 290,938,469 250,410,000
GDP Per Capita ($) 9,211 21,082
Labour force (1989) 152,300,000 125,557,000
.As the Soviet economy grew more complex, it required more and more complex disaggregation of control figures (plan targets) and factory inputs.^ Weickhardt, George G. "The Soviet Military-Industrial Complex and Economic Reform," Soviet Economy , 2, No.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.As it required more communication between the enterprises and the planning ministries, and as the number of enterprises, trusts, and ministries multiplied, the Soviet economy started stagnating.^ "Discipline and Growth in the Soviet Economy," Problems of Communism , 34, No.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Campbell, Robert W. "Satellite Communications in the USSR," Soviet Economy , 1, No.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ "The Soviet Economy: Alternative Views," Atlantic Community Quarterly , 24, No.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The Soviet economy was increasingly sluggish when it came to responding to change, adapting cost-saving technologies, and providing incentives at all levels to improve growth, productivity and efficiency.^ Congress, 86th, 1st Session, Joint Economic committee, Soviet Economy in a Time of Change .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Pages 663-77 in United States Congress, 86th, 1st Session, Joint Economic Committee, Soviet Economy in a Time of Change .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Top-Level Administration of the Soviet Economy: A Partial View .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Most information in the Soviet economy flowed from the top down and economic planning was often done on the basis of faulty or outdated information, particularly in sectors with large numbers of consumers.^ Congress, 86th, 1st Session, Joint Economic committee, Soviet Economy in a Time of Change .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This disproportionate number of Jewish artisans in cities with large Jewish populations was due to the economic and legal disabilities of the Jews in the Pale of Settlement.

^ Pages 663-77 in United States Congress, 86th, 1st Session, Joint Economic Committee, Soviet Economy in a Time of Change .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.As a result, some goods tended to be under-produced, leading to shortages, while other goods were overproduced and accumulated in storage.^ Some of the other comments have spoken to the caucus process and other things I have read lead me to believe that he caucus process is just to open to manipulation.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some factories developed a system of barter and either exchanged or shared raw materials and parts, while consumers developed a black market for goods that were particularly sought after but constantly under-produced.^ The wealth of Russia consisting mainly of raw produce, the trade of the country turns chiefly on the purchase of this for export, and on the sale of manufactured and imported goods I in exchange.

^ On the W. side of that sea the S. frontier touches the Danube for some 120 m.; on the E. side of the same sea it zigzags from the Black Sea to the Caspian, utilizing the river Aras (Araxes) for part of the distance.

.Conceding the weaknesses of their past approaches in solving new problems, the leaders of the late 1980s, headed by Mikhail Gorbachev, were seeking to mold a program of economic reform to galvanize the economy.^ "Three Obstacles, Two Leaders, and One Problem," Far East Economic Review , March 24, 1988, 56-57.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Schroeder, Gertrude E. "Anatomy of Gorbachev's Economic Reform," Soviet Economy , 3, No.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ "Gorbachev's Double Burden: Economic Reform and Growth Acceleration," Millennium , 16, No.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.However, by 1990 the Soviet government had lost control over economic conditions.^ Growing tension with Ingush over the status of the land they had lost in 1944 led the Supreme Soviet of North Ossetia to suspend the citizenship rights of Ingush in September 1990.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Russian Federation : Ossetians 11 January 2010 1:16 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

.Government spending increased sharply as an increasing number of unprofitable enterprises required state support and consumer price subsidies to continue.^ If Huck's support is from SE Wash and East of Seattle and some district in Eastern WA, then these delegates will be reduced in number at the county convention, and further reduced in number at the state convention.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, almost all of the 15 former Soviet republics have dismantled their Soviet-style economies.^ The Jews in the Soviet Union since 1917 .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In: The cinema of Russia and the former Soviet Union / edited by Birgit Beumers ; [preface by Sergei Bodrov].
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com Not from the U.S.?
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

Geography

.The Soviet Union occupied the eastern portion of the European continent and the northern portion of the Asian continent.^ "Eastern European and Soviet Fuel Trade, 1970-1985."
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Eastern and Western Europe videography Bibliography of books and articles on Soviet and East European Cinema .
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ "The Interplay of Religious Policy and Nationalities Policy in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe."
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Most of the country was north of 50° north latitude and covered a total area of approximately 22,402,200 square kilometers (8,649,500 sq mi).^ In the forest region S. of the tundras, which extends over an area of more than 500,000 sq.

Because of the sheer size of the state, the climate varied greatly from subtropical and continental to subarctic and polar. .11% of the land was arable, 16% was meadows and pasture, 41% was forest and woodland, and 32% was declared "other" (including tundra).^ The forests are composed of the birch, oak and other deciduous trees, the soil is dry, and the woodlands are divided by green prairies.

.The Soviet Union measured some 10,000 kilometers (6,200 mi) from Kaliningrad on the in the west to Ratmanova Island (Big Diomede Island) in the Bering Strait, or roughly equivalent to the distance from Edinburgh, Scotland, west to Nome, Alaska.^ "Soviet Calculus of Nuclear War," Soviet Union, Special Issue, 10, Pts.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ "Soviet Calculus of Nuclear War," Soviet Union , Special Issue, 10, Pts.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.From the tip of the Taymyr Peninsula on the Arctic Ocean to the Central Asian town of Kushka near the Afghan border extended almost 5,000 kilometers (3,100 mi) of mostly rugged, inhospitable terrain.^ About 100,000 tons of tobacco are grown annually in the S. Flax and hemp occupy considerable acreages in central and N.W. Russia.

.The east-west expanse of the continental United States would easily fit between the northern and southern borders of the Soviet Union at their extremities.^ To be honest, I never thought in a million years someone would compare us to the Soviet Union.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pages 259-95 in United States, Congress, 97th, 1st Session, Joint Economic Committee, East European Economic Assessment .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com Not from the U.S.?
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Soviet Union was the largest country in the World (now Russia).^ The Cambridge encyclopedia of Russia and the soviet Union .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In: The cinema of Russia and the former Soviet Union / edited by Birgit Beumers ; [preface by Sergei Bodrov].
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ The next country to feel the expansive tendencies of Russia was Poland, which had now very little Poland.

Population and society

USSR and FSU Population from 1961–2009
Geographic location of various ethnic groups within the Soviet Union in 1941
This map shows the 1974 geographic location of various ethnic groups within the Soviet Union
.The Soviet Union was one of the world's most ethnically diverse countries, with more than 200 distinct ethnic groups within its borders.^ In geographic extent the Soviet Union was the largest country in the world.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the Soviet Union contained more than 100 different ethnic groups, most were very small.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet Union had more permanent opera and ballet companies than any other country.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The total population was estimated at 293 million in 1991, having been the 3rd most populous nation after China and India for decades.^ At present, the population is estimated at 2 million.
  • WRITENET Country Papers - The Russian Federation: Dagestan (Nov 95) 11 January 2010 1:16 UTC www.turkiye.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until September 1991 the USSR consisted of 15 soviet socialist republics (SSRs), constituted on the basis of the predominant nationality of their populations.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite a total population almost four times smaller, the Soviet Union had an urban population almost the size of China's--192 million.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the last years of the Soviet Union, the majority of the population were Russians (50.78%), followed by Ukrainians (15.45%) and Uzbeks (5.84%).^ (Various issues of the following publication were also used in the preparation of this appendix: Joint Publications Research Service, Soviet Union: Military Affairs .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ "Panel on the Soviet Union in the Year 2000," Soviet Geography , No.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ "The Soviet Union Seventy Years after the Revolution," Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Radio Liberty Research Bulletin [Munich], October 21, 1987, 1-5.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Other ethnic groups included Armenians, Azerbaijanis, Belarusians, Estonians, Georgians, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Latvians, Lithuanians, Moldovans, Tajiks, and Turkmen as well as Abkhaz, Adyghes, Aleuts, Assyrians, Avars, Bashkirs, Bulgarians, Buryats, Chechens, Chinese, Chuvash, Cossacks, Evenks, Finns, Gagauz, Germans, Greeks, Hungarians, Ingushes, Inuit, Jews, Kalmyks, Karakalpaks, Karelians, Kets, Koreans, Lezgins, Maris, Mongols, Mordvins, Nenetses, Ossetians, Poles, Roma, Romanians, Tats, Tatars, Tuvans, Udmurts, Yakuts, and others.^ Russian Federation OVERVIEW Country Data MINORITIES Adygey Altai Avars Bashkirs Buryats Chechens Chukchi Chuvash Cossacks Dargins Dolgan Evenk Jews Ingush Kabards and Balkars Kalmyks Karachay and Cherkess Karelians Khakass Khants and Mansi Komi KomiPermyaks Koryaks Kumyks Lezgins Mari Meskhetians or Meskhetian Turks Mordovans Nenets Nogai Ossetians Roma Russian or Volga Germans Tatars Tuvans Udmurts Ukrainians, Belarusians and Kazakhs Yakuts RESOURCES Minority Based & Advocacy Organizations Sources and Further Reading top of page powered by the webbler © MRG 2005 :: Contact us :: Sitemap :: Accessibility .
  • Minority Rights Group International : Russian Federation : Ossetians 11 January 2010 1:16 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: General]

^ The Esths and all other Western Finns, the Germans and the Swedes are Protestant .

^ Little and Great Russians, Rumanians, Bulgarians, Germans, Greeks, Frenchmen, Poles, Tatars and Jews are mingled together and scattered about in small colonies, especially in Bessarabia.

.Mainly because of differences in birth rates among the Soviet nationalities, the share of the population that was Russian steadily declined in the post-World War II period.^ Decorated for bravery as a volunteer in the Soviet army during the second world war, Kalashnikova, now 78, was accused of treason in 1941 because she had survived a German ambush.
  • Jew Watch - Jewish Occupied Governments - USSR - Jews and Communism 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.jewwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Veronica eventually succumbs to the seduction of Boris' cousin, Mark, but subsequently redeems herself by nursing the wounded amidst the terrible suffering of the Russian civilian population during World War II. 91 min.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ From Russian archive material witness probably the bloodiest battle of World War II. Over 40 Belorussian and 1st Ukranian Army cameramen contributed footage to this remarkable documentary.
  • Eastern Europe: History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]

Nationalities

.The extensive multinational empire that the Bolsheviks inherited after their revolution was created by Tsarist expansion over some four centuries.^ Looks at the causes and social consequences of the Russian Revolution of 1917, which destroyed the Tsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Soviet Union.
  • Eastern Europe: History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some nationality groups came into the empire voluntarily, others were brought in by force.^ Stalin determined to force Ukraine's millions of independent farmers - called kulaks - into collectivized Soviet agriculture, and to crush Ukraine's growing spirit of nationalism.
  • Jew Watch - Jewish Occupied Governments - USSR - Jews and Communism 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.jewwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Soviets granted the rights of equality and self-determination to all the numerous national groups inhabiting the territory of the former Russian Empire.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is to the glory of the Jewish Socialist Bund in Russia that the question of nationalism, which in the minds of the Socialists of the older generation was synonymous with oppression and subjection, was forced into the foreground.
  • Jew Watch - Jewish Occupied Governments - USSR - Jews and Communism 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.jewwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

.Russians[24], Belarusians and Ukrainians shared close cultural ties while, generally, the other subjects of the empire shared little in common—culturally, religiously, or linguistically.^ The curriculum of the Riga school as outlined by its founders included, among other subjects, reading, penmanship, grammar, and history (Russian).

^ In the larger colonies a two-room school should be opened, one room for general subjects, as Bible, Hebrew, German, Russian, arithmetic, and penmanship, and the other for complementary studies, as geography, Russian history, drawing, and agriculture.

^ Nevertheless he found it expedient to leave unchanged the religious legislation framed by his father, Aleksei, which contained many restrictions of the rights of non-Christian subjects of the empire.

.More often than not, two or more diverse nationalities were co-located on the same territory.^ His administrative authority was confined to his own principality, but when territorial disputes arose between two or more of his relations, his paternal influence was exercised in the interests of peace and justice.

^ In consequence of this, the rivers of Russia have been from remote antiquity the principal channels of trade and migration , and have contributed much more to the elaboration of national unity than any political institutions.

^ More than once they raided and pillaged in wholesale fashion the territory they were supposed to protect.

.Therefore, national antagonisms built up over the years not only against the Russians but often between some of the subject nations as well.^ On the other hand, in the six years, 1892-97, the excess of Russian emigration over immigration was 207,353, as compared with an excess of foreign immigration over emigration of only 136,740.

^ It is also worth remembering that 15 years ago there was pressure in some quarters in the West for the break-up of Yugoslavia (or at least the break-away to the West of Croatia and Slovenia).
  • Stephen Cohen: The breakup of the Soviet Union ended Russia's march to democracy | Comment is free | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ But the later events of the eventful year went uniformly against the Russians.
  • The Glory of the Russian Empire MOD (BETA released!) - Total War Center Forums 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For many years, Soviet leaders maintained that the underlying causes of conflict between nationalities of the Soviet Union had been eliminated and that the Soviet Union consisted of a family of nations living harmoniously together.^ Because the Soviet Union was really a great Family of Nations.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ The following year he was banished from the Soviet Union.
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^ As late as 1985, in the first year of "perestroika" a group of American Jewish musicians from the Klezmer Conservatory Band was detained by the Soviets and expelled from the Soviet Union for just performing in a home concert together with a group of Refusenik and dissident musicians in the city of Tbilisi.
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

.In the 1920s and early 1930s, the government conducted a policy of korenizatsiya (indigenization) of local governments in an effort to recruit non-Russians into the new Soviet political institutions and to reduce the conflict between Russians and the minority nationalities.^ In 1893 district committees for the management of the peasants' affairs, similar to those in the purely Russian governments, were introduced into this part of the empire.

^ Russian film producer Grigori Alexandrov's attempt at importing American musical comedy into Soviet film.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ "Soviet Occupation of the Baltic States and Their Incorporation into the USSR: Political and Legal Aspects," East European Quarterly , 19, September 1985, 289- 304.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.One area in which the Soviet leaders made concessions perhaps more out of necessity than out of conviction, was language policy.^ Soviet censuses listed 114 languages and more than 300 linguistic and dialectical denominations spoken within the Soviet Union.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Leningrad area, with its skilled labor force, held more than 5 percent of Soviet manufacturing, including electronics, instruments, diversified machinery, textiles, and wood products.
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^ (Ultimately, 152 German divisions were unleashed in Barbarossa against what were actually more than 300 Soviet divisions).
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

.To increase literacy and mass education, the government encouraged the development and publication in many of the "national languages" of the minority groups.^ The violence of minor officials increased, and the situation was rendered more critical by the conversion of many towns and townlets into villages, and by the expulsion of the Jews therefrom.

^ Crimean War, the gradual weakening of the Sultan's authority, and the increase of Russian influence among the minor Slav nationalities; in Asia, the gradual but cautious expansion of Russian domination.

^ The minister of public instruction adopted this plan with slight modifications, excluding German as unnecessary, and increasing the attention given to the Russian language.

.While Russian became a required subject of study in all Soviet schools in 1938, in the mainly non-Russian areas the chief language of instruction was the local language or languages.^ Studies in the modern Russian language ; 7.

^ Instruction was in Russian or in the Soviet Union’s many other languages.
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^ Studies in Russian and Soviet Cinema , vol.
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.This practice led to widespread bilingualism in the educated population, though among smaller nationalities and among elements of the population that were heavily affected by the immigration of Russians, linguistic assimilation also was common, in which the members of a given non-Russian nationality lost facility in the historic language of their group.^ In addition to the Russians themselves, millions of non-Russian people—particularly those scattered and assimilated (that is, Russified), such as the Jews—also claimed Russian as their mother tongue.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet government helped many smaller ethnic groups develop their own alphabets and vocabularies; however, the government, through educational policies, ensured the widespread use of the Russian language.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The nation continues to be culturally diverse, with many religious and ethnic groups, three major languages, and two official alphabets.
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[25]
.The concessions granted national cultures and the limited autonomy tolerated in the union republics in the 1920s led to the development of national elites and a heightened sense of national identity.^ It mainly focuses on the development of Lak culture and national identity.
  • WRITENET Country Papers - The Russian Federation: Dagestan (Nov 95) 11 January 2010 1:16 UTC www.turkiye.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "National identity, cultural authority, and the post-Soviet blockbuster: Nikita Mikhalkov and Aleksei Balabanov."
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Thanks to its social and judicial autonomy, Polish Jewish life was enabled to develop freely along the lines of national and religious tradition.

.Subsequent repression and Russianization fostered resentment against domination by Moscow and promoted further growth of national consciousness.^ Another movement directly traceable to the repressive legislation in Russia was the growth of nationalism among the Russian Jews, resulting in agricultural colonization in Palestine, and in the organization of Zionist societies ( see Agricultural Colonies ; Alexander III., Alexandrovich ; Ignatiev ; May Laws ; Moscow ).

.National feelings were also exacerbated in the Soviet multinational state by increased competition for resources, services, and jobs, and by the policy of the leaders in Moscow to move workers—mainly Russians—to the peripheral areas of the country, the homelands of non-Russian nationalities.^ The country’s larger museums and architectural restorations were state supported, but some smaller collections, particularly in rural areas, were the result of volunteer work by enthusiasts and clubs.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We used to live in brotherly concord with all of our non-Russian neighbours within the Russian Empire, as well as within the Soviet Union.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ One topic request was regarding the review of US policy towards the Soviet Union initiated by Secretary of State George Shultz, and National Security Advisor Robert Bud McFarlane in late 1983 and early 1984.
  • SOVIET UNION, 1917-1991 � UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (USSR) 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC www.reagan.utexas.edu [Source type: Reference]

[26]
.By the end of the 1980s, encouraged in part by Gorbachev's policy of glasnost, unofficial groups formed around a great many social, cultural, and political issues.^ "Policy Towards Unofficial Religious Groups under Gorbachev," Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Radio Liberty Research Bulletin [Munich], March 31, 1988, 1- 8.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In some non-Russian regions ostensible green movements or ecological movements were thinly disguised national movements in support of the protection of natural resources and the national patrimony generally from control by ministries in Moscow.^ As a consequence this central Russian industry, even when supported by very high protective duties, is only able to produce for the home market and the markets of the adjacent territories in Asia which are under Russian political control.

^ The Soviet Regional Dilemma: Planning, People, and Natural Resources .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Nationality Group Survival in Multi- Ethnic States: Shifting Support Patterns in the Sovie Baltic Region .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

Religious groups

.Although the Soviet Union was officially secular, it supported atheism and suppressed religion, though according to various Soviet and Western sources, over one-third of the people in the Soviet Union professed religious belief.^ (Various issues of the following publication were also used in the preparation of this appendix: Joint Publications Research Service, Soviet Union: Military Affairs .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The subseries contains trip information and trip reports by official delegations and groups that visited the Soviet Union.
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Its president, M. Khomiakov, had been one of the founders of the " Union of 17 October," but even the Octobrists formed but a third of the House and were compelled to act with the reactionaries of the Right; and the vice-president, Prince Volkonsky, was a member of the Union of the Russian People.

Christianity and Islam had the most believers. The state was separated from church by the Decree of Council of People's Comissars on January 23, 1918. .Two-thirds of the Soviet population, however, had no religious beliefs.^ The USSR issued no statistics on religious affiliation; rough estimates suggest that about half the total Soviet population adhered to some religious faith.
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^ At the time of its dissolution in 1991, the Soviet Union was, after China and India, the third most populous country in the world.
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^ "Population Trends of Soviet Cities, 1970-1984," Soviet Geography , No.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.About half the people, including members of the CPSU and high-level government officials, professed atheism.^ Most of its members were also high-ranking officials in the Communist party and most were members of the Central Committee.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Minister for Nationalities of Dagestan, Magomedsadykh Gysaev, expressed his concern over this group of about 70,000 people and declared that his Government wants them to leave the republic.
  • WRITENET Country Papers - The Russian Federation: Dagestan (Nov 95) 11 January 2010 1:16 UTC www.turkiye.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In theory power flowed upward from the broad base, but in reality only high-level party officials made the major decisions.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Official figures on the number of religious believers in the Soviet Union were not available in 1989.
.Christians belonged to various churches: Orthodox, which had the largest number of followers; Catholic; and Baptist and various other Protestant denominations.^ All Russians, with the exception of a number of White Russians who belong to the United Greek Church (see Roman Catholic Church ), profess the Orthodox Greek faith or belong to one or other of the numberless dissident sects.

^ The number of loan associations is as follows: see table In the separate provinces of Northwest Russia there are: see table In the other sections of Western Russia there are: see table see Number of Loan Associations, with Their Annual Incomes .

^ Perhaps the most remarkable fact about this sect is that it is secret, and that its members ostensibly belong to the Orthodox Church.

.Government persecution of Christianity continued unabated until the fall of the Communist government, with Stalin's reign the most repressive.^ In the face of the great danger the Russian Orthodox Church did not blame Stalin's government for the destruction of numerous churches and persecution of thousands of believers committed by the godless Trotskists.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Stalin insists that the governments of the Soviet Union's client states be pro-communist.
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^ Following Stalin's domination of Eastern Europe and the loss of China, American democracy falls victim to anti-communist hysteria, but survives it.
  • Eastern Europe: History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Stalin is quoted as saying that "The Party cannot be neutral towards religion. .It conducts an anti-religious struggle against any and all religious prejudices."^ This fed into deep-seated American attitudes, which were common to much of the West, of anti-semitism, antislavism, and cultural prejudices against the East in general.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ The Reformation movement stimulated an anti-Jewish crusade by the Catholic clergy, who preached vehemently against all heretics—Lutherans, Calvinists, and Jews.

In World War II, however, the repression against the Russian Orthodox Church temporarily ceased as it was perceived as "instrument of patriotic unity" in the war against "the western Teutonics." Repression against Russian Orthodox restarted from ca. 1946 onwards and more forcibly under Nikita Khrushchev.
.Although there were many ethnic Jews in the Soviet Union, actual practice of Judaism was rare in Communist times.^ The Jews in the Soviet Union since 1917 .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It should be mentioned, however, that among the clergy there were many who were friendly to the Jews.

^ There may have been some connection between the expulsion of the Jews from Lithuania by Alexander in 1495 and Ivan's attitude toward the Judaizing heresy.

.In 1928, Stalin created the Jewish Autonomous Oblast in the far east of what is now Russia to try to create a "Soviet Zion" for a proletarian Jewish culture to develop.^ In the early seventies the mouthpiece of young and cultured Russia, the monthly "Otechestvenyya Zapiski," began to publish Grigori Bogrov's "Zapiski Yevreya," a story of Russian-Jewish life.

^ Jewish problem in Russia was apparently solved; but on the partition of Poland, Russia received the territory now known as "White Russia," and other provinces having a large Jewish population.

^ "The Soviet Far East, East Asia, and the Pacific--Strategic Dimensions."
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

The overwhelming majority of Muslims were Sunni. The Azerbaijanis, who were Shi'ah, were one major exception. .The largest groups of Muslims in the Soviet Union resided in the Central Asian republics (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) and Kazakhstan, though substantial numbers also resided in Central Russia (principally in Bashkiria and Tatarstan), in the North Caucasian part of Russia (Chechnya, Dagestan, and other autonomous republics) and in Transcaucasia (principally in Azerbaijan but also certain regions of Georgia).^ The Cambridge encyclopedia of Russia and the soviet Union .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The number of loan associations is as follows: see table In the separate provinces of Northwest Russia there are: see table In the other sections of Western Russia there are: see table see Number of Loan Associations, with Their Annual Incomes .

^ Russia belongs to the same zoo-geographical region as central Europe and N. Asia, the same fauna extending in Siberia as far as the Yenisei and the Lena.

Other religions, which were practiced by a relatively small number of believers, included Buddhism (mostly Vajrayana) and paganism (which was largely shamanic), a religion based on spiritualism. The role of religion in the daily lives of Soviet citizens thus varied greatly, but was far less integral in city dwellers where Party control was optimum.

Culture

Worker and Kolkhoz Woman over the northern entrance to the All-Soviet Exhibition Centre in Moscow (today the All-Russia Exhibition Centre)
.The culture of the Soviet Union passed through several stages during the USSR's 70-year existence.^ To be honest, I never thought in a million years someone would compare us to the Soviet Union.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Before reaching the new order of things, the country had to pass through an internal crisis similar to that which followed the death of Ivan the Terrible, but not nearly so severe.

^ If there is one valid comparison to make regarding the Soviet Union's repressive and secretive face, it would be the existence of that prison in Guantanamo.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.During the first eleven years following the Revolution (1918–1929), there was relative freedom and artists experimented with several different styles in an effort to find a distinctive Soviet style of art.^ The following year he was banished from the Soviet Union.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The following year, however, Egypt ordered all Soviet military advisers out of the country.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First fifty years : Soviet Russia, 1917-67.

.Lenin wanted art to be accessible to the Russian people.^ We Russians do not like to shout or talk too loudly in the street because we respect the people around us, and we do not want them to be disturbed.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Kerensky wanted to continue the war against Germany, but the Russian people did not.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The government encouraged a variety of trends. In art and literature, numerous schools, some traditional and others radically experimental, proliferated. Communist writers Maksim Gorky and Vladimir Mayakovsky were active during this time. Film, as a means of influencing a largely illiterate society, received encouragement from the state; much of director Sergei Eisenstein's best work dates from this period.
.Later, during Joseph Stalin's rule, Soviet culture was characterised by the rise and domination of the government-imposed style of Socialist realism, with all other trends being severely repressed, with rare exceptions (e.g.^ On the other hand, additional heavy burdens were imposed by Nicholas' government on the Jews of Russia.

^ The ander II., repressive system of Nicholas, in which all other public 1855-81.

^ Berliner, Joseph S. Soviet Industry from Stalin to Gorbachev .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

Mikhail Bulgakov's works). Many writers were imprisoned and killed.[27] Also religious people were persecuted and either sent to Gulags or were murdered in their thousands[28]. .The ban on the Orthodox Church was temporarily lifted in the 1940s, in order to rally support for the Soviet war against the invading forces of Germany.^ After the outbreak of the war with Japan orders were issued by circular to discontinue the expulsions temporarily.

^ Red God of War: Soviet Artillery and Rocket Forces .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Under Stalin, prominent symbols that were not in line with communist ideology were destroyed, such as Orthodox Churches and Tsarist buildings.^ In the face of the great danger the Russian Orthodox Church did not blame Stalin's government for the destruction of numerous churches and persecution of thousands of believers committed by the godless Trotskists.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Under this concept writers were required to participate fully and prominently in building socialism.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But of course, the most important of all exploits he performed was that Stalin revived the Russian Orthodox Church – the true Soul of the Russian Nation.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

Following the Khrushchev Thaw of the late 1950s and early 1960s, censorship was diminished. .Greater experimentation in art forms became permissible once again, with the result that more sophisticated and subtly critical work began to be produced.^ He began war therefore in 1514 and at once captured Smolensk, but in the following year he was defeated, and the war dragged on during more than seven years , with varying successes and without any important result.

^ This best known of the Alexeieff & Parker films, critics have written, is "full of art and poetry" and "should be seen more than once for a full awareness of its artistry."
  • Russian (Soviet) and East European Cinema: Media Resources Center UCB 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Experimental theater, including the works of producer-director Vsevolod Meyerhold and fellow constructivists, flourished through the early Soviet period.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The regime loosened its emphasis on socialist realism; thus, for instance, many protagonists of the novels of author Yury Trifonov concerned themselves with problems of daily life rather than with building socialism.^ That they are thus supplying a real demand is proved by the success which has been gained among the Russian reading public by writers upon Jewish life.

^ With his customary penetration he described the real cause of anti-Semitism and the soil on which it had developed, appealing to his readers to make themselves acquainted at first hand with Jewish life.

^ On the other hand, it will cooperate by all possible means in the improvement of the inner life of the Jews themselves and in the attainment of their social regeneration on Russian soil."

An underground dissident literature, known as samizdat, developed during this late period. In architecture the Khrushchev era mostly focused on functional design as opposed to the highly decorated style of Stalin's epoch.
.In the second half of the 1980s, Gorbachev's policies of perestroika and glasnost significantly expanded freedom of expression in the media and press, eventually resulting in the complete abolishment of censorship, total freedom of expression and freedom to criticise the government.^ The most acute expression of this reaction was the attitude of the government and its press toward the Jews.

[29]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Britannica.
  2. ^ Richard Sakwa The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union, 1917–1991: 1917–1991. Routledge, 1999. ISBN 0415122902, 9780415122900. pp. 140–143.
  3. ^ Julian Towster. Political Power in the U.S.S.R., 1917–1947: The Theory and Structure of Government in the Soviet State Oxford Univ. Press, 1948. p. 106.
  4. ^ (Russian) Voted Unanimously for the Union.
  5. ^ (Russian) Creation of the USSR at Khronos.ru.
  6. ^ "70 Years of Gidroproekt and Hydroelectric Power in Russia". http://www.springerlink.com/content/h3677572g016338u/. 
  7. ^ (Russian) On GOELRO Plan — at Kuzbassenergo.
  8. ^ The consolidation into a single-party regime took place during the first three and a half years after the revolution, which included the period of War Communism and an election in which multiple parties competed. See Leonard Schapiro, The Origin of the Communist Autocracy: Political Opposition in the Soviet State, First Phase 1917–1922. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1955, 1966.
  9. ^ (Russian) Mel'tiukhov, Mikhail. Upushchennyi shans Stalina: Sovetskii Soiuz i bor'ba za Evropu 1939–1941. Moscow: Veche, 2000. ISBN 5783811963.
  10. ^ Denunciation of the neutrality pact April 5, 1945. (Avalon Project at Yale University)
  11. ^ Soviet Declaration of War on Japan, August 8, 1945. (Avalon Project at Yale University)
  12. ^ W. Tompson, The Soviet Union under Brezhnev, (Edinburgh, 2003), p. 91.
  13. ^ Kenneth S. Deffeyes, Beyond Oil: The View from Hubbert's Peak.
  14. ^ The red blues — Soviet politics by Brian Crozier, National Review, June 25, 1990.
  15. ^ Origins of Moral-Ethical Crisis and Ways to Overcome it by V.A.Drozhin Honoured Lawyer of Russia.
  16. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/288956/inquisitorial-procedure
  17. ^ http://law.jrank.org/pages/7663/Inquisitorial-System.html
  18. ^ a b c "Main Intelligence Administration (GRU) Glavnoye Razvedovatel'noye Upravlenie – Russia / Soviet Intelligence Agencies". Fas.org. http://www.fas.org/irp/world/russia/gru/. Retrieved 2008-11-24. 
  19. ^ a b "The SVR Russia’s Intelligence Service". Fas.org. http://www.fas.org/irp/world/russia/svr/c103-gb.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-24. 
  20. ^ Country Profile: Russia Foreign & Commonwealth Office of the United Kingdom.
  21. ^ Memorandum of Understanding, AcqWeb, February 7, 2007.
  22. ^ a b "1990 CIA World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. http://www.umsl.edu/services/govdocs/wofact90/world12.txt. Retrieved 2008-03-09. 
  23. ^ Barbara A. Anderson and Brian D. Silver, "Demographic Sources of the Changing Ethnic Composition of the Soviet Union," Population and Development Review 15 (December 1989): 609–656.
  24. ^ Rulers and Victims: The Russians in the Soviet Union, History Today
  25. ^ Barbara A. Anderson and Brian D. Silver. 1984. "Equality, Efficiency, and Politics in Soviet Bilingual Education Policy, 1934–1980," American Political Science Review 78 (December): 1019–1039.
  26. ^ Russians left behind in Central Asia, BBC News, November 23, 2005.
  27. ^ Rayfield 2004, pp. 317–320.
  28. ^ Rayfield 2004, pp. 121–122.
  29. ^ "Gorbachev, Mikhail." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2 Oct. 2007 <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9037405>. "Under his new policy of glasnost (“openness”), a major cultural thaw took place: freedoms of expression and of information were significantly expanded; the press and broadcasting were allowed unprecedented candour in their reportage and criticism; and the country's legacy of Stalinist totalitarian rule was eventually completely repudiated by the government."

Externals

References

.
  • Armstrong, John A. The Politics of Totalitarianism: The Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1934 to the Present. New York: Random House, 1961.
  • Brown, Archie, et al., eds.: The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Russia and the Soviet Union (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1982).
  • Gilbert, Martin: The Routledge Atlas of Russian History (London: Routledge, 2002).
  • Goldman, Minton: The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe (Connecticut: Global Studies, Dushkin Publishing Group, Inc., 1986).
  • Grant, Ted: Russia, from Revolution to Counter-Revolution, London, Well Red Publications,1997
  • Howe, G. Melvyn: The Soviet Union: A Geographical Survey 2nd.^ "Sufficiency in Defense--A New Guideline for the Soviet Military Posture," Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Radio Liberty Research Bulletin [Munich], September 23, 1987, 1-5.
    • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "Poverty in the Soviet Union," Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Radio Liberty Research Bulletin [Munich], June 20, 1988, 1-7.
    • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "Recent Development in Political Education in the Soviet Union."
    • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    edn. .(Estover, UK: MacDonald and Evans, 1983).
  • Katz, Zev, ed.: Handbook of Major Soviet Nationalities (New York: Free Press, 1975).
  • Moore, Jr., Barrington.^ "Sufficiency in Defense--A New Guideline for the Soviet Military Posture," Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Radio Liberty Research Bulletin [Munich], September 23, 1987, 1-5.
    • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York : Washington Square Press.

    ^ Social Trends in the Soviet Union from 1950 New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987.
    • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .Soviet politics: the dilemma of power. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1950.
  • Dmitry Orlov, Reinventing Collapse, New Society Books, 2008, ISBN 9780865716063
  • Rayfield, Donald.^ February 11th, 2008 11:24 am ET I am getting sick and tired of political parties and news organizations "calling" elections before the final count.
    • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Download this powerful new tool that keeps you posted on the latest political news from the campaign trail.
    • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ American Jewish Historical Society, Newton Centre, MA and New York, NY .
    • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

    Stalin and His Hangmen: The Tyrant and Those Who Killed for Him. .New York: Random House, 2004 (hardcover, ISBN 0-375-50632-2); 2005 (paperback, ISBN 0375757716).
  • Rizzi, Bruno: "The bureaucratization of the world : the first English ed.^ New York: Random House, 1981.
    • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York: Random House, 1969.
    • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York: Hascourt, Brace, and World, 1967.
    • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    of the underground Marxist classic that analyzed class exploitation in the USSR" , New York, NY : Free Press, 1985.
  • Schapiro, Leonard B. The Origin of the Communist Autocracy: Political Opposition in the Soviet State, First Phase 1917–1922. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1955, 1966.

Links

. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Library of Congress Country Studies.^ Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / Country Studies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography Bibliography -- Soviet Union .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Subseries C: Materials on Soviet Refuseniks from Israel Public Council for Soviet Jewry, Canadian Jewish Congress and Student Struggle for Soviet Jewry ,  undated, 1980-1981.
  • Guide to the Records of Action for Soviet Jewry, undated, 1943, 1964-1994 *I-487 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

The Soviet Union dissolved in 1991, forming 15 new countries:
This article is a disambiguation page. If you arrived here by following a link from another page you can help by correcting it, so that it points to the appropriate disambiguated page.

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Etymology

Proper noun

Singular
the Soviet Union
Plural
-
the Soviet Union
  1. The name for a constitutionally socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

Translations

See also

See also


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Союз Советских Социалистических Республик¹
Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik¹
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
1922 – 1991
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
.Motto
Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь!
^ Motto Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь!
  • Soviet Union - Familypedia 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


(Translit.: Proletarii vsekh stran, soyedinyaytes!)
Translation: Workers of the world
Anthem
The Internationale (1922–1944)
Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944–1991)
Location of Soviet Union
Capital Moscow
Language(s) Russian (de facto),
14 other official languages
Government Socialist republic
General Secretary
 - 1922 — 1924 Vladimir Lenin (first)
 - 1985 — 1991 Mikhail Gorbachev (last)
Premier
 - 1923 — 1924 Vladimir Lenin (first)
 - 1991 Ivan Silayev (last)
History
 - October Revolution November 7, 1917
 - Established December 30, 1922
 - Victory over Germany May 9,1945
 - Sputnik 1 October 4,1957
 - August Coup August 19,1991
 - Dissolved December 26, 1991
Area
 - 1991 22,402,200 km² (8,649,538 sq mi)
Population
 - 1991 est. 293,047,571 
     Density 13.1 /km²  (33.9 /sq mi)
Currency Ruble (SUR)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Russian SFSR
Transcaucasian SFSR
Ukrainian SSR
Byelorussian SSR
CIS
Russia
Belarus
Ukraine
Moldova
Georgia
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Kazakhstan
Uzbekistan
Turkmenistan
Kyrgyzstan
¹ Official names of the USSR
Internet TLD: .su      Calling code: +7

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (abbreviated USSR, Russian: ; tr.: Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, SSSR), also called the Soviet Union[1] (Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з; tr.: Sovetsky Soyuz), was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991.
.Emerging from the Russian Empire following the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Russian Civil War of 1918–1921, the USSR was a union of several Soviet republics, but the synechdoche Russia— after its largest and dominant constituent state—continued to be commonly used throughout the state's existence.^ Russian revolutions of 1905 and 1917.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Glossary 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC memory.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Soviet Glossary 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Russian Soviet USSR collectibles .
  • Russian Soviet USSR collectibles eBay Store About My Store 10 January 2010 16:49 UTC cgi3.ebay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Russian Empire, 1801-1917 .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The geographic boundaries of the USSR varied with time, but after the last major territorial annexations of the Baltic states, eastern Poland, Bessarabia, and certain other territories during World War II, from 1945 until dissolution the boundaries approximately corresponded to those of late Imperial Russia, with the notable exclusions of Poland, most of Finland, and Alaska.^ RUSSIA AT WAR 1941 1945 .
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Over 2,000 were produced during World War II. .
  • World War II Tanks and Planes 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.wwiivehicles.com [Source type: General]

^ World War II Vehicles home .
  • World War II Tanks and Planes 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.wwiivehicles.com [Source type: General]

.The Soviet Union became the primary model for future Communist states during the Cold War; the government and the political organization of the country were defined by the only political party, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.^ The Communist party was an elite organization.
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^ Stalin insists that the governments of the Soviet Union's client states be pro-communist.
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^ The Cold War was a struggle between the United States and its allies and the Soviet Union.
  • Soviet Union | Essays & Term Papers Online 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.From 1945 until its dissolution in 1991 — a period known as the Cold War—the Soviet Union and the United States of America were the two world superpowers that dominated the global agenda of economic policy, foreign affairs, military operations, cultural exchange, scientific advancements including the pioneering of space exploration, and sports (including the Olympic Games and various world championships).^ Our foreign policy in the changing world."
  • Parallel History Project on Cooperative Security (PHP) - Hungary and the W'Pact: Introduction 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.php.isn.ethz.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet foreign policy.
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  • Soviet Glossary 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ August 1991 (from Soviet Union) .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Russia 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Initially established as a union of four Soviet Socialist Republics, the USSR grew to contain 15 constituent or "union republics" by 1956: Armenian SSR, Azerbaijan SSR, Byelorussian SSR, Estonian SSR, Georgian SSR, Kazakh SSR, Kyrgyz SSR, Latvian SSR, Lithuanian SSR, Moldavian SSR, Russian SFSR, Tajik SSR, Turkmen SSR, Ukrainian SSR, and Uzbek SSR.^ Russian Soviet USSR collectibles .
  • Russian Soviet USSR collectibles eBay Store About My Store 10 January 2010 16:49 UTC cgi3.ebay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An Autonomous Republic is a constituent part of a Union Republic.
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE USSR (1977) 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.friends-partners.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the United States of America 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.saxetshows.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A Union Republic is a sovereign Soviet socialist state that has united with other Soviet Republics in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE USSR (1977) 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.friends-partners.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the United States of America 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.saxetshows.com [Source type: Original source]

(From annexation of Estonian SSR on August 6, 1940 up to reorganisation of Karelo-Finnish SSR into Karelian ASSR on July 16, 1956, the count of "union republics" was 16.)

Contents

History

Main article: History of the Soviet Union
.The Soviet Union is traditionally considered to be the successor of the Russian Empire.^ Russian Empire Successor state to Muscovy ( q.v.
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^ Russians have used it to indicate that, as both the world’s foremost Orthodox nation and a global power, they are the successor to the Roman Empire (First Empire) and the Byzantine Empire(Constantinople).
  • 177 – A Map of Russia’s Third Empire (2053) « Strange Maps 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC strangemaps.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ Even with the success of the Il-2, the Soviet Union designed and produced its successor towards the end of World War II. It was the Ilyushin Il-10 .
  • World War II Tanks and Planes 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.wwiivehicles.com [Source type: General]

.The last Russian Tsar, Nicholas II, ruled until March 1917 when the Empire was overthrown and a short-lived democratic republic was established, the latter to be overthrown in November 1917 by Vladimir Lenin.^ The Russian Empire, 1801-1917 .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ L'Empire des tsars, ii.

^ Tsar Nicholas II in February 1917 (according to the Julian calendar-- q.v.
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.From 1917 to 1922, the predecessor to the Soviet Union was the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic (RSFSR), which was an independent country as well as other Soviet republics at the time.^ Instruction was in Russian or in the Soviet Union’s many other languages.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Union Republic is a sovereign Soviet socialist state that has united with other Soviet Republics in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE USSR (1977) 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.friends-partners.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the United States of America 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.saxetshows.com [Source type: Original source]

^ USSR and establishment of the fundamentals of the legislation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Union Republics; .
  • Constitution of the United States of America 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.saxetshows.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Soviet Union was officially established in December 1922 as the union of the Russian (colloquially known as Bolshevist Russia), Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Transcaucasian Soviet republics ruled by Bolshevik parties.^ The Cambridge encyclopedia of Russia and the soviet Union .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Russian Bolshevik party."
  • Jew Watch - Jewish Occupied Governments - USSR - Jews and Communism 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.jewwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1917, Russia was officially proclaimed the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, which in 1922 was united with the Ukrainian, Belorussian, and Transcaucasian republics to form the see Union of Soviet Socialist Republics .
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Revolution and the foundation of a Soviet state

.Modern revolutionary activity in the Russian Empire began with the Decembrist Revolt of 1825, and although serfdom was abolished in 1861, its abolition was achieved on terms unfavorable to the peasants and served to encourage revolutionaries.^ Serfdom and the installation of the peasant commune after 1861 encouraged collectivism in agriculture.
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^ The goal of the mod is to achieve the impression of uniqueness and historical accuracy of the Russian Empire by a complete overhaul of the faction.
  • The Glory of the Russian Empire MOD (BETA released!) - Total War Center Forums 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1893 district committees for the management of the peasants' affairs, similar to those in the purely Russian governments, were introduced into this part of the empire.

.A parliament—the State Duma—was established in 1906 after the Russian Revolution of 1905, but the Tsar resisted attempts to move from absolute to constitutional monarchy.^ Russian revolutions of 1905 and 1917.
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^ Mikhail Yuryev is a Russian businessman, the former chairman of the Russian Government’s Council on Economy and Entrepreneurship (1993-1995) and formerly a deputy speaker of the State Duma (1995-1999).
  • 177 – A Map of Russia’s Third Empire (2053) « Strange Maps 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC strangemaps.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ The Union, which has its origins in the Russian Revolution of October 1917 , was officially established on November 30, 1922.
  • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics@Everything2.com 20 September 2009 3:20 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Social unrest continued and was aggravated during World War I by military defeat and food shortages in major cities.^ It conceals the fact that, though Russians probably made up the greater part of military casualties, the majority of Soviet civilians who perished during the war were neither Russian by nationality nor victims of military action.
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^ MYTH IV: The mainstream Western narrative on the Eastern Front during the Second World War was formed by academic historians and is fundamentally fair and objective.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ However, thesewere used by the Germans during World War II, and It must be assumed that the Soviets are aware of this potentiality.
  • AIR DEFENSE OF THE SINO-SOVIET BLOC, 1950-1960 (NIE 11-5-55) - CIA document 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Vladimir Lenin in Lenin on the Tribune by Alexander Gerasimov
.A spontaneous popular uprising in Petrograd, in response to the wartime decay of Russia's economy and morale, culminated in the toppling of the imperial government in March 1917 (see February Revolution).^ February 27 Revolution (Gregorian March 12), 1917 .
  • RUSSIA 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The ruinous effects of World War I, combined with internal pressures, sparked the March 1917 uprising, which led Tsar Nicholas II to abdicate the throne.
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^ These pretenders claimed to be Dmitrii (who died as a child), the son of Tsar Ivan IV. February Revolution The popular uprising that overthrew the government of the Russian Empire ( q.v.
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.The tsarist autocracy was replaced by the Russian Provisional Government, whose leaders intended to establish liberal democracy in Russia and to continue participating on the side of the Entente in World War I. At the same time, to ensure the rights of the working class, workers' councils, known as soviets, sprang up across the country.^ A provisional government under Prince Lvov , a moderate, tried to continue the war effort, but was opposed by the soviets (councils) of workers and soldiers.
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^ Thousands of revolutionary soviets (councils) had sprung up all over Russia.
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^ The Russian Democratic Revolution: crash of the tsarist autocracy; Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies and Provisional Government formed .
  • Russia: geography, history, population, economy, and statistics 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.womenrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, pushed for socialist revolution in the soviets and on the streets.^ On November 7, 1917, the Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, seized control and established the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic.
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^ After the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution, Soviet influence in Xinjiang proceeded slowly at first.
  • The Soviets in Xinjiang (1911-1949) 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.oxuscom.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (World War I series) Archival newsreel footage surveys the forces and factors leading to the Russian revolution and the role of Lenin and his diciplined Bolshevik Party.
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.They seized power from the Provisional Government in November 1917 (see October Revolution).^ October 25 Revolution (Gregorian November 7), 1917 .
  • RUSSIA 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Provisional Government in November 1917 (October 1917, according to the Julian calendar-- q.v.
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^ The Russian Democratic Revolution: crash of the tsarist autocracy; Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies and Provisional Government formed .
  • Russia: geography, history, population, economy, and statistics 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.womenrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Only after the long and bloody Russian Civil War of 1918–1921, which included foreign intervention in several parts of Russia, was the new Soviet power secure.^ Civil War Polities (1917-1921) .

^ Civil War ends, 1920; part of Soviet Union, 1922 .
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^ Discusses the civil war and counterrevolution in Russia.
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.In a related conflict with Poland, the "Peace of Riga" in early 1921 split disputed territories in Belarus and Ukraine between Poland and Soviet Russia.^ Foreign relations -- Soviet Union Poland.

^ In the late 18th century, the newly independent Second Polish Republic began securing its eastern territories annexed by Russia in the partitions of Poland.
  • 45th INFANTRY DIVISION & LAFAYETTE ESCADRILLE AMERICAINE &the swastika of the Sooner Soldiers influence on the Union of Soviet SocialistRepublics, USSR's swastika, Fascism Nazism, Socialism, Communism Stalin HitlerMao 45th Infantry http://rexcurry.net/ussr-socialist-swastika1919-1920cav.jpgSwastikas http://rexcurry.net/swastika3clear.jpg Swastikas, American Swastikas,American Salutes, Bellamy Swastikas, Bellamy Salutes, Theosophical Swastikas,Theosophical Salutes, Steven Heller, Whirling Logs, Whirling Winds BoeingP-12 F4b, Avro Anson, Francis Bellamy, Pledge Of Allegiance, Edward Bellamy,Looking Backward, Swastika, Rex Curry, Paris Hilton, Holocaust, Matt Crypto,Inquisition Dr. Rex Curry 19 September 2009 0:35 UTC rexcurry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Russia the Reds finally defeated the Whites, the interventionists withdrew, and Lenin made peace with Poland.
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.The Soviet system of forced labor camps was first established in 1919 under the Cheka, but it was not until the early 1930s that the camp population reached significant numbers.^ Until recently out of all the post-Soviet transformations political pluralism and multi-party system received the lowest grades in public opinion.
  • Project MUSE - Subject Browse 23 September 2009 1:45 UTC muse.jhu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1935 and 1936 nearly 500,000 people were executed, imprisoned, or forced into labor camps.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polish proprietors settled in large numbers on the Cossack territory, and great efforts were made, with the assistance of the Jesuits , to bring the Orthodox population under papal authority.

.By 1934 the Gulag, or Main Directorate for Corrective Labor Camps, then under the Cheka's successor organization the NKVD, had several million inmates.^ By 1934 the GULAG, or Main Directorate for Corrective Labor Camps, then under the Cheka's successor organization the NKVD, had several million inmates.
  • Jew Watch - Jewish Occupied Governments - USSR - Jews and Communism 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.jewwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gulag (Glavnoe upravlenie ispravitel'no- trudovykh lagerei) Main Directorate for Corrective Labor Camps.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Glossary 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC memory.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Soviet Glossary 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result, they were killed or sent to labor camps called the ‘gulags’.
  • Soviet Union | Essays & Term Papers Online 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

Prisoners included murderers, thieves, and other common criminals--along with political and religious dissenters

Unification of the Soviet Republics

.On December 28, 1922 a conference of plenipotentiary delegations from the Russian SFSR, the Transcaucasian SFSR, the Ukrainian SSR and the Byelorussian SSR approved the Treaty of Creation of the USSR and the Declaration of the Creation of the USSR, forming the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.^ SSR ( sovetskaia sotsialisticheskaia respublika ) Soviet socialist republic.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Glossary 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC memory.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Soviet Glossary 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Union Republic is a sovereign Soviet socialist state that has united with other Soviet Republics in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE USSR (1977) 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.friends-partners.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the United States of America 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.saxetshows.com [Source type: Original source]

^ USSR and establishment of the fundamentals of the legislation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Union Republics; .
  • Constitution of the United States of America 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.saxetshows.com [Source type: Original source]

.These two documents were confirmed by the 1st Congress of Soviets of the USSR and signed by heads of delegations[2] - Mikhail Kalinin, Mikha Tskhakaya, Mikhail Frunze and Grigory Petrovsky, Aleksandr Chervyakov[3] respectively on December 30, 1922.^ Vladimir Lenin Speaks to Red Army 1:11 min In 1920, the czarists were defeated, and in 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was established.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Further negotiations between the two governments began in August, and as a result, an agreement was signed in Moscow on 10 March 1990, on the withdrawal of Soviet troops by 30 June 1991.
  • Parallel History Project on Cooperative Security (PHP) - Hungary and the W'Pact: Introduction 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.php.isn.ethz.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A 30-year treaty was signed in 1950, including provision for Soviet loans to China at 1 percent interest.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On February 1, 1924 the USSR was recognized by the first major power of the time—the British Empire.^ Russians have used it to indicate that, as both the world’s foremost Orthodox nation and a global power, they are the successor to the Roman Empire (First Empire) and the Byzantine Empire(Constantinople).
  • 177 – A Map of Russia’s Third Empire (2053) « Strange Maps 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC strangemaps.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ For the first time, the Soviet Union defined its stance toward British rule in Hong Kong, and determined the precise parameters of acceptable behavior for Soviet citizens and firms toward Hong Kong.
  • Cold War International History Project : Publications : Cold War International History Project Working Paper Series 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On April 13, 1990, fifty years after the massacre, the USSR for the first time admitted its responsibility for the murders.
  • Massacres and Atrocities of WWII in Eastern Europe 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC members.iinet.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The intensive restructuring of the economy, industry and politics of the country began in the early days of Soviet power in 1917. A large part of this was performed according to Bolshevik Initial Decrees, documents of the Soviet government, signed by Vladimir Lenin.^ Political Power in the USSR, 1917-1947 .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Politics and government Soviet Union.

^ Moscow's main stock exchange even survived the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, although the centralised Soviet economy later choked demand for long-term credit, the lifeblood of exchange activity.
  • The Rise of the Russian Empire: Russo-Armenian Relations - Page 84 - HyeClub Forum 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC forum.hyeclub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of the most prominent breakthroughs was the GOELRO plan, that envisioned a major restructuring of the Soviet economy based on total electrification of the country.^ Once the Soviet regime stipulated the plan figures, all levels of the economy, from individual enterprises to the national level, were obligated to meet those goals.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Glossary 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC memory.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Russia is one of the most industrialized of the former Soviet republics.
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^ In this period, fortunately enough, Hungarian interests totally coincided with Soviet ones in fostering a radical rapprochement in East-West relations.
  • Parallel History Project on Cooperative Security (PHP) - Hungary and the W'Pact: Introduction 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.php.isn.ethz.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Plan was developed in 1920 and covered a ten to 15 year period.^ They hauled away documents and computer data covering 15 years.
  • Soros' role in Capitalism, destruction of the USSR, Asia Crisis 23 September 2009 4:25 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fighter's unique open-architecture and modular-system avionics will not become obsolete in the next ten to 15 years.
  • The Rise of the Russian Empire: Russo-Armenian Relations - Page 14 - HyeClub Forum 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC forum.hyeclub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Accordingly, a new period of planned economy began in 1928 with the inauguration of the first of the 5-year plans.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It included construction of a network of 30 regional power plants, including ten large hydroelectric power plants, and numerous electric-powered large industrial enterprises.^ We are amongst the most experienced and competent in the following branches: - Oil industry - Electric power system - Financial sector -...
  • Russian Federation - ESOMAR - Market Research Directory 11 January 2010 1:16 UTC directory.esomar.org [Source type: Academic]

^ GULAG prisoners constructed the White Sea-Baltic Canal, the Moscow-Volga Canal, the Baikal-Amur main railroad line, numerous hydroelectric stations, and strategic roads and industrial enterprises in remote regions.
  • Jew Watch - Jewish Occupied Governments - USSR - Jews and Communism 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.jewwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nuclear power plant disaster at Chernobyl':large amounts of radiation spread over Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus.
  • Russia: geography, history, population, economy, and statistics 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.womenrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] The Plan became the prototype for subsequent Five-Year Plans and was basically fulfilled by 1931.[5]

Rule of Stalin

Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union from 1924 to his death in 1953.
.From its beginning years, government in the Soviet Union was based on the one-party rule of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks).^ In the Soviet Union, Stalin reinforces the climate of terror on which his rule is based.
  • Eastern Europe: History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In theory, the ruling body of the communist party.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Glossary 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC memory.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Soviet Glossary 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Comintern directed the activities of Communist parties outside the Soviet Union.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .After the economic policy of War Communism during the Civil War, the Soviet government permitted some private enterprise to coexist with nationalized industry in the 1920s and total food requisition in the countryside was replaced by a food tax (see New Economic Policy).^ Meanwhile, Soviet efforts to attract massive aid and investment from the industrialized world were hampered by investors’ concerns over the slow pace of economic reform and uncertainty about the nation’s political future.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Asserted health issues have been used by Russia to ban food imports from other nations, such as Poland, with which Russia has had conflicts, and other forms of economic retaliation were used against Estonia in 2007 after a Soviet war memorial was relocated from downtown Tallinn.
  • Russia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Russia 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Zhang proceeded to institute economic, tax, legal, and penal reforms and admitted that "in many respects, the policies adopted by the Sinkiang government in the past were entirely wrong - no different, in fact, than the policies of imperialist nations towards their colonies."
  • The Soviets in Xinjiang (1911-1949) 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.oxuscom.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Soviet leaders argued that one party rule was necessary because it ensured that 'capitalist exploitation' would not return to the Soviet Union and that the principles of Democratic Centralism would represent the people's will.^ Soviet Union to restrict the movement of people.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Glossary 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC memory.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Because those people will not be ruled.

^ Deputies are the plenipotentiary representatives of the people in the Soviets of People's Deputies.
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE USSR (1977) 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.friends-partners.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution of the United States of America 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.saxetshows.com [Source type: Original source]

.Debate over the future of the economy provided the background for Soviet leaders to contend for power in the years after Lenin's death in 1924. By gradually consolidating his influence and isolating his rivals within the party.^ Lenin’s death early in 1924 occasioned a bitter struggle for power.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet Economy: Toward the year 2000 .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In February 1990, with the Soviet economy rapidly deteriorating, the Communist party agreed to give up its monopoly on political power.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Georgian Joseph Stalin became the leader of the Soviet Union by the end of the 1920s.^ In Russia’s case, that leader was Joseph Stalin.
  • Soviet Union | Essays & Term Papers Online 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A term coined by Joseph V. Stalin to indicate that the Soviet Union was surrounded by capitalist states pursuing political, military, and economic policies aimed at weakening and destroying the Soviet regime.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Glossary 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC memory.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Solzhenitsyn sums up by telling us that from the collectivisation of agriculture to the death of Stalin in 1953, the communists killed 66 million people in the Soviet Union.
  • Lies Concerning the History of the Soviet Union 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.northstarcompass.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The construction of the steel-producing city of Magnitogorsk in 1932
.
In 1928, Stalin introduced the First Five-Year Plan for building a socialist economy.
^ In late 1928 Stalin began the first of the famous 5-year plans.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Accordingly, a new period of planned economy began in 1928 with the inauguration of the first of the 5-year plans.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1928, Stalin replaced Lenin’s New Economic Policy (NEP) by the first Five-Year Plan.
  • Soviet Union | Essays & Term Papers Online 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.This, unlike the internationalism expressed by Lenin and Trotsky throughout the course of the Revolution, aimed at socialism in one country.^ He believed in socialism in one country.
  • Soviet Union | Essays & Term Papers Online 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With Lenin in hiding, Trotsky was the general in charge, and he successfully directed the masses of workers and soldiers in the November revolution......
  • Jew Watch - Jewish Occupied Governments - USSR - Jews and Communism 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.jewwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A new wave of socialist revolutions would be on the order of the day in one country after another, as the coming world economic crisis begins to bite.
  • Crisis in Russia. Free Market Failure 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.In industry, the state assumed control over all existing enterprises and undertook an intensive program of industrialization; in agriculture collective farms were established all over the country.^ Of course the trade off was state control of all media and education , severely restricted travel, the abolition of all dissent , and the strengthening of the secret police.
  • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics@Everything2.com 20 September 2009 3:20 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Soviet government would have liked to run agriculture much as industry, with the state controlling all means of production and paying the farm workers standard wages.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The burden of the air defense program would not fall equally upon all countries of the Bloc, however.
  • AIR DEFENSE OF THE SINO-SOVIET BLOC, 1950-1960 (NIE 11-5-55) - CIA document 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It met widespread resistance from so-called kulaks, more prosperous peasants, who withheld grain, resulting in a bitter struggle against the authorities and famine, causing hundreds of deaths.^ The fourth Five Year Plan poured more resources into industry at the expense of agriculture, and as a result the drought of 1946 caused a massive famine , which the government was ill equipped to handle.
  • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics@Everything2.com 20 September 2009 3:20 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A secret police force modelled after and controlled by the NKVD, called the Pao-an-tui (Security Preservation Corps) was created and, as a result, police terror and surveillance became widespread.
  • The Soviets in Xinjiang (1911-1949) 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.oxuscom.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Whites operate a "death barge", full of prisoners--Bolsheviks and ordinary peasants--who are hauled out one by one to be shot or hung.
  • SovLit.com - Soviet Literature Summarized 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.sovlit.com [Source type: Original source]

Social upheaval continued in the mid-1930s. .Stalin's Great Purge of the party eliminated many "Old Bolsheviks" who had participated in the Revolution with Lenin.^ The posts here have focused on the Soviet deathtoll, but one can argue that Mao caused as many unnatural deaths as Stalin and Hitler combined (once you add up the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution plus miscellaneous purges and famines).
  • Soviet Chic | The Agitator 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC www.theagitator.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He repeated some of his earlier denunciations of the old dictator, had Stalin’s body removed from the mausoleum where it had rested beside that of Lenin, and demanded that the Stalinists who had opposed him in 1957 be expelled from the party.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The three other revolutionary parties included the all-Jewish Mensheviks (headed by Martov and Dan), the Social Democrats, a front for Gentiles but headed by the Jew Danishevsky and The Bolsheviks headed by Lenin who has only recently been revealed to be of Jewish descent.
  • Jew Watch - Jewish Occupied Governments - USSR - Jews and Communism 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.jewwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

.Meanwhile, countless Soviet citizens were jailed and sent to GULAG (Chief Administration for Corrective Labor Camps), a vast network of forced-labor camps, or executed.^ As a result, they were killed or sent to labor camps called the ‘gulags’.
  • Soviet Union | Essays & Term Papers Online 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many repatriated Soviet citizens who had lived abroad during the war, whether as prisoners of war, forced laborers, or defectors, were executed or sent to prison camps.
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^ Through starvation, disease, random executions, subfreezing temperatures, over two million Russian citizens lost their lives in Siberian concentration camps.
  • Eastern Europe: History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Yet despite the turmoil of the mid- to late 1930s, the Soviet Union developed a powerful industrial economy in the years before World War II.^ Despite the large production of wood, the Soviet Union never had highly developed wood-products industries.
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^ By the end of the war, the Soviet Union was recognized as one of the great powers of the world.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet Union was the world's largest country.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Soviet soldiers fighting in the ruins of Stalingrad, 1942, the bloodiest battle in human history and the turning point in World War II
.
Red Army soldiers on the Reichstag, Berlin, raising the "Victory Banner" after the fall of Nazi Germany.
^ Thus, Stalin's basis for power would be seriously undermined if the "victorious" Red Army was battered and driven out of Eastern Europe.
  • 1945 US v. USSR throwdown? - history Discussion Forum 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ In Berlin with the conquering Red Army, Gorbatov gloats and taunts Berliners.
  • SovLit.com - Soviet Literature Summarized 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.sovlit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Between November, 1943, and March, 1944, everything was being looted, destroyed and burned again as the German troops retreated in front of the victorious Red Army.
  • Massacres and Atrocities of WWII in Eastern Europe 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC members.iinet.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Photograph by Yevgeny Khaldei.
.The 1930s saw closer cooperation between the West and the USSR. In 1933, diplomatic relations between the United States and the USSR were established.^ United States Code (USC): the official restatement of the general and permanent laws of the United States; title 39 USC contains laws relating to the USPS. United States Envelope Company: manufacturer of stamped envelopes.
  • AskPhil -- Stamp Collecting starts here. 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.askphil.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq in August 1990: "the USSR went along with UN sanctions, restored diplomatic relations with Saudi Arabia, and exchanged consulates with Israel".

^ Poland established or renewed diplomatic relations with the European Community, the republics of the former USSR, the Vatican, and Israel, and signed cooperation treaties with the newly unified Germany and a number of other European states.
  • Soviet Union | Essays & Term Papers Online 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.Four years later, the USSR actively supported the Second Spanish Republic in the Spanish Civil War against Italian and German fascists.^ The murderous Civil War with huge casualties left the Soviets with a lasting mistrust of the outside world, which remained in force until the end of the regime 65 years later.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Ubeda: city in Spain, Spanish Civil War local post, Republican forces, 1937.
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^ I think we can guess from the 12 year bloodbath in Chechnya what would have been the result had Russia tried to stop the other Soviet republics from leaving the USSR. .
  • Stephen Cohen: The breakup of the Soviet Union ended Russia's march to democracy | Comment is free | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Nevertheless, after Great Britain and France concluded the Munich Agreement with Nazi Germany, the USSR dealt with the latter as well, both economically and militarily, by concluding the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact, which involved the occupation of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and the invasion of Poland in 1939. In late November 1939, unable to force Finland into agreement to move its border 25 kilometres back from Leningrad by diplomatic means, Stalin ordered the invasion of Finland.^ Stalin and Hitler signed a Soviet-German nonaggression pact.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet Union annexes Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
  • Russia: geography, history, population, economy, and statistics 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.womenrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1939, with V. M. Molotov as foreign minister, the USSR entered into a non- aggression pact with Nazi Germany .
  • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics@Everything2.com 20 September 2009 3:20 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although it has been debated whether the Soviet Union had the intention of invading Nazi Germany once it was strong enough, Germany itself broke the treaty and invaded the Soviet Union in 1941. The Red Army stopped the Nazi offensive in the Battle of Stalingrad, lasting from late 1942 to early 1943, being the major turning point, and drove through Eastern Europe to Berlin before Germany surrendered in 1945 (see Great Patriotic War).^ Western Europe videography ] Stalingrad, June 1942-February 1943.
  • Eastern Europe: History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet Union 1945-1985 .
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^ The Soviet Union is triumphant, although it has no intention of either dismembering or destroying Germany.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

.Although ravaged by the war, the Soviet Union emerged from the conflict as an acknowledged superpower.^ Following Khrushchev's replacement in October 1964, Kádár clarified and acknowledged to his satisfaction that there would not be any negative changes in the relations between the Soviet Union and Hungary.
  • Parallel History Project on Cooperative Security (PHP) - Hungary and the W'Pact: Introduction 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.php.isn.ethz.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Showing only the actions of the Soviet Union as well as those of her leader, it is apparent whom to blame for the initiation and escalation of the Cold War.
  • Soviet Union | Essays & Term Papers Online 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But Hungary occupied it nine days later and after World War II, ceded the area to the Soviet Union.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Glossary 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC memory.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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The 1945 Victory parade was the first major Soviet event recorded on colour film.
.During the immediate postwar period, the Soviet Union first rebuilt and then expanded its economy, while maintaining its strictly centralized control.^ Explanation: The art was produced during the period of the Soviet Union.
  • PU Slavic Manual: Rus/SU/FSr: a short course 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC library.princeton.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Soviet influence in the developing world expanded somewhat during this period.
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^ We should not forget that this is an index to literature written during 1962-1987, (during the time of the Soviet Union, not during the Russian Empire).
  • PU Slavic Manual: Rus/SU/FSr: a short course 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC library.princeton.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Soviet Union aided post-war reconstruction in the countries of Eastern Europe while turning them into Soviet satellite states, founded the Warsaw Pact in 1955, later, the Comecon, supplied aid to the eventually victorious Communists in the People's Republic of China, and saw its influence grow elsewhere in the world.^ That spring supplies from the United States and Great Britain poured into the Soviet Union.
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^ In geographic extent the Soviet Union was the largest country in the world.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Union Republic is a sovereign Soviet socialist state that has united with other Soviet Republics in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
  • Constitution of the United States of America 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.saxetshows.com [Source type: Original source]

.Meanwhile, the rising tension of the Cold War turned the Soviet Union's wartime allies, the United Kingdom and the United States, into enemies.^ Tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union continued up to Brezhnev's death.
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^ That spring supplies from the United States and Great Britain poured into the Soviet Union.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Cold War was a struggle between the United States and its allies and the Soviet Union.
  • Soviet Union | Essays & Term Papers Online 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

First human in space, Yuri Gagarin

Post-Stalin Soviet Union

.Joseph Stalin died on March 5, 1953.^ Stalin died on March 5, 1953.
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^ In 1953, Joseph Stalin, leader of the Communist Party, died.
  • Soviet Union | Essays & Term Papers Online 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Cold War prevails as Stalin dies in 1953.
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.In the absence of an acceptable successor, the highest Communist Party officials opted to rule the Soviet Union jointly, although a struggle for power took place behind the facade of collective leadership.^ The power of the Communist Party was demonstrated at the Sept.
  • Jew Watch - Jewish Occupied Governments - USSR - Jews and Communism 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.jewwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In theory, the ruling body of the communist party.
  • Soviet Glossary 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Comintern directed the activities of Communist parties outside the Soviet Union.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nikita Khrushchev, who had won the power struggle by the mid-1950s, denounced Stalin's use of repression in 1956 and eased repressive controls over party and society known as de-Stalinization.^ Speech to the 20th Congress of The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1956) Text of Sholokhov's speech to the de-Stalinizing 20th Party Congress.
  • SovLit.com - Soviet Literature Summarized 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.sovlit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His successor, Nikita Khrushchev, served as Communist Party leader until he was ousted in 1964.
  • Soviet Union 1945-1985 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ After Lenin’s death, Stalin controlled the communist party in 1927.
  • Soviet Union | Essays & Term Papers Online 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.At the same time, Soviet military force was used to suppress nationalistic uprisings in Hungary and Poland in 1956. During this period, the Soviet Union continued to realize scientific and technological pioneering exploits, in extenso, to launch the first artificial satellite Sputnik 1, living being Laika, and later, the first human being Yuri Gagarin into Earth's orbit.^ In April 1961 Soviet scientists sent the first human, Yuri Gagarin, into orbit around the Earth.  .
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first circumnavigation of the earth in a spaceship was made by Yury A. Gagarin in 1961.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet expansion continued during 1940.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Valentina Tereshkova was the first woman to fly in space aboard Vostok 6 on 16 June 1963, and Alexey Leonov became the first person to walk in space on March 18 1965. Khrushchev's reforms in agriculture and administration, however, were generally unproductive, and foreign policy towards China and the United States suffered difficulties, including those that led to the Sino-Soviet split.^ Foreign Policy under Khrushchev .
  • Soviet Union 1945-1985 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Soviet foreign policy.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Glossary 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC memory.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Soviet Glossary 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United States Administration of Guam: see Guam.
  • AskPhil -- Stamp Collecting starts here. 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.askphil.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Khrushchev was retired from power in 1964.
File:Sputnikteck.jpg
Sputnik 1, the first satellite to be put into space
.
Following the ousting of Khrushchev, another period of rule by collective leadership ensued, lasting until Leonid Brezhnev established himself in the early 1970s as the preeminent figure in Soviet political life.
^ By the 1970s, however, while the appearance of collective leadership was retained, Brezhnev had won preeminence.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Criticism of Brezhnevism : 1986-88 The Gorbachev period was marked by criticism of the Soviet leadership in the 1970s.

^ Until recently out of all the post-Soviet transformations political pluralism and multi-party system received the lowest grades in public opinion.
  • Project MUSE - Subject Browse 23 September 2009 1:45 UTC muse.jhu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Brezhnev presided over a period of Détente with the West while at the same time building up Soviet military strength; the arms buildup contributed to the demise of Détente in the late 1970s.^ The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks were agreed in the early 1970s to try and set up a real structure for disarmament, but when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan and started repression anew in Poland, US president Ronald Reagan shelved SALT II and started a massive arms build-up.
  • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics@Everything2.com 20 September 2009 3:20 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union continued up to Brezhnev's death.
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^ In this period, fortunately enough, Hungarian interests totally coincided with Soviet ones in fostering a radical rapprochement in East-West relations.
  • Parallel History Project on Cooperative Security (PHP) - Hungary and the W'Pact: Introduction 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.php.isn.ethz.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Another contributing factor was the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979.
.Throughout the period, the Soviet Union maintained parity with or superiority to the United States in the areas of military technology, but this expansion ultimately crippled the economy.^ The Soviet Union however, trailed behing the United States.
  • Soviet Union | Essays & Term Papers Online 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In an attempt to maintain the power bargaining chip over the already proven hostile Soviets, the United States urged development of the hydrogen Bomb, a fusion device 1,000 times more powerful than the then prevalent atomic weapons.
  • Soviet Union | Essays & Term Papers Online 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the June 1967 War, the Soviet Union rebuilt the defeated Syrian and Egyptian armies, but it suffered a setback when Egypt expelled Soviet advisers from the country in 1972 and subsequently entered a closer relationship with the United States.
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.In contrast to the revolutionary spirit that accompanied the birth of the Soviet Union, the prevailing mood of the Soviet leadership at the time of Brezhnev's death in 1982 was one of aversion to change.^ In the 1980s the Soviet Union began to change.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the time of Brezhnev's death in November 1982, the USSR was in headlong decline."

^ Soon after the German attack on the Soviet Union, the retreating Soviets had no time to care for their prisoners locked up in prisons in the Ukraine, so they were simply killed.
  • Massacres and Atrocities of WWII in Eastern Europe 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC members.iinet.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The long period of Brezhnev's rule had come to be dubbed one of "standstill" (застой), with an aging and ossified top political leadership.^ This indicates that the CP leadership around Zyuganov would be prepared to enter a coalition government, if not immediately, at least in the coming period.
  • Crisis in Russia. Free Market Failure 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Criticism of Brezhnevism : 1986-88 The Gorbachev period was marked by criticism of the Soviet leadership in the 1970s.

^ Anyone old enough to remember will know that the Brezhnev era was perhaps one of the most glorious periods in human history.
  • Stephen Cohen: The breakup of the Soviet Union ended Russia's march to democracy | Comment is free | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.After some experimentation with economic reforms in the mid-1960s, the Soviet leadership reverted to established means of economic management.^ Following decades of repression, political favoritism, and bureaucratic and economic stagnation, the Soviet government after 1984 was given an injection of fresh, new leadership.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Soviet Party Leadership Endorses Sweeping Economic Restructuring," Washington Post , June 27, 1987, A24.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ From the very beginning, the new leadership that rose to power in May 1988 in Hungary considered the reduction of military spending to be the primary means of surviving the economic crisis.
  • Parallel History Project on Cooperative Security (PHP) - Hungary and the W'Pact: Introduction 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.php.isn.ethz.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Industry showed slow but steady gains during the 1970s, while agricultural development continued to lag; essentially the union did not produce enough grain to feed its growing population, and it was forced to import.^ Industrial growth slowed, while agriculture showed no new progress.
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^ Agriculture continued to engage much of the population.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As heavy industry developed, agriculture was to be collectivized.
  • Soviet Union | Essays & Term Papers Online 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.Due to the poor quality of its products, the union was largely only able to export raw materials, notably oil.^ Despite the large production of wood, the Soviet Union never had highly developed wood-products industries.
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^ Part of the production from the Donets, Kuznetsk, Qaraghandy, and Pechora basins was high-quality coking coal; the other basins produced only lower-grade coals.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet Union's size ensured a generous endowment of natural features and raw materials.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This led to a negative balance of payments and ultimately the union simply ran out of money.

Reforms of Gorbachev and Dissolution

Perestroika ("Restructuring") poster featuring Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev
.Two developments dominated the decade that followed: the increasingly apparent crumbling of the Soviet Union's economic and political structures, and the patchwork attempts at reforms to reverse that process.^ Soviet Economic Development since 1917 .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The following year he was banished from the Soviet Union.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meanwhile, Soviet efforts to attract massive aid and investment from the industrialized world were hampered by investors’ concerns over the slow pace of economic reform and uncertainty about the nation’s political future.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the rapid succession of Yuri Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko, transitional figures with deep roots in Brezhnevite tradition, beginning in 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev made significant changes in the economy (see Perestroika, Glasnost) and the party leadership.^ When Chernenko died in 1985, the second secretary was Mikhail S. Gorbachev.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brezhnev died in 1982 and was succeeded by Yuriy Andropov (1982-84), Konstantin Chernenko (1984-85), and Mikhail Gorbachev, who resigned as Soviet President on December 25, 1991.
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^ At the beginning of August 1990, USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev and Russian President Boris Yeltsin: "agreed jointly to sponsor a commission of experts which within one month would 'draft a concept for the transition to a market economy."

.His policy of glasnost freed public access to information after decades of heavy government censorship.^ Gorbachev's policy of using the media to make information available on some controversial issues, in order to provoke public discussion, challenge government and party bureaucrats, and mobilize greater support for his policy of perestroika ( q.v.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Glossary 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC memory.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Soviet Glossary 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The government exercised censorship and other controls over education, publishing, and all manifestations of public life.
  • Russian Army : Napoleonic Wars : History : Recruitment : Organization : Discipline 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, the heavy government subsidies that publications depended upon in the Soviet era practically disappeared.
  • Russian Federation Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers 23 September 2009 1:45 UTC www.pressreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the late 1980s, the constituent republics of the Soviet Union started legal moves towards or even declaration of sovereignty over their territories, citing Article 72 of the USSR Constitution, which stated that any constituent republic was free to secede.^ In the 1980s the Soviet Union began to change.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A territorial and administrative subdivision of a union republic ( q.v.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Glossary 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC memory.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Soviet Glossary 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Constitution of the USSR and conformity of the Constitutions and laws of Union Republics to the Constitution and laws of the USSR; .
  • Constitution of the United States of America 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.saxetshows.com [Source type: Original source]

[7] .On April 7, 1990 a law was passed, that a republic could secede, if more than two thirds of that republic's residents vote for it on a referendum.^ This is more than errant voting machines.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was a far more livable and exciting city than it used to be, though winters could still be a challenge.
  • Russian Federation Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers 23 September 2009 1:45 UTC www.pressreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Delegate Votes) Keep plugging along, it seems to me your only reachable goal is to get more delegates than Romney, even though he quit at half time.........
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Huckabee: Washington State vote like the Soviet Union « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

[8] .Many held their first free elections in the Soviet era for their own national legislatures in 1990. Many of these legislatures proceeded to produce legislation contradicting the Union laws in what was known as "The War of Laws". In 1989, the Russian SFSR, which was then the largest constituent republic (with about half of the population) convened a newly elected Congress of People's Deputies.^ Russian-speaking, Soviet nationality.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Glossary 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC memory.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ An Autonomous Republic is a constituent part of a Union Republic.
  • Constitution of the United States of America 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.saxetshows.com [Source type: Original source]

^ USSR and establishment of the fundamentals of the legislation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Union Republics; .
  • Constitution of the United States of America 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.saxetshows.com [Source type: Original source]

.Boris Yeltsin was elected the chairman of the Congress.^ Moscow, the capital of Russia was also the capital of the USSR. Boris Yeltsin was elected president of Russia in 1991 when the USSR broke up and Russia became an independent country.
  • Soviet Union | Essays & Term Papers Online 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Following a referendum in March 1991, the office of president was introduced in the Russian SFSR and, in June, Boris Yeltsin was elected president.
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^ CPSU Chairman of the Supreme Soviet 29 May 1990 - 10 Jul 1991  Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin         (b.

.On June 12, 1990, the Congress declared Russia's sovereignty over its territory and proceeded to pass laws that attempted to supersede some of the USSR's laws.^ The sovereignty of the USSR extends throughout its territory.
  • Constitution of the United States of America 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.saxetshows.com [Source type: Original source]

^ National Holiday : 12 June (1990) Russia Day .

^ Some included articles are: "Corruption and Violence in Russian Business in Late 1990's"; "Russian Hackers and Virtual Crime;" "Money Laundering Control and the Rule of Law in Russia."
  • GlobaLex - Material on Russian Federation Law in English: Selection of Sources 11 January 2010 1:16 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Original source]

.The period of legal uncertainty continued throughout 1991 as constituent republics slowly became de facto independent.^ The Commissioner for Human Rights in Moscow, Alexander Muzykantsk, outlined his proposal: "In recent years, Berlin became de facto the world capital of sexual minorities.
  • Alltop - Top Russia News 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC russia.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Moscow, the capital of Russia was also the capital of the USSR. Boris Yeltsin was elected president of Russia in 1991 when the USSR broke up and Russia became an independent country.
  • Soviet Union | Essays & Term Papers Online 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His real power, however, eroded rapidly, as elected presidents and legislatures in the constituent republics pursued an increasingly independent course.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Boris Yeltsin (far left), the leader of the Russian Federation, stands on a Soviet tank amongst his supporters in defiance to the August Coup.
.A referendum for the preservation of the USSR was held on March 17, 1991, with the majority of the population voting for preservation of the Union in nine out of fifteen republics.^ The largest of the fifteen union republics ( q.v.
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^ "USSR: Estimates and Projections of the Population by Major Nationality, 1979 to 2050."
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1991 the population of the Soviet Union was more than 291 million, the third largest in the world after China and India.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The referendum gave Gorbachev a minor boost, and, in the summer of 1991, the New Union Treaty was designed and agreed upon by eight republics which would have turned the Soviet Union into a much looser federation.^ Gorbachev was the leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 until its dissolution in 1991.
  • The Rise of the Russian Empire: Russo-Armenian Relations - Page 14 - HyeClub Forum 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC forum.hyeclub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note : by 1980 the Russian S.F.S.R. was divided into 87 entities (15 autonomous soviet socialist republics, 6 kraya , 49 oblasti , 2 federal cities, 5 autonomous oblasti , and 10 autonomous okruga ) For the k raya, oblasti , autonomous o blasti and autonomous o kruga : see Page 2 .
  • Russian S.F.S.R. Autonomous Republics 19 September 2009 0:35 UTC www.worldstatesmen.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Gorbachev wanted to integrate the Soviet Union into the world economy as a sort of Sweden; but he was told at the G-7 summit in London in 1991 that if he did not impose "shock therapy" upon his country immediately, they would "sever the rope and let him fall" from power.

.The signing of the treaty, however, was interrupted by the August Coup—an attempted coup d'état against Gorbachev by hardline Marxist members of the government, who sought to reverse Gorbachev's reforms and reassert the central government's control over the republics.^ Hard-line officials attempt to unseat Gorbachev government; coup fails after three days, elevating Yeltsin's prestige.
  • Russia: geography, history, population, economy, and statistics 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.womenrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Communist hard-liners, who included many of the Soviet government’s top officials, attempted a coup in August 1991, placing Gorbachev under house arrest and moving to reimpose centralized Communist control.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In August 1991 Gorbachev and leaders of seven of the Soviet Union's constituent republics were scheduled to sign a treaty to decentralize power and change the country's name to the Union of Soviet Sovereign Republics, but an attempted political coup prevented adoption of the treaty and led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the coup collapsed, Yeltsin came out as a hero while Gorbachev's power was effectively ended.^ I doubt Gorbachev is a working class hero or anything but he doesn't seem so bad compared to Yeltsin, Sachs abd Friedman with Naomi Klien.

^ Increasingly, Yeltsin’s influence eclipsed that of Gorbachev, and the Russian government assumed the powers the Soviet government in Moscow had previously exercised.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet Union in the end died on the one hand due to the stupidity and conservatism of those who carried out the failed coup in 1991 and on the other to the equal stupidity and power hunger of Boris Yeltsin and others.
  • Stephen Cohen: The breakup of the Soviet Union ended Russia's march to democracy | Comment is free | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The balance of power tipped significantly towards the republics.^ Putin's missile-defense proposal, however, appears to risk tipping the balancing act on Nagorno-Karabakh toward Azerbaijan.
  • The Rise of the Russian Empire: Russo-Armenian Relations - Page 14 - HyeClub Forum 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC forum.hyeclub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In August 1991, Latvia and Estonia immediately declared restoration of full independence (following Lithuania's 1990 example), while the other 12 republics continued discussing new, increasingly looser, models of the Union.^ After an attempted coup failed to restore centralized control in August 1991, the Baltic republics--Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania--moved rapidly to claim their independence.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One republic after another declared independence.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Polish annexation was soon followed by domination of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On December 8, 1991, the presidents of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus signed the Belavezha Accords which declared the Soviet Union dissolved and established the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in its place.^ The Cambridge encyclopedia of Russia and the soviet Union .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Bibliography 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It also elected the executive president of the Soviet Union.
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^ Presidents of Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia meet in Minsk and proclaim initial Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
  • Russia: geography, history, population, economy, and statistics 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.womenrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While doubts remained over the authority of the Belavezha Accords to dissolve the Union, on December 21, 1991, the representatives of all Soviet republics except Georgia, including those republics that had signed the Belavezha Accords, signed the Alma-Ata Protocol, which confirmed the dismemberment and consequential extinction of the USSR and restated the establishment of the CIS. The summit of Alma-Ata also agreed on several other practical measures consequential to the extinction of the Union.^ And what was the Soviet Union doing while all this was going on?
  • Stephen Cohen: The breakup of the Soviet Union ended Russia's march to democracy | Comment is free | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The presidents of 11 of the 12 remaining republics (all but Georgia) signed agreements to join the CIS on December 21.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was officially established.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On December 25 1991, Gorbachev yielded to the inevitable and resigned as the president of the USSR, declaring the office extinct.^ Moscow, the capital of Russia was also the capital of the USSR. Boris Yeltsin was elected president of Russia in 1991 when the USSR broke up and Russia became an independent country.
  • Soviet Union | Essays & Term Papers Online 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On New Year’s Eve in December of 1999, Yeltsin announced his resignation and was succeeded by Vladimir Putin as president.
  • Soviet Union | Essays & Term Papers Online 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ December 3l, l999: Boris Yeltsin resigns as president of the Russian Federation; appoints Vladimir Putin, a comparative political unknown, as his successor.
  • Russian Federation Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers 23 September 2009 1:45 UTC www.pressreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He turned the powers that until then were vested in the presidency over to Boris Yeltsin, president of Russia.^ The coup was badly planned, however, and it was immediately opposed by Boris Yeltsin, president of the Russian Federation.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There may have been a fragment of hope to this when a stumbling Boris Yeltsin led Russia, but it is absurd when Vladimer Putin is firmly in charge.
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^ Previously, Putin and his predecessor Boris Yeltsin had proclaimed Russia to be an integral part of Europe.
  • The Rise of the Russian Empire: Russo-Armenian Relations - Page 14 - HyeClub Forum 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC forum.hyeclub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The following day, the Supreme Soviet, the highest governmental body of the Soviet Union, recognized the collapse of the Soviet Union and dissolved itself.^ Soviet Union collapsed.
  • Stephen Cohen: The breakup of the Soviet Union ended Russia's march to democracy | Comment is free | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Take the collapse of the Soviet Union, for example.
  • Soros' role in Capitalism, destruction of the USSR, Asia Crisis 23 September 2009 4:25 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The highest body of state authority of the USSR shall be the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. .
  • Constitution of the United States of America 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.saxetshows.com [Source type: Original source]

.This is generally recognized as the official, final dissolution of the Soviet Union as a functioning state.^ United States Code (USC): the official restatement of the general and permanent laws of the United States; title 39 USC contains laws relating to the USPS. United States Envelope Company: manufacturer of stamped envelopes.
  • AskPhil -- Stamp Collecting starts here. 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.askphil.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The collapse of the Soviet Union transformed Russia's education system and caused a general exodus from Russia's academic and journalism professions.
  • Russian Federation Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers 23 September 2009 1:45 UTC www.pressreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By decrees of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, issued between August 1 and August 8, the three states were annexed as Union republics.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many organizations such as the Soviet Army and police forces continued to remain in place in the early months of 1992 but were slowly phased out and either withdrawn from or absorbed by the newly independent states.^ But the correlation of class forces and the state of the army rules this out.
  • Crisis in Russia. Free Market Failure 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Afghanistan’s army and police forces."

^ SP: Did the Soviet Army place more emphasis on Special Operations in contrast to conventional operations in 1985/86?

Politics

Main article: Politics of the Soviet Union
.The government of the Soviet Union administered the country's economy and society.^ The Soviet Union was the world's largest country.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Describes trends and most important issues regarding forced displacement in the countries of the former Soviet Union, including Russia.
  • Features - Material on Russian Federation Law in English: Updated | LLRX.com 23 September 2009 1:45 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He also pledged full retaliation against the Soviet Union if even one missile is fired from Cuba toward any country in the Western Hemisphere.
  • Soviet Union | Essays & Term Papers Online 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.It implemented decisions made by the leading political institution in the country, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU).^ The Comintern directed the activities of Communist parties outside the Soviet Union.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet Union was the world's largest country.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Soviet Union, the communist party, run mostly for the benefit of its Jewish founders who made up approximately 90% of the founding fathers and administrators of the Soviet Union, hid behind their leftist doctrine which had been designed to undermine Christianity in the name of materialism and social science.
  • Jew Watch - Jewish Occupied Governments - USSR - Jews and Communism 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.jewwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the late 1980s, the government appeared to have many characteristics in common with liberal democratic political systems.^ The importance of these incidents, which are very characteristic of political life in the tsardom of Muscovy, will appear in the sequel.

^ Until the late 1980s, the Soviet press, like Soviet radio and television, almost invariably reflected government views.
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^ Government changes introduced by Gorbachev in the late 1980s greatly expanded the president’s authority over domestic and foreign affairs.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For instance, a constitution established all organizations of government and granted to citizens a series of political and civic rights.^ The Constitution provides citizens with the right to change their government, and citizens exercise this right in practice.
  • Russia 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, the only joint declaration concerning the country's foreign orientation that was endorsed by all the opposition organizations over the course of the political transition was point No.
  • Parallel History Project on Cooperative Security (PHP) - Hungary and the W'Pact: Introduction 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.php.isn.ethz.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Documents through archival films, stills, interviews and readings, Poland's struggles to establish a government following the ratification of the new Polish constitution in 1921, and shows how political infighting led to the establishment of a military regime based on right-wing totalitarianism and officially sanctioned anti-Semitism.
  • Eastern Europe: History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A legislative body, the Congress of People's Deputies, and its standing legislature, the Supreme Soviet, represented the principle of popular sovereignty.^ Deputies are the plenipotentiary representatives of the people in the Soviets of People's Deputies.
  • Constitution of the United States of America 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.saxetshows.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Supreme Soviet was nominally the highest legislative body.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It acted as a legislative body when the Supreme Soviet was not in session.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Supreme Soviet, which had an elected chairman who functioned as head of state, oversaw the Council of Ministers, which acted as the executive branch of the government.^ The Supreme Soviet of an Autonomous Republic shall elect a Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic and shall form a Council of Ministers of the Autonomous Republic, i.e.
  • Constitution of the United States of America 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.saxetshows.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The chief executive of the Presidium of the Council of Ministers was called the chairman, or premier.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also elected the executive president of the Soviet Union.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The chairman of the Council of Ministers, whose selection was approved by the Supreme Soviet, functioned as head of government.^ The Council of Ministers, headed by a premier, oversaw government operations.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Council of Ministers was the chief executive body of Soviet government.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The complexity of this structure probably influenced the decisions of the joint session of the Central Committee, the Council of Ministers and the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, which two hours prior to Stalin's death appointed Georgy Malenkov (s.a.

.A constitutionally based judicial branch of government included a court system, headed by the Supreme Court, that was responsible for overseeing the observance of Soviet law by government bodies.^ On May 11, 1963, Penkovsky appeared before the Soviet Supreme Court in Moscow, where he was declared guilty of treason and sentenced to be shot to death.
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  • Amplified Mind Power Research In The Former SovietUnion 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Islamic system, based on the Shari'a [Islamic law] but encompassing certain educational, economic and social reforms, whilst its foreign policy was as staunchly anti-Soviet as it was anti-Tungan and anti-Han."
  • The Soviets in Xinjiang (1911-1949) 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.oxuscom.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hearings in camera are only allowed in cases provided for by law, with observance of all the rule of judicial procedure.
  • Constitution of the United States of America 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.saxetshows.com [Source type: Original source]

.According to the 1977 Soviet Constitution, the government had a federal structure, permitting the republics some authority over policy implementation and offering the national minorities the appearance of participation in the management of their own affairs.^ The governments of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia offered medicines, equipment and the possibility of treatment in the three former Soviet Baltic states, which joined the EU on May 1.

^ In 1998 the government implemented a 1000% denomination of national currency (Rouble), turning back prices from thousands rubles to rubles.
  • Russia: geography, history, population, economy, and statistics 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.womenrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the 1977 constitution, Soviet citizens were guaranteed the “right to profess or not to profess any religion.” Atheism was a fundamental tenet of Communist ideology, however, and suppression of religion was an explicit government policy during the Communist period.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In practice, however, the government differed markedly from Western systems.^ If the HSWP falls as a governing party, this would be equivalent with a political transition, a different political system.
  • Parallel History Project on Cooperative Security (PHP) - Hungary and the W'Pact: Introduction 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.php.isn.ethz.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Constitution provides for freedom of religion and the Government generally respects this right in practice; however, in some cases the authorities imposed restrictions on certain groups.
  • Russia Country International Religious Freedom Report 2005 19 September 2009 0:36 UTC moscow.usembassy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tzar Paul however failed to grasp the difference between mechanical drills amd what was really practicable in combat.
  • Russian Army : Napoleonic Wars : History : Recruitment : Organization : Discipline 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the late 1980s, the CPSU performed many functions that governments of other countries usually perform.^ Many, many other splinter governments.
  • Russia 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Until the late 1980s, the Soviet press, like Soviet radio and television, almost invariably reflected government views.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Government changes introduced by Gorbachev in the late 1980s greatly expanded the president’s authority over domestic and foreign affairs.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, the party decided on the policy alternatives that the government ultimately implemented.^ On 1 May 1957 the British government ultimately decided to send V. A. Kamensky, the Soviet trade representative in London, a letter formally refusing the Soviet request, which was delivered on 21 May.
  • Cold War International History Project : Publications : Cold War International History Project Working Paper Series 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In order to be able to conduct a Hungarian foreign policy that would also meet the requirements of this new international situation, government centralization was implemented.
  • Parallel History Project on Cooperative Security (PHP) - Hungary and the W'Pact: Introduction 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.php.isn.ethz.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The government merely ratified the party's decisions to lend them an aura of legitimacy. .The CPSU used a variety of mechanisms to ensure that the government adhered to its policies.^ But the Russian people did not do that, for they were confident that the policy their government was pursuing was correct; and they made sacrifices in order to ensure the defeat of Germany.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Both education and culture in the Soviet Union were placed under direct government control and were used to foster the goals of national and Communist party policy.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The party, using its nomenklatura authority, placed its loyalists in leadership positions throughout the government, where they were subject to the norms of democratic centralism.^ A wave of democratization swept throughout Europe, and at the same time East Germany’s communist leadership was slowly but surely becoming ousted from power.
  • Soviet Union | Essays & Term Papers Online 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The place where they always yell no Government regulation or interference!
  • Damn Interesting • In Soviet Russia, Lake Contaminates You 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.damninteresting.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Communists say that they have "found a new home" in the Democratic Party.
  • Jew Watch - Jewish Occupied Governments - USSR - Jews and Communism 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.jewwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

.Party bodies closely monitored the actions of government ministries, agencies, and legislative organs.^ Select "Materials of Government Agencies" for Reports from various governmental departments, ministries, the Security Council and the President's Office.
  • Features - Material on Russian Federation Law in English: Updated | LLRX.com 23 September 2009 1:45 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Russian Foreign Investment Promotion Centre ( http://fipc.ru/fipc/investment.ru/.home.html ) Official government body under the auspices of the Ministry of the Economy.
  • Features - Material on Russian Federation Law in English: Updated | LLRX.com 23 September 2009 1:45 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Presidium approved or ratified legislation proposed by the ministries and central administrations of government.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The content of the Soviet Constitution differed in many ways from typical Western constitutions.^ Daniil Granin on the Difference Between Soviet and Western Literature Comments by Granin at a 1971 round-table discussion on the character of Soviet art.
  • SovLit.com - Soviet Literature Summarized 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.sovlit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Tourism gradually became a major source of foreign exchange for the Soviet Union, and despite political differences with many Western countries, the Soviet government developed procedures to cater to this activity.
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^ The Soviets built that dam, so in some way, the Egyptian people can thank them for avoiding war, and sparing so many Egyptian lives these last 36 years.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - The USSR's Role in the Middle East Goes Down the Memory Hole: 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

.It generally described existing political relationships, as determined by the CPSU, rather than prescribing an ideal set of political relationships.^ The promulgation of this truncated constitution was greeted by a furious agitation, culminating in September in a general strike, rightly described as the most remarkable political phenomenon of modern times.

^ Rather it it a political affiliation demonstrating set piece - current winner: Russia...
  • Putin wants a new Russian empire - Telegraph 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In this epoch of "great reforms," inspired by general political and progressive ideals, the Jews had no active enemies, neither had they real friends.

The Constitution was long and detailed, giving technical specifications for individual organs of government. .The Constitution included political statements, such as foreign policy goals, and provided a theoretical definition of the state within the ideological framework of Marxism-Leninism.^ There were no reports of forced religious conversion, including of minor U.S. citizens abducted or illegally removed from the United States, or of the refusal to allow such citizens to be returned to the United States.
  • Russia Country International Religious Freedom Report 2005 19 September 2009 0:36 UTC moscow.usembassy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NATO constrained the independence of foreign policy among all of its members, including the US (when it came to European policies and relations with Moscow).
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - The USSR's Role in the Middle East Goes Down the Memory Hole: 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Such certitudes are now, of course, the only politically correct ones in US (and most European) policy, media and academic circles.
  • Stephen Cohen: The breakup of the Soviet Union ended Russia's march to democracy | Comment is free | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The CPSU leadership could radically change the constitution or remake it completely, as it did several times throughout its history.^ A wave of democratization swept throughout Europe, and at the same time East Germany’s communist leadership was slowly but surely becoming ousted from power.
  • Soviet Union | Essays & Term Papers Online 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Egypt was well aware of how radical the Gaza population was and did not want them having an easier time linking up with the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - The USSR's Role in the Middle East Goes Down the Memory Hole: 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This could be brought about by radical changes within the leadership of the Russian Federation or by a collapse of the communist "partocracy" within Dagestan.
  • WRITENET Country Papers - The Russian Federation: Dagestan (Nov 95) 11 January 2010 1:16 UTC www.turkiye.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Council of Ministers acted as the executive body of the government.^ The Council of Ministers, headed by a premier, oversaw government operations.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After proclaiming itself the repository of governmental authority, the congress immediately issued decrees calling for the withdrawal of Russia from World War I, for the nationalization of all land, and for the formation of a Council of People’s Commissars to act as the executive branch of government.
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^ Chairmen of the Council of Ministers  31 Mar 1940 - 1940         I.P. Babkin (acting)               (b.
  • Russian S.F.S.R. Autonomous Republics 19 September 2009 0:35 UTC www.worldstatesmen.org [Source type: Academic]

Its most important duties lay in the administration of the economy. .The council was thoroughly under the control of the CPSU, and its chairman—the Soviet prime minister—was always a member of the Politburo.^ The Council of Ministers had its own Presidium of a dozen or more members, comparable in size and function to the Politburo on the party side.
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^ Members of the Council of Ministers headed the various ministries, commissions, and committees of government that ran day-to-day activities.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More significantly, in the eyes of his critics, he came increasingly under the control of the Soviets.
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.The council, which in 1989 included more than 100 members, was too large and unwieldy to act as a unified executive body.^ By contrast, Moscow had grown more spontaneously, and its many large gardens and old churches made it seem more rural, religious, and 'Russian' than St.Petersburg.
  • Russian Army : Napoleonic Wars : History : Recruitment : Organization : Discipline 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC napoleonistyka.atspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Council of Ministers had its own Presidium of a dozen or more members, comparable in size and function to the Politburo on the party side.
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^ The Council of Ministers of the USSR has the right, in matters within the jurisdiction of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, to suspend execution of decisions and ordinances of the Councils of Minister of Union Republics, and to rescind acts of ministries and state committees of the USSR, and of the other bodies subordinate to it.
  • Constitution of the United States of America 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.saxetshows.com [Source type: Original source]

.The council's Presidium, made up of the leading economic administrators and led by the chairman, exercised dominant power within the Council of Ministers.^ The chief executive of the Presidium of the Council of Ministers was called the chairman, or premier.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Council of Ministers had its own Presidium of a dozen or more members, comparable in size and function to the Politburo on the party side.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The taiga of the West Siberian Lowland is made up primarily of various species of pine, but along the S fringes of the forest, birch becomes dominant.
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.According to the Constitution, as amended in 1988, the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union was the Congress of People's Deputies, which convened for the first time in May 1989. The main tasks of the congress were the election of the standing legislature, the Supreme Soviet, and the election of the chairman of the Supreme Soviet, who acted as head of state.^ Soviet Union , 1988 .
  • SOVIET UNION, 1917-1991 � UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (USSR) 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC www.reagan.utexas.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Deputies are the plenipotentiary representatives of the people in the Soviets of People's Deputies.
  • Constitution of the United States of America 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.saxetshows.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The expenses involved in holding elections to Soviets of People's Deputies shall be met by the state.
  • Constitution of the United States of America 25 January 2010 17:19 UTC www.saxetshows.com [Source type: Original source]

.Theoretically, the Congress of People's Deputies and the Supreme Soviet wielded enormous legislative power.^ The Supreme Soviet, the lower house, was a parliament made up of 400 to 450 members, who were selected from the members of the Congress of People's Deputies.
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^ One chamber, the Soviet of the Union, was a body whose 750 deputies were elected on the basis of one representative for every 375,000 people.
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^ USSR-Congress-Supreme Soviet Contacts 1986 .
  • SOVIET UNION, 1917-1991 � UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (USSR) 1 February 2010 4:04 UTC www.reagan.utexas.edu [Source type: Reference]

.In practice, however, the Congress of People's Deputies met infrequently and only to approve decisions made by the party, the Council of Ministers, and its own Supreme Soviet.^ It was the only party with its own politburo.
  • Why Jews left the Soviet Union - Why the West Betrays Russians 23 September 2009 4:25 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Formerly being under the rule of Stalin, with strict centralization where it was only the highest party levels that made any and all decisions who ruled by decree and enforced with terror, the Soviet people and economy was stagnating.
  • Soviet Union | Essays & Term Papers Online 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The complexity of this structure probably influenced the decisions of the joint session of the Central Committee, the Council of Ministers and the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, which two hours prior to Stalin's death appointed Georgy Malenkov (s.a.

.The Supreme Soviet, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, the chairman of the Supreme Soviet, and the Council of Ministers had substantial authority to enact laws, decrees, resolutions, and orders binding on the population.^ The chief executive of the Presidium of the Council of Ministers was called the chairman, or premier.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ministers previously screened by the party were proposed to the Supreme Soviet by the chairman of the Council of Ministers through the Presidium.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the law of the 18th of October (November i) 1905, to assist the emperor in the supreme administration a Council of Ministers ( Sovyet Ministrov ) was created, under a ministerresident the first a earance of a rime P, PP P minister in Russia.

.The Congress of People's Deputies had the authority to ratify these decisions.^ The Supreme Soviet, the lower house, was a parliament made up of 400 to 450 members, who were selected from the members of the Congress of People's Deputies.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These authorities are supposed to be fair and rational in their decision making, but many times they are arbitrary and sometimes despotic.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In September the Congress of People's Deputies approved a sweeping transfer of power to a State Council, a transitional executive authority composed of President Mikhail Gorbachev and leaders of the ten participating republics.
  • UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The judiciary was not independent. .The Supreme Court supervised the lower courts and applied the law as established by the Constitution or as interpreted by the Supreme Soviet.^ On May 11, 1963, Penkovsky appeared before the Soviet Supreme Court in Moscow, where he was declared guilty of treason and sentenced to be shot to death.
  • Ebon1.html 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.biomindsuperpowers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Amplified Mind Power Research In The Former SovietUnion 24 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The system established by the law of 1864 is remarkable in that it set up two wholly separate orders of tribunals, each having their own courts of appeal and coming in contact only in the senate, as the supreme court of cassation.

^ Russian authorities and courts chose a flexible interpretation of these laws without the protections for which journalists had hoped.
  • Russian Federation Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers 23 September 2009 1:45 UTC www.pressreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Constitutional Oversight Committee reviewed the constitutionality of laws and acts.^ The legal system in Russia is based on the civil law system and also the judicial review of legislative acts.
  • Russia - Economic analysis of government's policies, investment climate and political risk. 28 January 2010 0:46 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Soviet Union lacked an adversarial court procedure known to common law jurisdictions.^ The exigencies of war against a common enemy, Nazi Germany, necessitated a rehabilitation of the Soviet Union in American eyes.
  • Russian Victories index 18 January 2010 8:45 UTC russian-victories.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ And, note, a total lack of communist rants raving "We want our Soviet Union back" on the other hand.Who is the more up-to-date there?
  • Stephen Cohen: The breakup of the Soviet Union ended Russia's march to democracy | Comment is free | The Guardian 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Had they known that, contrary to the claims of Khrushchev's propaganda, it was not the Soviet Union, but the United States that had a significant, approximately triple superiority with respect to intercontinental missiles at the time!
  • Parallel History Project on Cooperative Security (PHP) - Hungary and the W'Pact: Introduction 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.php.isn.ethz.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rather, Soviet law utilized the system derived from Roman law, where judge, procurator and defense attorney worked collaboratively to establish the truth.^ Soviet film studios worked hard to portray their government's system as idyllic and forward-looking.
  • Eastern Europe: History and Politics: Media Resources Center, UC Berkeley 19 January 2010 18:018 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trotsky's main crit