Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina: Wikis

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Map of Romania after World War II indicating lost territories.

The Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina was the annexation of Bessarabia (44,000 km2., 3.2 million population), Northern Bukovina (6,000 km2, 500,000 population), and the Hertza region (304 km2, 25,000 population) by the Soviet Union from Romania that occurred on 28 June - 4 July 1940. This move was a consequence of the secret protocol of the 1939 Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, and was possible in part due to the Fall of France, that deprived Romania of one of its western allies. The USSR had planned to accomplish the annexation with a full-scale invasion, but the Romanian government, under a Soviet ultimatum delivered June 26, agreed to withdraw its troops and administration from the territories in order to avoid a full scale military conflict. Both Italy and Germany had been made aware prior of the planned ultimatum on June 24 and had not informed the Romanians, nor were they prepared to provide support.[1]

On August 2, 1940, the USSR created the Moldavian SSR as a constituent republic of the USSR, the precursor to the modern Republic of Moldova which encompasses the above territories except Chernivtsi Oblast and Southern Bessarabia that were awarded to the Ukrainian SSR. With the exception of the period 1941-1944, these areas remained under Soviet control until the dissolution of the USSR in 1991, when they became part of the newly independent states of Moldova and Ukraine.

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As a result of the lack of support from the Allies during the Soviet aggression in Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, on July 1, 1940, Romania renounced the Anglo-French guarantee that dated from April 13, 1939, left the League of Nations on July 11, 1940, and on July 13, 1940 announced her desire to join the Axis camp.[2] With German troops in effect occupying Romania since October 7, 1940, in November, new Romanian leader Ion Antonescu signed the Tripartite (Axis) Pact, tying Romania to the military machinations of not only Germany, but Italy and Japan as well.[3] A year later, on December 7 and December 12, 1941, a formal state of war ensured between Romania and the United Kingdom and the United States.[4] In July 1941, Romania recovered Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina from the Soviet Union by the force of arms, only to lose them again in the same manner in August 1944. The Axis war effort on the Eastern Front had collapsed, and Soviet forces occupied not only Bessarabia, but also all of Romania.[5] On September 12, 1944, Romania signed the Moscow Armistice with the Allies and the USSR. Due to geo-strategic considerations,[6] at the end of World War II the United States and United Kingdom recognized the Soviet claim to the border as it was on January 1, 1941.[7] In 1947, Communist Romania signed the Treaty of Paris, recognizing as well the new border. The Soviet military occupied Romania until 1958 and imposed a communist government in Bucharest, which was friendly and obedient towards Moscow. The Romanian communist regime did not raise the matter of Bessarabia and Bukovina (which was also occupied by the Soviet Union) in its diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union.[citation needed]

In 1940-1941 and 1944-1956 a series of campaigns of persecution, including arrests, executions, deportations, labor camps, famine ensued in Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina. They resulted in hundreds of thousands of victims. Restrictions of personal freedoms were maintained until the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Democratic elections were held in February and March 1990. In the clauses of its declaration of independence on August 27, 1991, Moldova condemned the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and the creation of Moldavian SSR.

The Final Report of the Presidential Commission for the Study of the Communist Dictatorship in Romania refers to 1940-1941 as "the first year of Soviet occupation of Bessarbia",[8] and to the entire period 1940-1941 and 1944-1991 as the Soviet administration of the area. The opinion of the Report was subsumed in 2006 also by the Romanian Presidency.[6] A number of historians view the entire period as occupation,[citation needed] while others think only of the event itself or of a small part of the Soviet period as an occupation.[citation needed]

Contents

Historical background

Interwar Romania (1918-1940)
Ethnic map of Interwar Romania (census 1930)
Europe at the signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, with Bessarabia and northern Bukovina in yellow.
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Soviet-Romanian relations

In 1918, after the collapse of the Russian Empire and Austria-Hungary, both Bessarabia and Bukovina had joined the Kingdom of Romania after votes by local diets (see Sfatul Ţării).[9][10] This union was recognized by the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Japan by signing the Treaty of Paris after World War I. In particular, a Bessarabian Treaty was signed on October 28, 1920.

Vladimir Lenin had initially supported the right of self-determination for the people included in the former Russian empire, of which Bessarabia had been a part since 1812. During the Russian civil war, on May 1, 1919, the Soviet governments of Ukraine and Russia issued a joint ultimatum to Romania demanding its withdrawal from Bessarabia, and the next day, Christian Rakovsky, the Chairman of the Ukrainian Soviet government, issued another ultimatum demanding the withdrawal of Romanian troops from Bukovina as well. Plans were made to take over the region, but unrest in Ukraine prevented a Soviet attack.[11]

In 1924, after the Tatarbunar Uprising, by which the Soviets had hoped to regain the area, had failed, the Soviet government created a Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic on the left bank of the Dniester river within the Ukrainian SSR. Romanian government saw this as a threat: a possible staging ground for a Communist invasion of Romania. Throughout the interbellum period Romania was a faithful ally of France, served as a pillar in the cordon sanitaire policy of containment of the Bolshevik threat, and avoided to have much direct relations with the Soviets that French feared could have given the latter implicitly more internationally legitimacy.

On August 27, 1928, both Romania and the Soviet Union signed and ratified the Kellogg-Briand Pact, renouncing war as an instrument of national policy.[12] As a follow-on to its adoption, the Soviet Union signed a protocol confirming adherence to the terms of the Pact with its western neighbors: Estonia, Latvia, Poland, and Romania on February 9, 1929.[13] In signing the Pact, the contracting parties agreed to condemn war as a recourse to solving conflict, to renounce it as an instrument of policy, and that all conflicts and disputes are to be settled only by peaceful means.[14] On July 3, 1933, amongst others, Romania and the Soviet Union signed the London Convention for the Definition of Aggression, Article II of which defines several forms of aggression: "There shall be recognized as an aggressor that State which shall be the first to have committed one of the following actions: First—a declaration of war on another State. Second—invasion by armed forces of the territory of another State even without a declaration of war. (...)" and "No political, military, economic or other considerations may serve as an excuse or justification for the aggression referred to in Article II."

Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov signs the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. Behind him stand (left) German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop and (right) Soviet leader Joseph Stalin.

In Jaunury 1932 in Riga, and in September 1932 in Geneva, Soviet-Romanian negotiations were held for a non-aggression treaty, and on June 9, 1934, diplomatic relations were established between the two countries. On July 21, 1936, Maxim Litvinov and Nicolae Titulescu, the Soviet and Romanian Ministers of Foreign Affairs, agreed upon a Draft of a Mutual Assistance Pact.[15] It was sometimes interpreted as a non-aggression treaty, that would de facto recognize the existing Soviet-Romanian border. The protocol stipulated that any common Romanian-Soviet action should be pre-approved by France. In negotiating with the Soviets for this agreement, Titulescu was highly criticized by the Romanian far right. The protocol was to be signed in September 1936. However, Titulescu was dismissed in August 1936, leading the Soviet side to declare the previously achieved agreement null and void. No attempts at political rapprochement between Romania and the Soviet Union have been undertaken since then.[16]

The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact

Last page of the Additional Secret Protocol (Russian)
Last page of the Additional Secret Protocol (German)
Animation of the WWII European Theatre.

On August 23, 1939, the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany signed the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, a non-aggression treaty which contained an additional secret protocol with maps, in which a demarcation line through Eastern Europe was drawn, dividing it into the German and Soviet interest zones.

See the treaty and the additional protocol in Russian Molotov-Ribbentrop-Russian1.gifMolotov-Ribbentrop-Russian2.gifMolotov-Ribbentrop-Russian3.gifMolotov-Ribbentrop-Russian4.gif and German Editing Molotov-Ribbentrop-German1.gifEditing Molotov-Ribbentrop-German2.gifEditing Molotov-Ribbentrop-German3.gifEditing Molotov-Ribbentrop-German4.gifEditing Molotov-Ribbentrop-German5.gif.

Bessarabia was among the regions divided into Soviet and German spheres of interest by the 1939 Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. Article III of its Secret Additional Protocol states:

With regard to Southeastern Europe attention is called by the Soviet side to its interest in Bessarabia. The German side declares its complete political disinterestedness in these areas.[17]

International context at the beginning of World War II

Assured by the Pact of Soviet non-interference, Germany started World War II one week later by invading Poland from the west on September 1, 1939. The Soviet Union attacked Poland from the east on September 17, and by September 28, Poland fell. Romanian Prime-Minister Armand Călinescu, a strong proponent of Poland in its conflict with Germany, was assassinated on September 21 by elements of the Romanian far right with Nazi support. Romania remained formally neutral in the conflict, but aided Poland by providing access to Allied military supplies from the Black Sea to the Polish border, and a route for the Polish government and army to withdraw after the defeat. Polish government also preferred a formally neutral Romania because that ensured the safety from German bombardments of supplies through Romanian territory. (See also Romanian Bridgehead.)

On November 30, 1939, following the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and the refusal by Finland to accede to Soviet demands, the Soviet Union attacked Finland. The ensuing Winter War lasted until March 12, 1940. Due to skilful defence by the Finns, especially along the Mannerheim line, the Soviets had to be satisfied with Karelian Isthmus and Ladoga Karelia with the cities of Viipuri and Sortavala, and also obtained the right to build a naval base on the Hanko Peninsula (southwest of Helsinki).

On June 2, Germany informed the Romanian government that, in order to receive territorial guarantees, Romania should consider negotiations with the Soviet Union.

Between June 14 and June 17, 1940, the Soviet Union gave ultimatum notes to, Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia, and when these ultimata were satisfied, used bases thus gained to occupy these territories.

France's surrender on June 22 and the subsequent British retreat from Europe rendered their assurances of assistance to Romania meaningless.

June-July 1940

Soviet ultimatum

On June 26, 1940, at 22:00, Soviet People's Commissar Vyacheslav Molotov presented an ultimatum note to Gheorghe Davidescu, Romanian ambassador to Moscow, in which the Soviet Union demanded the evacuation of the Romanian military and administration from Bessarabia and the northern part of Bukovina,[18] with an implied threat of invasion in the event of non-compliance.[19] The Soviets stressed their sense of urgency: "Now, that the military weakness of the USSR is a thing of past, and the international situation that was created requires the rapid solution of the items inherited from the past, in order to fix the basis of a solid peace between countries (...)".[19] The German Minister of Foreign Affairs Joachim von Ribbentrop was informed by the Soviets of their intentions to send an ultimatum to Romania regarding Bessarabia and Bukovina on June 24, 1940. A Nazi-Soviet diplomatic coordination followed.b[›] Ribbentrop mainly expressed concern for the fate of the ethnic Germans in these two provinces, claiming the number of Germans in Bessarabia to be 100,000, and suggested the Prut river as a border in Bukovina. He also pointed out that Germany had strong economical interests in the rest of the Romanian territory. The events were part of a larger context of Nazi and Soviet build-up in World War II.

The text of the ultimatum note sent to Romania of June 26, 1940 incorrectly stated that Bessarabia was populated mainly by Ukrainians: "[...] centuries-old union of Bessarabia, populated mainly by Ukrainians, with the Ukrainian Soviet Republic". The Soviet government demanded the northern part of Bukovina as a "minor reparation for the enormous loss inflicted to the Soviet Union and Bessarabia's population by 22 years of Romanian reign over Bessarabia", and because its "[...] fate is linked mainly with the Soviet Ukraine by the community of its historical fate, and by the community of language and ethnic composition". Northern Bukovina has had some historical connections with Galicia, annexed by the Soviet Union in 1939, in the effect of the Invasion of Poland, in the sense that both were part of Austria-Hungary from the second part of 18th century until 1918. Unlike Bessarabia, which had a Romanian majority, northern Bukovina had a Ukrainian plurality.[20]

King Carol II of Romania.

The Romanian government replied on July 27, suggesting it would agree to "immediate negotiations on a wide range of questions".[21] A second Soviet ultimatum note, that followed on June 27, put forward a specific timeframe, requested the evacuation of the Romanian government from Bessarabia and northern Bukovina within four days.

In the morning of June 28, 1940, insistently advised by both Germany and Italy, the Romanian government, led by Gheorghe Tătărescu, under the semi-authoritarian rule of King Carol II, agreed to submit to the Soviet demands. Without explanations, the Soviet forces also occupied also the Hertza Region, part of Romanian Old Kingdom, which was neither in Bessarabia, nor Bukovina.

The decision to accept the Soviet ultimatum and to commence a "withdrawal" (avoiding the usage of the word to cede) from Bessarabia and northern Bukovina was deliberated upon by the Romanian Crown Council during the night of June 27-28, 1940. The second (decisive) vote outcome, according to the journal of King Carol II, was:

During the same night, Carol II also convinced Alexandru Vaida-Voevod to be sworn in as minister. Vaida, along with all of the above, signed the final crown council recommendation, on which Carol II ordered the Army to stand down. It is not clear whether Vaida participated in the deliberations and the vote itself.

Evacuation

On June 28, at 9:00, communiqué no. 25 of the General Staff of the Romanian Army officially announced the contents of the ultimatum to the population, its acceptance by the Romanian government, and the intent to evacuate the army and administration to the Prut River. By 14:00, three key cities — Chişinău, Cernăuţi and Cetatea Albă — had to be turned over to the Soviets. By July 3, the new border along the Prut was totally closed by the Soviets. During the retreat, the Romanian Army was attacked both by civilian Communists[citation needed] and by the Soviet Army who entered Bessarabia already on the night of June 27-28. In the process, the Romanian Army and the civilians that retreated with it suffered many casualties.[citation needed]

The Romanian government stated that it wished to avoid, albeit temporarily, a war with the Soviet Union.[citation needed] The military installations and casemates, built during a 20-year period for the event of a Soviet attack, were ceded without a fight, the Romanian Army being placed by its command under strict orders not to respond to provocation.

Out of a population of 3,776,000 (according to the Romanian census of 1930[20][22] ) living in the territories occupied by the USSR, of which 2,078,000 (55%) were ethnic Romanians, 200,000 (of different ethnicities) became refugees and left Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina during the interval June 28 - July 2. Most of the local population, however, unsure of what to expect next, treated the events with uneasy calmness.

Soviet preparations and occupation

By directives OV/583 and OV/584 of the Soviet People Commissariat of Defense, military units of the Odessa Military District were ordered into battle ready state in the spring of 1940. Soviet troop concentrations along the Romanian border took place between April 15 and June 10, 1940. In order to coordinate the efforts of the Kiev and Odessa military districts in the preparation of action against Romania, the Soviet Army created the Southern Front under general Georgy Zhukov, composed of the 5th, 9th and 12th Armies. The Southern Front had 32 infantry divisions, 2 motorized infantry divisions, 6 cavalry divisions, 11 tank brigades, 3 paratrooper brigades, 30 artillery regiments, and smaller auxiliary units.

Two action plans were devised. The first plan was prepared for the case that Romania would not accept to evacuate Bessarabia and Bukovina. The Soviet 12th Army was supposed in such a situation to strike Southward along the Prut river towards Iaşi, while Soviet 9th Army was supposed to strike East-to-West south of Chişinău towards Huşi. The target of this plan was to surround the Romanian troops in the Bălţi-Iaşi area. The second plan took into consideration the case that Romania would succomb to Soviet demands and would evacuate the military. In such a situation, Soviet troops were given the mission to reach quickly the Prut river, and take charge of the evacuation process of the Romanian troops. The first plan was taken as the basis of action. Along the portions where the offensive was supposed to take place, Soviets prepared to have at least a triple superiority of men and means.

International reaction

The British government replied to Romanian request for support that it would consider any territorial losses by Romania as being temporary.[citation needed] Of all regional allies, with which Romania had treaties with military clauses, only Turkey replied that it would live up to its treaty obligations by providing support in case of a Soviet military aggression.

According to Time from Monday, July 1, 1940,

This week Russian planes began making reconnaissance flights over Bessarabia. Then border clashes were reported all along the Dn[i]estr River. Though the Rumanian Army made a show of resistance for the record, it has no chance of stopping the Russians without help, and [Nazi] Germany had already acknowledged Russia's claim to Bessarabia in secret deals last year. Romania had accepted her destiny in the new Europe that Hitler plans. She will also lose Transylvania to Hungary and probably a part of the Dobruja to Bulgaria. (...) Russia's Sphere. Russia was preoccupied with consolidating her own position to the east of Hitler's Europe. On the heels of her occupation of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, those three countries set up left-wing Governments that looked like steppingstones to complete sovietization. (...) Germany took the occupation calmly. Germany's calm was doubtless real, since last year's deals gave Russia a free hand in the Baltic as well as Bessarabia.[23]

Political and military developments

One month after the invasion, on August 2, 1940, on the main part of the annexed territory, the Soviets had established the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, while smaller portions (Budjak and Chernivtsi oblast) were given to the Ukrainian SSR, both republics of the USSR. The Soviet occupation was interrupted in 1941, when Romania regained Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina in Operation München (coordinated with the German Operation Barbarossa),[24] but the territory was regained by the Soviet Union in August 1944, during the Jassy-Kishinev Operation.

First year of Soviet occupation (1940–1941)

Six Bessarabian counties, and small portions of the other three counties, along with parts of the Moldavian ASSR (formerly part of Ukrainian SSR), which was disbanded on that occasion, formed the Moldavian SSR, which became one of 15 union republics of the USSR. The Soviet governmental commission headed by Nikita Khrushchev, the then Communist Party chief of the Ukrainian SSR, alloted Northern Bukovina, Hertsa region, and larger parts of Hotin, Ismail, Cetatea Albă counties to the Ukrainian SSR.

Reaction in Romania proper: pro-Nazi military regime

The territorial concessions of 1940 produced deep sorrow and resentment among Romanians, and hastened the decline in popularity of the regime led by King Carol II of Romania. Three days after the invasion, Romania renounced the 1939 Anglo-French guarantee. A new government of Ion Gigurtu was sworn in on July, 5th, 1940, which took the country away from the League of Nations (July 11, 1940), and announced the desire to join the Axis camp (July 13, 1940). A series of measures taken by Romanian Prime Minister Ion Gigurtu, including official persecution of Jews inspired by the German Nuremberg Laws in July and August 1940, failed to sway Adolf Hitler from his demand that Romania cede Northern Transylvania to Hungary (see Second Vienna Award; August 30, 1940)

This lead to a near uprising in the country. On September 5, King Carol II proposed to General (later Marshal) Ion Antonescu, the chief of the Army, to form a new government. Antonescu's first act was to force the King to abdicate (for the fourth and last time) and flee Romania. An alliance government was formed by Ion Antonescu with remnants of the Iron Guard Legionary Movement (partly destroyed in 1938; see The Iron Guard#A bloody struggle for power), an anti-Semitic fascist party, and took power on September 6, 1940. Mihai, son of Carol II, succeeded him as King of Romania. The country was declared a National Legionary State. Between October 1940 and June 1941, around 550,000 German troops entered Romania. In November, Antonescu signed the Tripartite (Axis) Pact, tying Romania militarily to Germany, Italy, and Japan. In January 1941, the Legionary Movement attempted a coup, which failed and placed Antonescu firmly in power with the approval of Hitler. The authoritarian regime of Antonescu (1940 - 1944) did not restore political parities and elected democracy; it only co-opted several individual civilians in the government.

Overall, the desire to regain the lost territories was the deciding factor leading to the entry of Romania into World War II on the side of the Axis against the Soviet Union.

Return of Romanian administration (1941–1944)

On June 22, 1941, Romania participated alongside Finland, Hungary, and Italy on the side of the Axis Powers in the German invasion of the Soviet Union, in order to recover Bessarabia and Bukovina.[25] This was accomplished by July 26, 1941, without invading proper Soviet territory.

On July 27, 1941, despite disagreement from all political parties,[26] Romania's military dictator Ion Antonescu ordered the Romanian Army to continue the war eastward into proper Soviet territory to fight at Odessa, Crimea, Kharkov, Stalingrad and the Caucasus. Between late 1941 and early 1944, Romania occupied and administered the region between the Dniester and Southern Bug rivers, known as Transnistria, and sent expedition troops to several different areas to support the German advance further into the USSR.

The collaboration of a small number of politically involved Jews with the Soviet occupation authorities in the summer of 1940 was manipulated by the government of Ion Antonescu as a pretext to massively deport and/or to kill the Jews of Bukovina and Bessarabia who did not flee to the interior of the Soviet Union before Romania regained the territory in July 1941. 136,546 Jews from these territories were quickly gathered in temporary ghettos and then deported to Transnistria; only 52,397 of them were still alive on September 16, 1943, and only 6,344 are known to have returned safely from deportation in 1944. In addition, 16,500 others were sent in August 1941 over the Dniester directly in the hands of the German Einsatzkommando D before the organized deportation, and are believed to have perished almost entirely. Several other thousands were murdered in the chaos of July 1941. Only 16,000 Jews of the regions of Bessarabia, Bukovina and of the Dorohoi county (of the 301,886 at the 1930 census) survived in these territories in 1941-1944 without being deported, most of them in Cernăuţi; other up to 130,000 were refugees in the interior of the Soviet Union.

Romanian geandarmerie (riot police) units during World War II also participated in the destruction of the 130,000-strong Jewish community in Transnistria. (See History of the Jews in Moldova#The Holocaust).

Soviet re-annexation (1944–1991)

RedArmy19Aug31Dec44.jpg

On August 23, 1944, with Soviet troops advancing and the Eastern Front once again falling within Romanian territory, a coup led by King Michael, with support from opposition politicians and the army, deposed the Antonescu dictatorship and put Romania's battered armies on the side of the Allies. Michael acquiesced to Soviet terms, and Romania was occupied by the Soviet Army. In August 1944 - May 1945 Romania incurred additional heavy casualties fighting alongside the Soviet Union against the Germans in Northern Transylvania, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia. On March 6, 1945, King Michael was forced by Soviets to accept a Communist-dominated government, and two years later to leave the country, beginning an era that only ended in 1989.

From August 1944 to May 1945, ca. 300,000 people were conscripted into the Soviet Army from Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, judged by Joseph Stalin to be Soviet citizens, and were sent to fight against Germany in Lithuania, East Prussia, Poland, and Czechoslovakia. Some 100,000 were killed, while some other 100,000 were wounded.[citation needed]

Further losses of Romania by 1948 in orange

In 1947, as part of the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947, Communist Romania and Soviet Union signed a border treaty, leaving the territories occupied by the Soviets in 1940 to the Soviet Union. The Soviets insisted that the exchange of diplomatic notes June 26-28, 1940, containing the Soviet ultimatums and the Romanian responses represented a "Soviet-Roumanian Agreement of 28 June 1940".[27] Several additional uninhabited islands in the Danube Delta, as well as the Snake Island, not mentioned in the Treaty, were transferred from the Communist Romania to the Soviet Union in 1948.

During 1940-1941 and 1944-1956, the Soviets have launched a massive campaign of persecution of the local population. After Joseph Stalin in 1953, and especially after 1956, these had gradually eased up.

First free elections were held in February 1990, and Soviet control of the region ended in August 1991 with the Soviet coup attempt and the dissolution of the USSR. In 1991, the territory of the Moldavian SSR became the newly independent Moldova, while Northern Bukovina and Southern Bessarabia remained part of Ukraine.

Anti-Soviet resistance

This flag was symbolically used by the Moldavian passive underground resistance during 1945-1989[28]

Population

Refugees

While some 200,000 people fled from Bessarabia and northern Bukovina to the rest of Romania on 28 June, 1940 and in the following days, most of them returned afterwards in 1941. However, faced with the advancing Soviet troops in 1944, and fearing political repressions or deportations, several hundred thousand people moved westward to the remaining territory of Romania, leaving the main cities almost empty. Among these people were mainly teachers, engineers, doctors, lawyers, with their families, virtually anyone who could be qualified as an intellectual, since they were the main targets of Soviet persecutions. After that, it took no less than 25 years for a new local intelligentsia to emerge, mainly from among the farmers' class, which by itself was a remarkable phenomenon of national regeneration.

Local economy

During 1940–1941, political persecution of locals in the form of arrests, torture, executions and deportations to Siberia took place, resulting in 57,000 dead, and over 100,000 displaced of all ethnic backgrounds. Only in Northern Bukovina, the Soviets targeted the Romanian element. The economic life was destroyed by forbidding private initiative. Industrial enterprises were expropriated. By instating high quotas of agricultural products that each landowner had to deliver without payment to the state if the land is cultivated, and by frequent requisitions, the Soviets forced many peasants to give up their land and/or to refrain from cultivating parts of it. As a result, the agricultural production became extremely low. An artificial exchange rate of 40 Romanian lei for 1 Soviet ruble was established, which resulted in Soviet soldiers and officials buying out everything from the shops (generally owned by the local Jewish Community) at very low prices within the first two months. As no other goods were being brought in the country, the shops emptied and closed, resulting in a disastrous situation for the service sector of the economy.

Political prisoners and massacres of civilians

According to Alexandru Usatiuc-Bulgăr,[29] from 1940 to 1953 there were 32,433 people politically sentenced, of which 8,360 to death, or dead during interrogations. (These figures do not include the people shot on the spot who refused to flee in June 1940, for example many of the administration officials.)

In addition, a large number of people were arrested by NKVD and disappeared. Up to one thousand corpses were discovered after the retreat of the Soviets in 1941 in the cellars, courtyards and wells of the NKVD headquarters in the county centers, including 450 corpses in Chişinau, mostly of priests, university and high school students, and railroad workers.[30] (See also NKVD prisoner massacres.)

In April-August 1943, in Tatarka, near Odessa, a mass common grave was discovered on a lot of 1,000 sq. meters. 42 separate common graves of several dozen bodies each were identified, containing ca. 3,500 bodies, of which 516 were exhumed, studied, and buried in cemetery before the region became a front line. Among the victims were persons arrested in the Moldavian ASSR in 1938-1940, and in Bessarabia and northern Bukovina in 1940-1941.[30]

Serious incidents occurred in Northern Bukovina, where many locals tried in 1940-1941 to cross the border into Romania by any price. Families and relatives of people that were discovered by NKVD to have crossed into Romania were often arrested, and in several villages concentration camps of these were organized.[citation needed] (See also Fântâna Albă massacre.)

Eufrosinia Kersnovskaya Birth in a prison car for Bessarabian deportees

Deportations

Deportations of locals on grounds of belonging to the intelligentsia or kulak classes, or of having anti-Soviet nationalist ideas occurred almost daily throughout 1940-41 and 1944-1950, and with less frequency in 1950-1956. These deportations touched all local ethnic groups: Romanians, Ukrainians, Russians, Jews, Bulgarians, Gagauzes. Significant deportations happened on three separate occasions: according to Alexandru Usatiuc-Bulgăr,[29] 29,839 people were deported to Siberia on 13 June 1941, 35,796 on 6 July 1949 (operation South) and 2,617 on 1 April 1951 (during the Operation North).[31]

These people were taken during the night; sometimes whole families with children were uprooted. They had to be ready within one hour, and were transported to Siberia or Eastern Kazakhstan, in overcrowded railway cars for cattle, for four to six weeks, with no sanitation and very little food. Finally, after journeys by foot that would last for weeks, they were taken to different destination points, often deep in Taiga forests, where they were forced to work in extreme cold and suffer humiliation, to the extent that half of them died in Siberia or on the way there.[citation needed]

After Stalin's death in 1953, the deportees were allowed to return to Moldova, and around half chose to do so. But they found that their houses and property had been confiscated, they could obtain no registration or documents, could be hired only with difficulty, were not eligible for pensions, health care, or social services. According to some estimates[citation needed], at the dissolution of the USSR, 180,000 of the descendants of the surviving deportees still lived in the Russian Federation, and 20,000 in Kazakhstan.

Smaller size deportations often targeted the inhabitants of the cities, as well as the areas covered by anti-Soviet movements during 1945-1950, i.e. Bukovina, Herţa region, as well as Orhei, Bălţi and Soroca counties.[32]

In total, in the first year of Soviet occupation,[33] no fewer than 86,604 people from Bessarabia, Northern Bukovina, and Hertsa Region were arrested and deported.[34] This number is close to the one calculated by Russian historians following documents in the Moscow archives, of ca. 90,000 people apprehended, arrested and deported in the first year of Soviet occupation.[35] The arrests continued even after 22 June 1941.[36][37] Well above half of these were deported from the Moldavian SSR, the rest from the Chernivtsi Oblast and Izmail Oblast of Ukrainian SSR, which were created in 1940.

According to a document signed by Ivan Serov, Deputy Minister of Interior of the USSR, on 1 July 1953, 46,616 deportees from Moldavian SSR were reported in localities with special regime (spetsposeleniya) in Russian SFSR and Kazakhstan, of which 10,387 were deported in 1941 (including 1,780 children), and 36,147 - in 1949 (including 10,447 children).[38] In the meantime (1940/41-1953), many of the deported have died because of harsh transportation, detention and climate conditions, disease, and malnutrition.[39]

Romanian POW

See also: Soviet war crimes.

In 1941-1944, many young male inhabitants of Bessarabia and northern Bukovina were recruited into the Romanian Army. From February to August 1944, hostilities took place properly in the region, as the Romanians attempted to hold the territory from being overrun by the Soviet Union. After the Jassy-Kishinev Operation on August 20-24, 1944, the Soviets took over the entire territory, while somewhere between 100,000 and 200,000 were taken prisoners of war,[citation needed] a significant number of them locals.

In total, during World War II, Romanian Army has lost 475,070 people on the Eastern Front, of which 245,388 were KIA, disappeared, or died in hospitals or non-battle circumstances, and 229,682 (according to Soviet archival documents) were taken POW by the Red Army, of which 187,367 were counted as Romanian POWs in NKVD camps, kept until 1956 (on April 22, 1956, 54,612 were counted as died in captivity, and 132,755 as freshly released), 27,800 were counted as Romanians released by the Front-levels of the Soviet Army, and 14,515 as Moldovans released by the Front-levels of the Soviet Army.[40]

In the wake of the Jassy-Kishinev Operation several prisoner camps were created, including in Chişinău and Bălţi. In the latter city, the NKVD organized a smaller regular camp, and a larger concentration camp, which contained some 45,000 prisoners,[citation needed] including 35 to 40 thousand soldiers of the Romanian Army (many of which were originally from Bessarabia and Bukovina) and Romanian civilians, 5,000 German POWs, and 5,000 Hungarian, Italian, and Czech POWs fighting for the Axis. The harsh food and hygiene conditions in the camp meant the survival of only the fittest prisoners in the winter of 1944-1945, to be sent to NKVD POW camps in the interior of USSR. The common graves of many thousands of perished in the Bălţi prisoner camp were uncovered after the fall of the Soviet system, until which time the Soviets kept the area of the former camp outside landscape development.

Food requisitions, famine, and collectivisation

During 1946-1947, 216,000 people died on hunger on the territory of the Moldavian SSR, provoked by the quasi-total food requisitions by the Soviets from the farmers' households "for the needs of the state", by poor harvest, and by absence of a large number of local males, conscripted into the Soviet Army. Several other thousand people have starved in Southern Bessarabia.

Forced labor

See also Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union.

Thousands were mobilized into work camps (but at least they were formally, although very little, paid), and sent far away through the Soviet Union. In 1940 alone there were 56,365 such.

Social and cultural consequences

Demographics

Although, not targeting Romanians as an ethnic group, but rather the pre-Soviet civil society as a political class, the Soviet occupation inaugurated also an anti-Romanian Soviet politicide and ethnic cleansing of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina. Between 1940 and 1941, 300,000 Romanians were persecuted, conscripted into forced labor camps, or deported with the entire family, of whom 57,000 were killed (not counting those died in the Gulag).[41] These policies also continued from 1944 until 1956, after which they were reduced to isolated cases.

According to some sources, in total throughout the duration of the USSR, around 2,344,000 people originally from Bessarabia, Northern Bukovina, and the former Moldavian ASSR were victims of arrests, political persecution, deportation, forced labour, of whom 703,000 perished.[42][43] The latter number includes the 298,500 victims of the 1946-47 famine, and an estimation of 100,000 of perished POWs which were locals. The remainder are victims of executions, massacres, arrested perished in Gulag, and deportees died.

These policies mostly targeted the elites of Bessarabians and Bukovinains which did not leave for Romania in 1940 and 1944-1945, including former teachers, doctors, clergymen, lawyers, policemen and soldiers, larger landowners (nobility and richer peasants, called by the Soviets kulaks), members of political parties (including former members of the clandestine Communist Party of Romania), as well as those who expressed any kind of dissent, which altogether constituted a significant part of the population and included the majority of the educated population, the bearers of Romanian culture. However, they were by no means restricted to ethnic Romanians, as many thousand ethnic Ukrainians, Russians, Jews who inhabited the region before 1940 were also deported en masse together with local Romanians on social and political grounds. Only in northern Bukovina, the persecutions resulted in a disproportionate number of ethnic Romanian victims. However, this could be also explained by the social nature of villages in the region, which rejected Soviet social tactics, and by local Ukrainians keeping a low profile to avoid themselves persectution. (Local Ukainians who expressed any anti-Soviet ideas were persecutted without any mercy.)

During the Soviet takeover in 1940, Bessarabian Germans (82,000) and Bukovinain Germans (40,000-45,000) were repatriated to Germany at the request of Hitler's government. Some of them were forcibly settled by the Nazis in the German-occupied Poland (they preferred proper German regions), and had to move again in 1944-1945. The people affected by the resettlement were not persecuted, but they were given no choice to stay or live, and had to change their entire livelihood within weeks or even days.

The biggest blow during World War II was suffered by the local Jewish community. (See also Bessarabian Jews.)

Immigration

As the Soviet persecutions, as well as the grave reduction of the German, Jewish and Polish communities affected the local intelligentsia most of all, basically eradicating it, Soviet authorities sought to fill the intellectual gap formed in the region in 1940s, and also to build a Soviet and party apparatus. Immediately after the war, Stalin carried out a major colonization and de facto Russification campaign in what was now Soviet Moldova, Chernivtsi oblast, and Budjak under the flag of Sovietization and building a communist society in which there would be plenty and no money. Many Russians and Ukrainians, along with a smaller number of other ethnic groups, who migrated from the rest of the USSR to Moldova, arrived to rebuild the heavily war-damaged economy. They were mostly factory and construction workers who settled in major urban areas, as well as military personnel stationed in the region. During the Soviet rule, up to one million people settled in Moldova. From a socio-economic point of view, this group was quite diverse: in addition to industrial and construction workers, as well as retired officers and soldiers of the Soviet army, it also included engineers, technicians, a handful of scientists, but mostly unqualified workers, or people without strong family or native land ties, many of which with little or no education at all. A few were outright criminals.

Access of local Romanians to positions in administration and economy was limited. The first local to became minister in the Moldavian SSR was only in 1960s as minister of health. The same restriction generally applied to representatives of local minority groups that were in the region before 1940, as they were considered also not trustworthy. The antagonism between the Romanians/Moldovans, and often also the pre-1940 Russian and Ukrainian minorities on one side, and the "newcomers" (cf. "venetici" in Romanian) persisted till the end of communism and was clear during the anti-Soviet and anti-Communist events in 1988-1992. (It was also an important reason for the brief 1992 War of Transnistria that took the lives of several hundred people, after Moldova became independent.) The immigration affected mostly the cities of Bessarabia, Northern Bukovina, as well as the countryside of Budjak where the Bessarabian Germans previously were, but also the cities of Trasnistria. All of these saw the proportion of ethnic Moldavians (Romanians) drop throughout the Soviet rule.

Despite this huge immigration, the 1959 census showed a significant drop in population from 1940, showing how badly the local population was affected by the events of 1940-1956.

Education and language

Until 1952, the education for the locals was done in a very broken language (extremely low vocabulary and many borrowing from Russian and from the Soviet bureaucratic speech) that was spoken by a handful of ethnically Moldavian communist activists from the former Moldavian ASSR, and using the Cyrillic script. At that point, realizing that to create a whole literature for a speech shared by only a few hundred individuals and impose it on 3 millions was impossible, the Soviet authorities decided to drop it "because the local peasants can not understand it"[citation needed], and return to the normal language. Hence, Mihai Eminescu and Ion Creangă were again allowed, and the standard written language became the same as Romanian, except that it was written with Cyrillic script.

The Soviet authorities policy of describing 1918-1940 period as a yoke of feodal boyars and rich bourgeois speaking in half-French assigned to the word Romanian a negative connotation. Locals' ethnicity was written as Moldavians in documents, and the language was renamed Moldavian language. In the Bukovinain part of the Chernivtsi oblast, locals did not have the habit of calling themselves both Moldavians and Romanians before 1918, as they did in Bessarabia, and hence the Soviet authorities allowed them to keep their ethnic group as Romanians in the documents. This also became handy, as split into Moldavians and Ukrainians, the share of the ethnic group in the population of the oblast was statistically less observable. Children of deportees that were prevented to return to Moldova from Siberia and Kazakhstan were allowed to be schooled only in Russian.

In Moldavian SSR, Soviet authorities opened many more Russian schools than Romanian ones in the cities, calling for locals to send their children to Russian-language schools, explaining them that without knowing Russian they would not be able to get normal jobs. Russian schools were also less crowded with respect to the number of students in a class. The authorities encouraged in addition the creation of mixed schools, generally having three Romanian-language for every Russian-language class, thus all administration being in Russian.

A new local intelligentsia, to replace the virtually exterminated one, started to form in late 1960s and early 1970s. However, being composed generally of descendants from farmers, it did not have the benefit of direct ties to the pre-war intelligentsia. The contacts with classical Romanian literature were greatly limited, as a big number of authors and books were forbidden, including all authors born in Romanian localities outside the medieval Principality of Moldavia, as well as all works touching on their connected to politics of even authors such as Mihai Eminescu, Mihail Kogălniceanu, Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu, Constantin Stere (the former two are classic and well-known, the latter two are in addition born in Bessarabia). However, these contacts were not severed, since after 1956 people were slowly allowed to visit or get visits from relatives in Romania, since Romanian press could be freely bought in Moscow (not in Moldova), and since a poor quality Romanian TV and radio could be heard with a makeshift antenna, and even by ordinary transistor-based radios. The programs of the latter, however, were created by the Communist authorities of Romania, which never dared to cross the Soviet authorities, especially in the question of education and press for ethnic Romanians in USSR, which was a political taboo, especially because the Romanian communists did not totally sided with Soviets against the Chinese after 1959, sometimes even trying to play the brokers.

The Soviet-Romanian border along the Prut river, separating Bessarbia from Romania, was closed for the general public all throughout the Soviet era. In general, visits abroad by Soviet citizens were very rare (comparing to the citizens of Communist Eastern European countries).

In 1940, at the beginning of the Soviet occupation, the Capitoline Wolf, Chişinău was destroyed.

Historical considerations

Soviet view

In Soviet historiography, the chain of events that lead to the creation of the Moldavian SSR was described as a "liberation" of the "Moldovan people" from a twenty two year old occupation by "boyar Romania." During 1940-1989, the Soviet authorities promoted the events of June 28, 1940 as a "liberation", and the day itself was a holiday in the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic.

Non-Soviet view

In a Heritage Foundation Policy Review article "Seventy Years of Evil: Soviet Crimes from Lenin to Gorbachev" in 1988, Michael Johns, one of the most vocal U.S. conservatives, labeled the Soviet system "history's most sophisticated apparatus of rule by terror", and condemned its "crushing of the human spirit." He offered 208 examples, dating back to the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution, that, he argued, warranted the labeling of the Soviet system as evil.[44] The article reinforced with some that Ronald Reagan's use of the phrase "evil empire" to describe the former Soviet Union was warranted, with National Review praising the Johns article as "the tale of a state as brutal as it is petty; as unnatural as it is brutal; as enduring as it is unnatural." One of the 10 examples chosen by the Heritage Foundation in the article's abstract was: "July 27, 1940 - With their invasion of Rumania, the Soviets violate (...) Kellogg-Briand Pact for sixth time in less than a year. Previous invasions include Poland, Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia."[45]

In a August 29, 1990 interview with Le Figaro, British Prime-Minister Margaret Thatcher revealed "In my discussions with Gorbachov, I understood that his main concern was to maintain the territorial integrity of the Soviet Union. He wanted to preserve that heritage. I couldn't but exclaim 'But the Baltic states and Moldova do not belong to the Soviet Union!' He never accepted this opinion. We, the westerners, should favor good inclusion of republics [in the ongoing processes]; they must be free, they will have to be free. It would be unseasonable to show narrowness, cowardness, and search for the pretext to do nothing."[46]

On June 26-28, 1991, a unique and widely mediated International Conference "Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and its consequences for Bessarabia" took place in Chişinău, gathering renouned historians such as Nicholas Dima, Kurt Treptow, Dennis Diletant, Michael Mikelson, Stephen Bowers, Lowry Wymann, Michael Bruchis, in addition to Moldovan, Soviet and Romanian historians. An informal Declaration of Chişinău was adopted, according to the which the Pact and its Secret Protocol "constituted the appogeum of collaboration between the Soviet Union an Nazi Germany, and follwing these agreements, Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina were occupied by the Soviet Army on June 28th, 1940 as a result of ulitmative notes addressed to the Romanian government". These acts were given the characteristic of a "pregnant manifestation of imperialist policy of annexion and dictat, a shameless aggression against the sovereignty (...) of neighborting states, members of the League of Nations. The Stalinist aggression constituted a serious breach of the legal norms of behavior of states in international relations, of the obligations assumed under the Briand-Kellog Pact of 1928, and under the London Convention on the Definition of the Agressor of 1933." The declaration gave a scientific opinion that "the Pact and the Secret Additional Protocol are legally null ab initio, and their consequences must be eliminated." For the latter, it called for "political solutions that would lead to the elimination of the acts of injustice and abuse committed through the use of force, dictat and annexions, ... [solutions] in full consensus with the principles of the [1975] Final Act of Helsinki, and the [1990] Paris Carta for a new Europe".[47][48]

Also, on June 28, 1991, the US Senate voted a resolution sponsored by Senators Jeese Helms (R-NC) and Larry Presslet (R-SD), members of the US Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, which recommended the US Government to "1. support the right to self-determination of the people of Moldova and Northern Bukovina, occupied by the Soviets, and to draft a decision to this end; 2. support the future efforts of the Government of Moldova to negotiate, if it desires so, a peaceful reunification of Moldova and northern Bukovina with Romania, as established in the Treaty of Paris (1920), respecting the existing norms of international low and principle 1 of the Helsinki Act." In the clauses of this Senate resolution it has been stated among other things that "(...) The armed forces of the Soviet Union invaded the Kingdom of Romania and occupied Eastern Moldova, Norther Bukovina and Hertsa Region. (...) The annexation was prepared beforehand in a Secret Agreement to a Non-Aggression Treaty signed by the Governments of the Soviet Union and the German Reich on August 23, 1939. (...) Between 1940 and 1953 hundreds of thousand of Romanian from Moldova and Northern Bukovina were deported by the USSR to Central Asia and Siberia (...)"[49][50][51]

Modern diplomatic relatations

Romania was the first country to recognize Moldova's independence, just one day after it was proclaimed. The issue of the illegality of Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact surfaced in treaty negotiations between Romania and Soviet Union (1991), Ukraine (1997), Russia (2003), and Moldova (2007-2009).

After the fall of communism in Romania, its president Ion Iliescu, and the president of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev have signed on April 5, 1991 a political treaty which among other things recognized the Soviet-Romanian border. However, Romania refused to ratify it. Romania and Russia eventually signed and ratified a treaty in 2003[52]a[›], after the independence of Moldova and Ukraine.

Notes

^ a: Romanian-Russian treaties:
After the failure to ratify the 5 April 1991 treaty between Romania and Soviet Union, new negotiations were started, but failed before the signing ceremony planned for April 1996. Later, in July 2003, president of Russia Vladimir Putin and Ion Iliescu Finally signed a new treaty.

^ b: Excerpts from Soviet-Nazi diplomatic exchanges on 23–27 June 1940:
"Molotov made the following statement to me today: The solution of the Bessarabian question brooked no further delay. [...] Molotov added that the Soviet Government expected Germany not to hinder but to support the Soviets in their action. The Soviet Government on its part would do everything to safeguard German interests in Rumania."[53]

"However, the further aim of the communiqué, to emphasize German-Soviet solidarity as a preparation for the solution of the Bessarabian problem is just as plain."[54]

"For its part the Reich Government would be prepared, in the spirit of the Moscow agreements, to advise Rumania, if necessary, to reach an amicable settlement of the Bessarabian question satisfactory to Russia. Please point out again clearly to Herr Molotov our great interest in Rumania's not becoming a theater of war. As matters stand, we are of the opinion that a peaceful settlement in accordance with Russian views is altogether possible, provided the problem is properly handled."[55]

"Molotov added that there had been no discussion of the matter in Moscow or in Bucharest, up to the present."[56]

"The Soviet Union would prefer to realize her claims to Bessarabia (Bucovina was not mentioned) without war, but, if that was impossible because of Rumanian intransigence, she was determined to resort to force. Regarding other areas of Rumania, the Soviet Government would communicate with Germany."[57]

"Molotov summoned me this afternoon and declared that the Soviet Government, on the basis of his conversation with me yesterday, had decided to limit its demands to the northern part of Bucovina and the city of Czernowitz. According to Soviet opinion the boundary line should run from the southernmost point of the Soviet West Ukraine at Mt. Kniatiasa, east along the Suczava and then northeast to Hertza on the Pruth, whereby the Soviet Union would obtain direct railway connection from Bessarabia via Czernowitz to Lemberg. Molotov added that the Soviet Government expected German support of this Soviet demand.

"Regarding further treatment of the matter Molotov has the following idea: The Soviet Government will submit its demand to the Rumanian Minister here within the next few days and expects the German Reich Government at the same time urgently to advise the Rumanian Government in Bucharest to comply with the Soviet demands, since war would otherwise be unavoidable. Molotov promised to inform me immediately as soon as he had spoken to the Rumanian Minister."[58]

"The following instruction is to be transmitted immediately by telephone in plain to Minister Fabricius in Bucharest:

""You are requested to call immediately on the Foreign Minister in Bucharest and inform him as follows:

""The Soviet Government has informed us that it has demanded the cession of Bessarabia and the northern part of Bucovina from the Rumanian Government. In order to avoid war between Rumania and the Soviet Union we can only advise the Rumanian Government to yield to the Soviet Government's demand. Please report by wire.""[59]

Citations

  1. ^ Bossy, G.H., Bossy, M-A. Recollections of a Romanian diplomat, 1918-1969, Volume 2, Hoover Press, 2003.
  2. ^ Joseph Rothschild, East Central Europe between the two World Wars, University of Washington Press, Seattle, 1977. ISBN 0925953578, p.314
  3. ^ www.history.com : October 7, 1940. German troops enter Romania
  4. ^ Dennis Diletant, "Romania", in I.C.B. Dear and M.R.D. Foot, "The Oxford Companion to World War II", Oxford University Press, 2001. Encyclopedia.com.
  5. ^ James Stuart Olson, Lee Brigance Pappas, Nicholas Charles Pappas, "An Ethnohistorical dictionary of the Russian and Soviet empires", Greenwood Press, 1994, ISBN 0-313- 27497-5, page 484
  6. ^ a b (Romanian) Comisia Prezidenţială pentru Analiza Dictaturii Comuniste din România: Raport Final / ed.: Vladimir Tismăneanu, Dorin Dobrincu, Cristian Vasile, Bucureşti: Humanitas, 2007, ISBN 978-973-50-1836-8
  7. ^ [http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/FRUS/FRUS-idx?type=turn&entity=FRUS.FRUS1946v04.p0076&id=FRUS.FRUS1946v04&isize=M United States Department of State. Foreign relations of the United States, 1946. Paris Peace Conference: documents Volume IV (1946)]
  8. ^ Tismaneanu, Final Report, page 745
  9. ^ Charles Upson Clark, Bessarabia: Russia and Roumania on the Black Sea, New York, 1927
  10. ^ Volodymyr Kubijovyč, Arkadii Zhukovsky, Bukovyna, in Encyclopedia of Ukraine, Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, 2001
  11. ^ Richard K. Debo, Survival and Consolidation: The Foreign Policy of Soviet Russia, 1918-1921, McGill-Queen's Press, 1992, ISBN 0773508287, pp. 113-114.
  12. ^ Kellogg-Briand Pact, at Yale University.
  13. ^ League of Nations Treaty Series, 1929, No. 2028.
  14. ^ League of Nations Treaty Series, 1928, No. 2137.
  15. ^ Marcel Mitrasca, Moldova: A Romanian Province under Russian Rule. Diplomatic History form the Archives of the Great Powers, Algora Publishing
  16. ^ Rumania, 1866-1947, pp.436-437 by Keith Hitchins, Oxford University Press, 1994. ISBN 0198221266, 9780198221265
  17. ^ German-Soviet Non-Aggression Treaty of August 23, 1939. Complete text online at wikisource.org.
  18. ^ (Russian)Ультимативная нота советского правительства румынскому правительству 26 июня 1940 г./[1]
  19. ^ a b (Romanian) "Soviet Ultimata and Replies of the Romanian Government", in Ioan Scurtu, Theodora Stănescu-Stanciu, Georgiana Margareta Scurtu, Istoria Românilor între anii 1918-1940, University of Bucharest, 2002
  20. ^ a b Irina, Livezeanu (1995). Cultural Politics in Greater Romania: Regionalism, Nation Building & Ethnic Struggle. Cornell University Press. p. 340. ISBN 0801486882, 9780801486883. http://books.google.com/books?id=5ysbpAyJjoAC&pg=PA90&dq=1930+census+bessarabia&as_brr=3&ei=OG2jSJbaGobujgGLhLm1Dg&sig=ACfU3U2R8WxsMkhLXvLHQSbqH_phVgn1cQ#PPP1,M1.  - Page 92
  21. ^ The actual result of the first vote was 11 Reject the ultimatum, 10 Accept the ultimatum, 5 For negotiations with the USSR, and 1 Abstained.
  22. ^ Piotr, Eberhardt (2003). Ethnic Groups and Population Changes in Twentieth-Century Central-Eastern Europe: History, Data, Analysis. M.E. Sharpe. p. 559. ISBN 0765606658, 9780765606655. http://books.google.com/books?id=jLfX1q3kJzgC&pg=RA1-PA213&dq=1930+census+bukovina&as_brr=3&ei=THKjSO7PCIbujgGLhLm1Dg&sig=ACfU3U3p9u0-M_bo_asgQ7JunSan7atY4w.  - Page 213, Table 4.31
  23. ^ "Hitler's Europe", Time, Monday, July 1, 1940
  24. ^ "Operation München - retaking Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina - 1941"
  25. ^ "Background Note: Romania", United States Department of State, Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs, October 2007. The text says: "Romania entered World War II on the side of the Axis Powers in June 1941, invading the Soviet Union to recover Bessarabia and Bukovina, which had been annexed in 1940."
  26. ^ Romanian: {{{1}}} www.worldwar2.ro
  27. ^ Treaty of Peace with Roumania at Australian Treaty Series 1948, No. 2
  28. ^ Alexandru Usatiuc-Bulgăr
  29. ^ a b Alexandru Usatiuc-Bulgăr "Cu gîndul la "O lume între două lumi": eroi, martiri, oameni-legendă" ("Thinking of 'A World between Two Worlds': Heroes, Martyrs, Legendary People"), Publisher: Lyceum, Orhei (1999) ISBN 9975-939-36-8
  30. ^ a b Victor Roncea, "Un Katyn românesc: Crimele uitate ale comunismului", Ziua, 30 December 2006
  31. ^ The figures for the latter two are only for MSSR, excluding the territories now in Ukraine, from where people were also deported
  32. ^ Counties were canceled in 1948 in favour of raions.
  33. ^ Comisia Prezidenţială pentru Analiza Dictaturii Comuniste din România: Raport Final / ed.: Vladimir, Dorin Dobrincu, Cristian Vasile, Bucureşti: Humanitas, 2007, ISBN 978-973-50-1836-8, p. 747
  34. ^ Igor Caşu, ""Politica naţională" în Moldova sovietică", Chişinău, Ed. Cartdidact, 2000, p. 32-33
  35. ^ Mihail Semireaga, "Taini stalinskoi diplomatii", Moscow, Vysshaya Shkola, 1992, p. 270
  36. ^ "Literatura şi Arta", 12 December 1991
  37. ^ Report, p. 747-748
  38. ^ Istoria Stalinskogo Gulaga, vol. 5, p. 715 cf. Report p. 755
  39. ^ Report, p. 755
  40. ^ Россия и СССР в войнах XX века. Потери вооруженных сил. Статистическое исследование. http://www.soldat.ru/doc/casualties/book/chapter5_13_11.html
  41. ^ R. J. Rummel, Table 6.A. 5,104,000 victims during the pre-World War II period: sources, calculations and estimates, Freedom, Democracy, Peace; Power, Democide, and War, University of Hawaii.
  42. ^ R. J. Rummel, Table 7.A. 13,053,000 victims during World War II: sources, calculations and estimates, op.cit.
  43. ^ R. J. Rummel, Table 8.A. 15,6133,000 victims during the Postwar and Stalin's twilight period: Soviet murder: sources, calculations and estimates, op.cit.
  44. ^ "Report Card: Civil Rights in Soviet Union," National Review, January 22, 1988.
  45. ^ "Report Card: Civil Rights in Soviet Union," National Review, January 22, 1988.
  46. ^ Dan Dungaciu, Moldova Ante Portas, Tritonic, Bucureşti, 2006, ISBN 973-733-045-5, p. 11
  47. ^ Mihai Adauge, Alexandru Furtună, Basarabia şi Basarabenii, Uniunea Scriitorilor din Moldova, Chişinău, 1991, ISBN 5-88568-022-1, pp. 342-347
  48. ^ Dan Dungaciu, p.11
  49. ^ Gheorghe E. Cojocaru, Politica externă a Republicii Moldova. Studii., Ediţia 2-a, Civitas, Chişinău, 2001, p. 126+128
  50. ^ Dan Dungaciu, p. 11-13
  51. ^ Resolution project published also in Moldova Suverană, 20 iunie 1991
  52. ^ Armand Goşu, "Politica răsăriteană a României: 1990-2005", Contrafort, No 1 (135), January 2006
  53. ^ The German Ambassador in the Soviet Union (Schulenburg) to the German Foreign Office; June 23, 1940, the Avalon Project at Yale Law School
  54. ^ The German Ambassador in the Soviet Union (Schulenburg) to the German Foreign Office; June 24, 1940, the Avalon Project at Yale Law School
  55. ^ The Reich Foreign Minister to the German Ambassador in the Soviet Union (Schulenburg); June 25, 1940, the Avalon Project at Yale Law School
  56. ^ The German Ambassador in the Soviet Union (Schulenburg) to the German Foreign Office; June 26, 1940, the Avalon Project at Yale Law School
  57. ^ The German Ambassador in the Soviet Union (Schulenburg) to the German Foreign Office; June 26, 1940, the Avalon Project at Yale Law School
  58. ^ The German Ambassador in the Soviet Union (Schulenburg) to the German Foreign Office; June 26, 1940, the Avalon Project at Yale Law School
  59. ^ The Reich Foreign Minister to the German Foreign Office; June 27, 1940, the Avalon Project at Yale Law School

See also

References

External links


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