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Soviet war in Afghanistan
Part of the Cold War and the Civil war in Afghanistan
Mortar attack on Shigal Tarna garrison, Kunar Province, 87.jpg
Mujahideen convene outside a Soviet garrison, preparing to launch a mortar attack.
Date 27 December, 1979 – 15 February, 1989
Location Afghanistan
Result
Belligerents
 Soviet Union
Afghanistan Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
Mujahideen
Commanders
Soviet Union Leonid Brezhnev
Soviet Union Yuri Andropov
Soviet Union Konstantin Chernenko
Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev
Soviet Union Dmitriy Ustinov
Soviet Union Sergei Sokolov
Soviet Union Valentin Varennikov
Soviet Union Igor Rodionov
Soviet Union Boris Gromov
Afghanistan Babrak Karmal
Afghanistan Mohammad Najibullah
Afghanistan Abdul Rashid Dostum
Afghanistan Shahnawaz Tanai
Afghanistan Mohammed Rafie
Flag of Jihad.svg Mohammed Omar
Flag of Jihad.svg Hafiz Gul Bahadur
Flag of Jihad.svg Ahmad Shah Massoud
Flag of Jihad.svg Abdul Haq
Flag of Jihad.svg Ismail Khan
Flag of Jihad.svg Gulbuddin Hekmatyar
Flag of Jihad.svg Jalaluddin Haqqani
Flag of Jihad.svg Abdullah Azzam
Flag of Jihad.svg Abdul Rahim Wardak
Pakistan Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq
Pakistan Akhtar Abdur Rehman
United States Jimmy Carter
United States Ronald Reagan
United Kingdom Margaret Thatcher
Saudi Arabia Osama bin Laden
Saudi Arabia King Khalid
Saudi Arabia King Fahd
Strength
Soviet:
  • 118,000 (1985)[3]
Afghan Government:
  • 40,000
Mujahideen:
  • 220 000 (1985)
Casualties and losses
Soviet:
  • 14,453 Killed (total)
  • 35,478 Wounded
  • 311 Missing
  • 9,057 killed in combat
  • 5,000+ non-combat related
Mujahideen:
  • Tens of thousands killed
Civilians:
Unknown. Estimates on civilian deaths vary at under 700,000 to over 2,000,000.[citation needed]
.
The Soviet War in Afghanistan was a ten-year conflict involving the Soviet Union, supporting the Marxist government of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan at their own request against the Islamist Mujahideen Resistance.
^ The next year, invading Soviet troops supported a Marxist government beset by insurgency.
  • Out of Afghanistan's upheaval, a new life here 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.seattlepi.com [Source type: News]

^ Soviet Union forces were supporting the Marxist People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) government against the Mujahideen resistance.
  • Mutiny.in » Manjunath Singe 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC mutiny.in [Source type: Original source]

^ Death toll of Soviet war in Afghanistan.
  • Leonas Cerskus: "The story of Lithuanian soldier". Links. 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The mujahideen found other support from a variety of sources including the United States, United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Egypt and other Muslim nations through the context of the Cold War.^ The Afghan government was also supported by India , while the mujahideen found other support from a variety of sources including the United States , Saudi Arabia , Pakistan , and other Muslim nations through the context of the Cold War and the regional India-Pakistan conflict .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The latter group found support from a variety of sources including the United States, .
  • Organizing for America | Obama we need a Visonary leader 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC my.barackobama.com [Source type: General]

^ Helped by other fundamentalist Muslims coming from Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan.
  • Afghanistan Under Soviet Rule 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.colorado.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The initial Soviet deployment of the 40th Army in Afghanistan began on December 24, 1979 under Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev.^ "Afghanistan Invaded by Soviets, December 24, 1979, December 27, 1979."
  • The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan 1979-1989 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC nhs.needham.k12.ma.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet army entered Kabul on December 25, 1979.
  • History of Afghanistan, Afghanistan History, History Afghanistan 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC afghanistan.saarctourism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Soviet war in Afghanistan begins (1979): .
  • MySpace - FUCK THE CIA FUCK THE CFR FUCK THE NWO - 29 - Male - Washington - myspace.com/fuckthecia 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: General]

[4] .The final troop withdrawal started on May 15, 1988, and ended on February 15, 1989 under the last Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev.^ The Soviets completed their troop withdrawal Feb.
  • Afghanistan 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

^ The Soviet Union supported the Najibullah regime even after the withdrawal of Soviet troops in February 1989.
  • Background Notes Archive - Near East and North Africa 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The agreement on withdrawal held, and on February 15, 1989, the last Soviet troops departed on schedule from Afghanistan.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Due to the interminable nature of the war, the conflict in Afghanistan has often been referred to as the Soviets' Vietnam;[5] the analogy compares the conflict to America's role in the Vietnam War.^ Due to the interminable nature of the war, the conflict in Afghanistan has often been referred to as the Soviet equivalent of the United States' Vietnam War.
  • Soviet-Iraqi war in Iran - Alternative History 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC althistory.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Due to the interminable nature of the war, the conflict in Afghanistan has often been referred to as the Soviets' Vietnam ; [ 4 ] the analogy compares the conflict to America's role in the Vietnam War .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Death toll of Soviet war in Afghanistan.
  • Leonas Cerskus: "The story of Lithuanian soldier". Links. 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Background

Afghanistan demographics

.For centuries, the region today known as Afghanistan has been predominantly Muslim since 882 after Arab invasions converted local populations from Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, and Hinduism.^ Having seen many cultures come and go throughout the centuries, the region today known as Afghanistan has been predominantly Muslim since 882 after Arab invasions forced local populations to convert from Zoroastrianism , Buddhism , and Hinduism .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Afghanistan's first known invasion was by the Medians.
  • Mythos versus Logos or why do men believe that a logical and rational universe denies the truth of intuition and the mystery of life and God 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.unique-design.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Long a producer of opium poppies for local and regional consumption, Afghanistan began shipping large quantities to Pakistan for the production of heroin, which was then shipped throughout the world.
  • Forgotten Coverage of Afghan "Freedom Fighters": The villains of today's news were heroes in the '80s 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fair.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Forgotten Coverage of Afghan 'Freedom Fighters' 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fair.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The country's nearly impassable mountains and desert terrain have contributed to its ethnically and linguistically diverse population.^ The country's nearly impassable mountains and desert terrain have contributed to its ethnically and linguistically diverse population .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Terrain : Landlocked; mostly mountains and desert.
  • Afghanistan Facts — Afghanistan Relief Organization 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.afghanrelief.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Terrain: Landlocked; mostly mountains and desert.
  • Background Notes Archive - Near East and North Africa 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sea Island Summit 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pashtuns are the largest ethnic group in the country; however the national population also consists of Tajiks, Hazara, Aimak, Uzbeks, Uyghur, Turkmen and other small groups.^ While population data is somewhat unreliable for Afghanistan, Pashtuns make up the largest ethnic group at 38-44% of the population, followed by Tajiks (25%), Hazaras (10%), Uzbek (6-8%), Aimaq, Turkmen, Baluch, and other small groups.
  • Afghanistan Facts — Afghanistan Relief Organization 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.afghanrelief.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pashtuns are the dominant ethnic group, accounting for about 38% of the population.
  • Background Notes Archive - Near East and North Africa 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main ethnic groups are Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Turkmen, Aimaq, Baluch, Nuristani, and Kizilbash.

.Many Soviet Muslims from the bordering Central Asian Soviet republics Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan had ethnic kinship relationships in both Iran and Afghanistan.^ Asian country bordered by Iran , Turkmenistan , Uzbekistan , Tajikistan , China , and Pakistan .
  • Afghanistan@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To the former Soviet Central Asian republics in the north.
  • Escalation of US NATO War in Afghanistan: The Risks of Regional Conflagration 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: News]

^ Many Soviet Muslims from the bordering Central Asian Soviet republics Turkmenistan , Uzbekistan and Tajikistan had ethnic kinship relationships in both Iran and Afghanistan.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Russian military involvement in Afghanistan has a long history, going back to Tsarist expansions in the so-called "Great Game" between Russia and Britain.^ Russian military history, Soviet military history, military history of Russia, Russian war history on RussiansAbroad.com .
  • Russian military history, Soviet military history, military history of Russia, Russian war history on RussiansAbroad.com 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.russiansabroad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After a century of the Great Game, Amanullah had won Afghanistan back its independence.
  • History of Afghanistan - Lonely Planet Travel Information 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: News]

^ What Kipling called "the Great Game" seemed over.
  • Afghanistan: The Imperial Dream - The New York Review of Books 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.nybooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.This began in the 19th century with such events as the Panjdeh Incident, a military skirmish that occurred in 1885 when Russian forces seized Afghan territory south of the Oxus River around an oasis at Panjdeh.^ Russian became the Afghan military language.  .
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Throughout the 19th century Afghans fought against British forces.

^ The U.S. military denied that the incident occurred.

This interest in the region continued on through the Soviet era, with billions in economic and military aid sent to Afghanistan between 1955 and 1978.[6]
.In February 1979, the Islamic Revolution ousted the US-backed Shah from Afghanistan's neighbor Iran and the United States ambassador to Afghanistan was kidnapped and killed by Islamic militants, despite attempts by the Afghan security forces and Soviet advisers to free him.^ Iran severed its military alliance with the United States after the 1979 Iranian Revolution.
  • America's "Long War": The Legacy of the Iraq-Iran and Soviet-Afghan Wars 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States boycotted the Games because of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
  • Archive : The New Yorker 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.newyorker.com [Source type: News]

^ In February 1979, the Islamic Revolution ousted the US -backed Shah from Afghanistan's neighbor Iran and the United States ambassador to Afghanistan was kidnapped and killed by Islamic militants , despite attempts by the Afghan security forces and Soviet advisers to free him.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The United States then deployed twenty ships to the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea including two aircraft carriers, and there was a constant stream of threats of warfare between the US and Iran.^ The United States then deployed twenty ships to the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea including two aircraft carriers , and there was a constant stream of threats of warfare between the US and Iran .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is not a threat in terms of energy supply lines to the United States.
  • Why is the USA in Afghanistan? 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC therealnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Compared to twenty years ago, however, the United States’ world position is greatly weakened and the role of its imperialist allies is much greater.
  • TROTSKYIST BULLETIN NO. 8 - AFGHANISTAN & THE LEFT 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.bolshevik.org [Source type: Original source]

[7]
.March 1979 marked the signing of the US-backed peace agreement between Israel and Egypt.^ March 1979 marked the signing of the US-backed peace agreement between Israel and Egypt .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treaty of Peace between Egypt and Israel (3-26) and accompanying letters to the treaty .

^ He negotiated a peace treaty between Israel and Egypt, that at which the Soviet’s felt was an advantage to the US government during the Soviet war in Afghanistan.
  • HemiGirl’s Blog - The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.thehemigirl.com [Source type: General]
  • HemiGirl’s Blog : The Hidden Truth 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.thehemigirl.com [Source type: General]

.The Soviet leadership saw the agreement as a major advantage for the United States.^ The United States and the Soviet Union would act as guarantors of the agreement.
  • Afghanistan - COMMUNISM, REBELLION, AND SOVIET INTERVENTION 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC countrystudies.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanistan - COMMUNISM, REBELLION, AND SOVIET INTERVENTION 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.country-data.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanistan COMMUNISM, REBELLION, AND SOVIET INTERVENTION - Flags, Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International Agreements,Population, Social Statistics, Political System 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC workmall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet leadership saw the agreement as a major advantage for the United States.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the coming years, Afghanistan will develop close ties with the Soviet Union after the United States refuses to grant military aid.
  • CNN.com - Timeline: The history of Afghanistan - September 24, 2001 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC archives.cnn.com [Source type: News]

.One Soviet newspaper stated that Egypt and Israel were now “gendarmes of the Pentagon”.^ One Soviet newspaper stated that Egypt and Israel were now “ gendarmes of the Pentagon ”.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is a photo of one in "KGB & Soviet State Security Uniforms & Militaria 1917-91 In Color Photographs" by Laszlo.
  • Soviet Tropical Cap 25 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.reenactor.net [Source type: General]

^ The real-world reason behind this is that no one foresaw the collapse of the Soviet Union only a few years after "The Naked Now" was produced.
  • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics - Memory Alpha, the Star Trek Wiki 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC memory-alpha.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics - Memory Alpha, the Star Trek Wiki 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC memory-alpha.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Soviets viewed the treaty not only as a peace agreement between their erstwhile allies in Egypt and the US-supported Israelis but also as a military pact.^ Treaty of Peace between Egypt and Israel (3-26) and accompanying letters to the treaty .

^ And the US also enjoys tribal support, which was only rarely the case for the Soviets.
  • The Soviet and US Wars in Afghanistan: Why They Differed, November 30, 2001 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC theestimate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Soviets viewed the treaty not only as a peace agreement between their erstwhile allies in Egypt and the US-supported Israelis but also as a military pact.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .In addition, the US sold more than 5,000 missiles to Saudi Arabia and also supplied the Royalists in the North Yemen Civil War against the communist rebellion.^ They have MORE MONEY than us.
  • Cut and run in Afghanistan? | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: General]

^ Yemen is latest target in US war .
  • Trinicenter.com - The Anti-Empire Report: Obama-Biden, Russia-U.S. 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.trinicenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Trinicenter.com - Abu Hamza al-Masri: Made in the USA 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.trinicenter.com [Source type: News]

^ In addition, the US sold more than 5,000 missiles to Saudi Arabia and also supplied the Royalists in the North Yemen Civil War against the communist rebellion.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also, the Soviet Union's previously strong relations with Iraq had recently soured.^ Also, the Soviet Union's previously strong relations with Iraq had recently soured.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The analysis of events leading to the Soviet withdrawal covers the important negotiations and relates them to historic changes taking place in the Soviet Union and in its relationship to the rest of the world.
  • Soviet Invasion Of Afghanistan - Research and Read Books, Journals, Articles at Questia Online Library 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ British relations with Afghanistan soured with Soviet military aid to Afghanistan and Indian nationalists being given asylum in Kabul.
  • Afghanistan: The New Great Game of Oil Wars and the Next Chapter in the Obama Administration 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC obrag.org [Source type: General]
  • Afghanistan: The New Great Game of Oil Wars and the Next Chapter in the Obama Administration 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC obrag.org [Source type: General]

.In June 1978, Iraq began entering into friendlier relations with the Western world and buying French and Italian-made weapons, though the vast majority still came from the Soviet Union, their Warsaw Pact allies and China.^ It was believed that the western worlds biggest threat came from Nuclear War with the Soviet Union.
  • Spokane / Cd'A Paintball Forums - HDS Regrand opening game Sept. - Op: Falling Star 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.irregulators.com [Source type: General]

^ When it began, it was meant to be the Soviet Union's Vietnam.
  • Peace Through Occupation: The Toronto Star on Afghanistan | En Camino 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.en-camino.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1987, the Soviet Union made a desperate sprint for world conquest.
  • USSR - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • USSR - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

Democratic Republic of Afghanistan

History of Afghanistan
Emblem of Afghanistan
This article is part of a series
Timeline
Pre-Islamic Period
Achaemenids (550-330 BC)
Seleucids (330-150 BC)
Greco-Bactrians (256-125 BC)
Sakas (145 BC - )
Kushans (30 CE - 248 CE)
Indo-Sassanid (248 - 410)
Kidarites (320-465)
Hephthalites (410-557)
Sassanids (224-579)
Kabul Shahi (565-670)
Islamic Conquest
Umayyads (661-750)
Abbasids (750-821)
Tahirids (821-873)
Saffarids (863-900)[9]
Samanids (875-999)
Ghaznavids (963-1187)
Seljukids (1037-1194)
Khwarezmids (1077-1231)
Ghurids (1149-1212)
Ilkhanate (1258-1353)
Timurids (1370-1506)
Mughals (1501-1738)
Safavids (1510-1709)
Hotaki dynasty (1709-1738)
Afsharids (1738-1747)
Durrani Empire (1747-1823)
Emirate (1823-1926)
Kingdom (1926-1973)
Republic (1973-1978)
Democratic Republic (1978-1992)
Islamic State (1992-1996)
Islamic Emirate (1996-2001)
Islamic Republic (2001-)
Afghan Civil War
1979–1989
1989–1992
1992–1996
1996–2001
2001–present

Afghanistan Portal
 v • d • e 
.Before the national reconciliation talks in 1987 the official name of the country was the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (Pashto/Persian: جمهوری دموکراتیک افغانستان).^ Main article: Democratic Republic of Afghanistan Before the national reconciliation talks in 1987 the official name of the country was the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (Pashto/Persian: جمهوری دموکراتیک افغانستان).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Official languages: Dari (Persian) and Pashto .
  • Embassy of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan in Beijing 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC beijing.mfa.gov.af [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Official name: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan .
  • Embassy of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan in Beijing 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC beijing.mfa.gov.af [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The republic was a self-declared communist state established by the Afghan communist party, the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) and then leader Nur Muhammad Taraki in the 1978 Saur Revolution.^ The most notable dissent came from the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan.
  • The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was informed by several important ideological factors that demonstrate their need to exert rigid control and influence in any political situation 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC s00.middlebury.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The republic was a self-declared communist state established by the Afghan communist party, the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) and then leader Nur Muhammad Taraki in the 1978 Saur Revolution .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nur Muhammad Taraki, Secretary General of the PDPA, became President of the Revolutionary Council and Prime Minister of the newly established Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.
  • Background Notes Archive - Near East and North Africa 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanistan 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanistan Facts — Afghanistan Relief Organization 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.afghanrelief.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the start, the republic ran into conflict with the local mujahideen which started what is known as the Afghan civil war.^ Afghanistan was plunged into civil war.

^ Afghan Civil War continues [ 1 ] .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the start, the republic ran into conflict with the local mujahideen which started what is known as the Afghan civil war .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1979, the Soviet Union invaded the country, killed the sitting president Hafizullah Amin and installed the more Soviet-friendly Babrak Karmal on the presidential post.^ Amin is executed, and he is replaced with Babrak Karmal.
  • Cronological History of Afghanistan - the cradle of Gandharan civilisation 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gandhara.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1978, the Soviet Union invaded.
  • Afghanistan 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanistan Facts — Afghanistan Relief Organization 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.afghanrelief.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Russian special forces installed their puppet Babrak Karmal as president.
  • Socialist Workers Party - How Afghanistan became the graveyard of the Russian empire 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.swp.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Soviet troops stayed in Afghanistan to help the communist government and did not leave until 1989.
.After the Soviet withdrawal, the Afghan government continued to deal with attacks from the mujahideen.^ After the Soviet withdrawal, the Afghan government continued to deal with attacks from the mujahideen.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From Wikipedia: Wikipedia on Mujahedin wrote: Spoiler: The best-known mujahideen, various loosely-aligned Afghan opposition groups, initially fought against the incumbent pro-Soviet Afghan government during the late 1970s.
  • xkcd • View topic - Afghan Government to kill British-deported atheist apostate 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The withdrawal was generally executed peacefully, as the Soviets had negotiated ceasefires with local mujahideen commanders, in order to ensure a safe passage.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It received funding and arms from the Soviet Union until 1991 when the Soviet Union collapsed.^ It received funding and arms from the Soviet Union until 1991 when the Soviet Union collapsed.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Armed Conflicts involving the Soviet Union .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In August 1991, an unsuccessful military coup against Gorbachev aimed at preserving the Soviet Union instead led to its collapse.
  • Top20Russia.com - Your Top20 Guide to Russia! 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC top20russia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For several years, the government army had actually increased their effectiveness past levels ever achieved during the Soviet military presence, but the government was dealt a major blow when Abdul Rashid Dostum, a leading general, switched allegiances to the mujahideen in 1992, and together they captured the city of Kabul.^ Kabul had achieved a stalemate that exposed the mujahideen's weaknesses, political and military.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This represented a new level of Soviet military presence.
  • Predicting the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan: The Intelligence Community's Record (U) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For several years, the government army had actually increased their effectiveness past levels ever achieved during the Soviet military presence, but the government was dealt a major blow when Abdul Rashid Dostum , a leading general, switched allegiances to the mujahideen in 1992, and together they captured the city of Kabul .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Saur Revolution

.King Mohammed Zahir Shah acceded to the throne and reigned from 1933 to 1973. Zahir's cousin, Mohammad Daoud Khan, served as Prime Minister from 1954 to 1963. The Marxist PDPA party's strength grew considerably in these years.^ The Marxist PDPA party's strength grew considerably in these years.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Zahir Shah's uncles serve as prime ministers and advisors until 1953.
  • Cronological History of Afghanistan - the cradle of Gandharan civilisation 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gandhara.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most imaginative reforms were overseen by prime minister Mohammed Daoud, the king’s cousin.
  • History of Afghanistan - Lonely Planet Travel Information 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: News]

.In 1967, the PDPA split into two rival factions, the Khalq (Masses) faction headed by Nur Muhammad Taraki and Hafizullah Amin and the Parcham (Flag) faction led by Babrak Karmal.^ Even at this stage the PDPA had split into two bickering factions, Khalq (‘The People’) and the mainly Pashtun Parcham (‘The Banner’).
  • History of Afghanistan - Lonely Planet Travel Information 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: News]

^ In 1967, the PDPA split into two rival factions, the Khalq (Masses) faction headed by Nur Muhammad Taraki and Hafizullah Amin and the Parcham (Flag) faction led by Babrak Karmal .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1967, the PDPA had split into two groups-the Khalq and Parcham-but there was violent rivalry even within the Khalq faction.

.Former Prime Minister Daoud seized power in a military coup on July 17, 1973, after charges of corruption and poor economic conditions against the King's government.^ July 17, 1973 .
  • Guide to the Records of National Conference on Soviet Jewry, undated, 1949, 1954, 1956, 1958-1993 *I-181 and *I-181A 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Daoud's Republic (1973-78) and the April 1978 Coup Amid charges of corruption and malfeasance against the royal family and poor economic conditions, former Prime Minister Daoud seized power in a military coup on July 17, 1973.
  • Afghanistan (11/08) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Former Prime Minister Mohammad Sardar Daoud Khan seized power in a military coup on July 17, 1973.
  • Mythos versus Logos or why do men believe that a logical and rational universe denies the truth of intuition and the mystery of life and God 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.unique-design.net [Source type: Original source]

.Daoud put an end to the monarchy but his time in power was widely unpopular.^ Daoud put an end to the monarchy but his time in power was widely unpopular.
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^ In the end I would make a humble request, please let not that time come when we will be forced to put "Mirch" (Red Pepper) in your already wounded bodies.

^ On 18 July 1973, Daoud made a radio announcement, informing the Afghan people that the monarchy had come to an end and that a Republic was being set up.
  • Afghanistan: the larger picture 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC wsarch.ucr.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Intense opposition from factions of the PDPA was sparked by the repression imposed on them by Daoud's regime and the death of a leading PDPA member, Mir Akbar Khyber.^ Intense opposition from factions of the PDPA was sparked by the repression imposed on them by Daoud's regime and the death of a leading PDPA member, Mir Akbar Khyber .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On April 27-28, 1978, the PDPA initiated a bloody coup which resulted in the overthrow and death of Daoud and most of his family.
  • Background Notes Archive - Near East and North Africa 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Animosity between members of the Parcham and Khalq factions of the PDPA also hampered the army's ability to carry out its mission.
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] .The mysterious circumstances of Khyber's death sparked massive anti-Daoud demonstrations in Kabul, which resulted in the arrest of several prominent PDPA leaders.^ The mysterious circumstances of Khyber's death sparked massive anti-Daoud demonstrations in Kabul , which resulted in the arrest of several prominent PDPA leaders.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On April 27, 1978, the PDPA initiated a bloody coup, which resulted in the overthrow and murder of Daoud and most of his family.
  • Afghanistan (11/08) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanistan 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanistan Facts — Afghanistan Relief Organization 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.afghanrelief.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thousands were arrested, Solidarity was banned, and several Solidarity leaders and Catholic clergy were murdered.
  • The Fall of Soviet Communism in Central and Eastern Europe 9 October 2009 21:021 UTC www.cephasministry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]
.On April 27, 1978, the Afghan army, which had been sympathetic to the PDPA cause, overthrew and executed Daoud along with members of his family.^ On April 27, 1978, the Afghan army , which had been sympathetic to the PDPA cause, overthrew and executed Daoud along with members of his family.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between April 1978 and the Soviet invasion of December 1979, thousands of prisoners, perhaps as many as 27,000, were executed at the notorious [ 15 ] Pul-e-Charkhi prison , including many village mullahs and headmen.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Western leanings of Daoud Khan incensed the leftist and particularly communist parties in Afghanistan that staged a bloody coup in April 1978 led by the Marxist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA).
  • Obama’s Undeclared War on Pakistan Continues, Despite Attempts to Downplay It – Rethink Afghanistan War Blog 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC rethinkafghanistan.com [Source type: News]

[12] .Nur Muhammad Taraki, Secretary General of the PDPA, became President of the Revolutionary Council and Prime Minister of the newly established Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.^ Nur Muhammad Taraki, Secretary General of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan , became President of the Revolutionary Council and Prime Minister of the newly established Democratic Republic of Afghanistan , strongly supported by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics .
  • Mythos versus Logos or why do men believe that a logical and rational universe denies the truth of intuition and the mystery of life and God 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.unique-design.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Nur Muhammad Taraki, Secretary General of the PDPA, became President of the Revolutionary Council and Prime Minister of the newly established Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.
  • Background Notes Archive - Near East and North Africa 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanistan 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanistan Facts — Afghanistan Relief Organization 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.afghanrelief.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nur Muhammad Taraki, Secretary General of the PDPA, became President of the Revolutionary Council and Prime Minister of the newly established Democratic Republic of Afghanistan .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Factions inside the PDPA

.After the revolution, Taraki assumed the Presidency, Prime Ministership and General Secretary of the PDPA. The government was divided along factional lines, with President Taraki and Deputy Prime Minister Hafizullah Amin of the Khalq faction against Parcham leaders such as Babrak Karmal and Mohammad Najibullah.^ In September 1979, Taraki's Prime Minister, Hafizullah Amin, seized power and murdered Taraki.

^ The Soviets executed Amin on December 27 and installed Babrak Karmal , leader of PDPA's Parcham faction, as president.
  • Afghanistan 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC bss.sfsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mohammad Moussa becomes Prime Minister.
  • Cronological History of Afghanistan - the cradle of Gandharan civilisation 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gandhara.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Within the PDPA, conflicts resulted in exiles, purges and executions of Parcham members.^ Within the PDPA, conflicts resulted in exiles , purges and executions of Parcham members.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conflicts within the PDPA also surfaced early and resulted in exiles, purges, imprisonments, and executions.
  • Background Notes Archive - Near East and North Africa 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanistan 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanistan Facts — Afghanistan Relief Organization 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.afghanrelief.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Animosity between members of the Parcham and Khalq factions of the PDPA also hampered the army's ability to carry out its mission.
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]
.During its first 18 months of rule, the PDPA applied a Soviet-style program of modernizing reforms.^ During its first 18 months of rule, the PDPA brutally imposed a Marxist-style "reform" program, which ran counter to deeply rooted Afghan traditions.
  • Afghanistan 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanistan Facts — Afghanistan Relief Organization 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.afghanrelief.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During its first 18 months of rule, the PDPA brutally imposed a Marxist-style "reform" program which ran counter to deeply rooted Islamic traditions.
  • Background Notes Archive - Near East and North Africa 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During its first 18 months of rule, the PDPA applied a Soviet-style program of modernizing reforms.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Decrees setting forth changes in marriage customs and land reform were not received well by a population deeply immersed in tradition and Islam, particularly by the powerful land owners who were harmed economically by the abolition of usury and the cancellation of farmers' debts.^ Decrees setting forth changes in marriage customs and land reform were not received well by a population deeply immersed in tradition and Islam , particularly by the powerful land owners who were harmed economically by the abolition of usury and the cancellation of farmers' debts.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Decrees advocating the abolition of usury, changes in marriage customs, and land reform were particularly misunderstood and upsetting to highly conservative villagers.
  • Background Notes Archive - Near East and North Africa 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During its first 18 months of rule, the PDPA brutally imposed a Marxist-style "reform" program, which ran counter to deeply rooted Afghan traditions.
  • Afghanistan 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanistan Facts — Afghanistan Relief Organization 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.afghanrelief.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By mid-1978, a rebellion started with rebels attacking the local military garrison in the Nuristan region of eastern Afghanistan and soon civil war spread throughout the country.^ By the summer of 1978, a major revolt in the Nuristan region of eastern Afghanistan spread into a country-wide insurgency.
  • Background Notes Archive - Near East and North Africa 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Afghanistan was plunged into civil war.

^ Part of the Cold War and the Civil war in Afghanistan .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In September 1979, Deputy Prime Minister Hafizullah Amin seized power after a palace shootout that resulted in the death of President Taraki.^ In September 1979, Taraki's Prime Minister, Hafizullah Amin, seized power and murdered Taraki.

^ Prime Minister and his cabinet on September 9, 2009.

^ In September 1979, Hafizullah Amin, who had earlier been Prime Minister and Minister of Defense, seized power from Taraki after a palace shootout.
  • Afghanistan 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanistan Facts — Afghanistan Relief Organization 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.afghanrelief.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Over two months of instability overwhelmed Amin's regime as he moved against his opponents in the PDPA and the growing rebellion.^ Over the next 2 months, instability plagued Amin's regime as he moved against perceived enemies in the PDPA. By December, party morale was crumbling, and the insurgency was growing.
  • Afghanistan 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanistan Facts — Afghanistan Relief Organization 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.afghanrelief.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over the next two months, instability plagued Amin's regime as he moved against perceived enemies in the PDPA. By December, party morale was crumbling, and the insurgency was growing.
  • Background Notes Archive - Near East and North Africa 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over two months of instability overwhelmed Amin's regime as he moved against his opponents in the PDPA and the growing rebellion.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Soviet-Afghan relations

.The USSR had provided aid to Afghanistan as early as 1919, shortly after Russian Revolution and when the regime was facing the Russian Civil War.^ Afghanistan was plunged into civil war.

^ Part of the Cold War and the Civil war in Afghanistan .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Afghanistan, civil war went on .
  • Investigative Reporting: 9-11 To Big Oil - Which Facts Behind Afghanistan Invasion And 9-11 Attacks? 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.masternewmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Provisions were given in the form of small arms, ammunition, a few aircraft, and (according to debated Soviet sources) a million gold rubles to support the resistance during the Third Anglo-Afghan War.^ Third Afghan War, 1919, British .
  • Afghanistan, Islamic Fascism 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ An examination of the Swedish debate during the Lebanon War supports this interpretation.
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^ This began during the Afghan war against the Soviets.
  • ISR Web Exclusive | Afghanistan, the Taliban and the United States 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.isreview.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1924, the USSR again moved to strengthen the Afghan army, by providing small arms and aircraft, and establishing training centres in Tashkent (Uzbek Soviet).^ In 1924, the USSR again moved to strengthen the Afghan army, by providing small arms and aircraft, and establishing training centres in Tashkent ( Uzbek Soviet ).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Provisions were given in the form of small arms , ammunition, a few aircraft , and (according to debated Soviet sources) a million gold rubles to support the resistance during the Third Anglo-Afghan War .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By early autumn, the Afghan army had collapsed and the USSR, fearing that Islamic rebellion in Afghanistan would quickly spread to its Central Asian republics, invaded on Dec.

.Soviet-Afghan military cooperation began on a regular basis in 1956, and further agreements were made in the 1970s, which saw the USSR send advisers and specialists.^ April 29 - Afghan-Soviet Cultural Cooperation Agreement signed.
  • Lemar-Aftaab | www.afghanmagazine.com | October - December 1999 | Vol 1 | Issues 10 |Articles | The Dreaded Devil's Spiral: Treaties & Events leading to the 1979 Invasion | By Mir Hekmatullah Sadat 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.afghanmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet-Afghan military cooperation began on a regular basis in 1956, and further agreements were made in the 1970s, which saw the USSR send advisers and specialists.
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^ Soviet paratroopers aboard a BMD-1 in Kabul That operation began at 19:00 hr., when the Soviet Zenith Group destroyed Kabul's communications hub, paralyzing Afghan military command.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A final pre-war treaty, signed in December 1978, allowed the PDPA to call upon the Soviet Union for military support.^ In 1978, the Soviet Union invaded.
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  • Afghanistan Facts — Afghanistan Relief Organization 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.afghanrelief.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A final pre-war treaty, signed in December 1978, allowed the PDPA to call upon the Soviet Union for military support.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Taraki signs treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union.
  • Cronological History of Afghanistan - the cradle of Gandharan civilisation 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gandhara.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14]

Initiation of the insurgency

.In June 1975, militants from the Jamiat Islami party attempted to overthrow the government.^ In June 1975, militants from the Jamiat Islami party attempted to overthrow the government.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Religious Fundamentalism The military government encouraged the religious parties like Jamait-e-Islami operating in the field of politics.

^ The Jamaat-i-Islami and the Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam, the largest parties in the MMA, have maintained close ties with the military for decades, the report points out.

.They started their rebellion in the Panjshir valley (a part of the greater Parwan province), in the present day Panjshir province, some 100 kilometers north of Kabul, and in a number of other provinces of the country.^ They started their rebellion in the Panjshir valley (a part of the greater Parwan province ), in the present day Panjshir province , some 100 kilometers north of Kabul , and in a number of other provinces of the country.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were large in numbers they started to beat me.

^ Badakhshan., and other parts of the country.

.However, government forces easily defeated the insurgency and a sizable portion of the insurgents sought refuge in Pakistan where they enjoyed the support of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's government, which had been alarmed by Daoud's revival of the Pashtunistan issue.^ Their opposition to the Pashtunistan issue gained them the active support of Pakistan.

^ However, government forces easily defeated the insurgency and a sizable portion of the insurgents sought refuge in Pakistan where they enjoyed the support of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto 's government, which had been alarmed by Daoud's revival of the Pashtunistan issue.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the war policy of the Israeli government finds support in the Bible.
  • Stephen Roth Institute: Antisemitism and Racism 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.tau.ac.il [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15]
.In 1978 the Taraki government initiated a series of reforms, including a radical modernization of the traditional islamic civil and especially marriage law, aimed at "uprooting feudalism" in Afghan society.^ In 1978 the Taraki government initiated a series of reforms, including a radical modernization of the traditional islamic civil and especially marriage law, aimed at "uprooting feudalism " in Afghan society.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the pretext that the Afghan government was a Soviet puppet, which was false, the then Carter Administration authorised the covert funding of opposition tribal groups, whose traditional feudal existence had come under attack with these reforms.
  • John Wright: The Ongoing Tragedy of Afghanistan 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ During its first 18 months of rule, the PDPA brutally imposed a Marxist-style "reform" program which ran counter to deeply rooted Islamic traditions.
  • Background Notes Archive - Near East and North Africa 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16] .The government brooked no opposition to the reforms[13] and responded with violence to unrest.^ The government brooked no opposition to the reforms [ 11 ] and responded with violence to unrest .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A major pattern of anti-Christian violence in Rajasthan districts has been admitted by the Government but no police action is being taken.

^ Amnesty International has raised its concerns about the abuse of these two laws with successive governments in Bangladesh, but no action has been taken to reform them.

.Between April 1978 and the Soviet invasion of December 1979, thousands of prisoners, perhaps as many as 27,000, were executed at the notorious[17] Pul-e-Charkhi prison, including many village mullahs and headmen.^ Another contributing factor was the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979.
  • Soviet Union - Familypedia 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These events precipitated the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979.
  • Afghanistan.Ru | Pakistan�s foreign Policy toward Afghanistan from 1947 - 2008 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.afghanistan.ru [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between April 1978 and the Soviet invasion of December 1979, thousands of prisoners, perhaps as many as 27,000, were executed at the notorious [ 15 ] Pul-e-Charkhi prison , including many village mullahs and headmen.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] .Other members of the traditional elite, the religious establishment and intelligentsia fled the country.^ In addition, thousands of members of the traditional elite, the religious establishment, and the intelligentsia were imprisoned, tortured, or murdered.
  • Background Notes Archive - Near East and North Africa 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Afghanistan Facts — Afghanistan Relief Organization 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.afghanrelief.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other members of the traditional elite, the religious establishment and intelligentsia fled the country.
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^ The Dalai Lama cited India as a classic example of non-violence and religious tolerance as he also appreciated the country’s democratic traditions.

[18]
.Large parts of the country went into open rebellion.^ Large parts of the country went into open rebellion.
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^ More people would be upset if the US went into any country unlawfully than lawfully.
  • Pajamas Media » The Obama-Netanyahu Meeting: Ominous for Israel 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The hostility provoked by the king's reform program led to a rebellion in 1929, and Amanullah quickly abdicated and went into exile.
  • AFGHANISTAN, 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Parcham Government claimed that 11,000 were executed during the Amin/Taraki period in response to the revolts.^ The Parcham Government claimed that 11,000 were executed during the Amin/Taraki period in response to the revolts.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bush's justification for attacking Afghanistan was that it was harboring Osama bin Laden and training terrorists, even though bin Laden did not claim responsibility for the 9/11 attacks until 2004.
  • t r u t h o u t | Obama's Af-Pak War Is Illegal 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During this period the Afghan army itself, approximately 25,000 in number, was a major obstacle to Soviet aims, and the Soviets felt compelled to use heavy weapons against the army whose government they were presumably supporting.

[19] .The revolt began in October among the Nuristani tribes of the Kunar Valley in the northeastern part of the country near the border with Pakistan, and rapidly spread among the other ethnic groups.^ This chaos will be not contained in the borders of Afghanistan and even Pakistan, it will spread to the other parts of the world.
  • Afghanistan.Ru | Pakistan�s foreign Policy toward Afghanistan from 1947 - 2008 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.afghanistan.ru [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The revolt began in October among the Nuristani tribes of the Kunar Valley in the northeastern part of the country near the border with Pakistan, and rapidly spread among the other ethnic groups.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Badakhshan., and other parts of the country.

.By the spring of 1979, 24 of the 28 provinces had suffered outbreaks of violence.^ By the spring of 1979, 24 of the 28 provinces had suffered outbreaks of violence.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By late spring of 1979 the government was plagued by a multiplicity of problems, including armed revolt in all but three provinces and defection and rebellion in its military.
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20] .The rebellion began to take hold in the cities: in March 1979 in Herat, rebels led by Ismail Khan revolted.^ The rebellion began to take hold in the cities: in March 1979 in Herat , rebels led by Ismail Khan killed approximately 10 soldiers.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Herat, under Ismail Khan, actually was running rather well.
  • Barnett Rubin on the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan and the Rise of the Taliban | Asia Society 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.asiasociety.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ismail Khan, guerrilla commander of Jamiat-i-Islami in Herat, told observers that the Soviets were following a scorched-earth policy and that the city was suffering from shortages of essential supplies.
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Between 3000 and 5000 people were killed and wounded during the Herat revolt.^ Last month's attacks in Mumbai killed 172 people and wounded nearly 300 others.

^ But in a shocking display of irreverence, another suicide bomber blew himself up at the funeral, killing at least seven people and wounding up to forty.
  • In the Graveyard of Empires, America's War in Afghanistan - Excerpt 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Last month, masked men detonated a bomb near an Orthodox Church in southern Baghdad, killing three people and wounding 34.

.Some 100 Russian citizens and their families were killed.^ The families of recruits killed in action were offered 100,000 taka ($1,750).
  • Bangladesh: Extremist Islamist Consolidation -- Bertil Lintner 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some 1,100 families are registered as members of the Essa Nagri church.

^ In that uprising, Soviet advisers in Herat were killed as well as many of their families and some civilians from the Eastern Bloc, and it was put down with great difficulty.
  • Barnett Rubin on the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan and the Rise of the Taliban | Asia Society 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.asiasociety.org [Source type: Original source]

[21][22]
.Despite these drastic measures, by the end of 1980, out of the 80,000 soldiers strong Afghan Army, more than half had either deserted or joined the rebels.^ More than half the population had been wiped out.
  • MARCH WINDS - Jamyang Norbu - www.phayul.com 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.phayul.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Shadow Tibet : Jamyang Norbu » Blog Archive » MARCH WINDS 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.jamyangnorbu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite these drastic measures, by the end of 1980, out of the 80,000 soldiers strong Afghan Army, more than half had either deserted or joined the rebels.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That too after more than half a century.
  • Shadow Tibet : Jamyang Norbu » Blog Archive » MARCH WINDS 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.jamyangnorbu.com [Source type: Original source]

[20]

1979: Soviet deployment

The headquarters of the Soviet 40th Army in Kabul, 1987. Before the Soviet occupation, the building was Tajbeg Palace, where Hafizullah Amin was killed.
.The Afghan government, having secured a treaty in December 1978 that allowed them to call on Soviet forces, repeatedly requested the introduction of troops in Afghanistan in the spring and summer of 1979. They requested Soviet troops to provide security and to assist in the fight against the mujahideen rebels.^ They requested Soviet troops to provide security and to assist in the fight against the mujahideen rebels.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Afghan government, having secured a treaty in December 1978 that allowed them to call on Soviet forces, repeatedly requested the introduction of troops in Afghanistan in the spring and summer of 1979.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These events precipitated the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979.
  • Afghanistan.Ru | Pakistan�s foreign Policy toward Afghanistan from 1947 - 2008 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.afghanistan.ru [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On April 14, 1979, the Afghan government requested that the USSR send 15 to 20 helicopters with their crews to Afghanistan, and on June 16, the Soviet government responded and sent a detachment of tanks, BMPs, and crews to guard the government in Kabul and to secure the Bagram and Shindand airfields.^ In July, the Afghan government requested that two motorized rifle divisions be sent to Afghanistan.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet war in Afghanistan begins (1979): .
  • MySpace - FUCK THE CIA FUCK THE CFR FUCK THE NWO - 29 - Male - Washington - myspace.com/fuckthecia 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: General]

^ The two most important Soviet installations in Afghanistan are at Bagram and Shindand.

.In response to this request, an airborne battalion, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel A. Lomakin, arrived at the Bagram Air Base on July 7. They arrived without their combat gear, disguised as technical specialists.^ In response to this request, an airborne battalion, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel A. Lomakin, arrived at the Bagram Air Base on July 7.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They arrived without their combat gear, disguised as technical specialists.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meanwhile, at the beginning of July, the Soviets crossed a new threshold with their first known movement of a combat unit into Afghanistan: a battalion of airborne troops deployed at the Bagram air base near Kabul.
  • Predicting the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan: The Intelligence Community's Record (U) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They were the personal bodyguards for President Taraki.^ They were the personal bodyguards for President Taraki.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are not against our President on a personal level but rather dislike his initiative to fight against terrorism.

.The paratroopers were directly subordinate to the senior Soviet military advisor and did not interfere in Afghan politics.^ The paratroopers were directly subordinate to the senior Soviet military advisor and did not interfere in Afghan politics.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When did the Soviet-Afghan war start?
  • WikiAnswers - Asian History Questions including "If india is in asia do they classify as asian" 9 October 2009 21:021 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was the beginning of a political and military disaster for the Soviet Union that lasted for nine years with a cost of almost 15,000 troops reported killed or missing in action.
  • Military History Online - The Soviet Experience in Afghanistan: Lessons Learned 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.militaryhistoryonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After a month, the Afghan requests were no longer for individual crews and subunits, but for regiments and larger units.^ After a month, the Afghan requests were no longer for individual crews and subunits, but for regiments and larger units.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kissinger evidently believed that the United States had suffered a failure of nerve and no longer had the will or the stomach to pursue a serious strategy of containment.

^ Evidence from other sources also indicates that the Afghans did make such requests and that Moscow was for some time unwilling to involve combat units.
  • Predicting the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan: The Intelligence Community's Record (U) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In July, the Afghan government requested that two motorized rifle divisions be sent to Afghanistan.^ In July, the Afghan government requested that two motorized rifle divisions be sent to Afghanistan.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Insurgent attacks grew steadily throughout July, and the Afghanistan territory under government control continued to shrink.
  • Predicting the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan: The Intelligence Community's Record (U) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The U.S. has supported the peaceful emergence of a broad-based government representative of all Afghans and has been active in encouraging a UN role in the national reconciliation process in Afghanistan.
  • Background Notes Archive - Near East and North Africa 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The following day, they requested an airborne division in addition to the earlier requests.^ The following day, they requested an airborne division in addition to the earlier requests.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several characters are followed from the time when they decide to try leave for Russia, through their many day-long train trip, to their lives in Moscow.
  • Film Library By Country 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.osaarchivum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They repeated these requests and variants to these requests over the following months right up to December 1979.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They repeated these requests and variants to these requests over the following months right up to December 1979. However, the Soviet government was in no hurry to grant them.^ They repeated these requests and variants to these requests over the following months right up to December 1979.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They had all these basic rights.
  • Transcript: Women of Afghanistan | Beneath The Surface with Suzi Weissman 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.suziweissman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These events precipitated the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979.
  • Afghanistan.Ru | Pakistan�s foreign Policy toward Afghanistan from 1947 - 2008 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.afghanistan.ru [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The anti-communist rebels garnered support from the United States.^ The anti-communist rebels garnered support from the United States .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the biggest supporters of the mujahideen was the United States (ie Jimmy Carter).
  • HemiGirl’s Blog - The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.thehemigirl.com [Source type: General]

^ The withdrawal was seen as an ideological win for the United States which was trying to keep Middle East oil out of communist hands.
  • The United States of America: A Failing Superpower- The Politics eZine 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.lilith-ezine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As stated by the former director of the Central Intelligence Agency and current US Secretary of Defense, Robert Gates, in his memoirs From the Shadows, the US intelligence services began to aid the rebel factions in Afghanistan six months before the Soviet deployment.^ Statement of the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency before the House Committee on Armed Services, March 1, 1990.
  • Perestroika and the Soviet Military: Implications For U.S. Policy 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Question: The former director of the CIA, Robert Gates, stated in his memoirs ["From the Shadows"], that American intelligence services began to aid the Mujahadeen in Afghanistan 6 months before the Soviet intervention.
  • Nushin Arbabzadah: The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan 29 years ago led to a 10-year war of little benefit to the Russians and much suffering to the Afghans | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]
  • Afghanistan: pipelines, poppies, al-Qaeda and control of Eurasia 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.oilempire.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Defense Secretary Robert Gates has been reluctant to deploy troop levels that would match or surpass the level the Soviets had.
  • Daily Kos: Just 1,000 shy of breaking the Soviet Union's world record 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Daily Kos: Just 1,000 shy of breaking the Soviet Union's world record 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.On July 3, 1979, US President Jimmy Carter signed an executive order authorizing the CIA to conduct covert propaganda operations against the communist regime.^ On July 3, 1979, US President Jimmy Carter signed an executive order authorizing the CIA to conduct covert propaganda operations against the communist regime.
  • Firedoglake » A Quick Cruise through the (Not Too) Recent and Brief History of Afghanistan–As Affects the US Directly or Indirectly By Metonymy 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, he said, “…it was July 3, 1979 that President Carter signed the first directive for secret aid to the opponents of the pro-Soviet regime in Kabul.” The National Security advisor said he wrote the President “…that in my opinion this aid was going to induce a Soviet military intervention.” Brzezinski told Carter that the Soviets would probably intervene in Afghanistan if we funded rebels and that they, the Soviets, would then be buried in their own Vietnam.

^ He is best known for leading Congress into supporting Operation Cyclone , the largest-ever CIA covert operation , which supplied the Afghan Mujahideen during the Soviet war in Afghanistan .
  • POLITICO Forums:Politics: Obama slows troop boost decision - POLITICO.com 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: General]

Carter advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski stated: "According to the official version of history, CIA aid to the mujahideen began during 1980, that is to say, after the Soviet army invaded Afghanistan, December 24, 1979. But the reality, secretly guarded until now, is completely otherwise." Brzezinski himself played a fundamental role in crafting US policy, which, unbeknownst even to the mujahideen, was part of a larger strategy "to induce a Soviet military intervention." In a 1998 interview with Le Nouvel Observateur, Brzezinski recalled: "We didn't push the Russians to intervene, but we knowingly increased the probability that they would...That secret operation was an excellent idea. .It had the effect of drawing the Soviets into the Afghan trap ...^ It had the effect of drawing the Russians into the Afghan trap and you want me to regret it?
  • Nushin Arbabzadah: The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan 29 years ago led to a 10-year war of little benefit to the Russians and much suffering to the Afghans | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]
  • Obama’s Undeclared War on Pakistan Continues, Despite Attempts to Downplay It – Rethink Afghanistan War Blog 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC rethinkafghanistan.com [Source type: News]
  • Afghanistan: pipelines, poppies, al-Qaeda and control of Eurasia 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.oilempire.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Al-Qaeda and the "War on Terrorism" 9 October 2009 21:021 UTC www.globalpolicy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The effect was to draw the Russians into the Afghan trap."
  • ISR Web Exclusive | Afghanistan, the Taliban and the United States 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.isreview.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It had the effect of drawing the Soviets into the Afghan trap ...
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The day that the Soviets officially crossed the border, I wrote to President Carter 'We now have the opportunity of giving to the Soviet Union its Vietnam War.'"[23]
.Additionally, on July 3, 1979, Carter signed a presidential finding authorizing funding for anticommunist guerrillas in Afghanistan.^ Additionally, on July 3, 1979, Carter signed a presidential finding authorizing funding for anticommunist guerrillas in Afghanistan.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, he said, “…it was July 3, 1979 that President Carter signed the first directive for secret aid to the opponents of the pro-Soviet regime in Kabul.” The National Security advisor said he wrote the President “…that in my opinion this aid was going to induce a Soviet military intervention.” Brzezinski told Carter that the Soviets would probably intervene in Afghanistan if we funded rebels and that they, the Soviets, would then be buried in their own Vietnam.

^ But the reality, kept secret until now, is very different: it was July 3, 1979 when President Carter signed the first directive on the clandestine assistance to opponents of the pro-Soviet regime in Kabul.
  • Afghanistan: pipelines, poppies, al-Qaeda and control of Eurasia 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.oilempire.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] .As a part of the Central Intelligence Agency program called Operation Cyclone, led by their elite Special Activities Division, which included the massive arming of Afghanistan's mujahideen.^ Operation Cyclone was the code name for the United States Central Intelligence Agency program to arm the Afghan mujahideen during the Soviet war in Afghanistan.
  • Mutiny.in » Manjunath Singe 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC mutiny.in [Source type: Original source]

^ Massive amounts of aid from the Central Intelligence Agency and Saudi Arabia to the mujahideen continued.
  • Mythos versus Logos or why do men believe that a logical and rational universe denies the truth of intuition and the mystery of life and God 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.unique-design.net [Source type: Original source]

^ As a part of the Central Intelligence Agency program Operation Cyclone , the massive arming of Afghanistan's mujahideen was started.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25]
.Based on information from the KGB, Soviet leaders felt that Amin destabilized the situation in Afghanistan.^ Based on information from the KGB , Soviet leaders felt that Amin destabilized the situation in Afghanistan.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Hafizullah Amin was assassinated and Babrak Karmal, former head of the Parcham communist faction and Afghanistan's former ambassador to Czechoslovakia, assumed power with Soviet backing.
  • Role Of UN In Soviet Invasion Of Afghanistan - Author - Romit Agrawal 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.legalserviceindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Based on this information, Schmid, along with many of the Third Reich leaders, was certain that the British would sue for peace to avoid an invasion.
  • Historical Perspectives on Operational Environment Research and ObjectiveDetermination in Air Campaign Planning 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Following Amin's initial coup against and killing of President Taraki, the KGB station in Kabul warned that his leadership would lead to "harsh repressions, and as a result, the activation and consolidation of the opposition."^ Democratic Partyoup in which President Taraki was killed.
  • THE SOVIET INVASION OF AFGHANISTAN: IMPLICATIONS FOR WARNING (N - CIA document 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following Amin's initial coup against and killing of President Taraki, the KGB station in Kabul warned that his leadership would lead to "harsh repressions, and as a result, the activation and consolidation of the opposition."
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ KGB troops landed in Kabul and killed Amin.
  • History of Afghanistan - Lonely Planet Travel Information 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: News]

[26]
.The Soviets established a special commission on Afghanistan, of KGB chairman Yuri Andropov, Boris Ponomarev from the Central Committee and Dmitry Ustinov, the Minister of Defense.^ The Soviets established a special commission on Afghanistan, of KGB chairman Yuri Andropov , Boris Ponomarev from the Central Committee and Dmitry Ustinov , the Minister of Defense .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Virtually by acclamation after the war, it was expedient to blame the deadCommunist party chief Brezhnev, Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko, KGB Chief Iurii Andropov (later general secretary), Defense Minister Dmitri Ustinov, and so forthwho had been best positioned to make policy decisions.
  • COMPOUND WAR CASE STUDY: THE SOVIETS IN AFGHANISTAN 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The words are those of Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko to his colleagues, who included General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev, his eventual successors Konstantin Chernenko and Yuri Andropov, Soviet Defense Minister Dmitri Ustinov, and a junior Politburo member named Mikhail Gorbachev.
  • Wayne Madsen: Trading Places 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In late April 1978, they reported that Amin was purging his opponents, including Soviet loyalists; his loyalty to Moscow was in question; and that he was seeking diplomatic links with Pakistan and possibly the People's Republic of China.^ In late April 1978, they reported that Amin was purging his opponents, including Soviet loyalists; his loyalty to Moscow was in question; and that he was seeking diplomatic links with Pakistan and possibly the People's Republic of China .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the Soviet Politburo they were complying with the 1978 Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Good Neighborliness and Amin had been "executed by a tribunal for his crimes" by the Afghan Revolutionary Central Committee.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviets described Amin as an imperial agent repudiated by his own government when he tried to initiate a purge of the politicians, army personnel, and intelligentsia.
  • Lemar-Aftaab | www.afghanmagazine.com | October - December 1999 | Vol 1 | Issues 10 |Articles | The Dreaded Devil's Spiral: Treaties & Events leading to the 1979 Invasion | By Mir Hekmatullah Sadat 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.afghanmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of specific concern were Amin's secret meetings with the US chargé d'affaires J. Bruce Amstutz, which, while never amounting to any agreement between Amin and the United States, sowed suspicion in the Kremlin.^ Of specific concern were Amin's secret meetings with the US chargé d'affaires J. Bruce Amstutz, which, while never amounting to any agreement between Amin and the United States, sowed suspicion in the Kremlin .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These guerrilla warriors do not threaten us with tanks, gunboats, fighter planes, missiles, or nuclear weapons, nor do they have a history of aggression against the United States.
  • The Law of Opposites - by Ron Paul 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ She's long been aware that her mother had an affair with him while she was stationed with her then husband in Panama, and she's always assumed that her pregnant mother came back to the United States alone with his consent.

[27]
.Information obtained by the KGB from its agents in Kabul provided the last arguments to eliminate Amin.^ Information obtained by the KGB from its agents in Kabul provided the last arguments to eliminate Amin.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Home Office stated that 'Pasha had provided "false information" to obtain a visitor's visa to the United King­dom.

^ Based on information from the KGB , Soviet leaders felt that Amin destabilized the situation in Afghanistan.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Supposedly, two of Amin's guards killed the former president Nur Muhammad Taraki with a pillow, and Amin was suspected to be a CIA agent.^ Supposedly, two of Amin's guards killed the former president Nur Muhammad Taraki with a pillow, and Amin was suspected to be a CIA agent.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Democratic Partyoup in which President Taraki was killed.
  • THE SOVIET INVASION OF AFGHANISTAN: IMPLICATIONS FOR WARNING (N - CIA document 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet Special Forces, or Spetnaz, commandos killed one communist leader, Hafizullah Amin, who had earlier killed Nur Mohammed Taraki, and replaced Amin with the more agreeable Babrak Karmal.

.The latter, however, is still disputed: Amin repeatedly demonstrated official friendliness to the Soviet Union.^ Soviet Union, however, failed in Egypt.
  • Global Politician - Roots of Islamic Terrorism: How Communists Helped Fundamentalists 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The latter, however, is still disputed: Amin repeatedly demonstrated official friendliness to the Soviet Union.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Official figures on the number of religious believers in the Soviet Union were not available in 1989.
  • Soviet Union - Familypedia 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Soviet General Vasily Zaplatin, a political advisor at that time, claimed that four of President Taraki's ministers were responsible for the destabilization.^ Soviet General Vasily Zaplatin, a political advisor at that time, claimed that four of President Taraki's ministers were responsible for the destabilization.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But notice also the role of the scholar Brzezinski as President Jimmy Carter's National Security Adviser in the time of the Soviet war in Afghanistan = .

^ If it wished, the United States could have actually ended this conflict a long time ago, but no American president had the political courage to do it.
  • 2009 October | The Citizen 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC harvardcitizen.com [Source type: News]

.However, Zaplatin failed to emphasize this enough.^ However, Zaplatin failed to emphasize this enough.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28]
.Also during the 1970s, the Soviet Union reached the peak of its political influence in comparison to the U.S. as the SALT I treaty was created to cooperate in matters of nuclear weapons and technology between the two nations.^ This is not a moral comparison between the two.
  • http://www.strategypage.com/messageboards/messages/35-31201.asp 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.strategypage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also during the 1970s, the Soviet Union reached the peak of its political influence in comparison to the U.S. as the SALT I treaty was created to cooperate in matters of nuclear weapons and technology between the two nations.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet Union joins League of Nations .
  • Chronology Through 1990 || Bucknell University 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A second round of talks between communist leader Brezhnev and president Carter yielded the SALT II treaty in June 1979, which the U.S. Senate though, failed to ratify.^ Leonid Brezhnev and Jimmy Carter sign SALT II treaty, June 18 , 1979 , in Vienna .
  • Soviet Union - Familypedia 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A second round of talks between communist leader Brezhnev and president Carter yielded the SALT II treaty in June 1979, which the U.S. Senate though, failed to ratify.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Preliminary round of SALT talks .
  • Chronology Through 1990 || Bucknell University 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.bucknell.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This process would eventually culminate and lead up to the buildup and invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979 to preserve, stabilize and militarily intervene on behalf of the communist regime there.^ This process would eventually culminate and lead up to the buildup and invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979 to preserve, stabilize and militarily intervene on behalf of the communist regime there.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These events precipitated the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979.
  • Afghanistan.Ru | Pakistan�s foreign Policy toward Afghanistan from 1947 - 2008 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.afghanistan.ru [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another contributing factor was the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979.
  • Soviet Union - Familypedia 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

1979: Soviet invasion

The Soviet invasion
.On December 7, 1979, Soviet informants to the Afghan Armed Forces who were under orders from the inner circle of advisors under Soviet leader Brezhnev, relayed information for them to undergo maintenance cycles for their tanks and other crucial equipment.^ On December 25, 1979, Soviet forces invaded.
  • Afghanistan 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC bss.sfsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet invasion On December 7, 1979, Soviet informants to the Afghan Armed Forces who were under orders from the inner circle of advisors under Soviet leader Brezhnev, relayed information for them to undergo maintenance cycles for their tanks and other crucial equipment.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Faced with a deteriorating security situation, on December 24, 1979, large numbers of Soviet airborne forces, joining thousands of Soviet troops already on the ground, began to land in Kabul under the pretext of a field exercise.
  • Afghanistan 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanistan Facts — Afghanistan Relief Organization 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.afghanrelief.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Meanwhile, telecommunications links to areas outside of Kabul were severed, isolating the capital.^ Meanwhile, telecommunications links to areas outside of Kabul were severed, isolating the capital.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The U.S. (with assistance from Japan) completed building a highway linking Kabul to the southern regional capital, Kandahar.
  • Afghanistan 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanistan Facts — Afghanistan Relief Organization 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.afghanrelief.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sayyaf's group was well armed and well equipped, but it was regarded as having little support outside his native area, Paghman, near Kabul.

.With a deteriorating security situation, large numbers of Soviet airborne forces joined stationed ground troops and began to land in Kabul on December 25. Simultaneously, Amin moved the offices of the president to the Tajbeg Palace, believing this location to be more secure from possible threats.^ Faced with a deteriorating security situation, on December 24, 1979, large numbers of Soviet airborne forces, joining thousands of Soviet troops already on the ground, began to land in Kabul under the pretext of a field exercise.
  • Afghanistan 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanistan Facts — Afghanistan Relief Organization 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.afghanrelief.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Faced with a deteriorating security situation on December 24, 1979, large numbers of Soviet airborne forces, joining thousands of Soviet troops already on the ground, began to land in Kabul under the pretext of a field exercise.
  • Background Notes Archive - Near East and North Africa 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Simultaneously, Amin moved the offices of the president to the Tajbeg Palace , believing this location to be more secure from possible threats.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to Colonel General Tukharinov and Merimsky, Amin was fully informed of the military movements, having requested Soviet military assistance to northern Afghanistan on December 17.[29][30] His brother and General Dmitry Chiangov met with the commander of the 40th Army before Soviet troops entered the country, to work out initial routes and locations for Soviet troops.^ And Northern Command is the core military entity in .

^ Musharraf will quit army before December 1: attorney general .

^ These troops were already entering Afghanistan when the "request" was made.
  • Predicting the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan: The Intelligence Community's Record (U) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29]
.On December 27, 1979, 700 Soviet troops dressed in Afghan uniforms, including KGB and GRU special force officers from the Alpha Group and Zenith Group, occupied major governmental, military and media buildings in Kabul, including their primary target - the Tajbeg Presidential Palace.^ Bradsher reports that by the morning of December 27 about 5,000 Soviet troops occupied Kabul alone.  .
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On December 27, 1979, 700 Soviet troops dressed in Afghan uniforms, including KGB and GRU special force officers from the Alpha Group and Zenith Group , occupied major governmental, military and media buildings in Kabul, including their primary target - the Tajbeg Presidential Palace .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Massive Soviet ground forces invaded from the north on December 27.
  • Background Notes Archive - Near East and North Africa 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanistan 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanistan Facts — Afghanistan Relief Organization 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.afghanrelief.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Soviet paratroopers aboard a BMD-1 in Kabul
.That operation began at 19:00 hr., when the Soviet Zenith Group destroyed Kabul's communications hub, paralyzing Afghan military command.^ Soviet paratroopers aboard a BMD-1 in Kabul That operation began at 19:00 hr., when the Soviet Zenith Group destroyed Kabul's communications hub, paralyzing Afghan military command.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On December 27, 1979, 700 Soviet troops dressed in Afghan uniforms, including KGB and GRU special force officers from the Alpha Group and Zenith Group , occupied major governmental, military and media buildings in Kabul, including their primary target - the Tajbeg Presidential Palace .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to some reports, when Moscow intervened militarily in Afghanistan, there were several secular and nationalist Afghan groups opposed to the Soviet-backed Communists (who had, as you indicated, seized power 19 months earlier in a military coup).
  • Barnett Rubin on the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan and the Rise of the Taliban | Asia Society 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.asiasociety.org [Source type: Original source]

.At 19:15, the assault on Tajbeg Palace began; as planned, president Hafizullah Amin was killed.^ Before the Soviet occupation, the building was Tajbeg Palace , where Hafizullah Amin was killed.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At 19:15, the assault on Tajbeg Palace began; as planned, president Hafizullah Amin was killed.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By nightfall, 5,000 Soviet troops invaded and fired rockets at the presidential palace of Tapa-e-Tajbeg , where Head of State, Hafizullah Amin, was residing.
  • Afghanistan: Soviet Imperialism and the American War on Terrorism 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.pages.drexel.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Simultaneously, other objectives were occupied (e.g.^ Simultaneously, other objectives were occupied (e.g.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

the .Ministry of Interior at 19:15).^ Ministry of Interior at 19:15).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviets blew up Kabul's telephone system at 7:00 P.M. and by 7:15 occupied the Ministry of Interior.
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The operation was fully complete by the morning of December 28, 1979.
.The Soviet military command at Termez, Uzbek SSR, announced on Radio Kabul that Afghanistan had been liberated from Amin's rule.^ At 7:20 A.M. Kabul radio announced that Afghanistan had become a republic."
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet military command at Termez did not wait until Amin's capture to announce on Radio Kabul (in a broadcast prerecorded by Babrak Karmal) that Afghanistan had been liberated from Amin's rule.  .
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet military command at Termez , Uzbek SSR , announced on Radio Kabul that Afghanistan had been liberated from Amin's rule.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to the Soviet Politburo they were complying with the 1978 Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Good Neighborliness and Amin had been "executed by a tribunal for his crimes" by the Afghan Revolutionary Central Committee.^ According to the Soviet Politburo they were complying with the 1978 Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Good Neighborliness and Amin had been "executed by a tribunal for his crimes" by the Afghan Revolutionary Central Committee.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In late April 1978, they reported that Amin was purging his opponents, including Soviet loyalists; his loyalty to Moscow was in question; and that he was seeking diplomatic links with Pakistan and possibly the People's Republic of China .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under these circumstances, it was to keep their socialist allies in power in Kabul and to prevent the destabilization of Soviet Central Asia via Afghanistan that Soviet troops entered Afghanistan, in context with the 1978 Soviet-Afghan Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Good Neighbourliness.
  • America's "Long War": The Legacy of the Iraq-Iran and Soviet-Afghan Wars 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That committee then elected as head of government former Deputy Prime Minister Babrak Karmal, who had been demoted to the relatively insignificant post of ambassador to Czechoslovakia following the Khalq takeover, and that it had requested Soviet military assistance.^ That committee then elected as head of government former Deputy Prime Minister Babrak Karmal , who had been demoted to the relatively insignificant post of ambassador to Czechoslovakia following the Khalq takeover, and that it had requested Soviet military assistance.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1948, Czechoslovak attempts to join the U.S.-sponsored Marshall Plan to aid postwar rebuilding were thwarted by Soviet takeover and the installation of a new communist government in Prague.
  • Soviet Invasion of Czechoslovakia, 1968 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Daoud's Republic (1973-78) and the April 1978 Coup Amid charges of corruption and malfeasance against the royal family and poor economic conditions, former Prime Minister Daoud seized power in a military coup on July 17, 1973.
  • Afghanistan (11/08) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31]
.Soviet ground forces, under the command of Marshal Sergei Sokolov, entered Afghanistan from the north on December 27. In the morning, the 103rd Guards 'Vitebsk' Airborne Division landed at the airport at Bagram and the deployment of Soviet troops in Afghanistan was underway.^ Massive Soviet ground forces invaded from the north on December 27.
  • Background Notes Archive - Near East and North Africa 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dosfan.lib.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanistan 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanistan Facts — Afghanistan Relief Organization 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.afghanrelief.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The overall force disposition appeared to be under Soviet command.

^ Soviet troops withdrawing from Afghanistan in 1988.
  • Soviet Union - Familypedia 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The force that entered Afghanistan, in addition to the 103rd Guards Airborne Division, was under command of the 40th Army and consisted of the 108th and 5th Guards Motor Rifle Divisions, the 860th Separate Motor Rifle Regiment, the 56th Separate Airborne Assault Brigade, the 36th Mixed Air Corps.^ The 5th Guards Motorized Rifle Division at Kushka had again moved components out of garrison.
  • Predicting the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan: The Intelligence Community's Record (U) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The force that entered Afghanistan, in addition to the 103rd Guards Airborne Division, was under command of the 40th Army and consisted of the 108th and 5th Guards Motor Rifle Divisions, the 860th Separate Motor Rifle Regiment, the 56th Separate Airborne Assault Brigade, the 36th Mixed Air Corps.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was especially so for the ground force motorized rifle divisions.
  • Predicting the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan: The Intelligence Community's Record (U) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Later on the 201st and 58th Motor Rifle Divisions also entered the country, along with other smaller units.^ Later on the 201st and 58th Motor Rifle Divisions also entered the country, along with other smaller units.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States intervened in Turkey, Argentina, Chile and various other countries to install right wing dictators not liberal democracies.
  • Poll: Why do some Americans still demonize Russia and China? 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.escapistmagazine.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They had to get support - I mean get weapons from these fundamentalist parties because all of the monetary and military support was provided by the United States or other countries.
  • Transcript: Women of Afghanistan | Beneath The Surface with Suzi Weissman 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.suziweissman.com [Source type: Original source]

[32] .In all, the initial Soviet force was around 1,800 tanks, 80,000 soldiers and 2,000 AFVs.^ In all, the initial Soviet force was around 1,800 tanks , 80,000 soldiers and 2,000 AFVs .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In total the USSR lost 13,833 soldiers during 10 years of occupation of Afghanistan the peak strength of Soviet Forces in Afghanistan was about 100,000 troops (compared to 150,000-160,000 Coalition troops currently in Iraq).
  • http://www.strategypage.com/messageboards/messages/35-31201.asp 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.strategypage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There was, however, a significant difference in the size of the forces employed, with the Afghan operation initially employing slightly less than 50,000 Soviet troops.
  • http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/fall99/WESTERMA.htm 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.lib.unb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the second week alone, Soviet aircraft had made a total of 4,000 flights into Kabul.^ In the second week alone, Soviet aircraft had made a total of 4,000 flights into Kabul.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the training costs of the crews lost with the aircraft were taken into consideration, the Soviet Union was carrying a significant financial burden in Afghanistan.
  • Role Of UN In Soviet Invasion Of Afghanistan - Author - Romit Agrawal 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.legalserviceindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet tanks and troops rolled into Afghanistan in 1979 to prop up a puppet Communist government in Kabul.
  • Soviet Vets, 20 Years On, Warn Obama on Afghanistan | CommonDreams.org 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

[33] .With the arrival of the two later divisions, the total Soviet force rose to over 100,000 personnel.^ With the arrival of the two later divisions, the total Soviet force rose to over 100,000 personnel.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was, however, a significant difference in the size of the forces employed, with the Afghan operation initially employing slightly less than 50,000 Soviet troops.
  • http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/fall99/WESTERMA.htm 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.lib.unb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United States estimates were that there were about 85,000 Soviet troops in Afghanistan by late 1980 and about 100,000 by the end of 1981.
  • Afghanistan 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

International Positions on Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan

.34 Muslim nation adopted a resolution in which demanded 'the immediate and unconditional withdrawal from the 'Muslim' nation of Afghanistan.^ The United Nations General Assembly passed overwhelmingly (122-20) for the seventh time a resolution demanding the withdrawal of foreign troops from Afghanistan, the UN Commission on Human Rights condemned the Soviet occupation and Amnesty International accused Moscow of participating in the torture of Afghan prisoners.
  • Role Of UN In Soviet Invasion Of Afghanistan - Author - Romit Agrawal 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.legalserviceindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An election was held on September 18, 2005 for the "Wolesi Jirga" (lower house) of Afghanistan's new bicameral National Assembly and for the country's 34 provincial councils.
  • Afghanistan (11/08) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He demanded the world community to play its role in the resolution of Kashmir, Bosnia, Chechnya and Palestine issues, where Muslims are being tortured at large level.

[34].U.N .General assembly vote to protest Soviet invasion of Afghanistan 104-18 [35].^ Moscow Summer Olympics to protest Soviet invasion of Afghanistan .
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^ I have voted Soviet - Afghanistan war.
  • Lock 'n Load Publishing Forums - Your Next LnL Game 25 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.locknloadgame.com [Source type: General]

^ And in general has Afghanistan been any better off with the invasion.
  • Nushin Arbabzadah: The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan 29 years ago led to a 10-year war of little benefit to the Russians and much suffering to the Afghans | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

December 1979-February 1980: Occupation

.The first phase began with the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and their first battles with various opposition groups.^ The first phase began with the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and their first battles with various opposition groups.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was in response to the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan.
  • AFGHANISTAN, 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Afghanistan's first known invasion was by the Medians.
  • Mythos versus Logos or why do men believe that a logical and rational universe denies the truth of intuition and the mystery of life and God 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.unique-design.net [Source type: Original source]

[36].U.N
.Soviet troops entered Afghanistan along two ground routes and one air corridor, quickly taking control of the major urban centers, military bases and strategic installations.^ Soviet troops entered Afghanistan along two ground routes and one air corridor , quickly taking control of the major urban centers, military bases and strategic installations.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The troops will be based along the Mediterranean Sea.
  • TERRORISM - WORLD TRADE CENTER - 9-11-2001 - MILITARY PAGE 2 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: News]

^ The two most important Soviet installations in Afghanistan are at Bagram and Shindand.

.However, the presence of Soviet troops did not have the desired effect of pacifying the country.^ However, the presence of Soviet troops did not have the desired effect of pacifying the country.
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^ However, he said Indian troops observed restraint and did not retaliate.

^ British and American diplomatic support for Iran forced the Soviet Union to withdraw its troops from the northeastern part of that country in 1946.
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.On the contrary, it exacerbated a nationalistic feeling, causing the rebellion to spread even more.^ On the contrary, it exacerbated a nationalistic feeling, causing the rebellion to spread even more.
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[37] .Babrak Karmal, Afghanistan's new president, charged the Soviets with causing an increase in the unrest, and demanded that the 40th Army step in and quell the rebellion, as his own army had proved untrustworthy.^ Babrak Karmal, Afghanistan's new president, charged the Soviets with causing an increase in the unrest, and demanded that the 40th Army step in and quell the rebellion, as his own army had proved untrustworthy.
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^ President Hafizullah Amin was assassinated and Babrak Karmal, former head of the Parcham communist faction and Afghanistan's former ambassador to Czechoslovakia, assumed power with Soviet backing.
  • Role Of UN In Soviet Invasion Of Afghanistan - Author - Romit Agrawal 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.legalserviceindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In December 1979, Soviet forces invaded Afghanistan, instating Babrak Karmal, the leader of the Parcham wing of the communist party, as the new Afghan president.
  • Obama’s Undeclared War on Pakistan Continues, Despite Attempts to Downplay It – Rethink Afghanistan War Blog 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC rethinkafghanistan.com [Source type: News]

[38] .Thus, Soviet troops found themselves drawn into fighting against urban uprisings, tribal armies (called lashkar), and sometimes against mutinying Afghan Army units.^ Thus, Soviet troops found themselves drawn into fighting against urban uprisings, tribal armies (called lashkar ), and sometimes against mutinying Afghan Army units.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even so, the basic units of mujahideen organization and action continued to reflect the highly segmented nature of Afghan society.^ Eventually, the seven main mujahideen parties allied themselves into the political bloc called Islamic Unity of Afghanistan Mujahideen.
  • xkcd • View topic - Afghan Government to kill British-deported atheist apostate 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mohammad Atmar, a 41-year old Pashtun form Laghman, fought against the mujahideen during the Soviet-Afghan war and worked as for a special operations unit of KHAD (Afghan Communist Secret Police).
  • Program for Culture and Conflict Studies at NPS - Home 9 October 2009 21:021 UTC www.nps.edu [Source type: News]

.These forces mostly fought in the open, and Soviet airpower and artillery made short work of them.^ These forces mostly fought in the open, and Soviet airpower and artillery made short work of them.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the frontier work was handled by elite local units such as the Punjab Irregular Force, while overseas the troops fought poorly-armed opponents.
  • History Today - Two Invasions of Afghanistan : 'Monumentally bad diplomacy, worse strategy, chaotic military organisation and inept generalship' - 130 years ago the British invaded and occupied Afghanistan. When they withdrew, there were possibilities that the Russians might replace them.. In the event the Russians delayed their invasion 100 years, as explained here by Thomas Tulenko, in an article penned as Soviet tanks rolled into Kabul in 1980. 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In keeping with the composition of their forces, Soviet commanders preferred to employ artillery, tanks where possible, and air strikes, rather than Afghan or Soviet infantry.
  • History Today - Two Invasions of Afghanistan : 'Monumentally bad diplomacy, worse strategy, chaotic military organisation and inept generalship' - 130 years ago the British invaded and occupied Afghanistan. When they withdrew, there were possibilities that the Russians might replace them.. In the event the Russians delayed their invasion 100 years, as explained here by Thomas Tulenko, in an article penned as Soviet tanks rolled into Kabul in 1980. 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

[39]

March 1980-April 1985: Soviet offensives

A mujahideen fighter in Kunar uses a communications receiver to receive transmissions.
.The war now developed into a new pattern: the Soviets occupied the cities and main axis of communication, while the mujahideen, divided into small groups, waged a guerrilla war.^ The war now developed into a new pattern: the Soviets occupied the cities and main axis of communication, while the mujahideen, divided into small groups, waged a guerrilla war .
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^ The population may be divided into four main ethnic groups.
  • AFGHANISTAN, 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He is best known for leading Congress into supporting Operation Cyclone , the largest-ever CIA covert operation , which supplied the Afghan Mujahideen during the Soviet war in Afghanistan .
  • POLITICO Forums:Politics: Obama slows troop boost decision - POLITICO.com 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: General]

.Almost 80 percent of the country escaped government control.^ Almost 80 percent of the country escaped government control.
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^ The ousted government retained Afghanistan's seat in the United Nations (UN), and almost all other countries continued to recognize it as Afghanistan's legitimate authority.
  • AFGHANISTAN, 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A glance at the map also suggests that a country dominant in Eurasia would almost automatically control the Middle East and Africa.
  • America's "Long War": The Legacy of the Iraq-Iran and Soviet-Afghan Wars 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Soviet troops were deployed in strategic areas in the northeast, especially along the road from Termez to Kabul.^ Soviet troops were deployed in strategic areas in the northeast, especially along the road from Termez to Kabul.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet tanks and troops rolled into Afghanistan in 1979 to prop up a puppet Communist government in Kabul.
  • Soviet Vets, 20 Years On, Warn Obama on Afghanistan | CommonDreams.org 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Two months later, tens of thousands of Chinese troops landed in several locations along Texas’ borders as part of a strategic “shock and awe” campaign.
  • Afghanistan: Graveyard of Empires | Connor's Conundrums 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.connorboyack.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the west, a strong Soviet presence was maintained to counter Iranian influence.^ In the west, a strong Soviet presence was maintained to counter Iranian influence.
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^ Although our ability to do so is necessarily limited, given the economic basis of the current Soviet crisis, the West's influence is certainly greater now than it has ever been.
  • Perestroika and the Soviet Military: Implications For U.S. Policy 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any partnership with the northern neighbors will require substantial negotiations with Russia, which retains a strong influence and military presence in Central Asia.
  • TERRORISM - WORLD TRADE CENTER - 9-11-2001 - MILITARY PAGE 2 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: News]

.Incidentally, special Soviet units would have also performed secret attacks on Iranian territory to destroy suspected mujahideen bases, and their helicopters then got engaged in shootings with Iranian jets [40].^ Incidentally, special Soviet units would have also performed secret attacks on Iranian territory to destroy suspected mujahideen bases, and their helicopters then got engaged in shootings with Iranian jets [ 35 ] .
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^ Operation Cyclone was the code name for the United States CIA program to arm Islamic mujahideen during the Soviet war in Afghanistan , 1979 to 1989.
  • POLITICO Forums:Politics: Bush refuses to rule out Iran strike - POLITICO.com 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of the illegal heroin in the United States would dry up, as the pipeline for the heroin would be destroyed!
  • Fighting the Same War Twice? - Page 1 - The Daily Beast 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thedailybeast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Conversely, some regions such as Nuristan, in the northeast, and Hazarajat, in the central mountains of Afghanistan, were virtually untouched by the fighting, and lived in almost complete independence.^ Conversely, some regions such as Nuristan , in the northeast, and Hazarajat , in the central mountains of Afghanistan, were virtually untouched by the fighting, and lived in almost complete independence.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Afghanistan's resistance movement was born in chaos and, at first, virtually all of its war was waged locally by regional warlords.
  • xkcd • View topic - Afghan Government to kill British-deported atheist apostate 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The UK exercised a great deal of influence in AFGHANISTAN throughout the 19 th century, and it was not until 1919 that Afghanistan re-gained complete independence over its foreign affairs.
  • Afghanistan 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC bss.sfsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mujahideen with two captured artillery field guns in Jaji Maydan, 1984.
.Periodically the Soviet Army undertook multi-divisional offensives into mujahideen-controlled areas.^ Periodically the Soviet Army undertook multi- divisional offensives into mujahideen-controlled areas.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He is best known for leading Congress into supporting the largest ever CIA covert operation, which supplied the Afghan Mujahideen during the Soviet war in Afghanistan.
  • Grouse's what is it? Game 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC forum-en.msi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He is best known for leading Congress into supporting Operation Cyclone , the largest-ever CIA covert operation , which supplied the Afghan Mujahideen during the Soviet war in Afghanistan .
  • POLITICO Forums:Politics: Obama slows troop boost decision - POLITICO.com 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: General]

.Between 1980 and 1985, nine offensives were launched into the strategically important Panjshir Valley, but government control of the area did not improve.^ Between 1980 and 1985, nine offensives were launched into the strategically important Panjshir Valley , but government control of the area did not improve.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The offensive did eventually succeed in reestablishing DRA control over the floor of the Panjshir valley, for the first time since 1978, at the cost of between 300 and 400 Soviet casualties.
  • http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/fall99/WESTERMA.htm 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.lib.unb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The U.S. stopped paying them towards the end of Bush's term and the Shiite-controlled government, led bv Maliki, has been reluctant to being the militias into the fold.
  • Daily Kos: Just 1,000 shy of breaking the Soviet Union's world record 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Daily Kos: Just 1,000 shy of breaking the Soviet Union's world record 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[41] .Heavy fighting also occurred in the provinces neighbouring Pakistan, where cities and government outposts were constantly under siege by the mujahideen.^ Christians in Pakistan are under siege.

^ Heavy fighting also occurred in the provinces neighbouring Pakistan , where cities and government outposts were constantly under siege by the mujahideen.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pakistan: Amanat Masih charged under blasphemy on instigation of influential Muslim landlords in village Nabi Pur of Punjab province.

.Massive Soviet operations would regularly break these sieges, but the mujahideen would return as soon as the coast was clear.^ Massive Soviet operations would regularly break these sieges, but the mujahideen would return as soon as the coast was clear.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet pilots would operate with...
  • The Stinger's Impact (Soviet-Afghan-War) [Archive] - Military Photos 25 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.militaryphotos.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the event that the Communist regimes in Kabul were ever to be replaced or joined by the most radical elements in the Resistance and these elements attempted to implement their extremist programs, it appears certain that they would meet with massive public opposition, setting off disorders which would provide the Soviets with an opportunity to return in the guise of providing stability.
  • Global Politician - Roots of Islamic Terrorism: How Communists Helped Fundamentalists 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.globalpolitician.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42] .In the west and south, fighting was more sporadic, except in the cities of Herat and Kandahar, that were always partly controlled by the resistance.^ In the west and south, fighting was more sporadic, except in the cities of Herat and Kandahar , that were always partly controlled by the resistance.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The road from Herat, near the Iranian border, to Kandahar, the southern desert city, winds through half-abandoned vil lages and swirlingly empty riverbeds.
  • ISR Web Exclusive | Afghanistan, the Taliban and the United States 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.isreview.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At 2 p.m., Northern Alliance forces then swept in from the south and west, seizing the city's main military base and airport.
  • Soviet Army Stuff - Russian Military Uniforms, "Ushanka" Fur Hats, Gas Masks, Badges. Spetsnaz. - Info 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.sovietarmystuff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43]
.On his arrival in power in March 1985, the new Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev expressed his impatience with the Afghan conflict.^ The last general secretary was Mikhail Gorbachev .
  • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev's answer was Perestroika , a Soviet-style "new deal" that did not work.

^ On his arrival in power in March 1985, the new Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev expressed his impatience with the Afghan conflict.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He demanded that a solution be found before a one-year deadline.^ He demanded that a solution be found before a one-year deadline.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unless Obama wants it guaranteed before the end of his first year that he is a lame duck one term president, then ignore what eye say.
  • Fighting the Same War Twice? - Page 1 - The Daily Beast 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thedailybeast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result, the size of the LCOSF (Limited Contingent of Soviet Forces) was increased to 108,800 and fighting increased throughout the country, making 1985 the bloodiest year of the war.^ As a result, the size of the LCOSF (Limited Contingent of Soviet Forces) was increased to 108,800 and fighting increased throughout the country, making 1985 the bloodiest year of the war.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviets usually refer to their presence in Afghanistan as "The Limited Contingent of Soviet Forces in Afghanistan."
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, for almost 10 years, Moscow had to carry on a war unsupportable by the government, a conflict that brought about the demoralization and finally the breakup of the Soviet empire.
  • Nushin Arbabzadah: The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan 29 years ago led to a 10-year war of little benefit to the Russians and much suffering to the Afghans | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]
  • Afghanistan: pipelines, poppies, al-Qaeda and control of Eurasia 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.oilempire.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Al-Qaeda and the "War on Terrorism" 9 October 2009 21:021 UTC www.globalpolicy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, despite suffering heavily, the mujahideen were able to remain in the field and continue resisting the Soviets.^ However, despite suffering heavily, the mujahideen were able to remain in the field and continue resisting the Soviets.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite Soviet military aid, resistance to the government continued in 1979.
  • AFGHANISTAN, 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the major U.S. escalation of aid in 1985-1986 appears not to have been crucial to the rebels’ continued survival, nor to have had significant impact on Soviet decision making.
  • The Stinger's Impact (Soviet-Afghan-War) [Archive] - Military Photos 25 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.militaryphotos.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A Soviet Spetsnaz (special operations) group prepares for a mission in Afghanistan, 1988.

1980s: Insurrection

.In the mid-1980s, the Afghan resistance movement, assisted by the United States, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom, the People's Republic of China and others, contributed to Moscow's high military costs and strained international relations.^ There was a resistance movement of the people of Afghanistan.
  • Transcript: Women of Afghanistan | Beneath The Surface with Suzi Weissman 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.suziweissman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile, the mujahideen benefited from expanded foreign military support from the United States , Saudi Arabia , Pakistan and other Muslim nations.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See also: Mujahideen In the mid-1980s, the Afghan resistance movement , assisted by the United States, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom , the People's Republic of China and others, contributed to Moscow 's high military costs and strained international relations.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The US viewed the conflict in Afghanistan as an integral Cold War struggle, and the CIA provided assistance to anti-Soviet forces through the Pakistani intelligence services, in a program called Operation Cyclone.^ What are your views on the war in Afghanistan?

^ Death toll of Soviet war in Afghanistan.
  • Leonas Cerskus: "The story of Lithuanian soldier". Links. 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet war in Afghanistan begins (1979): .
  • MySpace - FUCK THE CIA FUCK THE CFR FUCK THE NWO - 29 - Male - Washington - myspace.com/fuckthecia 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: General]

[44][45]
.A similar movement occurred in other Muslim countries, bringing contingents of so-called Afghan Arabs, foreign fighters who wished to wage jihad against the atheist communists.^ This country is full of persecution against Non-Muslim foreigners.

^ A similar movement occurred in other Muslim countries, bringing contingents of so-called Afghan Arabs , foreign fighters who wished to wage jihad against the atheist communists.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "With the active encouragement of the CIA and Pakistan's ISI, who wanted to turn the Afghan Jihad into a global war waged by all Muslim states against the Soviet Union, some 35,000 Muslim radicals from 40 Islamic countries joined Afghanistan's fight between 1982 and 1992.
  • Mythos versus Logos or why do men believe that a logical and rational universe denies the truth of intuition and the mystery of life and God 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.unique-design.net [Source type: Original source]

.Notable among them was a young Saudi named Osama bin Laden, whose Arab group eventually evolved into al-Qaeda.^ Bin Laden also invested in the Carlyle group.
  • Pipelines to 9/11: US Invasion of Afghanistan Was about Oil and Gas By Rudo de Ruijter 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.aljazeerah.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Qaeda-al Jihad Group.
  • Saga of Dr. Zawahri Sheds Light On the Roots of al Qaeda Terror 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also has ties, it is believed, with Osama bin Laden's al Qaeda network.
  • News and Opinion on Iraq 25 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.williambowles.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46][47]
.In the course of the guerrilla war, leadership came to be distinctively associated with the title of "commander". It applied to independent leaders, eschewing identification with elaborate military bureaucracy associated with such ranks as general.^ It applied to independent leaders, eschewing identification with elaborate military bureaucracy associated with such ranks as general .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the course of the guerrilla war, leadership came to be distinctively associated with the title of "commander".
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the war produced leaders of reputation, "commander" was conferred on leaders of fighting units of all sizes, signifying pride in independence, self-sufficiency, and distinct ties to local communities.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the war produced leaders of reputation, "commander" was conferred on leaders of fighting units of all sizes, signifying pride in independence, self-sufficiency, and distinct ties to local communities.^ As the war produced leaders of reputation, "commander" was conferred on leaders of fighting units of all sizes, signifying pride in independence, self-sufficiency, and distinct ties to local communities.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was decided that after Karachi Conference, PCC President Nazir S Bhatti will present memorandum to repeal blasphemy to all heads of member states of United Nation.

^ Secondly national leaders must be sit around Pakistan Table during upcoming All parties national conference.

.The title epitomized Afghan pride in their struggle against a powerful foe.^ The title epitomized Afghan pride in their struggle against a powerful foe.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Herat uprising also set off a new round in the Afghan regime's internal power struggle.
  • Predicting the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan: The Intelligence Community's Record (U) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similar to Romeo and Juliet, the writer's two lovers struggle to endure against powerful external forces.

.Segmentation of power and religious leadership were the two values evoked by nomenclature generated in the war.^ Segmentation of power and religious leadership were the two values evoked by nomenclature generated in the war.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The coming into power of the Islamic parties in Frontier and Baluchistan the two provinces bordering Afghanistan will further intensify this religious divide.

^ By war’s end, U.S. Stinger technology had already advanced two generations and, more importantly, the cold war was drawing to a close.
  • The Stinger's Impact (Soviet-Afghan-War) [Archive] - Military Photos 25 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.militaryphotos.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Neither had been favored in the ideology of the former Afghan state.^ Neither had been favored in the ideology of the former Afghan state.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Suffering is dismissed in favor of ideas of battles over ideologies, states or "freedom."

Mujahideen leader Ismail Khan walks among his fighters.
.Afghanistan's resistance movement was born in chaos, spread and triumphed chaotically, and did not find a way to govern differently.^ There was a resistance movement of the people of Afghanistan.
  • Transcript: Women of Afghanistan | Beneath The Surface with Suzi Weissman 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.suziweissman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Afghanistan's resistance movement was born in chaos, spread and triumphed chaotically, and did not find a way to govern differently.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reagan administration, in which it became a centerpiece of the so-called Reagan Doctrine under which the U.S. provided support to anti-communist resistance movements in Afghanistan” .
  • Cut and run in Afghanistan? | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: General]

.Virtually all of its war was waged locally by regional warlords.^ Afghanistan's resistance movement was born in chaos and, at first, virtually all of its war was waged locally by regional warlords.
  • xkcd • View topic - Afghan Government to kill British-deported atheist apostate 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Virtually all of its war was waged locally by regional warlords .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Does all this mean that Islam is a religion that prevents men from waging war?

.As warfare became more sophisticated, outside support and regional coordination grew.^ As warfare became more sophisticated, outside support and regional coordination grew.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • xkcd • View topic - Afghan Government to kill British-deported atheist apostate 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nonetheless, greater experimentation in art forms became permissible in the 1970s, with the result that more sophisticated and subtly critical work began to be produced.
  • Soviet Union 1945-1985 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC unx1.shsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Greater experimentation in art forms became permissible once again, with the result that more sophisticated and subtly critical work began to be produced.
  • Soviet Union - Familypedia 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even so, the basic units of mujahideen organization and action continued to reflect the highly segmented nature of Afghan society.^ Even so, the basic units of mujahideen organization and action continued to reflect the highly segmented nature of Afghan society.^ Eventually, the seven main mujahideen parties allied themselves into the political bloc called Islamic Unity of Afghanistan Mujahideen.
  • xkcd • View topic - Afghan Government to kill British-deported atheist apostate 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Reflecting the disparate nature of Afghan society, the resistance itself was divided.
  • History of Afghanistan - Lonely Planet Travel Information 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: News]

^ Even so, the basic units of mujahideen organization and action continued to reflect the highly segmented nature of Afghan society.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48]
.Olivier Roy estimates that after four years of war, there were at least 4,000 bases from which mujahideen units operated.^ Olivier Roy estimates that after four years of war, there were at least 4,000 bases from which mujahideen units operated.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He is best known for leading Congress into supporting Operation Cyclone , the largest-ever CIA covert operation , which supplied the Afghan Mujahideen during the Soviet war in Afghanistan .
  • POLITICO Forums:Politics: Obama slows troop boost decision - POLITICO.com 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ Operation Cyclone was the code name for the United States CIA program to arm Islamic mujahideen during the Soviet war in Afghanistan , 1979 to 1989.
  • POLITICO Forums:Politics: Bush refuses to rule out Iran strike - POLITICO.com 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most of these were affiliated with the seven expatriate parties headquartered in Pakistan, which served as sources of supply and varying degrees of supervision.^ Most of these were affiliated with the seven expatriate parties headquartered in Pakistan, which served as sources of supply and varying degrees of supervision.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These were the start of a wave of kidnappings and killings of foreigners, most of them businesspeople, from a rainbow of nations: South Korea, Italy, China, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Turkey.
  • Baghdad year zero: Pillaging Iraq in pursuit of a neocon utopia—By Naomi Klein (Harper's Magazine) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.harpers.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The most critical situation in these elections is for Christian women again after the joint election systems practiced in 1971, for the first time in Pakistan, after the independence of Pakistan.

.Significant commanders typically led 300 or more men, controlled several bases and dominated a district or a sub-division of a province.^ Significant commanders typically led 300 or more men, controlled several bases and dominated a district or a sub-division of a province.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On several occasions, Hikmatyar's forces blocked supply routes to the Panjsher Valley, where mujahidiin commanded by Ahmad Shah Mahsud and loyal to the Jamiat-i-Islami were based.
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Deewan Hiro Mal and Deewan Aaroo Mal.More led the hunger strike than 100 men and women belonging to Hindu community joined hunger strike.

.Hierarchies of organization above the bases were attempted.^ Hierarchies of organization above the bases were attempted.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hierarchies of organization above the base level were attempted,but the results varied depending on regional, ethnic and sectarian considerations.
  • The New Great Game: Part-2; Global Islamic Jihad « Therearenosunglasses’s Weblog 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC therearenosunglasses.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Their operations varied greatly in scope, the most ambitious being achieved by Ahmad Shah Massoud of the Panjshir valley north of Kabul.^ Operations in 1981 focused heavily on the Panjshir Valley northeast of Kabul.
  • COMPOUND WAR CASE STUDY: THE SOVIETS IN AFGHANISTAN 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Their operations varied greatly in scope, the most ambitious being achieved by Ahmad Shah Massoud of the Panjshir valley north of Kabul .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In February 1986, Soviet forces conducted a large-scale operation into the Charikar valley, approximately 40 miles north of Kabul, which demonstrated the increasing proficiency of Soviet forces in the conduct of desant -type combined arms operations.
  • http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/fall99/WESTERMA.htm 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.lib.unb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He led at least 10,000 trained troops at the end of the Soviet war and had expanded his political control of Tajik-dominated areas to Afghanistan's northeastern provinces under the Supervisory Council of the North.^ Death toll of Soviet war in Afghanistan.
  • Leonas Cerskus: "The story of Lithuanian soldier". Links. 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet war in Afghanistan begins (1979): .
  • MySpace - FUCK THE CIA FUCK THE CFR FUCK THE NWO - 29 - Male - Washington - myspace.com/fuckthecia 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: General]

^ Afghanistan under Soviet domination, 1964-83 / Anthony Hyman.

[48]
Soviet BMPs move through Afghanistan
.Roy also describes regional, ethnic and sectarian variations in mujahideen organization.^ Soviet BMPs move through Afghanistan Roy also describes regional, ethnic and sectarian variations in mujahideen organization.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hierarchies of organization above the base level were attempted,but the results varied depending on regional, ethnic and sectarian considerations.
  • The New Great Game: Part-2; Global Islamic Jihad « Therearenosunglasses’s Weblog 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC therearenosunglasses.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Pashtun areas of the east, south and southwest, tribal structure, with its many rival sub-divisions, provided the basis for military organization and leadership.^ A buildup of transport and combat helicopters had been detected at Kokaty air base in the south of the USSR's Turkestan Military District, and other military transport aircraft were being marshaled at air bases in this area.
  • Predicting the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan: The Intelligence Community's Record (U) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of particular concern to Afghanistan was the incorporation into Pakistan of the North-West Frontier Province Tribal Areas, a neighboring region largely populated by Pashtuns.
  • AFGHANISTAN, 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The problems of the greater Middle East and South Asia can only be resolved on a regional basis.
  • Obama’s Undeclared War on Pakistan Continues, Despite Attempts to Downplay It – Rethink Afghanistan War Blog 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC rethinkafghanistan.com [Source type: News]

.Mobilization could be readily linked to traditional fighting allegiances of the tribal lashkar (fighting force).^ Mobilization depended on the traditional fighting allegiances to quickly raise a tribal lashkar (fighting force).
  • The New Great Game: Part-2; Global Islamic Jihad « Therearenosunglasses’s Weblog 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC therearenosunglasses.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Peshawar is close to Pakistan's semi-autonomous tribal zones, which border Afghanistan and where government forces have been battling pro-Taliban and Al-Qaeda-linked militants.

^ So India was ostensibly given the task of providing auxiliary forces that could fight in European wars.
  • History Today - Two Invasions of Afghanistan : 'Monumentally bad diplomacy, worse strategy, chaotic military organisation and inept generalship' - 130 years ago the British invaded and occupied Afghanistan. When they withdrew, there were possibilities that the Russians might replace them.. In the event the Russians delayed their invasion 100 years, as explained here by Thomas Tulenko, in an article penned as Soviet tanks rolled into Kabul in 1980. 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.historytoday.com [Source type: Original source]

.In favorable circumstances such formations could quickly reach more than 10,000, as happened when large Soviet assaults were launched in the eastern provinces, or when the mujahideen besieged towns, such as Khost in Paktia province in July 1983.[49] But in campaigns of the latter type the traditional explosions of manpower—customarily common immediately after the completion of harvest—proved obsolete when confronted by well dug-in defenders with modern weapons.^ In favorable circumstances such formations could quickly reach more than 10,000, as happened when large Soviet assaults were launched in the eastern provinces, or when the mujahideen besieged towns, such as Khost in Paktia province in July 1983.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in campaigns of the latter type the traditional explosions of manpower—customarily common immediately after the completion of harvest—proved obsolete when confronted by well dug-in defenders with modern weapons.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The population of Afghanistan's second largest city, Kandahar, was reduced from 200,000 before the war to no more than 25,000 inhabitants, following a months-long campaign of carpet bombing and bulldozing by the Soviets and Afghan communist soldiers in 1987.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lashkar durability was notoriously short; few sieges succeeded.^ Lashkar durability was notoriously short; few sieges succeeded.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48]
.Mujahideen mobilization in non-Pashtun regions faced very different obstacles.^ Mujahideen mobilization in non-Pashtun regions was very different.
  • The New Great Game: Part-2; Global Islamic Jihad « Therearenosunglasses’s Weblog 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC therearenosunglasses.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mujahideen mobilization in non- Pashtun regions faced very different obstacles.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prior to the invasion, non-Pashtuns possessed very few firearms and little military tradition upon which to build an armed resistance.
  • The New Great Game: Part-2; Global Islamic Jihad « Therearenosunglasses’s Weblog 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC therearenosunglasses.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Prior to the invasion, few non-Pashtuns possessed firearms.^ Prior to the invasion, few non-Pashtuns possessed firearms.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prior to the invasion, non-Pashtuns possessed very few firearms and little military tradition upon which to build an armed resistance.
  • The New Great Game: Part-2; Global Islamic Jihad « Therearenosunglasses’s Weblog 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC therearenosunglasses.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Early in the war they were most readily available from army troops or gendarmerie who defected or were ambushed.^ Early in the war they were most readily available from army troops or gendarmerie who defected or were ambushed.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still the guerrilla war continued, and still Afghan troops defected.
  • Afghanistan 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They consequently endured a most frustrating situation, not at all unlike the dilemma posed by the Ho Chi Minh Trail to American forces in the Vietnam War.
  • COMPOUND WAR CASE STUDY: THE SOVIETS IN AFGHANISTAN 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

.The international arms market and foreign military support tended to reach the minority areas last.^ The international arms market and foreign military support tended to reach the minority areas last.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Too often foreign economic and military support means impoverishing the poor in America and enhancing the rich ruling classes in poor countries.
  • The Law of Opposites - by Ron Paul 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, Abdur Rahman reverted to the earlier practice of eschewing foreign military aid, which may have damaged the attempt to modernize the armed forces.
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the northern regions, little military tradition had survived upon which to build an armed resistance.^ In the northern regions, little military tradition had survived upon which to build an armed resistance.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He had to cope with widespread military resistance among the citizenry and widespread antipathy to himself in the government armed forces.
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ironically, it was allowed to develop in a region of Iraq, which was already under US military control, namely Kurdish held Northern Iraq.  .
  • News and Opinion on Iraq 25 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.williambowles.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mobilization mostly came from political leadership closely tied to Islam.^ Mobilization mostly came from political leadership closely tied to Islam .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Politically, it was conservative, and the leadership had close ties to the former royal family.
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here the leadership for mobilization was found from amongst pious learned or charismatically revered pirs (saints).The military leadership being closely tied to Islam helped avoid the infighting common amongst the Pashtun and led to some of the most effective mobilization during the war.
  • The New Great Game: Part-2; Global Islamic Jihad « Therearenosunglasses’s Weblog 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC therearenosunglasses.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Roy convincingly contrasts the social leadership of religious figures in the Persian- and Turkic-speaking regions of Afghanistan with that of the Pashtuns.^ Roy convincingly contrasts the social leadership of religious figures in the Persian - and Turkish -speaking regions of Afghanistan with that of the Pashtuns.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Southern Afghanistan is a Taliban stronghold but also a region where Afghan president Hamid Karzai is seeking votes from fellow Pashtun tribesmen.
  • Mythos versus Logos or why do men believe that a logical and rational universe denies the truth of intuition and the mystery of life and God 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.unique-design.net [Source type: Original source]

^ These were the emergence of the Cold War and the USSR as a super power on Afghanistans border and the birth of Pakistan (1947) and its inheritance of the Pashtun region.
  • Afghanistan 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC bss.sfsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lacking a strong political representation in a state dominated by Pashtuns, minority communities commonly looked to pious learned or charismatically revered pirs (saints) for leadership.^ The Persian and Turkish speaking regions of Afghanistan lacked strong political representation in a state dominated by Pashtuns.
  • The New Great Game: Part-2; Global Islamic Jihad « Therearenosunglasses’s Weblog 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC therearenosunglasses.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lacking a strong political representation in a state dominated by Pashtuns, minority communities commonly looked to pious learned or charismatically revered pirs (saints) for leadership.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here the leadership for mobilization was found from amongst pious learned or charismatically revered pirs (saints).The military leadership being closely tied to Islam helped avoid the infighting common amongst the Pashtun and led to some of the most effective mobilization during the war.
  • The New Great Game: Part-2; Global Islamic Jihad « Therearenosunglasses’s Weblog 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC therearenosunglasses.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Extensive Sufi and maraboutic networks were spread through the minority communities, readily available as foundations for leadership, organization, communication and indoctrination.^ Extensive Sufi and maraboutic networks were spread through the minority communities, readily available as foundations for leadership, organization, communication and indoctrination.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lacking a strong political representation in a state dominated by Pashtuns, minority communities commonly looked to pious learned or charismatically revered pirs (saints) for leadership.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this regard, covert support by the US military and intelligence apparatus has been channeled to various Islamic terrorist organizations through a complex network of intermediaries and intelligence proxies.

.These networks also provided for political mobilization, which led to some of the most effective of the resistance operations during the war.^ These networks also provided for political mobilization, which led to some of the most effective of the resistance operations during the war.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He is best known for leading Congress into supporting the largest ever CIA covert operation, which supplied the Afghan Mujahideen during the Soviet war in Afghanistan.
  • Grouse's what is it? Game 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC forum-en.msi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He is best known for leading Congress into supporting Operation Cyclone , the largest-ever CIA covert operation , which supplied the Afghan Mujahideen during the Soviet war in Afghanistan .
  • POLITICO Forums:Politics: Obama slows troop boost decision - POLITICO.com 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: General]

[48]
.The mujahideen favoured sabotage operations.^ The mujahideen leaders were skilled at sabotage operations.
  • The New Great Game: Part-2; Global Islamic Jihad « Therearenosunglasses’s Weblog 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC therearenosunglasses.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The mujahideen favoured sabotage operations.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The more common types of sabotage included damaging power lines, knocking out pipelines and radio stations, blowing up government office buildings, air terminals, hotels, cinemas, and so on.^ The more common types of sabotage included damaging power lines , knocking out pipelines and radio stations, blowing up government office buildings , air terminals , hotels, cinemas, and so on.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They concentrated on both civilian and military targets, knocking out bridges, closing major roads, blowing up power lines, pipelines, radio stations, government office buildings, air terminals, hotels, cinemas,ambushing patrols, attacking convoys, disrupting the electric power system and industrial production, and attacking police stations and Soviet military installations and air bases.
  • The New Great Game: Part-2; Global Islamic Jihad « Therearenosunglasses’s Weblog 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC therearenosunglasses.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They concentrated on both civilian and military targets, knocking out bridges, closing major roads, attacking convoys , disrupting the electric power system and industrial production, and attacking police stations and Soviet military installations and air bases.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From 1985 through 1987, an average of over 600 "terrorist acts" a year were recorded.^ From 1985 through 1987, an average of over 600 " terrorist acts" a year were recorded.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 1985 through 1987, an average of over 600 “sabotage acts” a year were recorded.
  • The New Great Game: Part-2; Global Islamic Jihad « Therearenosunglasses’s Weblog 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC therearenosunglasses.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We also need to recognize that at least at this point, no terrorist organization has the capacity to truly threaten our sovereignty and way of life through the direct consequences of their act.

.In the border region with Pakistan, the mujahideen would often launch 800 rockets per day.^ The mujahideen would often launch 800 rockets per day.
  • The New Great Game: Part-2; Global Islamic Jihad « Therearenosunglasses’s Weblog 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC therearenosunglasses.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the border region with Pakistan, the mujahideen would often launch 800 rockets per day.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pakistan's border regions.
  • Predicting the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan: The Intelligence Community's Record (U) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Between April 1985 and January 1987, they carried out over 23,500 shelling attacks on government targets.^ Between April 1985 and January 1987, they carried out over 23,500 shelling attacks on government targets.
  • The New Great Game: Part-2; Global Islamic Jihad « Therearenosunglasses’s Weblog 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC therearenosunglasses.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are still carrying them out.

^ April 1986-January 1987 .
  • Guide to the Records of National Conference on Soviet Jewry, undated, 1949, 1954, 1956, 1958-1993 *I-181 and *I-181A 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

.The mujahideen surveyed firing positions that they normally located near villages within the range of Soviet artillery posts, putting the villagers in danger of death from Soviet retaliation.^ On their way they put Village Church administered by Church of Pakistan on fire.

^ The mujahideen surveyed firing positions that they normally located near villages within the range of Soviet artillery posts, putting the villagers in danger of death from Soviet retaliation.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In September, mujahideen attacks forced Soviet and DRA forces to withdraw from positions in the Panjshir valley and north of Kabul.
  • http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/fall99/WESTERMA.htm 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.lib.unb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The mujahideen used land mines heavily.^ The mujahideen used land mines heavily.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They also made heavy use of land mines .
  • The New Great Game: Part-2; Global Islamic Jihad « Therearenosunglasses’s Weblog 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC therearenosunglasses.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chemical-filled land mines were also reportedly used by the Soviets.
  • http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/fall99/WESTERMA.htm 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.lib.unb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Often, they would enlist the services of the local inhabitants, even children.^ Often, they would enlist the services of the local inhabitants, even children.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I can't even count the number of children they treated and saved."

^ The police were also looking for children, as they claimed that it was illegal for children to be present at church services.

.They concentrated on both civilian and military targets, knocking out bridges, closing major roads, attacking convoys, disrupting the electric power system and industrial production, and attacking police stations and Soviet military installations and air bases.^ Windows in a police station were blown out.

^ They concentrated on both civilian and military targets, knocking out bridges, closing major roads, blowing up power lines, pipelines, radio stations, government office buildings, air terminals, hotels, cinemas,ambushing patrols, attacking convoys, disrupting the electric power system and industrial production, and attacking police stations and Soviet military installations and air bases.
  • The New Great Game: Part-2; Global Islamic Jihad « Therearenosunglasses’s Weblog 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC therearenosunglasses.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They concentrated on both civilian and military targets, knocking out bridges, closing major roads, attacking convoys , disrupting the electric power system and industrial production, and attacking police stations and Soviet military installations and air bases.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They assassinated government officials and PDPA members, and laid siege to small rural outposts.^ They assassinated government officials and PDPA members, and laid siege to small rural outposts .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PDPA forces murdered senior members of Daoud's government during and immediately after the revolution, and these deaths were almost certainly omitted from Taraki's accounting.
  • Afghanistan 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While many in their circumstances would seek help from their government, they have no one to rely on in their small, isolated village except themselves.
  • Film Library By Country 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.osaarchivum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In March 1982, a bomb exploded at the Ministry of Education, damaging several buildings.^ In March 1982, a bomb exploded at the Ministry of Education , damaging several buildings.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several people had come to know the Lord through Jay’s ministry, and now these believers wanted to build a church because they were outgrowing the believers’ houses.

.In the same month, a widespread power failure darkened Kabul when a pylon on the transmission line from the Naghlu power station was blown up.^ In the same month, a widespread power failure darkened Kabul when a pylon on the transmission line from the Naghlu power station was blown up.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The more common types of sabotage included damaging power lines , knocking out pipelines and radio stations, blowing up government office buildings , air terminals , hotels, cinemas, and so on.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When he failed to get up to mark admissions in his school after summer vacation, he approached police station and accused me committing blasphemy two months earlier.

.In June 1982 a column of about 1,000 young communist party members sent out to work in the Panjshir valley were ambushed within 30 km of Kabul, with heavy loss of life.^ Henrik, Expressen , 30 June 1982 .
  • Stephen Roth Institute: Antisemitism and Racism 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.tau.ac.il [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In June 1982 a column of about 1,000 young communist party members sent out to work in the Panjshir valley were ambushed within 30 km of Kabul, with heavy loss of life.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Work on the 136-km road linking Kabul through Wardak province to the central Bamyan province began in 2006 with 151 million U.S. dollars financial support from Italy and is expected to be completed within the next three years.

.On September 4, 1985, insurgents shot down a domestic Bakhtar Airlines plane as it took off from Kandahar airport, killing all 52 people aboard.^ In September 1984, the insurgents shot down a Bakhtar Airlines aircraft with a SA-7 just after it took off from the Kandahar airfield.
  • http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/fall99/WESTERMA.htm 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.lib.unb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On September 4, 1985, insurgents shot down a domestic Bakhtar Airlines plane as it took off from Kandahar airport, killing all 52 people aboard.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Strategically we cannot kill all the crazy people.
  • Howard Dean, meet Thomas Paine - Winds of Change.NET 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.windsofchange.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Howard Dean, meet Thomas Paine - Winds of Change.NET 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC danziger.pixelgate.net [Source type: Original source]

.Mujahideen groups used for assassination had three to five men in each.^ Mujahideen groups used for assassination had three to five men in each.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arthur Bonner, an American journalist who traveled with the mujahideen in 1985, described the insurgents' use of small groups of men and animals for resupply.
  • http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/fall99/WESTERMA.htm 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.lib.unb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The captives — volunteers from a church group who planned to do health work in Afghanistan — include 16 women and five men.

.After they received their mission to kill certain government officials, they busied themselves with studying his pattern of life and its details and then selecting the method of fulfilling their established mission.^ After they received their mission to kill certain government officials, they busied themselves with studying his pattern of life and its details and then selecting the method of fulfilling their established mission.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Sher Ali received an envoy from Moscow in 1878, London insisted that they be allowed to establish a permanent mission in Kabul – and having set themselves an impossibly short time for the amir to reply, sleepwalked into the Second Anglo-Afghan War.
  • History of Afghanistan - Lonely Planet Travel Information 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: News]

^ Before her death, Bhutto had publicly accused senior government and intelligence officials of plotting to kill her after her return from self-imposed exile in October.

.They practiced shooting at automobiles, shooting out of automobiles, laying mines in government accommodation or houses, using poison, and rigging explosive charges in transport.^ They practiced shooting at automobiles , shooting out of automobiles , laying mines in government accommodation or houses, using poison, and rigging explosive charges in transport.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They have lost all their belongings; their houses have been destroyed so at present they need shelter, food, and other stuff used in daily life.

^ The route from Kabul to Jalalabad and on to the Pakistani border was often under guerrilla control, forcing government and Soviet officials to use air transport to these areas.
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The areas where the different mujahideen forces operated in 1985.
.In May 1985, the seven principal rebel organizations formed the Seven Party Mujahideen Alliance to coordinate their military operations against the Soviet army.^ In May 1985, the seven principal rebel organizations formed the Seven Party Mujahideen Alliance to coordinate their military operations against the Soviet army.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For over nine years the Soviet Army occupied Afghanistan while conducting military operations against the Afghan mujahideen rebels.
  • Mythos versus Logos or why do men believe that a logical and rational universe denies the truth of intuition and the mystery of life and God 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.unique-design.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In May 1985, the seven principal Peshawar-based guerrilla organizations formed an alliance to coordinate their political and military operations against the Soviet occupation.
  • Afghanistan (11/08) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Late in 1985, the groups were active in and around Kabul, unleashing rocket attacks and conducting operations against the communist government.^ Late in 1985, the groups were active in and around Kabul, unleashing rocket attacks and conducting operations against the communist government.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Late in 1985, the mujahideen were active in and around Kabul.
  • Afghanistan (11/08) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From Wikipedia: Wikipedia on Mujahedin wrote: Spoiler: The best-known mujahideen, various loosely-aligned Afghan opposition groups, initially fought against the incumbent pro-Soviet Afghan government during the late 1970s.
  • xkcd • View topic - Afghan Government to kill British-deported atheist apostate 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

.By mid-1987 the Soviet Union announced it would start withdrawing its forces.^ By mid-1987 the Soviet Union announced it would start withdrawing its forces.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On July 20, 1987, the withdrawal of Soviet troops from the country was announced.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ British and American diplomatic support for Iran forced the Soviet Union to withdraw its troops from the northeastern part of that country in 1946.
  • Soviet Union 1945-1985 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC unx1.shsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sibghatullah Mojaddedi was selected as the head of the Interim Islamic State of Afghanistan, in an attempt to reassert its legitimacy against the Moscow-sponsored Kabul regime.^ Sibghatullah Mojaddedi was selected as the head of the Interim Islamic State of Afghanistan, in an attempt to reassert its legitimacy against the Moscow-sponsored Kabul regime.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Operation Cyclone was the code name for the United States CIA program to arm Islamic mujahideen during the Soviet war in Afghanistan , 1979 to 1989.
  • POLITICO Forums:Politics: Bush refuses to rule out Iran strike - POLITICO.com 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His country could offer huge benefits to the United States as a base for operations against Afghanistan.
  • TERRORISM - WORLD TRADE CENTER - 9-11-2001 - MILITARY PAGE 2 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: News]

.Mojaddedi, as head of the Interim Afghan Government, met with then Vice President of the United States George H. W. Bush, achieving a critical diplomatic victory for the Afghan resistance.^ Mojaddedi, as head of the Interim Afghan Government, met with then Vice President of the United States George H. W. Bush , achieving a critical diplomatic victory for the Afghan resistance.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Washington officially recognized the new Afghan Government, maintained normal diplomatic relations, and continued modest economic aid at the pre-coup level.
  • Predicting the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan: The Intelligence Community's Record (U) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The father of George W. Bush, after being US' president, joined the Carlyle group and developed relations with the Bin Laden company .
  • Investigative Reporting: 9-11 To Big Oil - Which Facts Behind Afghanistan Invasion And 9-11 Attacks? 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.masternewmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Defeat of the Kabul government was their solution for peace.^ Defeat of the Kabul government was their solution for peace.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This confidence, sharpened by their distrust of the United Nations, virtually guaranteed their refusal to accept a political compromise.^ This confidence, sharpened by their distrust of the United Nations , virtually guaranteed their refusal to accept a political compromise.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Bush challenged the United Nations to do something about Sudan, even while the Sudanese government steadfastly refuses to accept UN peacekeepers, and maintains supported only for a limited and marginally effective African Union force.

^ The war dragged on until 1988 until Khomeini and Hussein accepted a truce brokered by the United Nations.
  • The United States of America: A Failing Superpower- The Politics eZine 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.lilith-ezine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Foreign involvement and aid to the mujahideen

Three mujahideen in Asmar, 1985.
.The Afghans were supported by a number of other countries, with the US and Saudi Arabia offering the greatest financial support.^ The Afghans were supported by a number of other countries, with the US and Saudi Arabia offering the greatest financial support.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was a basic agreement that only Pakistani intelligence would deal with the [Afghan mujahideen groups in the 1980s] and jihadi organizations and everybody in Europe and the US supported this.
  • Terrorism is not indigenous to Pakistan. It is the direct consequence of American invasion and occupation of Afghanistan and American Drone attacks in FATA « Rupee News 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC rupeenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bigger threat to the US or civilian airlines is that of the multitude of Russian and other countries MANPADS that are available throughout the world.
  • The Stinger's Impact (Soviet-Afghan-War) [Archive] - Military Photos 25 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.militaryphotos.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the Afghans were also aided by others: the United Kingdom, Egypt, China, Iran, and Pakistan.^ However, the Afghans were also aided by others: the UK , Egypt , China , Iran , and Pakistan.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Afghan botdecs with Pakistan and Iran.
  • THE SOVIET INVASION OF AFGHANISTAN: FIVE YEARS AFTER (NESA 85-10084) - CIA document 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The modern Afghan state was founded in the mid-eighteenth century by Ahmed Shah Durrani, who united the region’s disparate Pashtun tribes and conquered major portions of modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, northeastern Iran, and western India.
  • In the Graveyard of Empires, America's War in Afghanistan - Excerpt 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ground support, for political reasons, was limited to regional countries.^ Ground support, for political reasons, was limited to regional countries.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To secure financial and political support, Taliban emulated authoritarian methods typical of many Middle Eastern countries.
  • ISR Web Exclusive | Afghanistan, the Taliban and the United States 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.isreview.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US policy toward Iran conflicts with US stated policy toward Afghanistan and is one of the reasons that many in the region believe the US supports the Taliban."
  • ISR Web Exclusive | Afghanistan, the Taliban and the United States 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.isreview.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The United States began training insurgents in, and directing propaganda broadcasts into Afghanistan from Pakistan in 1978.[50] Then, in early 1979, U.S. foreign service officers began meeting insurgent leaders to determine their needs.^ Then, in early 1979, U.S. foreign service officers began meeting insurgent leaders to determine their needs.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States began training insurgents in, and directing propaganda broadcasts into Afghanistan from Pakistan in 1978.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The legality of the United States' intervention in Afghanistan.

[51] .According to the then US National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski, CIA aid to the insurgents within Afghanistan was approved in July 1979, six months before the Soviet Invasion.^ Soviet invasion of Afghanistan: ideology, security, or power politics?

^ US-Pakistan relationship: Soviet invasion of Afghanistan .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another contributing factor was the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979.
  • Soviet Union - Familypedia 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52]
.United States President Jimmy Carter insisted that what he termed "Soviet aggression" could not be viewed as an isolated event of limited geographical importance but had to be contested as a potential threat to US influence in the Persian Gulf region.^ United States President Jimmy Carter insisted that what he termed "Soviet aggression" could not be viewed as an isolated event of limited geographical importance but had to be contested as a potential threat to US influence in the Persian Gulf region.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am a candidate for president of United States.
  • Fighting the Same War Twice? - Page 1 - The Daily Beast 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thedailybeast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States could have helped bring stability to this volatile region.
  • Afghanistan: Soviet Imperialism and the American War on Terrorism 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.pages.drexel.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The US was also worried about the USSR gaining access to the Indian Ocean by coming to an arrangement with Pakistan.^ The US was also worried about the USSR gaining access to the Indian Ocean by coming to an arrangement with Pakistan.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, we may note the observation of Hizb ut-Tahrir: "The importance of Pakistan [to the US] comes from the effect it has on neighboring countries like Iran, Afghanistan and India.
  • ISR Web Exclusive | Afghanistan, the Taliban and the United States 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.isreview.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Economists say if the peace moves gain pace, Pakistan's economy would benefit through export access to its larger neighbour.

.After the Soviet deployment, Pakistan's military ruler General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq started accepting financial aid from the Western powers to aid the mujahideen.^ Financial aid for Soviet Jews .
  • Guide to the Records of National Conference on Soviet Jewry, undated, 1949, 1954, 1956, 1958-1993 *I-181 and *I-181A 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

^ After the Soviet deployment, Pakistan's military ruler General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq started accepting financial aid from the Western powers to aid the mujahideen.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brzezinski himself played a fundamental role in crafting US policy, which, unbeknownst even to the mujahideen, was part of a larger strategy "to induce a Soviet military intervention ."
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[53] .In 1981, following the election of US President Ronald Reagan, aid for the mujahideen through Zia's Pakistan significantly increased, mostly due to the efforts of Texas Congressman Charlie Wilson and CIA officer Gust Avrakotos.^ In 1981, following the election of US President Ronald Reagan , aid for the mujahideen through Zia's Pakistan significantly increased, mostly due to the efforts of Texas Congressman Charlie Wilson and CIA officer Gust Avrakotos .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Congressman Charlie Wilson to increase u.s.
  • In the Graveyard of Empires, America's War in Afghanistan - Excerpt 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Charlie Wilson's War , Wilson asks Avrakotos who in Carter's CIA was running the vast and important effort to aid the mujahideen.

.US "Paramilitary Officers" from the CIA's Special Activities Division were instrumental in training, equipping and sometimes leading Mujihadeen forces against the Soviet Army.^ US "Paramilitary Officers" were instrumental in training, equipping and sometimes leading Mujihadeen forces against the Red Army .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Approximately 100 cia officers, 350 Special Forces soldiers, and 15,000 Afghans — running as many as 100 combat sorties per day — defeated a Taliban army estimated at 50,000 to 60,000 plus several thousand al Qa’ida fighters.
  • In the Graveyard of Empires, America's War in Afghanistan - Excerpt 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the CIA in general and Charlie Wilson , a Texas Congressman , have received most of the attention, the key architect of this strategy was Michael G. Vickers , a young Paramilitary Officer from the CIA's infamous Special Activities Division .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although the CIA in general and Charlie Wilson, a Texas Congressman, have received most of the attention, the key architect of this strategy was Michael G. Vickers, a young Paramilitary Officer.^ Congressman Charlie Wilson to increase u.s.
  • In the Graveyard of Empires, America's War in Afghanistan - Excerpt 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the CIA in general and Charlie Wilson , a Texas Congressman , have received most of the attention, the key architect of this strategy was Michael G. Vickers , a young Paramilitary Officer from the CIA's infamous Special Activities Division .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1981, following the election of US President Ronald Reagan , aid for the mujahideen through Zia's Pakistan significantly increased, mostly due to the efforts of Texas Congressman Charlie Wilson and CIA officer Gust Avrakotos .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[54] .Michael Pillsbury, a senior Pentagon official overcame bureaucratic resisistance in 1985-1986 and persuaded President Reagan to provide hundreds of Stinger missiles.^ Michael Pillsbury , a senior Pentagon official overcame bureaucratic resisistance in 1985-1986 and persuaded President Reagan to provide hundreds of Stinger missiles.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1986, Reagan then intensified the war by providing Stinger anti-aircraft missiles.
  • Afghanistan: Soviet Imperialism and the American War on Terrorism 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.pages.drexel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ By October 1986, the mujahideen had received approximately 200 Stinger missiles.
  • http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/fall99/WESTERMA.htm 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.lib.unb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[55][56]
.The United States, the United Kingdom, and Saudi Arabia became major financial contributors, the United States donating "$600 million in aid per year, with a matching amount coming from the Persian Gulf states."^ Out of which, 6 million in United States and .6 million or 600,000 in Canada.

^ The United States, the United Kingdom, and Saudi Arabia became major financial contributors, the United States donating "$600 million in aid per year, with a matching amount coming from the Persian Gulf states."
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United States President Jimmy Carter insisted that what he termed "Soviet aggression" could not be viewed as an isolated event of limited geographical importance but had to be contested as a potential threat to US influence in the Persian Gulf region.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57] .The People's Republic of China also sold Type 59 tanks, Type 68 assault rifles, Type 56 assault rifles, Type 69 RPGs, and much more to mujahideen in co-operation with the CIA, as did Egypt with assault rifles.^ The People's Republic of China also sold Type 59 tanks, Type 68 assault rifles, Type 56 assault rifles, Type 69 RPGs , and much more to mujahideen in co-operation with the CIA, as did Egypt with assault rifles.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He is best known for leading Congress into supporting Operation Cyclone , the largest-ever CIA covert operation , which supplied the Afghan Mujahideen during the Soviet war in Afghanistan .
  • POLITICO Forums:Politics: Obama slows troop boost decision - POLITICO.com 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: General]

^ In fact, at the time of the September 11 attacks, CIA-sponsored Mujahideen mercenaries were fighting within the ranks of KLA-NLA terrorists in their assaults into Macedonia.
  • Al-Qaeda and the "War on Terrorism" 9 October 2009 21:021 UTC www.globalpolicy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of particular significance was the donation of US-made FIM-92 Stinger anti-aircraft missile systems, which caused a small increase in aircraft losses of the Soviet Air Force.^ With the aid of U.S.-supplied Stinger anti-aircraft missiles, Soviet MIG and other fighter jets were routinely shot from the sky.

^ During the initial build-up preceding the actual attack, there had been speculation in the media that the Taliban might try to use U.S.-built Stinger anti-aircraft missiles that were the bane of Soviet helicopters during the Soviet occupation in the 1980s.
  • Soviet Army Stuff - Russian Military Uniforms, "Ushanka" Fur Hats, Gas Masks, Badges. Spetsnaz. - Info 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.sovietarmystuff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet advisers came, in a managerial and supportive capacity, to the aid of the air force at Bagrami Air Base.  .
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58] .The main impact that it made, however, was the change it led to in Soviet tactics – helicopters increasing stayed over friendly forces and limited daytime flights, jetcraft were forced to fly much higher, and other contingency measures were put in place.^ Soviets usually refer to their presence in Afghanistan as "The Limited Contingent of Soviet Forces in Afghanistan."
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main impact that it made, however, was the change it led to in Soviet tactics – helicopters increasing stayed over friendly forces and limited daytime flights, jetcraft were forced to fly much higher, and other contingency measures were put in place.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The symbol of unity for tibetans is His Holiness the Dalai Lama, however much the world has changed around us tibetans he is the very knot that ties us together.
  • Shadow Tibet : Jamyang Norbu » Blog Archive » MARCH WINDS 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.jamyangnorbu.com [Source type: Original source]

[59]
An Afghan mujahideen fighter demonstrates the use of a hand-held SA-7 surface-to-air missile.
.In March 1985, the US government adopted National Security Decision Directive (NSDD) 166, which set a goal of military victory for the mujahideen.^ In March 1985, the US government adopted National Security Decision Directive (NSDD) 166, which set a goal of military victory for the mujahideen.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brzezinski himself played a fundamental role in crafting US policy, which, unbeknownst even to the mujahideen, was part of a larger strategy "to induce a Soviet military intervention ."
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In May 1985, the seven principal rebel organizations formed the Seven Party Mujahideen Alliance to coordinate their military operations against the Soviet army.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After 1985 the CIA and Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) placed greater pressure on the mujahideen to attack government strongholds.^ After 1985 the CIA and Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) placed greater pressure on the mujahideen to attack government strongholds.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Afghanistan the U.S. and British governments sponsored radical elements of the Afghan Mujahedin and helped nurture what became the repressive Taliban via Pakistan and the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI).
  • America's "Long War": The Legacy of the Iraq-Iran and Soviet-Afghan Wars 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This led the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence to enlist over 500,000 local Pakistanis to aid in intelligence efforts, 100,000 of which were trained fighters with some military background.
  • Afghanistan: Soviet Imperialism and the American War on Terrorism 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.pages.drexel.edu [Source type: Original source]

Under direct instructions from Director of Central Intelligence William Casey, the CIA initiated programs for training Afghans in techniques such as car bombs and assassinations and in engaging in cross-border raids into the USSR.[60]
.Pakistan's ISI and Special Service Group (SSG) were actively involved in the conflict, and in cooperation with the CIA and the United States Army Special Forces, as well as the British Special Air Service, supported the mujahideen.^ Pakistan's ISI and Special Service Group (SSG) were actively involved in the conflict, and in cooperation with the CIA and the United States Army Special Forces , as well as the British Special Air Service , supported the mujahideen.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 2001, the Taliban, with backing from the Pakistani ISI (military intelligence) and possibly even the regular Pakistan Army, as well as al-Qaeda which found a refuge in Afghanistan, had largely defeated the militias and controlled most of the country.
  • xkcd • View topic - Afghan Government to kill British-deported atheist apostate 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It’s dubious whether bin Laden ever dealt directly with the CIA…his primary contacts were in the ISI. In fact, the previous ISI Director was supposedly bin Laden’s handler, as well as the handler of the Pashtun religious leader who is reportedly involved in her assassination.
  • Firedoglake » A Quick Cruise through the (Not Too) Recent and Brief History of Afghanistan–As Affects the US Directly or Indirectly By Metonymy 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The theft of large sums of aid spurred Pakistan's economic growth, but along with the war in general had devastating side effects for that country.^ The theft of large sums of aid spurred Pakistan's economic growth, but along with the war in general had devastating side effects for that country.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1978, the Soviet Union invaded and, after more than two decades of war, the Kabul-Kandahar highway was devastated, like much of the country's infrastructure.
  • Afghanistan (11/08) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, we may note the observation of Hizb ut-Tahrir: "The importance of Pakistan [to the US] comes from the effect it has on neighboring countries like Iran, Afghanistan and India.
  • ISR Web Exclusive | Afghanistan, the Taliban and the United States 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.isreview.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The siphoning off of aid weapons in the port city of Karachi contributed to disorder and violence there, while heroin entering from Afghanistan to pay for arms contributed to addiction problems.^ The siphoning off of aid weapons in the port city of Karachi contributed to disorder and violence there, while heroin entering from Afghanistan to pay for arms contributed to addiction problems.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These weapons were siphoned off from Chinese arms shipments to the resistance battling the Vietnamese army in Cambodia, and sold to any one who wanted, and could afford, to buy them.
  • Bangladesh: Extremist Islamist Consolidation -- Bertil Lintner 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.satp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But this toleration of the traffic has led to another similarity with Vietnam and Laos in the 1960s: the increasing addiction of GIs to heroin, Afghanistan’s principal export.
  • Obama and Afghanistan: America’s Drug-Corrupted War by Prof Peter Dale Scott « Dandelion Salad 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dandelionsalad.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[61]
.In retaliation for Pakistan's assistance to the insurgents, the KHAD Afghan security service, under leader Mohammad Najibullah, carried out (according to the Mitrokhin archives and other sources) a large number of operations against Pakistan.^ In retaliation for Pakistan's assistance to the insurgents, the KHAD Afghan security service, under leader Mohammad Najibullah , carried out (according to the Mitrokhin archives and other sources) a large number of operations against Pakistan.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was, by and large, a Baluch referendum against Pakistan.

^ Central Intelligence Agency and Saudi intelligence, provided substantial assistance to the mujahideen and such Afghan leaders as Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and Jalaluddin Haqqani, some of whom would later take up arms against the United States and other Coalition forces after the September 2001 terrorist attacks.
  • In the Graveyard of Empires, America's War in Afghanistan - Excerpt 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1987, 127 incidents resulted in 234 deaths in Pakistan.^ In 1987, 127 incidents resulted in 234 deaths in Pakistan.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The death incident of Jagdish Kumar has sparked fear among religious communities in Pakistan and social society leaders are raising demands of justice for victim.

.In April 1988, an ammunition depot outside the Pakistani capital of Islamabad was blown up killing 100 and injuring more than 1000 people.^ More than 100,000 people marched at Dink`s funeral.

^ Over 200 people have been killed so far and more than 1,200 injured.

^ More than 20 people were killed.

.The KHAD and KGB were suspected in the perpetration of these acts.^ The KHAD and KGB were suspected in the perpetration of these acts.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "I urge the perpetrators of violence to renounce these acts and join with their brothers and sisters to work together in building a civilisation of love," he said.

[62]
.Pakistan took in millions of Afghan refugees (mostly Pashtun) fleeing the Soviet occupation.^ Impact of the Afghan refugees on Pakistan.

^ Pakistan took in millions of Afghan refugees (mostly Pashtun ) fleeing the Soviet occupation.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over 5 million Afghan refugees have returned to the country since 2002.
  • Afghanistan (11/08) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although the refugees were controlled within Pakistan's largest province, Balochistan under then-martial law ruler General Rahimuddin Khan, the influx of so many refugees - believed to be the largest refugee population in the world[63] — spread into several other regions.^ Although the refugees were controlled within Pakistan's largest province , Balochistan under then- martial law ruler General Rahimuddin Khan , the influx of so many refugees - believed to be the largest refugee population in the world [ 58 ] — spread into several other regions.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There remain over 2 million Afghan refugees in Iran and Pakistan, making Afghans the largest single refugee group in the entire world.  The Taliban that now dominates Afghanistan has instituted a ‘system’ in which much of the population is denied their social and human rights; torture, arbitrary detention, mass killings and ongoing warfare are the norm; the masses remain embedded in growing poverty; the rulers falsely legitimise their actions under the guise of Islam.
  • ISR Web Exclusive | Afghanistan, the Taliban and the United States 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.isreview.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many others are crowding around this northwest Pakistani city, where staff members from the U.N. refugee agency are present at nearly a dozen camps.

.All of this had a heavy impact on Pakistan and its effects continue to this day.^ "All the tentmakers in Pakistan cannot produce more than 5,000 tents a day," said M.J. Aftab of the Sheikh Mooruddin company.

^ He appealed Christians in all over the world to pray for persecuted Church in Pakistan as the situation worsening day by day.

^ All Christian-run educational institutions were closed as part of the three-day mourning announced by church leaders and the All-Pakistan Minority Alliance.

.Pakistan, through its support for the mujahideen, played a significant role in the eventual withdrawal of Soviet military personnel from Afghanistan.^ Soviet troops withdrawing from Afghanistan in 1988.
  • Soviet Union - Familypedia 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pakistan, through its support for the mujahideen, played a significant role in the eventual withdrawal of Soviet military personnel from Afghanistan.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet intervention in Afghanistan and its implications for Pakistan.

.Pakistan went to the point of maintaining a limited air war against Afghan/Soviet forces.^ This began during the Afghan war against the Soviets.
  • ISR Web Exclusive | Afghanistan, the Taliban and the United States 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.isreview.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pakistan went to the point of maintaining a limited air war against Afghan/Soviet forces.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet advisers came, in a managerial and supportive capacity, to the aid of the air force at Bagrami Air Base.  .
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[64] [65]

April 1985-January 1987: Exit strategy

Awards ceremony for the 9th Company
Soviet soldier in Afghanistan, 1988.
.The first step of the exit strategy was to transfer the burden of fighting the mujahideen to the Afghan armed forces, with the aim of preparing them to operate without Soviet help.^ The first step of the exit strategy was to transfer the burden of fighting the mujahideen to the Afghan armed forces, with the aim of preparing them to operate without Soviet help.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Afghans believed this was the first step in gaining technical assistance from the Soviets.
  • Afghanistan: Soviet Imperialism and the American War on Terrorism 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.pages.drexel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On the one hand, the Soviets used them to maim or disable mujahideen who would then require the help of their comrades to reach an aid station thus decreasing the size of the operational insurgent force in the field at any given time.
  • http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/fall99/WESTERMA.htm 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.lib.unb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During this phase, the Soviet contingent was restricted to supporting the DRA forces by providing artillery, air support and technical assistance, though some large-scale operations were still carried out by Soviet troops.^ Soviet advisers planned the attack, commanded the Afghan forces, and provided air support.
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are still carrying them out.

^ Soviet nationals and Sovici support Operations.
  • THE SOVIET INVASION OF AFGHANISTAN: IMPLICATIONS FOR WARNING (N - CIA document 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Under Soviet guidance, the DRA armed forces were built up to an official strength of 302,000 in 1986. To minimize the risk of a coup d'état, they were divided into different branches, each modeled on its Soviet counterpart.^ Under Soviet guidance, the DRA armed forces were built up to an official strength of 302,000 in 1986.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To minimize the risk of a coup d'état , they were divided into different branches, each modeled on its Soviet counterpart.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet invasion On December 7, 1979, Soviet informants to the Afghan Armed Forces who were under orders from the inner circle of advisors under Soviet leader Brezhnev, relayed information for them to undergo maintenance cycles for their tanks and other crucial equipment.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ministry of defense forces numbered 132,000, the ministry of interior 70,000 and the ministry of state security (KHAD) 80,000. However, these were theoretical figures: in reality each service was plagued with desertions, the army alone suffering 32,000 per year.^ However, these were theoretical figures: in reality each service was plagued with desertions , the army alone suffering 32,000 per year.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ministry of defense forces numbered 132,000, the ministry of interior 70,000 and the ministry of state security ( KHAD ) 80,000.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Ministries of Defense and Interior would not have any jurisdiction over this national force.
  • Articles 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.sabawoon.com [Source type: Original source]

.The decision to engage primarily Afghan forces was taken by the Soviets, but was resented by the PDPA, who viewed the departure of their protectors without enthusiasm.^ The decision to engage primarily Afghan forces was taken by the Soviets, but was resented by the PDPA, who viewed the departure of their protectors without enthusiasm.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet invasion On December 7, 1979, Soviet informants to the Afghan Armed Forces who were under orders from the inner circle of advisors under Soviet leader Brezhnev, relayed information for them to undergo maintenance cycles for their tanks and other crucial equipment.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was, however, a significant difference in the size of the forces employed, with the Afghan operation initially employing slightly less than 50,000 Soviet troops.
  • http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/fall99/WESTERMA.htm 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.lib.unb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In May 1987 a DRA force attacked well-entrenched mujahideen positions in the Arghandab District, but the mujahideen held their ground, and the attackers suffered heavy casualties.^ In May 1987 a DRA force attacked well-entrenched mujahideen positions in the Arghandab District , but the mujahideen held their ground, and the attackers suffered heavy casualties.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Elections for district and village councils may be held in 2010 as well.
  • Afghanistan (11/08) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In September, mujahideen attacks forced Soviet and DRA forces to withdraw from positions in the Panjshir valley and north of Kabul.
  • http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/fall99/WESTERMA.htm 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.lib.unb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[66] .In the spring of 1986, an offensive into Paktia Province briefly occupied the mujahideen base at Zhawar only at the cost of heavy losses.^ For example, there were only 13 mujahideen heavy machine-guns in the Panjshir Valley in 1982, but, by the end of 1984, there were almost 250.
  • http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/fall99/WESTERMA.htm 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.lib.unb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The majority of attacks occurred in the spring and summer of 1980 and 1981 at the high seasons of mujahideen manpower and supply infiltration into the country.
  • http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/fall99/WESTERMA.htm 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.lib.unb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The introduction of the Stinger not only allowed supply caravans to travel during the day, but it also allowed mujahideen forces to mass in preparation for offensive operations.
  • http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/fall99/WESTERMA.htm 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.lib.unb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[67] .Meanwhile, the mujahideen benefited from expanded foreign military support from the United States, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and other Muslim nations.^ Meanwhile, the mujahideen benefited from expanded foreign military support from the United States , Saudi Arabia , Pakistan and other Muslim nations.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On September 22, 2001 the United Arab Emirates, and on the following day, Saudi Arabia withdrew their recognition of the Taliban as the legal government of Afghanistan, leaving neighboring Pakistan as the only remaining country with diplomatic ties.
  • Soviet Army Stuff - Russian Military Uniforms, "Ushanka" Fur Hats, Gas Masks, Badges. Spetsnaz. - Info 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.sovietarmystuff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pakistan has built fences in some portions of its border with Afghanistan which remains open in some areas to foreign terrorists and other illegal activities .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Afghanistan 25 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: News]

The US tended to favor the Afghan resistance forces led by Ahmed Shah Massoud, and US support for Massoud's forces increased considerably during the Reagan administration in what US military and intelligence forces called "Operation Cyclone." Primary advocates for supporting Massoud included two Heritage Foundation foreign policy analysts, Michael Johns and James A. Phillips, both of whom championed Massoud as the Afghan resistance leader most worthy of US support under the Reagan Doctrine.[68][69][70]

January 1987-February 1989: Withdrawal

Soviet T-62M main battle tank withdraws from Afghanistan
.In the last phase, Soviet troops prepared and executed their withdrawal from Afghanistan.^ Soviet troops withdrawing from Afghanistan in 1988.
  • Soviet Union - Familypedia 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Afghan Breakdown / Афганский излом [FL 999] The movie tells the story of the last days of a Soviet regiment stationed in Afghansitan, before the main troop withdrawal in 1985.
  • Film Library By Country 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.osaarchivum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ British and American diplomatic support for Iran forced the Soviet Union to withdraw its troops from the northeastern part of that country in 1946.
  • Soviet Union 1945-1985 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC unx1.shsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They hardly engaged in offensive operations at all, and were content to defend against mujahideen raids.^ They hardly engaged in offensive operations at all, and were content to defend against mujahideen raids.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All these and the like are criminal: they poison civilization; and they debase The perpetrators more than the victims and militate against the honor of the Creator.

^ Because of their knowledge of local terrain and conditions, militias, when reliable, were useful in offensives against the mujahidiin; they were also used to forcibly round up recruits for the army.  .
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.The one exception was Operation Magistral, a successful sweep that cleared the road between Gardez and Khost.^ The Road to Intervention and Escalation The initial conduct of military operations in Afghanistan was reminiscent of the earlier Soviet success in the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia.
  • http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/fall99/WESTERMA.htm 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.lib.unb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This operation did not have any lasting effect, but it allowed the Soviets to symbolically end their presence with a victory.^ This operation did not have any lasting effect, but it allowed the Soviets to symbolically end their presence with a victory.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moscow would also have to weigh the negative effects elsewhere in the Muslim world of a massive Soviet military presence in Afghanistan.
  • Predicting the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan: The Intelligence Community's Record (U) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the end, Soviet operations in Herat and Kandahar were qualified successes.
  • http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/fall99/WESTERMA.htm 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.lib.unb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[71]
.The first half of the Soviet contingent was withdrawn from May 15 to August 16, 1988 and the second from November 15 to February 15, 1989. The withdrawal was generally executed peacefully, as the Soviets had negotiated ceasefires with local mujahideen commanders, in order to ensure a safe passage.^ The withdrawal was generally executed peacefully, as the Soviets had negotiated ceasefires with local mujahideen commanders, in order to ensure a safe passage.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January 1987-February 1989: Withdrawal .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ December 1988-February 1989 .
  • Guide to the Records of National Conference on Soviet Jewry, undated, 1949, 1954, 1956, 1958-1993 *I-181 and *I-181A 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

[72] .Now fighting alone, the DRA forces were obliged to abandon some provincial capitals, and it was widely believed that they would not be able to resist the mujahideen for long.^ Now fighting alone, the DRA forces were obliged to abandon some provincial capitals, and it was widely believed that they would not be able to resist the mujahideen for long.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While China doesn't have the ability to project force very far away from there own homeland, there is no reason to assume that would if they could.
  • Poll: Why do some Americans still demonize Russia and China? 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.escapistmagazine.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then they assaulted some of the persons attending the meeting even as their spokesman told the television reporter that they would not allowed conversions in Hindu Rashtra of India.

.However, in the spring of 1989 DRA forces inflicted a sharp defeat on the mujahideen at Jalalabad, and as a result, the war remained stalemated.^ However, in the spring of 1989 DRA forces inflicted a sharp defeat on the mujahideen at Jalalabad , and as a result, the war remained stalemated.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Operation Cyclone was the code name for the United States CIA program to arm Islamic mujahideen during the Soviet war in Afghanistan , 1979 to 1989.
  • POLITICO Forums:Politics: Bush refuses to rule out Iran strike - POLITICO.com 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mujahideen forces found themselves unable to defeat Soviet forces during much of the war, however, the mujahideen won when the Soviet Union pulled troops out of Afghanistan in 1989, when they overtook many of Afghanistans cities from the Federal Government, followed by the fall of the Mohammad Najibullah regime in 1992.
  • xkcd • View topic - Afghan Government to kill British-deported atheist apostate 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

.The government of President Karmal, a puppet regime, was largely ineffective.^ The government of President Karmal, a puppet regime , was largely ineffective.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was weakened by divisions within the PDPA and the Parcham faction, and the regime's efforts to expand its base of support proved futile.^ It was weakened by divisions within the PDPA and the Parcham faction, and the regime's efforts to expand its base of support proved futile.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Undercut by deep-seated divisions within the PDPA, regime efforts to broaden its base of support proved futile.
  • Afghanistan (11/08) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Animosity between members of the Parcham and Khalq factions of the PDPA also hampered the army's ability to carry out its mission.
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Moscow came to regard Karmal as a failure and blamed him for the problems.^ Moscow came to regard Karmal as a failure and blamed him for the problems.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Years later, when Karmal’s inability to consolidate his government had become obvious, Mikhail Gorbachev, then General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party, said:
Soviet troops withdrawing from Afghanistan in 1988
The main reason that there has been no national consolidation so far is that Comrade Karmal is hoping to continue sitting in Kabul with our help.
.In November 1986, Mohammad Najibullah, former chief of the Afghan secret police (KHAD), was elected president and a new constitution was adopted.^ In November 1986, Mohammad Najibullah , former chief of the Afghan secret police ( KHAD ), was elected president and a new constitution was adopted.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Karmal was replaced by Muhammad Najibullah, former chief of the Afghan secret police (KHAD).
  • Afghanistan (11/08) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Possibly you also remember how the US was instrumental in overthrowing the elected government of Iran in the 50s and installing the Shah, and his secret police.
  • POLITICO Forums:Politics: Bush refuses to rule out Iran strike - POLITICO.com 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC dyn.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He also introduced in 1987 a policy of "national reconciliation," devised by experts of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and later used in other regions of the world.^ He also introduced in 1987 a policy of "national reconciliation," devised by experts of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union , and later used in other regions of the world.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For other uses, see Soviet (disambiguation) .
  • Soviet Union - Familypedia 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The world and art of bandits in the Soviet Union.
  • Leonas Cerskus: "The story of Lithuanian soldier". Links. 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Despite high expectations, the new policy neither made the Moscow-backed Kabul regime more popular, nor did it convince the insurgents to negotiate with the ruling government.^ Despite high expectations, the new policy neither made the Moscow-backed Kabul regime more popular, nor did it convince the insurgents to negotiate with the ruling government.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That withdrawal was carried out on schedule, despite widespread expectations that it would result in the prompt collapse of the Najibullah government in Kabul.
  • Perestroika and the Soviet Military: Implications For U.S. Policy 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pakistan's new government, sworn in at the end of March, has begun a policy of engagement, negotiating through tribal leaders to persuade Mehsud to halt militant operations from the region.

.Informal negotiations for a Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan had been underway since 1982. In 1988, the governments of Pakistan and Afghanistan, with the United States and Soviet Union serving as guarantors, signed an agreement settling the major differences between them known as the Geneva Accords.^ Tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union continued up to Brezhnev's death.
  • Soviet Union 1945-1985 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC unx1.shsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the United States response.

^ The Soviet leadership saw the agreement as a major advantage for the United States.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The United Nations set up a special Mission to oversee the process.^ The United Nations set up a special Mission to oversee the process.
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^ Ironically, while supported and financed by Osama bin Laden's Al Qaeda, the KLA-NLA is also supported by NATO and the United Nations mission to Kosovo (UNMIK).

^ It set up a special school for the education of the children of party members and war orphans who were routinely shipped off to the Soviet Union for further education.
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this way, Najibullah had stabilized his political position enough to begin matching Moscow's moves toward withdrawal.^ He pointed to the harm such a move would do to the SALT-II Treaty, and to the USSR's political position worldwide.
  • Predicting the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan: The Intelligence Community's Record (U) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His record in facilitating extensive Soviet influence, and the fact that Soviet-supported political and military factions had backed his move, were viewed in Moscow as promising signs for the future.
  • Predicting the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan: The Intelligence Community's Record (U) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a politically motivated move to weaken the central state bureaucracy, in 1957 Khrushchev did away with the industrial ministries in Moscow and replaced them with regional economic councils.
  • Soviet Union 1945-1985 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC unx1.shsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On July 20, 1987, the withdrawal of Soviet troops from the country was announced.^ On July 20, 1987, the withdrawal of Soviet troops from the country was announced.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ British and American diplomatic support for Iran forced the Soviet Union to withdraw its troops from the northeastern part of that country in 1946.
  • Soviet Union 1945-1985 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC unx1.shsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We must bear in mind that at any one time during the Soviet war in Afghanistan the Russians only had about 80,000 to 100,000 troops throughout the country.
  • Shadow Tibet : Jamyang Norbu » Blog Archive » MARCH WINDS 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.jamyangnorbu.com [Source type: Original source]

The withdrawal of Soviet forces was planned out by Lt. Gen. .Boris Gromov, who, at the time, was the commander of the 40th Army.^ Boris Gromov , who, at the time, was the commander of the 40th Army .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was opposed by Watanjar, who believed that—as an army officer and the primary field commander of the coup that brought the PDPA to power—he was entitled to head the military.
  • Predicting the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan: The Intelligence Community's Record (U) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result of the poor results in combating the mujahideen , General Ivan Pavlovski was relieved of his command of the 40th Army in December 1981 and returned to the Soviet Union.
  • http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/fall99/WESTERMA.htm 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.lib.unb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Among other things the Geneva accords identified the US and Soviet non-intervention in the internal affairs of Pakistan and Afghanistan and a timetable for full Soviet withdrawal.^ In 1988 the Geneva accords were signed, which included a timetable that ensured full Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan by February 15, 1989.
  • Afghanistan (11/08) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Geneva Accords and Their Aftermath By the mid-1980s, the tenacious Afghan resistance movement--aided by the United States, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and others--was exacting a high price from the Soviets, both militarily within Afghanistan and by souring the U.S.S.R.'s relations with much of the Western and Islamic world.
  • Afghanistan (11/08) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meanwhile, the UN Security Council must mandate and actively implement measures that Pakistan and other neighbors of Afghanistan do not intervene in the internal affairs of Afghanistan.
  • Articles 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.sabawoon.com [Source type: Original source]

.The agreement on withdrawal held, and on February 15, 1989, the last Soviet troops departed on schedule from Afghanistan.^ The agreement on withdrawal held, and on February 15, 1989, the last Soviet troops departed on schedule from Afghanistan.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January 1987-February 1989: Withdrawal .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet troops withdrawing from Afghanistan in 1988.
  • Soviet Union - Familypedia 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Consequences of the war

International reaction

Those hopelessly brave warriors I walked with, and their families, who suffered so much for faith and freedom and who are still not free, they were truly the people of God"

Rob Schultheis, 1992.[73][74]

US President Jimmy Carter claimed that the Soviet incursion was "the most serious threat to peace since the Second World War."[75] Carter later placed a trade embargo against the Soviet Union on shipments of commodities such as grain and weapons. .The increased tensions, as well as the anxiety in the West about tens of thousands of Soviet troops being in such proximity to oil-rich regions in the Persian Gulf, effectively brought about the end of détente.^ The increased tensions, as well as the anxiety in the West about tens of thousands of Soviet troops being in such proximity to oil-rich regions in the Persian Gulf , effectively brought about the end of détente .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United States President Jimmy Carter insisted that what he termed "Soviet aggression" could not be viewed as an isolated event of limited geographical importance but had to be contested as a potential threat to US influence in the Persian Gulf region.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The religious, sectarian, and ethnic tensions being fueled in Iraq, Turkey, the Persian Gulf, and Lebanon are a part of this process.
  • America's "Long War": The Legacy of the Iraq-Iran and Soviet-Afghan Wars 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The international diplomatic response was severe, ranging from stern warnings to a US-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow (in which Afghanistan competed).^ Olympic Advisory Committee (Moscow 1980) .
  • Guide to the Records of National Conference on Soviet Jewry, undated, 1949, 1954, 1956, 1958-1993 *I-181 and *I-181A 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The international diplomatic response was severe, ranging from stern warnings to a US-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow (in which Afghanistan competed).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The US-led coalition also operating in Afghanistan also denies carrying out operations across the frontier.

.The invasion, along with other events, such as the Iranian revolution and the US hostage stand-off that accompanied it, the Iran–Iraq War, the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon, the escalating tensions between Pakistan and India, contributed to making the Middle East an extremely violent and turbulent region during the 1980s.^ America contributed to the death of a million Muslims during the Iraq/Iran war.
  • Blind in Afghanistan 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Christians and other minorities of Pakistan had condemned the war on Iraq.

^ Regional cooperation between Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, and Turkey.

.The Non-Aligned Movement was sharply divided between those that believed the Soviet deployment to be legal and others who considered the deployment an illegal invasion.^ The Non-Aligned Movement was sharply divided between those that believed the Soviet deployment to be legal and others who considered the deployment an illegal invasion.
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^ The Soviet invasion On December 7, 1979, Soviet informants to the Afghan Armed Forces who were under orders from the inner circle of advisors under Soviet leader Brezhnev, relayed information for them to undergo maintenance cycles for their tanks and other crucial equipment.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free people who have free countries where people live in peace and do not threaten others, being attacked by those who can not tolerate anybody other than those who hew to the rule of Islam.
  • Blind in Afghanistan 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: Original source]

.Among the Warsaw Pact countries, the intervention was condemned only by Romania.^ Among the Warsaw Pact countries, the intervention was condemned only by Romania .
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^ A Warsaw Pact statement formally condemned the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia, and delegates to the Supreme Soviet proposed a similar resolution.
  • Perestroika and the Soviet Military: Implications For U.S. Policy 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NATOSoviet or Warsaw Pact ground attacks are conceivable against the following countries: Finland.
  • THE SOVIET INVASION OF AFGHANISTAN: IMPLICATIONS FOR WARNING (N - CIA document 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[76]

Soviet personnel strengths and casualties

Afghans commemorating Mujahideen Victory Day.
.Between December 25, 1979 and February 15, 1989, a total of 620,000 soldiers served with the forces in Afghanistan (though there were only 80,000-104,000 serving at one time): 525,000 in the Army, 90,000 with border troops and other KGB sub-units, 5,000 in independent formations of MVD Internal Troops, and police forces.^ There were also instances of skirmishes between Khalqi army units and Soviet forces.  .
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ December 1988-February 1989 .
  • Guide to the Records of National Conference on Soviet Jewry, undated, 1949, 1954, 1956, 1958-1993 *I-181 and *I-181A 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC findingaids.cjh.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The latter party had between 15,000 and 25,000 armed adherents.  .
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A further 21,000 personnel were with the Soviet troop contingent over the same period doing various white collar and blue collar jobs.^ A further 21,000 personnel were with the Soviet troop contingent over the same period doing various white collar and blue collar jobs.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By nightfall, 5,000 Soviet troops invaded and fired rockets at the presidential palace of Tapa-e-Tajbeg , where Head of State, Hafizullah Amin, was residing.
  • Afghanistan: Soviet Imperialism and the American War on Terrorism 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.pages.drexel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There was, however, a significant difference in the size of the forces employed, with the Afghan operation initially employing slightly less than 50,000 Soviet troops.
  • http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/fall99/WESTERMA.htm 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.lib.unb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The total irrecoverable personnel losses of the Soviet Armed Forces, frontier, and internal security troops came to 14,453. Soviet Army formations, units, and HQ elements lost 13,833, KGB sub-units lost 572, MVD formations lost 28, and other ministries and departments lost 20 men.^ Soviet Army formations, units, and HQ elements lost 13,833, KGB sub-units lost 572, MVD formations lost 28, and other ministries and departments lost 20 men.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ministry was also responsible for continents of frontier troops.
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The total irrecoverable personnel losses of the Soviet Armed Forces, frontier, and internal security troops came to 14,453.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During this period 417 servicemen were missing in action or taken prisoner; 119 of these were later freed, of whom 97 returned to the USSR and 22 went to other countries.^ During this period 417 servicemen were missing in action or taken prisoner; 119 of these were later freed, of whom 97 returned to the USSR and 22 went to other countries.
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^ Amnesty International has raised its concerns about the abuse of these two laws with successive governments in Bangladesh, but no action has been taken to reform them.

^ Among them there were some 300 persons taken here from Lithuania's Kaunas prison -- these were mainly Lithuanian officers, scientists, and other intellectuals.
  • Leonas Cerskus: "The story of Lithuanian soldier". Links. 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There were less than 150,000 troops deployed.^ There are less than 1,000 judges, all of them religious scholars.

^ There was, however, a significant difference in the size of the forces employed, with the Afghan operation initially employing slightly less than 50,000 Soviet troops.
  • http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/fall99/WESTERMA.htm 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.lib.unb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United States estimates were that there were about 85,000 Soviet troops in Afghanistan by late 1980 and about 100,000 by the end of 1981.
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.53,753, or 11.44 percent, were wounded, injured, or sustained concussion and 415,932 (88.56 percent) fell sick.^ There were 469,685 sick and wounded, of whom 53,753 or 11.44 percent, were wounded, injured, or sustained concussion and 415,932 (88.56 percent) fell sick.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the 11,654 who were discharged from the army after being wounded, maimed, or contracting serious diseases, 92 percent, or 10,751 men, were left disabled.
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.A high proportion of casualties were those who fell ill.^ A high proportion of casualties were those who fell ill.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were also some of those who took the matter to the High Court reportedly on the basis of false affidavits.

^ Islamic website declares: "Those who engage in this great effort require a high level of commitment and determination.

.This was because of local climatic and sanitary conditions, which were such that acute infections spread rapidly among the troops.^ This was because of local climatic and sanitary conditions, which were such that acute infections spread rapidly among the troops.
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^ Because of their knowledge of local terrain and conditions, militias, when reliable, were useful in offensives against the mujahidiin; they were also used to forcibly round up recruits for the army.  .
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There were 115,308 cases of infectious hepatitis, 31,080 of typhoid fever, and 140,665 of other diseases.^ There were 115,308 cases of infectious hepatitis , 31,080 of typhoid fever, and 140,665 of other diseases.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There're some cases where Bishops are fighting like a gangster with other Bishops.

^ As is the case with most other events in Afghanistan during this time, there are diverse accounts of what actually transpired, including the means by which the confessions were obtained.
  • Predicting the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan: The Intelligence Community's Record (U) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of the 11,654 who were discharged from the army after being wounded, maimed, or contracting serious diseases, 92 percent, or 10,751 men, were left disabled.^ Of the 11,654 who were discharged from the army after being wounded, maimed, or contracting serious diseases, 92 percent, or 10,751 men, were left disabled.
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^ His nephew, who was head of the intelligence service and Amin's top security aide, was seriously wounded and taken to the USSR for treatment.
  • Predicting the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan: The Intelligence Community's Record (U) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Edited on Thu Jan-28-10 06:11 AM by Ghost Dog (R&D, finance, production (who needs capitalism, crony- or otherwise?
  • Going downhill Soviet style - Democratic Underground 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.democraticunderground.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[77]
.After the war ended, the Soviet Union published figures of dead Soviet soldiers: the total was 13,836 men, an average of 1,512 men a year.^ After the war ended, the Soviet Union published figures of dead Soviet soldiers: the total was 13,836 men, an average of 1,512 men a year.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was the end of ten years of war.
  • Investigative Reporting: 9-11 To Big Oil - Which Facts Behind Afghanistan Invasion And 9-11 Attacks? 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.masternewmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet Union disintegrated through war.

.According to updated figures, the Soviet army lost 14,427, the KGB lost 576, with 28 people dead and missing.^ According to updated figures, the Soviet army lost 14,427, the KGB lost 576, with 28 people dead and missing.
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^ According to the official version of history, CIA aid to the Mujahadeen began during 1980, that is to say, after the Soviet army invaded Afghanistan, 24 Dec 1979.
  • Nushin Arbabzadah: The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan 29 years ago led to a 10-year war of little benefit to the Russians and much suffering to the Afghans | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ After the war ended, the Soviet Union published figures of dead Soviet soldiers: the total was 13,836 men, an average of 1,512 men a year.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[78]
.Around 5000 soldiers and 3000 civilians participated from Republic of Georgia, 128 died, 500 wounded, 7 missing.^ Premier Silvio Berlusconi said on Monday that around 1,500 people were injured and that at least 92 people had died.

Material losses were as follows:[citation needed]

Damage to Afghanistan

.Estimates of the Afghan deaths vary from 100,000[79] to 1 million.^ Lester Grau and former Afghan General Mohammed Nawroz estimate the number of Afghan civilian casualties at 1.3 million.
  • http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/fall99/WESTERMA.htm 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.lib.unb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United States estimates were that there were about 85,000 Soviet troops in Afghanistan by late 1980 and about 100,000 by the end of 1981.
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The number of Afghan refugees in neighboring Pakistan grew in 1980 from 400,000 to about 1.4 million.
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[80] .5 million Afghans fled to Pakistan and Iran, 1/3 of the prewar population of the country.^ Warsaw was almost entirely destroyed in the closing phases of the war, and the country`s Jewish population of around 3.5 million obliterated.

^ The political bickering has underlined concerns for Pakistan's stability as the country battles Islamic militants in a troubled tribal region near the Afghan border.

^ Amin fled into Pakistan , along with 400,000 Afghans refugees, and sought aid from Pakistani leader General Zia al-Haq.
  • Afghanistan: Soviet Imperialism and the American War on Terrorism 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.pages.drexel.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Another 2 million Afghans were displaced within the country.^ Over 5 million Afghan refugees have returned to the country since 2002.
  • Afghanistan (11/08) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As of November 2008, approximately 3 million Afghans remained in neighboring countries.
  • Afghanistan (11/08) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 3 million Afghans live outside the country, mainly in Pakistan and Iran, although over 5 million have returned since the removal of the Taliban.
  • Afghanistan (11/08) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the 1980s, half of all refugees in the world were Afghan.^ In the 1980s, one out of two refugees in the world was an Afghan.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the early 1980s, Approximately 3 million Afghan refugees were settled in Pakistan.

^ The Afghans, along with Muslims who came from all over the world, fought the Soviets throughout this conflict; it was known as the Jihad .
  • Afghanistan: Soviet Imperialism and the American War on Terrorism 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.pages.drexel.edu [Source type: Original source]

[81]
.Along with fatalities were 1.2 million Afghans disabled (mujahideen, government soldiers and noncombatants) and 3 million maimed or wounded (primarily noncombatants).^ Along with fatalities were 1.2 million Afghans disabled (mujahideen, government soldiers and noncombatants) and 3 million maimed or wounded (primarily noncombatants).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the 11,654 who were discharged from the army after being wounded, maimed, or contracting serious diseases, 92 percent, or 10,751 men, were left disabled.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A 2005 report estimated 3-4% of the Afghan population were disabled due to Soviet and government land mines.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[82]
.Irrigation systems, crucial to agriculture in Afghanistan's arid climate, were destroyed by aerial bombing and strafing by Soviet or government forces.^ Afghanistan was a country based on agriculture, the Soviets destroyed the special underground irrigation system known as karez .
  • Afghanistan: Soviet Imperialism and the American War on Terrorism 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.pages.drexel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Irrigation systems, crucial to agriculture in Afghanistan's arid climate , were destroyed by aerial bombing and strafing by Soviet or government forces.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet cnmbal forces into Afghanistan .
  • THE SOVIET INVASION OF AFGHANISTAN: IMPLICATIONS FOR WARNING (N - CIA document 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the worst year of the war, 1985, well over half of all the farmers who remained in Afghanistan had their fields bombed, and over one quarter had their irrigation systems destroyed and their livestock shot by Soviet or government troops, according to a survey conducted by Swedish relief experts [81]
.The population of Afghanistan's second largest city, Kandahar, was reduced from 200,000 before the war to no more than 25,000 inhabitants, following a months-long campaign of carpet bombing and bulldozing by the Soviets and Afghan communist soldiers in 1987.[83] Land mines had killed 25,000 Afghans during the war and another 10-15 million land mines, most planted by Soviet and government forces, were left scattered throughout the countryside.^ More than 8 million Afghans voted, 41% of whom were women.
  • Afghanistan (11/08) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She was killed the following month.

^ During most of the Afghan war, Pakistan was more aggressively anti-Soviet than even the United States.
  • Mythos versus Logos or why do men believe that a logical and rational universe denies the truth of intuition and the mystery of life and God 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.unique-design.net [Source type: Original source]

[84]
.A great deal of damage was done to the civilian children population by land mines.^ Real time intelligence offers a targeting window while PGMs and discrete payloads can help lessen, but not completely eliminate, collateral damage among the civilian population.
  • http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/fall99/WESTERMA.htm 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.lib.unb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A 2005 report estimated 3-4% of the Afghan population were disabled due to Soviet and government land mines.^ A 2005 report estimated 3-4% of the Afghan population were disabled due to Soviet and government land mines.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to a State Department report, 15 Soviet armored vehicles were destroyed and 40 to 50 Afghan soldiers killed in the battle.
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Fullerton, Afghan army casualties were estimated to be twice those of Soviet troops.
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the city of Quetta, a survey of refugee women and children taken shortly after the Soviet withdrawal found over 80% of the children refugees unregistered and child mortality at 31%.^ In the city of Quetta , a survey of refugee women and children taken shortly after the Soviet withdrawal found over 80% of the children refugees unregistered and child mortality at 31%.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some corpses were still lying on the streets and hundreds of Muslim men, women and children fled the city crammed into open-top trucks.

^ "At least twenty Soviet men, women, and children are definitely known to have died, but the toll of Soviet citizens probably was much higher, 100 or more."
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of children who survived, 67% were severely malnourished, with malnutrition increasing with age.^ Of children who survived, 67% were severely malnourished, with malnutrition increasing with age.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It said it was sending Vitamin A to the region to boost immune systems of children, who are more vulnerable to measles if weakened by exposure and malnutrition.

[85]
.Critics of Soviet and Afghan government forces describe their effect on Afghan culture as working in three stages: first, the center of customary Afghan culture, Islam, was pushed aside; second, Soviet patterns of life, especially amongst the young, were imported; third, shared Afghan cultural characteristics were destroyed by the emphasis on so-called nationalities, with the outcome that the country was split into different ethnic groups, with no language, religion, or culture in common.^ Critics of Soviet and Afghan government forces describe their effect on Afghan culture as working in three stages: first, the center of customary Afghan culture, Islam, was pushed aside; second, Soviet patterns of life, especially amongst the young, were imported; third, shared Afghan cultural characteristics were destroyed by the emphasis on so-called nationalities, with the outcome that the country was split into different ethnic groups, with no language, religion, or culture in common.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The world government does not mean to get rid of national languages and cultures.

^ Soviet cnmbal forces into Afghanistan .
  • THE SOVIET INVASION OF AFGHANISTAN: IMPLICATIONS FOR WARNING (N - CIA document 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[86]
.The Geneva Accords of 1988, which ultimately led to the withdrawal of the Soviet forces in early 1989, left the Afghan government in ruins.^ The Geneva Accords of 1988, which ultimately led to the withdrawal of the Soviet forces in early 1989, left the Afghan government in ruins.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the Soviet withdrawal, the Afghan government continued to deal with attacks from the mujahideen.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ British and American diplomatic support for Iran forced the Soviet Union to withdraw its troops from the northeastern part of that country in 1946.
  • Soviet Union 1945-1985 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC unx1.shsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The accords had failed to address adequately the issue of the post-occupation period and the future governance of Afghanistan.^ The accords had failed to address adequately the issue of the post-occupation period and the future governance of Afghanistan.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Thomas Johnson, the first eight years of the U.S. in Afghanistan have also seen the Army repeating the strategy of targeting the enemy that failed in Vietnam: .
  • Obama and Afghanistan: America’s Drug-Corrupted War by Prof Peter Dale Scott « Dandelion Salad 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC dandelionsalad.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is very clear now that this organization has no involvement with human rights issues based on persecution and has become a government puppet failing to protect the minorities.

.The assumption among most Western diplomats was that the Soviet-backed government in Kabul would soon collapse; however, this was not to happen for another three years.^ The assumption among most Western diplomats was that the Soviet-backed government in Kabul would soon collapse; however, this was not to happen for another three years.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That withdrawal was carried out on schedule, despite widespread expectations that it would result in the prompt collapse of the Najibullah government in Kabul.
  • Perestroika and the Soviet Military: Implications For U.S. Policy 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The article said, however, that a "US official" had made clear "privately" that the speech was specifically directed at the threat of Soviet intervention in Afghanistan, where the pro-Soviet government was near collapse in the face of widespread Islamic opposition and tribal rebellion.
  • Predicting the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan: The Intelligence Community's Record (U) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During this time the Interim Islamic Government of Afghanistan (IIGA) was established in exile.^ During this time the Interim Islamic Government of Afghanistan (IIGA) was established in exile.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During his reign (1880-1901), the British and Russians officially established the boundaries of what would become modern Afghanistan through the demarcation of the Durand Line.
  • Afghanistan (11/08) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We must bear in mind that at any one time during the Soviet war in Afghanistan the Russians only had about 80,000 to 100,000 troops throughout the country.
  • Shadow Tibet : Jamyang Norbu » Blog Archive » MARCH WINDS 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.jamyangnorbu.com [Source type: Original source]

.The exclusion of key groups such as refugees and Shias, combined with major disagreements between the different mujaheddin factions, meant that the IIGA never succeeded in acting as a functional government.^ The exclusion of key groups such as refugees and Shias , combined with major disagreements between the different mujaheddin factions, meant that the IIGA never succeeded in acting as a functional government.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These were responsible for stirring up fighting between different guerrilla groups and the assassination of mujahidiin leaders.
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Relations between different religious groups frequently are tense, and there were a number of deaths attributed to sectarian violence during the period covered by this report.

[87]
.Before the war, Afghanistan was already one of the world's poorest nations.^ Before the war, Afghanistan was already one of the world's poorest nations.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Afghanistan is one of the poorest countries on earth.
  • Nushin Arbabzadah: The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan 29 years ago led to a 10-year war of little benefit to the Russians and much suffering to the Afghans | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Naturally, that would be a pretty evil policy as it would ensure endless civil war in Afghanistan, but it would also probably be the most likely work from our national security perspective.
  • Daily Kos: Just 1,000 shy of breaking the Soviet Union's world record 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Daily Kos: Just 1,000 shy of breaking the Soviet Union's world record 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.The prolonged conflict left Afghanistan ranked 170 out of 174 in the UNDP's Human Development Index, making Afghanistan one of the least developed countries in the world.^ Afghanistan is one of the poorest countries on earth.
  • Nushin Arbabzadah: The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan 29 years ago led to a 10-year war of little benefit to the Russians and much suffering to the Afghans | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ The prolonged conflict left Afghanistan ranked 170 out of 174 in the UNDP's Human Development Index , making Afghanistan one of the least developed countries in the world.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Islam makes it incumbent on all adult males to prepare themselves for the conquest of countries so that the writ of Islam is obeyed in every country in the world."

[88]
.Once the Soviets withdrew, US interest in Afghanistan ceased.^ Yes, add up US troops and contractors and you get a US invasion of Afghanistan bigger than the Soviet force at its peak.
  • Daily Kos: Just 1,000 shy of breaking the Soviet Union's world record 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Daily Kos: Just 1,000 shy of breaking the Soviet Union's world record 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Soviet interests in Afghanistan and implications upon withdrawal.

^ Officially the record does not show early consultation between China and the US on this issue — but clearly the US was very interested in the Sino-Soviet border disputes of that era.
  • Firedoglake » A Quick Cruise through the (Not Too) Recent and Brief History of Afghanistan–As Affects the US Directly or Indirectly By Metonymy 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The US decided not to help with reconstruction of the country and instead they handed over the interests of the country to US allies, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan.^ The US decided not to help with reconstruction of the country and instead they handed over the interests of the country to US allies, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Central Intelligence Agency , Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia assisted in the financing of the resistance because of their anti-communist stance.
  • Mythos versus Logos or why do men believe that a logical and rational universe denies the truth of intuition and the mystery of life and God 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.unique-design.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If they want to risk attacking us again and loose their country.
  • Cut and run in Afghanistan? | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: General]

.Pakistan quickly took advantage of this opportunity and forged relations with warlords and later the Taliban, to secure trade interests and routes.^ Pakistan quickly took advantage of this opportunity and forged relations with warlords and later the Taliban , to secure trade interests and routes.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Who is Benazir Bhutto and why she is interested in trading of poor and oppressed Christian nation in Pakistan?

^ The Pakistan government censors all news item which relates to target of Christians by Taliban or militant groups in Pakistan.

.From wiping out the country's trees through logging practices, which has destroyed all but 2% of forest cover country-wide, to substantial uprooting of wild pistachio trees for the exportation of their roots for therapeutic uses, to opium agriculture, the past ten years have caused much ecological and agrarian destruction.^ From wiping out the country's trees through logging practices, which has destroyed all but 2% of forest cover country-wide, to substantial uprooting of wild pistachio trees for the exportation of their roots for therapeutic uses, to opium agriculture , the past ten years have caused much ecological and agrarian destruction.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the past six years the nuns have been trying to the get the land and the building back in order to use for its original purpose, namely to house and help abandoned and disabled children.

^ We share the most widely accepted opinion, that this practice, prevalent in certain countries of the East, is not lawful.

[89]
.Captain Tarlan Eyvazov, a soldier in the Soviet forces during the war, stated that the Afghan children's future is destined for war.^ There was, however, a significant difference in the size of the forces employed, with the Afghan operation initially employing slightly less than 50,000 Soviet troops.
  • http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/fall99/WESTERMA.htm 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.lib.unb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The small size of Soviet ground forces and the unwillingness of the Afghan army to fight greatly handicapped Soviet pacification efforts.
  • http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/fall99/WESTERMA.htm 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.lib.unb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 21 December, the administration began publicizing extensive details of the expanded Soviet military presence in Afghanistan and the buildup of Soviet forces north of the Afghan border.
  • Predicting the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan: The Intelligence Community's Record (U) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Eyvazov said, "Children born in Afghanistan at the start of the war...^ Eyvazov said, "Children born in Afghanistan at the start of the war...
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Afghanistan's resistance movement was born in chaos and, at first, virtually all of its war was waged locally by regional warlords.
  • xkcd • View topic - Afghan Government to kill British-deported atheist apostate 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The root cause of much if not most of the problems in today's Afghanistan - was the EUropean influence, exploitation and invasions starting in 1826 and ending between the EUro world wars.
  • Nushin Arbabzadah: The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan 29 years ago led to a 10-year war of little benefit to the Russians and much suffering to the Afghans | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

have been brought up in war conditions, this is their way of life." .Eyvazov's theory was later strengthened when the Taliban movement developed and formed from orphans or refugee children who were forced by the Soviets to flee their homes and relocate their lives in Pakistan.^ Eyvazov's theory was later strengthened when the Taliban movement developed and formed from orphans or refugee children who were forced by the Soviets to flee their homes and relocate their lives in Pakistan.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the city of Quetta , a survey of refugee women and children taken shortly after the Soviet withdrawal found over 80% of the children refugees unregistered and child mortality at 31%.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They will live like refugee by the force of circumstance.

.The swift rise to power, from the young Taliban in 1994, was the result of the disorder and civil war that had warlords running wild because of the complete breakdown of law and order in Afghanistan after the departure of the Soviets.^ Death toll of Soviet war in Afghanistan.
  • Leonas Cerskus: "The story of Lithuanian soldier". Links. 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Afghanistan, civil war went on .
  • Investigative Reporting: 9-11 To Big Oil - Which Facts Behind Afghanistan Invasion And 9-11 Attacks? 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.masternewmedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The civil war continued in Afghanistan after the Soviet withdrawal.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[90]
.The CIA World Fact Book reported that as of 2004, Afghanistan still owed $8 billion in bilateral debt, mostly to Russia,[91] however, in 2007 Russia agreed to cancel most of the debt.^ The CIA World Fact Book reported that as of 2004, Afghanistan still owed $8 billion in bilateral debt, mostly to Russia, [ 85 ] however, in 2007 Russia agreed to cancel most of the debt.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For a safe and peaceful world, war is still going on in Afghanistan and in Iraq.

^ But because that doesn't agree with your dim little view of the world, you ridicule the FACTS. .
  • Blind in Afghanistan 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: Original source]

[92]

Civil war

Two Soviet T55 tanks left by the Soviet army during their withdrawal lie rusting in a field near Bagram Air Base, in 2002.
.The civil war continued in Afghanistan after the Soviet withdrawal.^ Death toll of Soviet war in Afghanistan.
  • Leonas Cerskus: "The story of Lithuanian soldier". Links. 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Political legitimacy and the Soviet war in Afghanistan.

^ Afghanistan after the Soviet invasion in 1979 and during the Civil war that followed.

.The Soviet Union left Afghanistan deep in winter, with intimations of panic among Kabul officials.^ Afghanistan and the Soviet Union: Collision and transformation.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet Union left Afghanistan deep in winter with intimations of panic among Kabul officials.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bradsher, Afghanistan and the Soviet Union , pp.
  • Predicting the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan: The Intelligence Community's Record (U) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Afghan mujahideen were poised to attack provincial towns and cities and eventually Kabul, if necessary.^ The Afghan mujahideen were poised to attack provincial towns and cities and eventually Kabul, if necessary.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In September, mujahideen attacks forced Soviet and DRA forces to withdraw from positions in the Panjshir valley and north of Kabul.
  • http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/fall99/WESTERMA.htm 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.lib.unb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bombing of urban centers provided a short, albeit brutal, respite against mujahideen operations within the major Afghan cities.
  • http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/fall99/WESTERMA.htm 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.lib.unb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Najibullah's regime, though failing to win popular support, territory, or international recognition, was however able to remain in power until 1992. Ironically, until demoralized by the defections of its senior officers, the Afghan Army had achieved a level of performance it had never reached under direct Soviet tutelage.^ Najibullah's regime was able to remain in power until 1992 but collapsed after the defection of Gen.
  • Afghanistan (11/08) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Najibullah's regime, though failing to win popular support, territory, or international recognition, was however able to remain in power until 1992.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ironically, until demoralized by the defections of its senior officers, the Afghan Army had achieved a level of performance it had never reached under direct Soviet tutelage.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Kabul had achieved a stalemate that exposed the mujahideen's weaknesses, political and military.^ Kabul had achieved a stalemate that exposed the mujahideen's weaknesses, political and military.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviets' inability to achieve their political objectives in Afghanistan also illustrated the limits of conventional military power in the low-intensity environment.
  • http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/JCS/fall99/WESTERMA.htm 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.lib.unb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He sought out men who were politically weak (often non-Pashtuns and those whose landholdings were small) for preferment in the military.
  • Afghanistan Country Study 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gl.iit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But for nearly three years, while Najibullah's government successfully defended itself against mujahideen attacks, factions within the government had also developed connections with its opponents.^ For nearly three years, Najibullah's government successfully defended itself against mujahideen attacks, factions within the government had also developed connections with its opponents.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As for the Fifth Area Army, it expected that in the event of the anticipated American invasion of the homeland, Hokkaido would be left to defend itself against a possible combined attack by the United States and the Soviet Union.
  • JapanFocus 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC japanfocus.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (By Joseph Keenan, Christian Post) Christians have given an ultimatum to the Pakistani government to repeal the country's blasphemy laws which they say are responsible for the attacks against Christians.

.According to Russian publicist Andrey Karaulov, the main trigger for Najibullah losing power was Russia's refusal to sell oil products to Afghanistan in 1992 for political reasons (the new Yeltsin government did not want to support the former communists), which effectively triggered an embargo.^ Najibullah's regime was able to remain in power until 1992 but collapsed after the defection of Gen.
  • Afghanistan (11/08) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pakistan has experienced a lull in suicide attacks since a new government came to power in March and began peace talks with Taliban militants based in Pakistan's tribal region bordering Afghanistan.

^ In a dramatic speech in September 1993, President Yeltsin dissolved the Russian parliament and called for new national elections and a new constitution.
  • Soviet Union 1945-1985 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC unx1.shsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The defection of General Abdul Rashid Dostam and his Uzbek militia, in March 1992, further undermined Najibullah's control of the state.^ Abdul Rashid Dostam and his Uzbek militia in March.
  • Afghanistan (11/08) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The defection of General Abdul Rashid Dostam and his Uzbek militia , in March 1992, ultimately undermined Najibullah's control of the state.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Najibullah government was overthrown on April 18, 1992 when Abdul Rashid Dostum mutinied, and allied himself with Ahmed Shah Massoud, to take control of Kabul and declare the Islamic State of Afghanistan.
  • Mythos versus Logos or why do men believe that a logical and rational universe denies the truth of intuition and the mystery of life and God 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.unique-design.net [Source type: Original source]

.In April, Najibullah and his communist government fell to the mujahideen, who replaced Najibullah with a new governing council for the country.^ In April, Najibullah and his communist government fell to the mujahideen, who replaced Najibullah with a new governing council for the country.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New communist or Marxist governments having close relations with the Soviet Union rose to power in several countries, including Vietnam, Ethiopia, and Nicaragua.
  • Soviet Union 1945-1985 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC unx1.shsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those Baloch leaders, who are betraying the Baloch nation today, will be judged according to the laws of the new Government of Balochistan.

.Grain production declined an average of 3.5% per year between 1978 and 1990 due to sustained fighting, instability in rural areas, prolonged drought, and deteriorated infrastructure.^ Overall agricultural production dramatically declined following severe drought as well as sustained fighting, instability in rural areas, and deteriorated infrastructure.
  • Afghanistan (11/08) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Grain production declined an average of 3.5% per year between 1978 and 1990 due to sustained fighting, instability in rural areas, prolonged drought, and deteriorated infrastructure.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet efforts to disrupt production in rebel-dominated areas also contributed to this decline.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Soviet efforts to disrupt production in rebel-dominated areas also contributed to this decline.^ Soviet efforts to disrupt production in rebel-dominated areas also contributed to this decline.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Overall agricultural production dramatically declined following severe drought as well as sustained fighting, instability in rural areas, and deteriorated infrastructure.
  • Afghanistan (11/08) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, the Soviet motorized rifle divisions in the area were again engaging in activity that, although below a level indicating imminent deployment, suggested efforts to raise their overall readiness.
  • Predicting the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan: The Intelligence Community's Record (U) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the withdrawal of Soviet troops, Afghanistan's natural gas fields were capped to prevent sabotage.^ During the withdrawal of Soviet troops, Afghanistan's natural gas fields were capped to prevent sabotage.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, during the withdrawal of Soviet troops in 1989, Afghanistan's natural gas fields were capped to prevent sabotage by the mujahidin.
  • Afghanistan (11/08) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ British and American diplomatic support for Iran forced the Soviet Union to withdraw its troops from the northeastern part of that country in 1946.
  • Soviet Union 1945-1985 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC unx1.shsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Restoration of gas production has been hampered by internal strife and the disruption of traditional trading relationships following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.^ Restoration of gas production has been hampered by internal strife and the disruption of traditional trading relationships following the dissolution of the Soviet Union .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Restoration of gas production has been hampered by internal strife and the disruption of traditional trading relationships following the collapse of the Soviet Union.
  • Afghanistan (11/08) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite significant improvements in conditions following the end of the Soviet Union, some problem areas remain.
  • Soviet Union 1945-1985 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC unx1.shsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ideological impact

.The Islamists who fought also believed that they were responsible for the fall of the Soviet Union.^ However, the police are not paying attention to us and they are just favouring the persons who are responsible for the attacks.

^ They executed swiftly and efficiently, including all the soldiers of the defeated army who, they believed , would be a constant source of future problems if allowed to live .
  • Mythos versus Logos or why do men believe that a logical and rational universe denies the truth of intuition and the mystery of life and God 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.unique-design.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Others diplomats believed the Soviets would withhold combat support in the belief they could "do business with almost any successor regime."
  • Predicting the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan: The Intelligence Community's Record (U) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Osama bin Laden, for example, was asserting the credit for "the collapse of the Soviet Union ...^ Osama bin Laden , for example, was asserting the credit for "the collapse of the Soviet Union ...
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Notable among them was a young Saudi named Osama bin Laden , whose Arab group eventually evolved into al-Qaeda .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reyman Snyder, Lynda M. (2001) Osama bin Laden and the United States conflict: have either responded appropriately.

goes to .God and the mujahideen in Afghanistan ...^ God and the mujahideen in Afghanistan ...
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

the .US had no mentionable role," but "collapse made the US more haughty and arrogant."^ US had no mentionable role," but "collapse made the US more haughty and arrogant."
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fact that successive US governments since the Soviet-Afghan war have supported and abetted the Islamic terror network is no longer mentioned, for obvious reasons.

^ We are saved and the death has no meaning for us any more.

[93]

Media and popular culture

Perception in the Russian Federation

.Although its politics are generally considered as distinct, the Russian Federation occasionally still identifies itself with the former Soviet Union, including its intervention in Afghanistan in December 1979 - February 1989 and the fate of the soldiers of the Soviet Army.^ Soviet Phase: 1979-1989.
  • Leonas Cerskus: "The story of Lithuanian soldier". Links. 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the December 1979 invasion, Afghanistan's foreign policy mirrored that of the Soviet Union.
  • Afghanistan (11/08) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About 70% of the former Soviet Union's defense industries is located in the Russian Federation.
  • Soviet Union 1945-1985 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC unx1.shsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Commemorating the invasion of 25 December 1979, in December 2009, veterans of the Soviet war in Afghanistan were honoured by the Douma or Parliament of the Russian Federation.^ After the December 1979 invasion, Afghanistan's foreign policy mirrored that of the Soviet Union.
  • Afghanistan (11/08) 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet war in Afghanistan .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since that fateful December night in 1979, Afghanistan each year commemorates the Soviet invasion.
  • Nushin Arbabzadah: The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan 29 years ago led to a 10-year war of little benefit to the Russians and much suffering to the Afghans | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.On December 25, the lower house of the parliament defended the Soviet war in Afghanistan on the 30th anniversary of its start, and praised the veterans of the conflict.^ Death toll of Soviet war in Afghanistan.
  • Leonas Cerskus: "The story of Lithuanian soldier". Links. 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Political legitimacy and the Soviet war in Afghanistan.

^ Soviet war in Afghanistan .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Differing assessments of the war "mustn't erode the Russian people's respect for the soldiers who honestly fulfilled their duty in implementing tasks to combat international terrorism and religious extremists".^ Differing assessments of the war "mustn't erode the Russian people's respect for the soldiers who honestly fulfilled their duty in implementing tasks to combat international terrorism and religious extremists" .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For those who respect international law, it makes a difference.
  • Pajamas Media » The Obama-Netanyahu Meeting: Ominous for Israel 6 January 2010 7:56 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand there were many prominent people who did believe that the United States could win the war by just bombing alone.
  • JapanFocus 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC japanfocus.org [Source type: Original source]

.Duma member Semyon Bagdasarov advocated that Russia had to reject Western calls for stronger assistance to the US-led ISAF-coalition in Afghanistan and also had to establish contacts with the "anti-Western forces" (i.e. the Taliban) in case they regain power.^ The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), the U.S.-led coalition, has now more than 100,000 troops deployed in Afghanistan.
  • Daily Kos: Just 1,000 shy of breaking the Soviet Union's world record 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Daily Kos: Just 1,000 shy of breaking the Soviet Union's world record 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to ICOS, Taliban forces have advanced from their southern heartlands, where they are now the de facto governing power in a number of towns and villages, to Afghanistans western and north-western provinces, as well as provinces north of Kabul.

^ His personal move comes at a sensitive time, with Italy a member of the U.S.-led coalition fighting the hardline Islamic Taliban movement in Afghanistan (news - web sites) and barely two months after Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi offended the Muslim world by saying Western Christian civilization was superior to Islam.

[94] [95]

See also

References

  1. ^ Superpowers defeated: Vietnam and Afghanistan compared By Douglas A. Borer, pg. 216
  2. ^ http://www.historycommons.org/entity.jsp?entity=charlie_wilson
  3. ^ Nyrop, Richard F.; Donald M. Seekins (January 1986). Afghanistan: A Country Study. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office. pp. XVIII–XXV. http://www.gl.iit.edu/govdocs/afghanistan/Afghanistan-Chapter1.pdf. 
  4. ^ "Timeline: Soviet war in Afghanistan". BBC News. Published February 17, 2009. Retrieved March 22, 2009.
  5. ^ http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-1252421.html
  6. ^ Rubin, Barnett R. The Fragmentation of Afghanistan. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995. p. 20.
  7. ^ Valenta, Jiri (1980). “From Prague to Kabul: The Soviet Style of Invasion”. 
  8. ^ Goldman, Minton (1984). Soviet Military Intervention in Afghanistan: Roots & Causes. 
  9. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica
  10. ^ Bradsher, Henry S. (1983). Afghanistan and the Soviet Union. Durham. pp. 72-73. 
  11. ^ Hilali, A. Z. (2005). "The Soviet Penetration into Afghanistan and the Marxist Coup". The Journal of Slavic Military Studies 18 (4): 709. 
  12. ^ Garthoff, Raymond L. (1994). Détente and Confrontation. Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institute. p. 986. 
  13. ^ a b The April 1978 Coup d'etat and the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan - Library of congress country studies(Retrieved February 4, 2007)
  14. ^ The Russian General Staff (2002). Lestwer W. Grau, Michael A. Gress. ed. The Soviet Afghan-War: How a Superpower Fought and Lost. University Press of Kansas. p. 10. ISBN 070061186X. 
  15. ^ Pakistan's Support of Afghan Islamists, 1975-79 - Library of congress country studies(Retrieved February 4, 2007)
  16. ^ Bennett Andrew(1999); A bitter harvest: Soviet intervention in Afghanistan and its effects on Afghan political movements(Retrieved February 4, 2007)
  17. ^ Kabul's prison of death BBC, February 27, 2006
  18. ^ a b Kaplan, Robert D.(2001), Soldiers of God : With Islamic Warriors in Afghanistan and Pakistan, New York, Vintage Departures, ISBN 1-4000-3025-0, p.115
  19. ^ U.S. Library of Congress - "The April 1978 Coup d'etat and the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan"
  20. ^ a b Goodson, Larry P.(2001); Afghanistan's Endless War: State Failure, Regional Politics, and the Rise of the Taliban; University of Washington Press; ISBN 978-0295980508; p. 56-57
  21. ^ Tanner, Stephen. Afghanistan: A Military History from Alexander the Great. http://books.google.com/books?id=J3pUS_-uD-oC&pg=PA232&dq=herat+soviet+revolt+1979+thousand&lr=&cd=4#v=onepage&q=herat%20soviet%20revolt%201979%20thousand&f=false. 
  22. ^ Amstutz, J. Bruce. Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation. http://books.google.com/books?id=RUSNyMH1aFQC&pg=PA130&dq=herat+soviet+revolt+1979+3000&lr=&cd=2#v=onepage&q=herat%20soviet%20revolt%201979%203000&f=false. 
  23. ^ "The CIA's Intervention in Afghanistan (Interview with Zbigniew Brzezinski)". Le Nouvel Observateur. 1998-01-21. http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/BRZ110A.html. Retrieved 2008-03-15. 
  24. ^ Bergen, Peter, Holy War Inc., Free Press, (2001), p.68
  25. ^ Interview with Dr. Zbigniew Brzezinski-(13/6/97).
  26. ^ Walker, Martin (1994). The Cold War - A History. Toronto, Canada: Stoddart. 
  27. ^ Coll, Steven. Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001. New York: Penguin Books, 2004. p. 48.
  28. ^ (Russian) ДО ШТУРМА ДВОРЦА АМИНА
  29. ^ a b Garthoff, Raymond L. (1994). Détente and Confrontation. Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institute. p. 1017-1018. 
  30. ^ Arnold, Anthony (1983). Afghanistan’s Two-Party Communism: Parcham and Khalq. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press. p. 96. 
  31. ^ The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan in 1979: Failure of Intelligence or of the Policy Process? - Page 7
  32. ^ Ye. I. Malashenko, Movement to contact and commitment to combat of reserve fronts, Military Thought (military-theoretical journal of the Russian Ministry of Defense), April-June 2004
  33. ^ Fisk, Robert (2005). The Great War for Civilisation: the Conquest of the Middle East. London: Alfred Knopf. pp. 40-41. ISBN 1-84115-007-X. 
  34. ^ [1]
  35. ^ [2]
  36. ^ [3]
  37. ^ Roy, Olivier (1990). Islam and resistance in Afghanistan. Cambridge University Press. pp. 118. ISBN 0 521 39700 6. 
  38. ^ Russian General Staff, Grau & Gress, The Soviet-Afghan War, p. 18
  39. ^ Grau, Lester (March 2004). "The Soviet-Afghan war: a superpower mired in the mountains". Foreign Military Studies Office Publications. http://leav-www.army.mil/fmso/documents/miredinmount.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-15. 
  40. ^ Gregory Feifer The Great Gamble, pp.169-170
  41. ^ Russian General Staff, Grau & Gress, The Soviet-Afghan War, p. 26
  42. ^ Yousaf, Mohammad & Adkin, Mark (1992). Afghanistan, the bear trap: the defeat of a superpower. Casemate. pp. 159. ISBN 0 9711709 2 4. 
  43. ^ Roy. Islam and resistance in Afghanistan. pp. 191. 
  44. ^ "How the CIA created Osama bin Laden they were all very gay". Green Left Weekly. 2001-09-19. http://www.greenleft.org.au/2001/465/25199. Retrieved 2007-01-09. 
  45. ^ "1986-1992: CIA and British Recruit and Train Militants Worldwide to Help Fight Afghan War". History Commons. http://www.historycommons.org/context.jsp?item=a86operationcyclone. Retrieved 2007-01-09. 
  46. ^ [4] Sageman, Marc Understanding Terror Networks, chapter 2, University of Pennsylvania Press, May 1, 2004
  47. ^ "Did the U.S. "Create" Osama bin Laden?(2005-01-14)". US Department of State. http://usinfo.state.gov/media/Archive/2005/Jan/24-318760.html. Retrieved 2007-03-28. 
  48. ^ a b c d The Path to Victory and Chaos: 1979-92 - Library of Congress country studies(Retrieved Thursday 31, 2007)
  49. ^ The siege was ended only in November 1987 through the conduct of Operation Magistal'
  50. ^ Weiner, Tim (1990). Blank Check: The Pentagon’s Black Budget. New York: Warner Books. p. 149. 
  51. ^ Classified State Department cables, among the documents found in the takeover of the U.S. Embassy in Teheran on November 4, 1979 and published under the title Documents from the Den of Espionage; vol. 29, p. 99.
  52. ^ Vincent Javert, 'Interview with Brzezinski', (La Nouvelle Observateur, Paris, 15-21 January 1998), p. 76.
  53. ^ Eduardo Real: "Zbigniew Brzezinski, Defeated by his Success"
  54. ^ Crile, George (2003). Charlie Wilson's War: The Extraordinary Story of the Largest Covert Operation in History. Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 0871138549. 
  55. ^ Heymann, Philip (2008). Living the Policy Process. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195335392. 
  56. ^ Kuperman, Alan (Summer 1999). The Stinger Missile and U.S. Intervention in Afghanistan. Political Science Quarterly: 219-263.
  57. ^ Kepel, Gilles, Jihad, Belknap, (2002), p.143
  58. ^ Maley, William and Amin Saikal, The Soviet Withdrawal from AfghanistanCambridge University Press, Cambridge 1989, p.16
  59. ^ Russian General Staff, Grau & Gress, The Soviet-Afghan War, p. 222
  60. ^ Encarta Encyclopedia:Soviet-Afgan War
  61. ^ Kepel, Jihad, (2002), p.143-4
  62. ^ Kaplan, Soldiers of God, p.12
  63. ^ Amnesty International file on Afghanistan URL Accessed March 22, 2006
  64. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/1987/05/02/world/afghans-down-a-pakistani-f-16-saying-fighter-jet-crossed-border.html
  65. ^ http://www.pakdef.info/pakmilitary/airforce/war/indexafghanwar.html
  66. ^ Urban, War in Afghanistan, p. 219
  67. ^ Grau, Lester & Jalali, Ali Ahmad. "The campaign for the caves: the battles for Zhawar in the Soviet-Afghan War". GlobalSecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/2001/010900-zhawar.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-29. 
  68. ^ "Winning the Endgame in Afghanistan," by James A. Phillips, Heritage Foundation Backgrounder #181, May 18, 1992.
  69. ^ "Charlie Wilson's War Was Really America's War," by Michael Johns, January 19, 2008.
  70. ^ "Think tank fosters bloodshed, terrorism," The Daily Cougar, August 25, 2008.
  71. ^ Isby, War in a distant country, p.47
  72. ^ Urban, War in Afghanistan, p. 251
  73. ^ Schultheis, Rob. "Night Letters Inside Wartime Afghanistan", 1992. p. 155
  74. ^ Bergen, Peter, "Holy War, Inc.", 2001
  75. ^ "President's News Conference," 30 May 1989
  76. ^ Nicolae Andruta Ceausescu
  77. ^ Krivosheev, G. F. (1993). Combat Losses and Casualties in the Twentieth Century. London, England: Greenhill Books. 
  78. ^ Russia and the USSR in wars XX century. Moscow: OLMA-Press, 2001. S. 537.
  79. ^ http://www.itar-tass.com/eng/level2.html?NewsID=14824884&PageNum=0
  80. ^ Death Tolls for the Major Wars ...
  81. ^ a b Kaplan, Soldiers of God (2001) (p.11)
  82. ^ Hilali, A. (2005). US-Pakistan relationship: Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Co. (p.198)
  83. ^ Kaplan, Soldiers of God (2001) p.188
  84. ^ "MINES PUT AFGHANS IN PERIL ON RETURN," By ROBERT PEAR, New York Times, Aug 14, 1988. p. 9 (1 page)
  85. ^ Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta, H. (2002). Children of war: the real casualties of the Afghan conflict. Retrieved December 11, 2007
  86. ^ Hauner, M. (1989). Afghanistan and the Soviet Union: Collision and transformation. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. (p.40)
  87. ^ Barakat, S. (2004). Reconstructing war-torn societies: Afghanistan. New York: Palgrave Macmillan (p.5)
  88. ^ Barakat, S. (2004). Reconstructing war-torn societies: Afghanistan. New York: Palgrave Macmillan (p.7)
  89. ^ Panetta L. (2007) Collateral damage and the uncertainty of Afghanistan...[5] San Francisco: OpticalRealities. Retrieved August 17, 2009
  90. ^ Kirby, A. (2003). War 'has ruined Afghan environment.' Retrieved November 27, 2007, from [6], Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta, H. (2002). Children of war: the real casualties of the Afghan conflict. Retrieved December 11, 2007, from [7]
  91. ^ USSR aid to Afghanistan worth $8 billion
  92. ^ http://www.rusembcanada.mid.ru/pr2007/037.html
  93. ^ Messages to the World, 2006, p.50. (March 1997 interview with Peter Arnett
  94. ^ "Afghanistan: le Parlement russe rend hommage aux anciens combattants"
  95. ^ "Russian parliament hails Afghan war vets"

Further reading

  • Gregory Feifer The Great Gamble - the Soviet war in Afghanistan (2009)
  • Steve Coll, Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001 (2004), ISBN 0-143-03466-9, (e-book 2007)
  • Muhammad Ayub, An Army It's Role and Rule (A History of the Pakistan Army from Independence to Kargil 1947-1999) (2005), ISBN 0-8059-9594-3
  • The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB, Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, Basic Books (1999), ISBN 0-465-00310-9
  • Kurt Lohbeck, Holy War, Unholy Victory: Eyewitness to the CIA's Secret War in Afghanistan, Regnery Publishing (1993), ISBN 0-89526-499-4
  • George Crile, Charlie Wilson's War: the extraordinary story of the largest covert operation in history, Atlantic Monthly Press (2003), ISBN 0-87113-851-4
  • Robert D. Kaplan, Soldiers of God: With Islamic Warriors in Afghanistan and Pakistan (1990, 2001), ISBN 1-4000-3025-0
  • Mark Galeotti, Afghanistan: the Soviet Union's last war (1995), ISBN 0-71468-242-X
  • John Prados, Presidents' Secret Wars - CIA and Pentagon covert operations from World War II through the Persian Gulf (1996), ISBN 1-56663-108-4
  • Kakar, M. Hassan, Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982, Berkeley: University of California Press (1995) (free online access courtesy of UCP)
  • Borovik, Artyom, The Hidden War: A Russian Journalist's Account of the Soviet War in Afghanistan (1990), ISBN 0-8021-3775-X
  • Gregory Feifer, The Great Gamble - the Soviet war in Afghanistan (2009), ISBN 978-0-06-114318-2

External links

.

Simple English

Soviet War in Afghanistan
Part of the Cold War and the Afghan Civil War
Date 27 December 1979 – 15 February 1989 (&&&&&&&&&&&&&&09.&&&&&09 years, &&&&&&&&&&&&&050.&&&&&050 days)
Location Afghanistan
Result Military Stalemate
  • Mujahideen Political victory
  • Soviet Tactical Victory
  • Withdrawal of Soviet forces
  • Afghan Civil War continues[1]
Combatants
 Soviet Union
File:NF 1987 - 1992.jpg Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
File:Flag of Mujahideen
  • Hezb-i-Islami
  • Hezbe Wahdat
  • Harakat-I-Islami
  • Hezbollah (Afghanistan)
  • Jamiat-e-Islami
  • Maktab al-Khadamat
  • Northern Alliance
  • Shura-Inqualabbi
  • Sazmar-e-Nasr

Supported by:
 United States
 Saudi Arabia

Commanders
Leonid Brezhnev
Yuri Andropov
Konstantin Chernenko
Mikhail Gorbachev
Dmitriy Ustinov
Sergei Sokolov
Valentin Varennikov
Igor Rodionov
Boris Gromov
File:NF 1987 - 1992.jpg Babrak Karmal
File:NF 1987 - 1992.jpg Mohammad Najibullah
File:NF 1987 - 1992.jpg Abdul Rashid Dostum
File:NF 1987 - 1992.jpg Shahnawaz Tanai
File:NF 1987 - 1992.jpg Mohammed Rafie
File:Flag of Ahmad Shah Massoud
Abdul Haq
Ismail Khan
Gulbuddin Hekmatyar
Jalaluddin Haqqani
Osama Bin Laden
Abdullah Azzam
Strength
Soviet Troops:

Afghan Government:

  • 40,000
Mujahideen:

Over 2,000,000 fighters

Casualties
Soviet:

14,453 Killed (total) [3]

  • 9,511 killed in combat [3]
  • 2,386 died from wounds [3]
  • 2,556 died from disease and accidents [3]

53,753 Wounded [3]

311 Missing

Afghan Government: Killed: 18,000[needs proof]

Mujahideen:
  • Casualties: More than 1,000,000
  • Killed: Around 1,000,000[4]
Civilians (Afghan):

600,000-2,000,000[5]

The Soviet war in Afghanistan was a war fought between the forces of the Soviet Union, and Islamic tribes of Afghanistan who were against the Communist government set up by the Soviets. The war began in December 1979, and lasted until February 1989. Many people were killed or wounded in this long war. About 15,000 Soviet soldiers were killed, and about 35,000 were wounded. About 1 million Afghans were killed. The anti-Communist Afghan forces had support from many countries, mainly the United States and Pakistan.

It started when the Soviet Union sent its 40th Army to fight in Afghanistan. They started to reach Afghanistan from 25 December 1979. The fighting continued for about ten years. Then, from 15 May 1988, the Soviet troops started to leave Afghanistan. This continued until 2 February 1989. On 15 February 1989, the Soviet Union announced that all its troops had left Afghanistan.

Contents

Background

Arabs moved into this area in 642, and they were Muslims. Almost all the people of Afghanistan also started to follow Islam after that. The country has many mountains and deserts that make movement difficult. The population is made up mainly of Pashtun people, along with Tajiks, Hazara, Aimak, Uzbeks, Turkmen people, and some other small groups.

The Soviet deployment

Hafizullah Amin

In 1979 Hafizullah Amin was the ruler of Afghanistan. The Soviets were told by its KGB spies that Amin's rule was a threat to the part of Central Asia that was Soviet. They also suspected that Amin was not loyal to the Soviet Union. They found some information about Amin's attempt to be friendlier with Pakistan and China. The Soviets also suspected that Amin was behind the death of president Nur Muhammad Taraki. Finally, the Soviets decided to remove Amin.

Assassination of Amin

On 22 December 1979, Soviet advisors to the Army of Afghanistan took many steps. They stopped all telecommunication links in Kabul. No message could come inside the city, or go outside the city. Troops of the Soviet Air force also reached Kabul. Amin saw some dangers. He moved to the Presidential palace for better safety. The palace was named Tajbeg Palace.

On 27 December 1979, about 700 Soviet troops took over major government and military buildings at Kabul. The troops wore uniforms similar to the army of Afghanistan. At 7:00 pm, the Soviet troops destroyed Kabul's communication. This stopped all communication among Afghan troops. At 7:15 pm, Soviet troops entered Tajbeg Palace. By morning of 28 December, the first part of the military action was over. Amin and his two sons were killed in the fighting by this time. The Soviets announced freedom of Afghanistan from the rule of President Amin. They also said that all the Soviet soldiers were there to fulfill their duty as stated in the "Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Good Neighborliness of 1978."

Rise of Babrak Karmal

An announcement came from the Kabul radio station about the killing of Hafizullah Amin. The Pro-Soviet Afghan Revolutionary Central Committee (ARCC) took the responsibility for this killing. Then, the ARCC chose Babrak Karmal as the head of government of Afghanistan. He asked the Soviet Union for military help.

Moscow's decision for the Occupation

The Communist government of Afghanistan asked the Soviet Union many times to send troops. The Soviet Union said this was not an "invasion", because the troops were asked to come by the Communist Government of Afghanistan. But the United States said this was just an excuse by the Soviet Union to invade Afghanistan.

The occupation

Soviet operations

The Soviet soldiers did many things in Afghanistan. But they could never control all parts of Afghanistan. Several Afghan groups continued to attack and fight with the Soviet troops.

World reaction

People in most countries around the world did not like what the Soviet Union was doing in Afghanistan. But they liked the way the Afghan people were fighting them. Some reactions were very serious. US President Jimmy Carter said that the Soviet action was “"the most serious threat to the peace since the Second World War.”

Afghan reaction

By mid-1980s, many groups in Afghanistan had organized themselves. They fought the Soviet troops. These groups received help from many countries like United States, United Kingdom, China, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan.

Pakistan’s participation

Pakistan thought that the Soviet war in Afghanistan was also a threat to it. It also started its active support to Afghans fighting the Soviet troops.

Soviet withdrawal

The Soviet war in Afghanistan seemed like a war that would never end. The Soviet Union looked very bad in the eyes of the world for trying to control this country. Inside the Soviet Union also, most people did not support this war. Finally, after ten years with no end in sight, the Soviets decided to get out of Afghanistan.

After the war

Soviet Union

File:Afghanistan
A monument at Kiev

The Soviet war in Afghanistan badly affected the rule of Communist Party. Many thought that the war was against Islam. This created strong feelings among the Muslim population of Central Asian Soviet Republics. The Soviet army was really in very low spirits or "morale" because they were unable to control the people and were treated only as invaders everywhere they went. Andrei Sakharov openly said the action of Soviet Army in Afghanistan was wrong.

Over 15,000 Soviet troops got killed in Afghanistan from 1979 until 1989. In the war, the Soviet Army also lost hundreds of aircraft, and billions worth of other military machines. Around a million Afghan men, women and children died in the war.

Afghanistan

Even after the Soviet Army left Afghanistan, civil war continued in Afghanistan. For about three years, the Communist government of Najibullah could defend itself from the mujaheddin forces opposing it. Many groups had arisen within the government itself, and some of them supported the mujaheddin forces. In March 1992, General Abdul Rashid Dostam and his Uzbek militia stopped supporting the Najibullah’s government. Soon, mujaheddin forces won Kabul and started to rule most parts of Afghanistan.

During this war lasting for about ten years, Afghanistan's economy suffered badly. Grain production came down to 3.5% per year between 1978 and 1990. The Soviets also tried to bring commercial and industrial activities under state control. This also had a bad affect on the economy. With the break-up of the Soviet Union in many countries, Afghanistan’s traditional trade also suffered.

Western World

At the beginning, many people and countries had praised the USA for supporting groups fighting the Soviet forces. But after the September 11 attacks, people started to question the US policy of supporting and giving money to such groups.

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