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Soybean
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Genus: Glycine
Species: G. max
Binomial name
Glycine max
(L.) Merr.
.The soybean (U.S.) or soya bean (UK) (commonly misspelled "Soyabean") (Glycine max)[1] is a species of legume native to East Asia.^ Black Soybeans Glycine max are the best edible soybean.
  • Eden Foods Black Soy Beans 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.netrition.com [Source type: General]

^ Soybean, one of the most important global sources of protein and oil, is now the first legume species with a published complete draft genome ...

^ In addition to soybean, over 30 species of legumes can harbor the disease and include: kudzu, sweet clover, vetch, medic, lupine, green, kidney, lima, and butter bean, blackeyed pea, and cowpea.
  • Soybean Update 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.vaes.org.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The plant is classed as an oilseed rather than a pulse. .It is an annual plant that has been used in China for 5,000 years to primarily add nitrogen into the soil as part of crop rotation.^ The soybean has been used in China for 5,000 years as a food and a component of medicines.
  • soybean (plant) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ History of soybean The soya plant (Glycine max) was cultivated in China before 3000 B.C., and was classified as one of the five sacred crops.
  • Soyabean,Indian Commodity, Soyabean Commodity,Agro Product,commodity exchanges, derivatives, future contracts, Commodity Price in Mumbai, Indian Commodity Market, Commodity Price Updates 25 September 2009 8:58 UTC finance.indiamart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (NaturalNews) Writings about the soybean date back to 3000 B.C., when the Emperor of China listed the virtues of soybean plants for regenerating the soil for future crops.
  • soybeans news and articles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.naturalnews.com [Source type: General]
  • soy news and articles 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.naturalnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The plant is sometimes referred to as greater bean (大豆 - Chinese dàdòu and Japanese daizu).^ Tofu (Japanese name for Bean Curd, Chinese name dou fo) is high in protein, inexpensive and blends very well with many foods.
  • Soy/Tofu Recipes : Recipezaar 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.recipezaar.com [Source type: General]

^ Verified Member ] Products/Services : Chinese light speckled kidney beans of round shape,Chinese light speckled kidney beans of Oval shape,Chinese light speckled kidney beans of long shape,Chinese white kidney beans of Medium type,Chinese white kidney beans of Japanese type,Chinese white...
  • Soya Bean Suppliers - Verified Soya Bean suppliers directory at Alibaba.com 15 September 2009 2:59 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

^ A Chinese and Japanese liquid sauce for fish, etc., made by subjecting boiled beans (esp.

In Vietnam, the plant is called đậu tương or đậu nành. .Both immature soybean and its dish is called edamame in Japan,[2] and referring to a specific dish in English.^ Edible soybean, called Edamame in Japan and Mao Dou in China, is grown mainly to harvest the young green-shelled beans for vegetable uses, but not for the matured soybean crops.

^ In Korean cuisine, soybean sprouts, called kongnamul are also used in a variety of dishes such as doenjang, cheonggukjang and ganjang, .
  • TFM Exhibits: Soybean 15 September 2009 2:59 UTC www.foodmuseum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Edamame refers to varieties of soybeans that are harvested and eaten in their green phase.
  • Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC lpi.oregonstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The English word "soy" is derived from the Japanese pronunciation of shōyu (醤油, しょうゆ?), the Japanese word for soya sauce; "soya" comes from the Dutch adaptation of the same word.^ I've heard that left-over soy in Japanese is the same as the word for "death."
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ By contrast, soy sauce has only minimal levels of active soy ingredients and comes with massive amounts of sodium.

^ I now realize that I don't use soy sauce on Chinese food, but I use a LOT of it on Japanese food.
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

.Fat-free(defatted) soybean meal is a primary, relatively low-cost, source of protein for animal feeds or rations; soy vegetable oil is another valuable product of processing the soybean crop.^ The primary reason for growing the crop is for the beans, which are processed to obtain oil and a high protein meal.

^ Quantity: Hammer Soy is a complete vegetarian protein source equal to any animal product.
  • Hammer Soy 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.trisports.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And when we eat animal products from animals fed soy, we are eating soy.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Soybean products such as TVP (textured vegetable protein), for example, are important ingredients in many meat and dairy analogues.^ Textured soy protein, textured vegetable protein (TSP/TVP) .

^ Meat and/or dairy products are (hidden) in so many processed foods it's ridiculous.
  • The Dark Side of Soy | Personal Health | AlterNet 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Many high protein diets are high in oxalates such as meats, dairy products, vegetables, milk, nuts, beans, seafood products are also high in oxalates.
  • Truth About Soy -- Debunking the Myth. 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Traditional nonfermented food uses of soybeans include soymilk, and from the latter Tofu and tofu skin or yuba.^ Products using nonfermented soy include: .
  • Soy Bad, Soy Good: The Pluses of Fermented Soy 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC articles.mercola.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soybeans for food uses.
  • NSRL : About Soy: Soybean Processing 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.nsrl.uiuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Traditional Asian foods made from soybeans include tofu, tempeh, miso, and natto.
  • Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC lpi.oregonstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Fermented foods include shoyu or soy sauce, miso, natto, tempeh, Ketjap[3] among others.^ (NaturalNews) Tempeh is probably the most versatile of the fermented soy foods.
  • soybeans news and articles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.naturalnews.com [Source type: General]
  • soy news and articles 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.naturalnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fermented soy products, such as soy sauce, tempeh and miso.
  • The Truth about Soy and the Soy Industry Scientists versus the soy industry 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.the7thfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Miso, tempeh, and soy sauce can be consumed without worry.
  • Soy - Safe or Scary? - ParentDish 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.parentdish.com [Source type: General]

.The oil is used in many industrial applications.^ "Soybeans are also used in industrial products including oils, soap, cosmetics, resins, plastics, inks, crayons, solvents, clothing, and biodiesel.
  • TFM Exhibits: Soybean 15 September 2009 2:59 UTC www.foodmuseum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 2010, industrial use is expected to be 1.15-1.35 billion pounds of U.S. soybean oil, or the oil from roughly 120 million bushels.
  • Farmers invest in development of new soybean products Farm and Ranch Guide: Agri-tech 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.farmandranchguide.com [Source type: News]

^ In the U.S., more soybean oil is used than any other industrial vegetable oils, such as linseed oil, tung oil, etc.

.The main producers of soy are the United States (32%), Brazil (28%), Argentina (21%), China (7%) and India (4%).^ The world’s leading soybean producers are the United States (33%), Brazil (27%), Argentina (21%), and China (7%).
  • Genetically Modified Soybean 19 September 2009 7:48 UTC www.gmo-compass.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seventy-one of the cases were reported in the southern state of Parana, Brazil's second largest soybean producer while 18 cases were reported in the No.

^ Each of our Soy wax candles are hand poured to ensure quality and are made from natural soybean wax, that is processed from soybeans grown in the United States.
  • Soy Candles; Hand Poured Soy Wax Candles, Soy Jar Candles 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.griffenssoycandles.com [Source type: General]

[4][5] .The beans contain significant amounts of phytic acid, alpha-Linolenic acid, and the isoflavones genistein and daidzein.^ Genistein and daidzein are two isoflavones found in soy beans.
  • Jill E. Schneider, Ph.D. 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.lehigh.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Soy contains daidzein, genistein and glycitein.

^ They offer all of the nourishment of yellow soybeans and then some, including the isoflavone nutrients genistein, daidzein, and glycetein (total 40 mg per serving).
  • Eden Foods Black Soy Beans 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.netrition.com [Source type: General]

.Soybeans can produce at least twice as much protein per acre than any other major vegetable or grain crop, 5 to 10 times more protein per acre than land set aside for grazing animals to make milk, and up to 15 times more protein per acre than land set aside for meat production.^ But the truth is that rice milk is more difficult to make than soy milk.

^ Vegetable soybean is more nutritious than vegetable green peas.
  • Vegetable Soybean Cultivation 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.avrdc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We can make milk and meat substitutes out of soybeans."
  • Henry Ford and His Employees 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.soyinfocenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]

Contents

Classification

Varieties of soybeans are used for many purposes.
The genus name Glycine was originally introduced by Carl Linnaeus (1737) in his first edition of Genera Plantarum. .The word glycine is derived from the Greek - glykys (sweet) and likely refers to the sweetness of the pear-shaped (apios in Greek) edible tubers produced by the native North American twining or climbing herbaceous legume, Glycine apios, now known as Apios americana.^ ARTICLE from the Encyclopædia Britannica plant (Glycine max, or G. soja: ) also called Soja Bean, or Soya Bean, annual legume of the Fabaceae family and its edible seed, probably derived from a wild plant of East Asia .
  • soybean (plant) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And with their delicious, slightly nutty flavor and wonderful nutritional profile, this legume known scientifically as Glycine max can offer you max-imum enjoyment and health.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Native to Asia, the insect has likely been dispersing in North America for 4-5 years.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The cultivated soybean first appeared in Species Plantarum, by Linnaeus, under the name Phaseolus max L. The combination Glycine max (L.) Merr., as proposed by Merrill in 1917, has become the valid name for this useful plant.^ CROP INFORMATION CROP : SOYBEAN (Glycine max) .

^ The soybean ( Glycine max ) belongs to the legume family, whose members include peas, beans, and peanuts, as well as clovers and alders.
  • Soy for menopausal symptoms 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.womentowomen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Glycine Max (Soya Bean) Family : Leguminosae Plant parts used : Seeds Chemical constituents : Glycine Max, Soya bean contains various important constituents, some of the pharamacologically active ones are Isoflavones, Saponins & lipids groups.

The genus Glycine Willd. is divided into two subgenera, Glycine and Soja. The subgenus Soja (Moench) F.J. Herm. includes the cultivated soybean, .Glycine max (L.) Merr., and the wild soybean, Glycine soja Sieb.^ Black Soybeans Glycine max are the best edible soybean.
  • Eden Foods Black Soy Beans 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.netrition.com [Source type: General]

^ Effects of solvent polarity and acidity on the extraction efficiency of isoflavones from soybeans (Glycine max).
  • Soybeans Isoflavones - SciTopics 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC scitopics.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Glycine soja (L.) Merr., nom.
  • PLANTS Profile for Glycine max (soybean) | USDA PLANTS 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC plants.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

& Zucc. Both species are annual. .Glycine soja is the wild ancestor of Glycine max and grows wild in China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Russia.^ There are different variations of tofu from the cuisines of Korea, Japan and China.
  • Soy/Tofu Recipes : Recipezaar 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.recipezaar.com [Source type: General]

^ Glycine max, G. soja, or Soja max ) of the family Leguminosae ( pulse family), native to tropical and warm temperate regions of Asia, where it has been cultivated as a principal crop for at least 5,000 years.
  • soybean Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about soybean 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ ARTICLE from the Encyclopædia Britannica plant (Glycine max, or G. soja: ) also called Soja Bean, or Soya Bean, annual legume of the Fabaceae family and its edible seed, probably derived from a wild plant of East Asia .
  • soybean (plant) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .The subgenus Glycine consists of at least 16 wild perennial species: for example, Glycine canescens F.J. Herm.^ There are two species of soy** that are used as food crops: Glycine max (common "soybean") and Glycine soja ("wild soybean").

^ The wild soybean, Glycine soja, "is the species that was consumed traditionally and is the ancestor of the modern cultivar, Glycine max, explains Fitzpatrick.
  • Soy: Too Good to be True 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.chetday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

and .G. tomentella Hayata, both found in Australia and Papua New Guinea.^ In the new work, researchers at the University of Illinois found that genistein, an estrogenlike component of soybeans, compromises both of these vital branches of the immune system in mice.
  • Soy-Based Infant Formulas May Hinder Immune System: Scientific American 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.scientificamerican.com [Source type: News]

^ Papua New Guinea CAMEROON SOYA BEANS COMPANY LDT .
  • Soya Bean Suppliers - Verified Soya Bean suppliers directory at Alibaba.com 15 September 2009 2:59 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

[8][9]
.Like some other crops of long domestication, the relationship of the modern soybean to wild-growing species can no longer be traced with any degree of certainty.^ Like other vegetable oils, soybean oil contains no cholesterol.
  • NSRL : About Soy: Soybean Nutrition 15 September 2009 2:59 UTC www.nsrl.uiuc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ But in some other species, it causes cancer.

^ The next step in the work is to resequence some of the 20,000 or so soybean lines held in U.S. collections to search out genes no longer found in common soybeans currently grown.
  • Scientists sequence soybean genome - Science Fair - USATODAY.com 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC blogs.usatoday.com [Source type: News]

.It is a cultural variety with a very large number of cultivars.^ Rotation (in large blocks), resistant varieties and good early season growth are very important in the management scheme for this pest.
  • Pests of Soybeans 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC ipm.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Description and physical characteristics

.Soy varies in growth and habit.^ Soy diets containing varying amounts of genistein stimulate growth of estrogen-dependent (MCF-7) tumors in a dose-dependent manner.

^ After five years into the study, adverse effects of soy formula have not been observed, and no differences in growth and development among the various groups have been noted (125) .
  • Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC lpi.oregonstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The height of the plant varies from below 20 cm (7.9 in) up to 2 metres (6.6 ft).^ Variation in early plant height in wild soybean.

^ Plant height : Two plots ranged from 20 to 30 inches, and eight plots ranged between 36 and 48 inches.
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plant height : Ranged form 13 to 26 inches with the majority between 16 and 20 inches.
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The pods, stems, and leaves are covered with fine brown or gray hairs.^ Linear rows of brown to black fruiting bodies, "pycnidia," are seen on stems, but are scattered on pods.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When seeds are mature (filled), the moisture content is 45 to 55% and the pods and stems of the plant are yellow or brown.
  • NSRL : About Soy: Soybean Production 15 September 2009 2:59 UTC www.nsrl.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pubescence relates to the plant trichomes or hairs found on the stems, leaves and pods of soybeans.
  • Soybean - US7297842 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Academic]

.The leaves are trifoliolate, having 3 to 4 leaflets per leaf, and the leaflets are 6–15 cm (2.4–5.9 in) long and 2–7 cm (0.79–2.8 in) broad.^ The remaining leaves are compound leaves composed of three leaflets and are called trifoliolates.
  • NSRL : About Soy: Soybean Production 15 September 2009 2:59 UTC www.nsrl.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The leaves fall before the seeds are mature.^ The plant is not frost resistant so it must be grown after spring frosts are past and have time for the seeds to mature before the first fall frost.

^ These weeds germinate in the spring and summer and produce seed before they die in the fall.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The seeds are mechanically harvested after the plant sheds its leaves as it matures.

.The inconspicuous, self-fertile flowers are borne in the axil of the leaf and are white, pink or purple.^ The flowers of soybean are very small (1/4 inch) and are white, pink, or purple.
  • NSRL : About Soy: Soybean Production 15 September 2009 2:59 UTC www.nsrl.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has leaves with three leaflets, white or purple flowers, and pods with two to four beans.
  • Buy Soy Proteins & Soy Powder on Bulk Discount - Soy Supplements Store 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.herbs-wholesale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The flowers are self-pollinated; that is, the flower fertilizes itself, and insects are not required to carry pollen from one flower to another.
  • NSRL : About Soy: Soybean Production 15 September 2009 2:59 UTC www.nsrl.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Small, purple soybean flowers.
.The fruit is a hairy pod that grows in clusters of 3–5, each pod is 3–8 cm long(1–3 inches) and usually contains 2–4 (rarely more) seeds 5–11 mm in diameter.^ Seeds are borne in hairy pods which grow in clusters of three to five; each pod contains two or three seeds, which resemble peas.
  • Soyabean,Indian Commodity, Soyabean Commodity,Agro Product,commodity exchanges, derivatives, future contracts, Commodity Price in Mumbai, Indian Commodity Market, Commodity Price Updates 25 September 2009 8:58 UTC finance.indiamart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has oblong pods that contain 2 to 4 seeds or beans.
  • ACS :: Soybean 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.cancer.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Like other beans, soybeans grow in pods, featuring edible seeds.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.Soybeans occur in various sizes, and in many hull or seed coat colors, including black, brown, blue, yellow, green and mottled.^ Their color varies from yellow to brown, green, and black.
  • How soy sauce is made - making, history, used, processing, parts, components, steps, product, industry, History, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process, Quality Control, Byproducts/Waste 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While we most often think of them as being green, the seeds can also be yellow, brown or black.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some soybean varieties vary in color and may include black, purple, brown, tan, or mottled coloration.
  • NSRL : About Soy: Soybean Production 15 September 2009 2:59 UTC www.nsrl.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The hull of the mature bean is hard, water resistant, and protects the cotyledon and hypocotyl (or "germ") from damage.^ In North Carolina, late planted soybeans of maturity group VI and beans of groups VII or VIII are most likely to be moderately or severely damaged by corn earworms.
  • Pests of Soybeans 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC ipm.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Preparation of soybean milk Mature dry beans are washed thoroughly and soaked in water for 8-10 hours.

^ Soyabeans mature in the pod, they ripen into a hard, dry bean then.
  • Soyabean,Indian Commodity, Soyabean Commodity,Agro Product,commodity exchanges, derivatives, future contracts, Commodity Price in Mumbai, Indian Commodity Market, Commodity Price Updates 25 September 2009 8:58 UTC finance.indiamart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

If the seed coat is cracked, the seed will not germinate. .The scar, visible on the seed coat, is called the hilum (colors include black, brown, buff, gray and yellow) and at one end of the hilum is the micropyle, or small opening in the seed coat which can allow the absorption of water for sprouting.^ Hilum color in modern soybeans may be black, brown, yellow, gray, buff, or imperfect black.
  • Soybean - US7297842 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Their color varies from yellow to brown, green, and black.
  • How soy sauce is made - making, history, used, processing, parts, components, steps, product, industry, History, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process, Quality Control, Byproducts/Waste 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seeds can be yellow, green, brown, black, or bicoloured.
  • soybean (plant) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Remarkably, seeds such as soybeans containing very high levels of protein can undergo desiccation yet survive and revive after water absorption.^ Soybeans contain high concentrations of isoflavones.

^ Relationship between seed yield and seed protein in high protein soybean populations.

^ Adding to the high phytate problem, soybeans are highly resistant to phytate-reducing techniques, such as long, slow cooking.

.A. Carl Leopold, son of Aldo Leopold, began studying this capability at the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research at Cornell University in the mid 1980s.^ A substance found in soybeans may reduce colon cancer risk, suggests animal research conducted by Alfred Merrill at Emory University and the Karmanos Cancer Institute.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A research collaborative involving Iowa State University, Michigan State University, University of Florida, and the Rodale Institute was formed to seek research funds for control of ASR in organic soybean production.
  • Asian Soybean Rust: Notes and Organic Control Options for Farmers 15 September 2009 2:59 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ One is available from the Plant Management Network , and another great resource titled " A Practical Guide to On-Farm Research " by Bob Nielsen, Purdue University.
  • Illinois Soybean Production — University of Illinois Extension Blog 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC web.extension.uiuc.edu [Source type: General]

.He found soybeans and corn to have a range of soluble carbohydrates protecting the seed's cell viability.^ When dry, the seed contains about 38% protein, 18% oil, 15% soluble carbohydrates, 15% insoluble carbohydrates, and 14% moisture/ash/other.
  • NSRL : About Soy: Soybean Production 15 September 2009 2:59 UTC www.nsrl.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soybeans are a major grain crop valued for the high levels of oil and protein found in soybean seed.
  • Soybean - US7297842 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The isoflavones daidzein and genistein, found in soybeans and soy products have been shown in epidemiological studies to be protective against breast cancer and prostate cancer.

[10] Patents were awarded to him in the early 1990s on techniques for protecting "biological membranes" and proteins in the dry state. Compare to tardigrades.

Chemical composition of the seed

Soybean, mature seeds, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,866 kJ (446 kcal)
Carbohydrates 30.16 g
Sugars 7.33 g
Dietary fiber 9.3 g
Fat 19.94 g
saturated 2.884 g
monounsaturated 4.404 g
polyunsaturated 11.255 g
Protein 36.49 g
Tryptophan 0.591 g
Threonine 1.766 g
Isoleucine 1.971 g
Leucine 3.309 g
Lysine 2.706 g
Methionine 0.547 g
Phenylalanine 2.122 g
Tyrosine 1.539 g
Valine 2.029 g
Arginine 3.153 g
Histidine 1.097 g
Alanine 1.915 g
Aspartic acid 5.112 g
Glutamic acid 7.874 g
Glycine 1.880 g
Proline 2.379 g
Serine 2.357 g
Water 8.54 g
Vitamin A equiv. 1 μg (0%)
Vitamin B6 0.377 mg (29%)
Vitamin B12 0 μg (0%)
Vitamin C 6.0 mg (10%)
Vitamin K 47 μg (45%)
Calcium 277 mg (28%)
Iron 15.70 mg (126%)
Magnesium 280 mg (76%)
Phosphorus 704 mg (101%)
Potassium 1797 mg (38%)
Sodium 2 mg (0%)
Zinc 4.89 mg (49%)
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database
.Together, oil and protein content account for about 60% of dry soybeans by weight; protein at 40% and oil at 20%.^ The soybean seed contains about 20 percent oil and 34 to 36 percent protein.
  • Soybean Production 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ag.ndsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The oil samples were tested for total sterol content (% sterol) (see AOCS Ca 60-40, AOCS Ce 3-74, and AOCS Ch 6-91.
  • Soybean processing - US7045164 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When dry, the seed contains about 38% protein, 18% oil, 15% soluble carbohydrates, 15% insoluble carbohydrates, and 14% moisture/ash/other.
  • NSRL : About Soy: Soybean Production 15 September 2009 2:59 UTC www.nsrl.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The remainder consists of 35% carbohydrate and about 5% ash.^ When dry, the seed contains about 38% protein, 18% oil, 15% soluble carbohydrates, 15% insoluble carbohydrates, and 14% moisture/ash/other.
  • NSRL : About Soy: Soybean Production 15 September 2009 2:59 UTC www.nsrl.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Soybean cultivars comprise approximately 8% seed coat or hull, 90% cotyledons and 2% hypocotyl axis or germ.^ Select soybean seed that is free of disease, seed coat cracking, splits and green immature seed.
  • Soybean Production 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ag.ndsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Management: Resistant cultivars, virus-free soybean seed, remove symptomatic plants from seed production fields.
  • Crop Diseases in Soybean 1 (Purdue University) 15 September 2009 2:59 UTC www.btny.purdue.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Approximately 60 percent of the phosphorus and 50 percent of the potassium taken up by soybean plants is removed from the field when the seed is harvested.
  • Soybean Production 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ag.ndsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most soy protein is a relatively heat-stable storage protein.^ Casein technology provided the most advanced knowledge of protein isolate utilization in those days and served as a guideline in soy protein development.
  • Henry Ford and His Employees 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.soyinfocenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ok, ok, soy does have more overall protein, but hemp has the most digestible protein.
  • The Dark Side of Soy | Personal Health | AlterNet 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Soy’s sustainability relative to the impact of animal derived proteins is also hurting the dairy industry.
  • Doubts About Soy - Idea of the Day Blog - NYTimes.com 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC ideas.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

.This heat stability enables soy food products requiring high temperature cooking, such as tofu, soy milk and textured vegetable protein (soy flour) to be made.^ Consuming soy foods such as soy protein is LIKELY SAFE .
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Soy products, such as tofu, are high in protein and are an acceptable source of dietary protein.
  • Soy: MedlinePlus Supplements 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Susan G. Komen for the Cure | Understanding Breast Cancer | Complementary Therapies | Soy 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC ww5.komen.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It also is extremely high in protein for a plant food.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The principal soluble carbohydrates of mature soybeans are the disaccharide sucrose (range 2.5–8.2%), the trisaccharide raffinose (0.1–1.0%) composed of one sucrose molecule connected to one molecule of galactose, and the tetrasaccharide stachyose (1.4 to 4.1%) composed of one sucrose connected to two molecules of galactose.^ Soybean maturities range from early Group II in the south to Group 0 in the northwest.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only one larva will mature in each soybean stem.
  • Pests of Soybeans 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC ipm.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soybean diseases present : Three-fourths of the plots report multiple diseases ranging from one to seven diseases per plot.
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While the oligosaccharides raffinose and stachyose protect the viability of the soy bean seed from desiccation (see above section on physical characteristics) they are not digestible sugars and therefore contribute to flatulence and abdominal discomfort in humans and other monogastric animals; compare to the disaccharide trehalose.^ They cannot compare any characteristics of the GMO seed with any other GMO or non-GMO seeds from another company.
  • Soy // Current 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other experiments showed a slight cholesterol decrease in humans and animals taking soy lecithin or choline supplements.
  • Is Soy Lecithin Bad for You? : And what is it, anyway? - CHOW 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.chow.com [Source type: General]

^ However, other human and animal studies have examined males or females fed soy formula as infants, and have not found abnormalities in infant growth, head circumference, height, weight, occurrence of puberty, menstruation, or reproductive ability.
  • Soy: MedlinePlus Supplements 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Susan G. Komen for the Cure | Understanding Breast Cancer | Complementary Therapies | Soy 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC ww5.komen.org [Source type: Academic]

Undigested oligosaccharides are broken down in the intestine by native microbes producing gases such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and methane.
.Since soluble soy carbohydrates are found in the whey and are broken down during fermentation, soy concentrate, soy protein isolates, tofu, soy sauce, and sprouted soy beans are without flatus activity.^ Soy protein isolate?
  • The Dark Side of Soy | Personal Health | AlterNet 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Making soy sauce is simply removing the liquid that the soy beans are fermented in.
  • Making Soy Sauce At Home - eG Forums 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC forums.egullet.org [Source type: General]

^ Is whey-protein a good alternative to soy protein?
  • The Dark Side of Soy | Personal Health | AlterNet 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

.On the other hand, there may be some beneficial effects to ingesting oligosaccharides such as raffinose and stachyose, namely, encouraging indigenous bifidobacteria in the colon against putrefactive bacteria.^ On the other hand, you may also have heard: .
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ Soy May lower the risk of prostate, colon and breast cancers as well as osteoporosis and other bone See Details .
  • - SHOP.COM 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.shop.com [Source type: General]

^ The story of the effect of soy protein on the thyroid seems complicated by other studies such as the following which states that .

The insoluble carbohydrates in soybeans consist of the complex polysaccharides cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. .The majority of soybean carbohydrates can be classed as belonging to dietary fiber.^ In addition, soybeans are a good source of iron, phosphorus, dietary fiber, omega-3 fatty acids, magnesium, copper, vitamin B2, and potassium.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

Nutrition

.For human consumption, soybeans must be cooked with "wet" heat in order to destroy the trypsin inhibitors (serine protease inhibitors)[11] .^ "The association between soybean consumption and goiter in animals and humans has a long history," wrote Dr Doerge.
  • Soy Alert -- Tragedy and Hype, by Sally Fallon and Mary Enig, 2000 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Dangers of Soy Products 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.karinya.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • soy information 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.leaflady.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Why Avoid Soy Products 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.mindbodyhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although the act of fermenting soybeans does deactivate both trypsin inhibitors and hemagglutinin, precipitation and cooking do not.

^ Later studies determined that trypsin inhibitor content could be removed only with long periods of heat and pressure, but the FDA has imposed no requirements for manufacturers to do so.
  • Soy Alert -- Tragedy and Hype, by Sally Fallon and Mary Enig, 2000 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Dangers of Soy Products 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.karinya.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • soy information 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.leaflady.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Why Avoid Soy Products 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.mindbodyhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

.Raw soybeans, including Edamame, should not be eaten by humans, swine, chickens, in fact, all monogastric animals.^ These fact sheets contain all the information soybean growers need to meet these objectives in a concise and usable format.” .
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ FACT: Toxicity of isoflavones is well documented in humans and animals.

^ For use as a green vegetable (called edamame), soybean pods should be harvested when the seeds are fully grown but before the pods turn yellow.
  • NSRL : About Soy: Soybean Production 15 September 2009 2:59 UTC www.nsrl.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]
.Soybeans are considered by many agencies to be a source of complete protein.^ The protein in soybeans, and also in other legumes, is excellent for diabetic patients, who tend to have problems with animal sources of protein.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many entomologists consider the green cloverworm a valuable food source for beneficial insects and diseases.
  • Pests of Soybeans 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC ipm.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The soybean has been utilized for thousands of years as a source of both oil and protein.
  • Soybean processing - US7045164 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

[13][14] .A complete protein is one that contains significant amounts of all the essential amino acids that must be provided to the human body because of the body's inability to synthesize them.^ Soybeans contain all the amino acids essential to human nutrition, which must be supplied in the diet because they cannot be synthesized by the human body.
  • Soy Protein Health Claims and Questions 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.keepkidshealthy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soy is an excellent source of dietary protein, including all essential amino acids.
  • Soy: MedlinePlus Supplements 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Soy protein contains all the essential amino acids found in animal protein.
  • KingInternational 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.kingintl.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For this reason, soy is a good source of protein, amongst many others, for vegetarians and vegans or for people who want to reduce the amount of meat they eat.^ But we don’t eat soy protein with a spoon.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is whey-protein a good alternative to soy protein?
  • The Dark Side of Soy | Personal Health | AlterNet 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ They are also a very good source of protein and manganese.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

According to the US Food and Drug Administration:
.Soy protein products can be good substitutes for animal products because, unlike some other beans, soy offers a 'complete' protein profile.^ And when we eat animal products from animals fed soy, we are eating soy.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is whey-protein a good alternative to soy protein?
  • The Dark Side of Soy | Personal Health | AlterNet 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Soy protein products can be good substitutes for animal products because, unlike some other beans, soy offers a "complete" protein profile.
  • Soy Protein Health Claims and Questions 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.keepkidshealthy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

... .Soy protein products can replace animal-based foods—which also have complete proteins but tend to contain more fat, especially saturated fat—without requiring major adjustments elsewhere in the diet.^ And when we eat animal products from animals fed soy, we are eating soy.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A true believer in soy over animal foods.
  • The Dark Side of Soy | Personal Health | AlterNet 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Soy protein products can replace animal-based foods -- which also have complete proteins but tend to contain more fat, especially saturated fat -- without requiring major adjustments elsewhere in the diet.
  • Soy Protein Health Claims and Questions 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.keepkidshealthy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15]
.However, as with many dietary health claims, there are opposing viewpoints on the health benefits of soybeans.^ The ASA delegation also briefed MEPs on added value biotech soybeans that will soon come to market, many of which will have quality traits that will have more direct consumer benefits.
  • ASA touts soybean biotechnology benefits 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC southeastfarmpress.com [Source type: News]

^ As you say, there is so much evidence of soy's health benefits.
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ However, about as many studies have failed to find benefit with soy or concentrated isoflavones.

[16][17]
.The gold standard for measuring protein quality, since 1990, is the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) and by this criterion soy protein is the nutritional equivalent of meat, eggs, and casein for human growth and health.^ Soy protein, isoflavones, and cardiovascular health.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Soy protein is a complete protein that ranks right up there with the best in the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS).
  • Bodybuilding.com - Soy Protein Information and Product Listing! Soy Protein FAQ! 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.bodybuilding.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The L-phenylalanine uptake in the protein and carb shake was measured as being three times higher than the carb shake and roughly twice as great as the amino shake!
  • Bodybuilding.com - Soy Protein Information and Product Listing! Soy Protein FAQ! 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.bodybuilding.com [Source type: Academic]

Soybean protein isolate has a biological value of 74, whole soybeans 96, soybean milk 91, and eggs 97.[18]
.Soy protein is essentially identical to that of other legume seeds.^ When dry, the seed contains about 38% protein, 18% oil, 15% soluble carbohydrates, 15% insoluble carbohydrates, and 14% moisture/ash/other.
  • NSRL : About Soy: Soybean Production 15 September 2009 2:59 UTC www.nsrl.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In conclusion, soy protein, regardless of isoflavone content, decreased DHT and DHT/testosterone with minor effects on other hormones, providing evidence for some effects of soy protein on hormones.
  • Truth About Soy -- Debunking the Myth. 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Neither Drackett nor any other firm has been commercially successful in producing textile fibers from soy protein.
  • Henry Ford and His Employees 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.soyinfocenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19][20][21] .Moreover, soybeans can produce at least twice as much protein per acre than any other major vegetable or grain crop, 5 to 10 times more protein per acre than land set aside for grazing animals to make milk, and up to 15 times more protein per acre than land set aside for meat production.^ Might this have been due to other factors than the ratio of animal to vegetable protein?

^ Tropical Oils are more saturated than other vegetable oils.

^ Two acres of land will produce 400 pounds of soybean protein."
  • Henry Ford and His Employees 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.soyinfocenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22]
.Consumption of soy may also reduce the risk of colon cancer, possibly due to the presence of sphingolipids.^ Reducing the risk of developing breast cancer.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Messina M, Barnes S. The role of soy products in reducing risk of cancer.

^ Unlike estrogen, soy appears to reduce the risk of uterine cancer.

[23]

Cultivation

Soybean output in 2005
Top Soybean Producers
in 2006
(million metric tons)
 United States 87.7
 Brazil 52.4
 Argentina 40.4
 China 15.5
 India 8.3
 Paraguay 3.8
 Canada 3.5
 Bolivia 1.4
World Total 221.5
Source:
UN Food & Agriculture Organisation
(FAO)
[1]
.Soybeans are an important global crop, providing oil and protein.^ Soybean is an important cash crop in the eastern third of North Dakota.
  • Soybean Production 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ag.ndsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just one cup of soybeans provides 57.2% of the Daily Value (DV) for protein for less than 300 calories and only 2.2 grams of saturated fat.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Soybeans originated in China over 13,000 years ago where they were considered one of the most important crops in the area.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.In the United States, the bulk of the crop has its oil solvent-extracted with hexane, then the "toasted" defatted soymeal (50% protein) makes possible the raising of farm animals (e.g.^ Soybeans everywhere Big crops tend to get bigger, and with the United States' second largest soybean harvest out of danger...
  • Soybeans (Usage) | Business solutions from AllBusiness.com 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.allbusiness.com [Source type: News]

^ In about 1932 they built a small solvent extractor to separate the bean into soy oil and protein-rich meal.
  • Henry Ford and His Employees 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.soyinfocenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ China also imported 171,000 metric tons of soy oil from the United States, which is used as a cooking oil and other food uses.

chicken, hog, turkey) on an industrial scale never before seen in human history. .A very small proportion of the crop is consumed directly by humans.^ Properly fermented organic soy in small amounts is very good for humans.
  • Truth About Soy -- Debunking the Myth. 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Soybean products do appear in a large variety of processed foods.^ The operation was so successful that, soon after it started, a very large and well-known food company in Buffalo, Rich Products, started the same process.
  • Henry Ford and His Employees 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.soyinfocenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meat and/or dairy products are (hidden) in so many processed foods it's ridiculous.
  • The Dark Side of Soy | Personal Health | AlterNet 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ This invention relates to soybean processing, and more particularly to production of soy germ concentrates.
  • Soybean processing - US7045164 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

.During World War II, soybeans became important in both North America and Europe chiefly as substitutes for other protein foods and as a source of edible oil.^ The soybean has been utilized for thousands of years as a source of both oil and protein.
  • Soybean processing - US7045164 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Soybeans are a rich source of protein, unsaturated fats, complex carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, as well as phytoestrogens and Omega 3 fats.
  • KingInternational 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.kingintl.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The soybean has been prized for centuries in Asia as a nutritious, high-protein food with a myriad of uses, and today it's popular in the United States not only in Asian food, but also as a cholesterol-free meat and dairy substitute in traditional American foods.

.It was during World War II that the soybean was discovered as fertilizer by the United States Department of Agriculture.^ Today, the United States is the world's leading commercial producer of soybeans.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Large-scale soybean cultivation began in the United States during World War II. Currently, Midwestern U.S. states produce approximately half of the world's supply of soybeans.
  • Soy: MedlinePlus Supplements 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The first case of soybean rust has been found on the mainland United States and could affect U.S. crops for the near future, costing farmers millions of dollars, the Agriculture Department said on Wednesday.

.In the 1960-1 Dillion round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the United States secured tariff-free access for its soybeans to the European market.^ Large-scale soybean cultivation began in the United States during World War II. Currently, Midwestern U.S. states produce approximately half of the world's supply of soybeans.
  • Soy: MedlinePlus Supplements 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ IMF money funds soy processing plants in foreign countries, and free trade policies keep soybean abundance flowing to overseas destinations.
  • Soy Alert -- Tragedy and Hype, by Sally Fallon and Mary Enig, 2000 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Dangers of Soy Products 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.karinya.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • soy information 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.leaflady.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Why Avoid Soy Products 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.mindbodyhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In November 2004 soybean rust was identified on soybeans in at least nine states in the southern United States.
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the 1960s the United States exported over 90% of the world's soybeans.^ Today, the United States is the world's leading commercial producer of soybeans.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Large-scale soybean cultivation began in the United States during World War II. Currently, Midwestern U.S. states produce approximately half of the world's supply of soybeans.
  • Soy: MedlinePlus Supplements 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Large-scale soybean cultivation began in the United States during World War II. Currently, Midwestern U.S. farmers produce about half of the world's supply of soybeans.
  • Susan G. Komen for the Cure | Understanding Breast Cancer | Complementary Therapies | Soy 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC ww5.komen.org [Source type: Academic]

[24][25] .In 2005, top soybeans exporters are Brazil (39% of world soybean exports), United States (37%) and Argentina ( 16%), while top importers are China (41% of world soybean imports), European Union (22%), Japan (6%) and Mexico (6%).^ Seventy-one of the cases were reported in the southern state of Parana, Brazil's second largest soybean producer while 18 cases were reported in the No.

^ The USDA's 2004-2005 U.S. ending stocks estimate for Soybeans was unchanged at 460 million bushels.The USDA's 2004-2005 world ending stocks estimate for Soybeans was reduced to 61 million tons.

^ It is accredited for hours/units for licensed/accredited applicators in 7 U.S. Cotton Belt states (Florida, Georgia, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, South Carolina an d Tennessee.
  • ASA touts soybean biotechnology benefits 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC southeastfarmpress.com [Source type: News]

[26]
Cultivation is successful in climates with hot summers, with optimum growing conditions in mean temperatures of 20 to 30 °C (68 to 86 °F); temperatures of below 20 °C and over 40 °C (68 °F, 104 °F) retard growth significantly. .They can grow in a wide range of soils, with optimum growth in moist alluvial soils with a good organic content.^ Evaluate soil type, texture and organic matter content of each field to help in determining rates of soil applied herbicides.
  • Soybean Production 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ag.ndsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soybean can be produced on a wide range of soil types.
  • Soybean Production 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ag.ndsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High populations of the pathogen in the soil, however, may result in disease development under good growing conditions.
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Soybeans, like most legumes, perform nitrogen fixation by establishing a symbiotic relationship with the bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum (syn. Rhizobium japonicum; Jordan 1982).^ In North Carolina, late planted soybeans of maturity group VI and beans of groups VII or VIII are most likely to be moderately or severely damaged by corn earworms.
  • Pests of Soybeans 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC ipm.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since this pest thrives best on legumes, low populations can be maintained by rotating soybeans with crops like corn.
  • Pests of Soybeans 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC ipm.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2002 the conventional soybeans and RR soybeans were approximately equivalent in yield performance at most locations.
  • Soybean Production 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ag.ndsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, for best results an inoculum of the correct strain of bacteria should be mixed with the soybean (or any legume) seed before planting.^ A high intake of all legumes resulted in a 38% reduction in risk, while a high intake of soybeans, specifically, was associated with a 47% risk reduction.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ General symptoms of soybean viruses include plant stunting, leaf distortion and mottling, reduced pod numbers and seed discoloration.
  • Soybean Production 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ag.ndsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the pictograph for the soybean, which dates from earlier times, indicates that it was not first used as a food; for whereas the pictographs for the other four grains show the seed and stem structure of the plant, the pictograph for the soybean emphasizes the root structure.

Modern crop cultivars generally reach a height of around 1 m (3.3 ft), and take 80–120 days from sowing to harvesting.
.Soybeans are native to east Asia but only 45 percent of soybean production is located there.^ Despite a report of “rust-like” spores caught in a spore trap at a Texas location, there was no soybean rust in a sentinel plot and three commercial fields in the area.
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There have been no finds on soybean yet in either location.
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The estimated soybean production in Argentina was increased from 44.0 to 45.5 million tons.

The other 55 percent of production is in the Americas. .The U.S. produced 75 million tons of soybeans in 2000, of which more than one-third was exported.^ Soybeans unchanged at 54 million tons.

^ Soybeans were unchanged at 54 million tons.

^ Soybeans were reduced, from 54.3 to 54.1 million tons.

.Other leading producers are Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, China, and India.^ In 2004-2005, Brazil and Argentina are expected to produce a total of 3.86 billion bushels of soybeans, more than the U.S.'s 2.97 billion bushels.

.Environmental groups, such as Greenpeace and the WWF, have reported that soybean cultivation and the probability of increased soybean cultivation in Brazil has destroyed huge areas of Amazon rainforest and is encouraging further deforestation.^ Seventy-one of the cases were reported in the southern state of Parana, Brazil's second largest soybean producer while 18 cases were reported in the No.

^ The checkoff supports programs that increase U.S. soy exports such as foreign buying teams to the U.S. and livestock feeding demonstrations that prove the advantages of using U.S. soybeans.

^ Despite a report of “rust-like” spores caught in a spore trap at a Texas location, there was no soybean rust in a sentinel plot and three commercial fields in the area.
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27][28]
American soil scientist Dr. Andrew McClung, who first showed that the ecologically biodiverse savannah of the Cerrado region of Brazil could grow profitable soybeans, was awarded the 2006 World Food Prize on October 19, 2006.[29]
.Soybean plants are vulnerable to a wide range of bacterial diseases, fungal diseases, viral diseases and parasites.^ Soybean yields have not varied significantly over a wide range of plant populations.
  • Soybean Production 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ag.ndsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soybean diseases present : Low levels of brown spot (13 plots), low levels of bacterial blight (7 plots), low level of downy mildew (1 plot) and low levels of phytophthora stem canker (2 plots).
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soybean diseases present : Three-fourths of the plots report multiple diseases ranging from one to seven diseases per plot.
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

History

.Soybeans were a crucial crop in eastern Asia long before written records.^ Soybean is an important cash crop in the eastern third of North Dakota.
  • Soybean Production 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ag.ndsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some residual herbicides can be applied to the soil surface after the crop is planted, but before soybean and weed emergence.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.May 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] They remain a major crop in China, Japan, and Korea.^ Instead, they will be updated as needed to provide Michigan soybean growers with timely crop and pest management information for improving soybean yields and farm profitability.
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soybean traders remain fixated by the possibility that persistent arid weather may be causing yield damage to late-maturing crops in South America.

^ Soybeans originated in China over 13,000 years ago where they were considered one of the most important crops in the area.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.Prior to fermented products such as Soy sauce, tempeh, natto, and miso, soy was considered sacred for its use in crop rotation as a method of fixing nitrogen.^ Apparently the soy plant was initially used as a method of fixing nitrogen.13 .

^ Apparently the soy plant was initially used as a method of fixing nitrogen.
  • Soy Alert -- Tragedy and Hype, by Sally Fallon and Mary Enig, 2000 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]
  • soy information 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.leaflady.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Avoid using soy products.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.The plants would be plowed under to clear the field for food crops.^ Soybean rust update Pat Hart Plant Pathology The following article is from the May 5, 2005 Field Crop CAT Alert .
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When to take action for soybean rust Patrick Hart Plant Pathology The following article is from the June 9 , 2005 Field Crop CAT Alert .
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General information on soybean rust Pat Hart Plant Pathology The following article is from the April 21, 2005 Field Crop CAT Alert .
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.March 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Soy was first introduced to Europe in the early 1700s and what is now the United States in 1765, where it was first grown for hay.^ Soy was introduced to Europe in the 1700s and to the United States in the 1800s.
  • Soy: MedlinePlus Supplements 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ All of the most popular soy beverages sold in the United States provide vastly more calcium than the 3 percent claimed by the Dairy Bureau.

^ Soybeans made their first appearance in the United States in the 18th century, planted by an American who brought them back from China.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

Benjamin Franklin wrote a letter in 1770 mentioning sending soybeans home from England. .Soybeans did not become an important crop outside of Asia until about 1910. In America, soy was considered an industrial product only and not used as a food prior to the 1920s.^ It’s also important to note that soy isn’t the only food that has goitrogenic effects.
  • Scrutinizing Soy | Mark's Daily Apple 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Avoid using soy products.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It can be hard to find foods that don't contain soy flour, soy oil, lecithin (extracted from soy oil and used as an emulsifier in high-fat products), soy protein isolates and concentrates, textured vegetable protein (TVP), hydrolyzed vegetable protein (usually made from soy) or unidentified vegetable oils.

.Soy was introduced to Africa from China in the late 19th Century and is now widespread across the continent.^ China also consume soy and have very low incidence in cancer, they also recently begun a switchover to cow's milk and now the cancer rate is starting to rise.
  • Truth About Soy -- Debunking the Myth. 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Asia

.The wild ancestor of the soybean is Glycine soja (previously called G. ussuriensis), a legume native to central China.^ Soybean aphid is native to China where it has been shown to cause significant yield losses (up to 58%).
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ China continues to pull on global commodities with demand for US soybeans rising in 2004/05 by nearly 50 per cent on the previous year.

[30] .The soybean has been used in China for 5,000 years as a food and a component of drugs.^ As China's living standards improve, consumption of edible oil is rising at a pace of 500,000 tons to 700,000 tons a year.

^ Printer friendly version Soybeans The delicious, slightly nutty flavored soybean has been cultivated in China for over 3,000 years but the good news about soy's culinary versatility and exceptional health benefits is a relatively recent phenomenon in the West.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Throughout the war years, the idea of using spun protein fibers as the basis of human foods, meat analogs, returned to Boyer again and again.
  • Henry Ford and His Employees 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.soyinfocenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to the ancient Chinese, in 2853 BC the legendary Emperor Shennong of China proclaimed that five plants were sacred: soybeans, rice, wheat, barley, and millet.^ During the Chou Dynasty (1134-246 BC) the soybean was designated one of the five sacred grains, along with barley, wheat, millet and rice.

^ During the Chou Dynasty (1134&endash;246 BC) the soybean was designated one of the five sacred grains, along with barley, wheat, millet and rice.
  • Soy Alert -- Tragedy and Hype, by Sally Fallon and Mary Enig, 2000 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]
  • soy information 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.leaflady.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other plants occasionally infested include tomato, melon, wheat, barley, oat, Bermuda grass, and Johnson grass, as well as some trees and shrubs.
  • Pests of Soybeans 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC ipm.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31] .However, Soy in particular was revered for its root structure as a means of crop rotation and not as a food source.[citation needed] Cultivation of soybeans was long confined chiefly to China, but gradually spread to other countries.^ Endometrial cancer is less common in Japan, China, and other Asian countries where the usual diet is low in calories and high in soy and whole grain foods, vegetables, and fruits.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the L-arginine content of the soy and rice diets was not high enough to explain the amount of protective benefit they conferred, so the researchers concluded that these foods must also contain other protective compounds.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the pictograph for the soybean, which dates from earlier times, indicates that it was not first used as a food; for whereas the pictographs for the other four grains show the seed and stem structure of the plant, the pictograph for the soybean emphasizes the root structure.

[32]
.The earliest preserved soybeans were found in archaeological sites in Korea.^ More information on soybean rust can also be found at the Michigan Farm Bureau, and the Michigan Soybean Promotion Committee web sites.
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Information on fungicides available for soybean rust, our current state of knowledge on the best way to manage soybean rust with fungicides, and links to other important sites can be found here.
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33][34] .Radiocarbon dating of soybean samples recovered through flotation during excavations at the Early Mumun period Okbang site in Korea indicates that soybean was cultivated as a food crop in ca.^ Large-scale soybean cultivation began in the United States during World War II. Currently, Midwestern U.S. states produce approximately half of the world's supply of soybeans.
  • Soy: MedlinePlus Supplements 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the pictograph for the soybean, which dates from earlier times, indicates that it was not first used as a food; for whereas the pictographs for the other four grains show the seed and stem structure of the plant, the pictograph for the soybean emphasizes the root structure.

^ Pod set is the yield component hit hardest, indicating fields should be scouted in early July, and if densities warrant, fields should be treated during the third week of July.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

1000–900 BC.[35]
.From about the first century AD to the Age of Discovery (15-16th century), soybeans were introduced into several countries such as India, Japan, Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Burma, Taiwan and Nepal.^ They were introduced into Japan in the 8th century and many centuries later into other regions of Asia including Thailand, Malaysia, Korea and Vietnam.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cooked for about 15 minutes in lightly salted boiling water, it's served as a snack, mixed with vegetables, or added to salads or soups.

^ Soybeans made their first appearance in the United States in the 18th century, planted by an American who brought them back from China.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

This spread was due to the establishment of sea and land trade routes. .The best current evidence on the Japanese Archipelago suggests that soybean cultivation occurred in the early Yayoi period.^ Soybeans are planted in southern states in March and April, and in Michigan, most soybean plantings occur during late May and early June.
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Control results from other states to the east of North Dakota find that the best results from an aphid treatment occurred from mid July to early August.
  • Soybean Production 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ag.ndsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Information on fungicides available for soybean rust, our current state of knowledge on the best way to manage soybean rust with fungicides, and links to other important sites can be found here.
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The earliest Japanese textual reference to the soybean is in the classic Kojiki (Records of Ancient Matters) which was completed in 712 AD.
.Many people have claimed that soybeans in Asia were historically only used after a fermentation process, which lowers the high phytoestrogens content found in the raw plant.^ Canned soybeans can be found in many markets.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The soybean has been prized for centuries in Asia as a nutritious, high-protein food with a myriad of uses, and today it's popular in the United States not only in Asian food, but also as a cholesterol-free meat and dairy substitute in traditional American foods.

^ Only after a long period of fermentation (as in the creation of miso or tempeh) are the phytate and "antinutrient" levels of soybeans reduced, making their nourishment available to the human digestive system.

However, terms similar to "soy milk" have been in use since 82 AD,[36] and there is evidence of tofu consumption that dates to 220.[37]

United States

.Soy took on a very important role in the United States after World War I.^ Thus it was easy to sell the notion that even after the war, as world population continued to rise, plant proteins would play an increasingly important role in diets throughout the world.
  • Henry Ford and His Employees 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.soyinfocenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of the most popular soy beverages sold in the United States provide vastly more calcium than the 3 percent claimed by the Dairy Bureau.

^ In addition, it is possible that certain formulations of soy contain as yet unidentified ingredients beyond isoflavones that play an important role.

.During the Great Depression, the drought stricken (Dust Bowl) regions of the United States were able to use soy to regenerate their soil because of its nitrogen-fixing properties.^ Apparently the soy plant was initially used as a method of fixing nitrogen.
  • Soy Alert -- Tragedy and Hype, by Sally Fallon and Mary Enig, 2000 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]
  • soy information 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.leaflady.org [Source type: Academic]

^ All of the most popular soy beverages sold in the United States provide vastly more calcium than the 3 percent claimed by the Dairy Bureau.

^ Apparently the soy plant was initially used as a method of fixing nitrogen.13 .

.Farms were increasing production in order to meet with government demands, and Henry Ford was a great leader of the soybean industry.^ Ford's chemical and media alchemy had totally transformed the once lowly soybean into a subject of great interest to millions of people.
  • Henry Ford and His Employees 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.soyinfocenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The U.S. 2004-2005 production estimate for Soybeans was increased from 2.836 to a record high 3.107 billion bushels.

^ In fact, I particularly discourage people from eating factory-farmed, industrialized animal products.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1932-33 the Ford Motor Company spent approximately $1,250,000 on soybean research.^ During 1932 and 1933 Ford spent more than $1,250,000 on his new soybean projects.
  • Henry Ford and His Employees 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.soyinfocenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Also in 1932 Ford acquired a 2,000-acre estate in Boreham, Essex, England; the first successful crops of soybeans in England were grown there by J.L. North in 1933-34.
  • Henry Ford and His Employees 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.soyinfocenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1939 the Ford Motor Company was harvesting about 100,000 bushels of its own soybeans; it had to buy an additional 500,000 bushels plus large amounts of soy oil.
  • Henry Ford and His Employees 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.soyinfocenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 1935 every Ford car had soy involved in its manufacture.^ The oil eventually became the most important commercial soy product on Ford cars.
  • Henry Ford and His Employees 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.soyinfocenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prior to 1940 most of the upholstery for Ford cars had been made from sheep's wool but in that year Boyer developed an improved synthetic wool made of soy protein fiber.
  • Henry Ford and His Employees 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.soyinfocenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1935 the first commercial plant for manufacturing industrial-grade soy protein isolates was built by the Glidden Company in Chicago, Illinois.
  • Henry Ford and His Employees 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.soyinfocenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, soybean oil was used to paint the automobiles[38] as well as fluid for shock absorbers.^ Another 540,000 gallons were made into glycerine and used in shock absorbers, and 200,000 gallons were used in the foundry as a sand binder in the manufacture of cores.
  • Henry Ford and His Employees 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.soyinfocenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1935 more than 1,000,000 gallons of soy oil were used in enamel paints for Ford cars.
  • Henry Ford and His Employees 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.soyinfocenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These were used for producing soy oil and meal as well as for research and demonstration.
  • Henry Ford and His Employees 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.soyinfocenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ford's involvement with the soybean opened many doors for agriculture and industry to be linked more strongly than it ever had before.^ From the late 1920s until many years after his death in 1947, Ford's name was closely linked with soybeans, for he developed a host of new ways to use the crop industrially and was one of the most creative of the original soyfoods pioneers.
  • Henry Ford and His Employees 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.soyinfocenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The U.S. Census Bureau said that 133.2 million bushels of soybeans were crushed in September, 2% more than last month.

^ For example, most annual broadleaf weeds can be more easily and economically managed in corn than in soybeans.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Henry Ford promoted the soybean, helping to develop uses for it both in food and in industrial products, even demonstrating auto body panels made of soy-based plastics.^ It can be hard to find foods that don't contain soy flour, soy oil, lecithin (extracted from soy oil and used as an emulsifier in high-fat products), soy protein isolates and concentrates, textured vegetable protein (TVP), hydrolyzed vegetable protein (usually made from soy) or unidentified vegetable oils.

^ Soy and Mineral Absorption Soybeans are high in phytic acid, which is known to block the body’s absorption of minerals such as calcium, zinc magnesium and iron.
  • Scrutinizing Soy | Mark's Daily Apple 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These days it can be hard to find foods that don't contain soy flour, soy oil, lecithin (extracted from soy oil and used as an emulsifier in high-fat products), soy protein isolates and concentrates, textured vegetable protein (TVP), hydrolyzed vegetable protein (usually made from soy) or unidentified vegetable oils.

.Ford's interest led to two bushels of soybeans being used in each Ford car as well as products like the first commercial soy milk, ice cream and all-vegetable non-dairy whipped topping.^ The oil eventually became the most important commercial soy product on Ford cars.
  • Henry Ford and His Employees 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.soyinfocenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They make soy “milk” and “ice cream” white and creamy.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Common sources of soy isoflavones include roasted soybean, green soybean, soy flour, tempeh, tofu, tofu yogurt, soy hot dogs, miso, soy butter, soy nut butter, soy ice cream, soy milk, soy yogurt, tofu pups®, soy cheese, bean curd, seitan, and soy noodles.
  • Soy: MedlinePlus Supplements 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The Ford development of so-called soy-based plastics was based on the addition of soybean flour and wood flour to phenol formaldehyde plastics.^ Soy flour contains 2.6 mg isoflavones per gram of soy flour, fermented soybeans contain 1.3 mg per gram, boiled soybeans contain 0.6 mg per gram, soymilk contains 0.4 mg per gram, soybean curd contains 0.5 mg per gram, fried soybean curd contains 0.7 mg per gram, soybean paste contains 0.4 mg per gram, and soy sauce contains 0.016 mg per gram.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ American soybeans attained their most sensational media publicity to date in late 1941 in connection with Ford's "soybean plastic car."
  • Henry Ford and His Employees 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.soyinfocenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1939 the Ford Motor Company was harvesting about 100,000 bushels of its own soybeans; it had to buy an additional 500,000 bushels plus large amounts of soy oil.
  • Henry Ford and His Employees 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.soyinfocenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]
.In 1931, Ford hired chemists Robert Boyer and Frank Calvert to produce artificial silk.^ I would like to give special thanks to Robert Boyer, Warren Hartman, Dr. George Harding Sr., and the Ford Archives for their help in preparing this chapter.
  • Henry Ford and His Employees 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.soyinfocenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They succeeded in making a textile fiber of spun soy protein fibers, hardened or tanned in a formaldehyde bath, which was given the name Azlon by the Federal Trade Commission.^ In about 1932 they built a small solvent extractor to separate the bean into soy oil and protein-rich meal.
  • Henry Ford and His Employees 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.soyinfocenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is possible that non-isoflavone constituents of soy, such as proteins, fiber, and phospholipids, may be equally or perhaps even more important than the isoflavones in soy.

^ In animals at highest risk for heart disease, the cholesterol ratio decreased by 48% in those given soy compared to those receiving milk and animal protein.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

It was usable in the making of suits, felt hats, and overcoats. .Though pilot production of Azlon reached 5000 pounds per day in 1940, it never reached the commercial market; Dupont's nylon was the winner in the quest to produce artificial silk.^ None of the products was ever marketed commercially.
  • Henry Ford and His Employees 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.soyinfocenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A pilot plant with a capacity of 1,000 pounds per day of the soybean "wool" was built and soon a fabric containing 25% soybean wool and 75% sheep's wool was used in the sidewall upholstery of many Ford cars.
  • Henry Ford and His Employees 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.soyinfocenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Space for 400 molding machines was provided, as well as for equipment to produce 80,000 pounds of the molding material each day.
  • Henry Ford and His Employees 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.soyinfocenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ford himself wore a suit made entirely from soybeans, and he was even said to have had dinner parties with nothing but soybean-based foods on the menu.^ Fortunately, it's easy to do sojust enjoy foods made from whole soybeans.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, yogurt made from cow's milk is also a common allergenic food, even though the cow's milk has been processed and fermented in order to make the yogurt.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, when soybeans are made into soymilk, tofu, tempeh, and the other common forms of soyfoods, their protein digestibility is enhanced and becomes similar to animal foods.

[citation needed]

Genetic modification

Different varieties of soybeans being grown together
.Soybeans are one of the "biotech food" crops that have been genetically modified, and genetically modified soybeans are being used in an increasing number of products.^ As one wrote years later with wry humor, "Nothing we newsmen ate that day led us to foresee that soybeans were destined to become an ingredient in many popular food products .
  • Henry Ford and His Employees 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.soyinfocenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It turns out that soybeans are one of the foods most commonly associated with allergic reactions.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The primary disadvantages of narrow row production (solid seeding) are increased potential for weed and disease problems, seedling emergence problems if soil crusts easily, inability to use a row-crop cultivator and increased herbicide costs.
  • Soybean Production 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ag.ndsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1995 Monsanto Company introduced Roundup Ready (RR) soybeans that have been genetically modified to be resistant to the herbicide Roundup through substitution of the Agrobacterium sp. (strain CP4) gene EPSP (5-enolpyruvyl shikimic acid-3-phosphate) synthase.^ Roundup-Ready soybeans were developed through genetic engineering.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most popular example currently of a transgenic soybean is resistance to a non-selective (glyphosate) herbicide.
  • Soybean Production 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ag.ndsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2001, the Los Angeles Times published an exposé revealing that Monsanto's own research had raised many questions about the safety of their Roundup Ready soybeans.

The substituted version is not sensitive to glyphosate.[40]
.In 1997, about 8% of all soybeans cultivated for the commercial market in the United States were genetically modified.^ The soybean looper is found in all areas of the United States where soybeans are grown.
  • Pests of Soybeans 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC ipm.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, the United States is the world's leading commercial producer of soybeans.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Genetic variation and relationships among cultivated, wild, and semi-wild soybean.

In 2006, the figure was 89%. As with other "Roundup Ready" crops, concern is expressed over damage to biodiversity.[41] .However, the RR gene has been bred into so many different soybean cultivars that the genetic modification itself has not resulted in any decline of genetic diversity, as demonstrated by a 2003 study on genetic diversity.^ For best results, peat-based materials should be applied as a slurry and mixed with the seed, particularly when planting into ground without a previous soybean history.
  • Soybean Production 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ag.ndsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transgenic soybeans are the result of incorporating a foreign gene into the DNA of the soybean plant.
  • Soybean Production 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ag.ndsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, when soybeans are made into soymilk, tofu, tempeh, and the other common forms of soyfoods, their protein digestibility is enhanced and becomes similar to animal foods.

[42]
.The widespread use of such types of GM soybeans in the Americas has caused problems with exports to some regions.^ Soybean traders remain fixated by the possibility that persistent arid weather may be causing yield damage to late-maturing crops in South America.

^ Summer annual grass and broadleaf weeds such as foxtails, woolly cupgrass, tall water-hemp, common ragweed, and common cocklebur can be problems in soybeans.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Insects and mites attacking soybeans can be grouped by the type of damage they cause, and can be categorized as stand-reducing, leaf-feeding, and pod-feeding .
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.GM crops require extensive certification before they can be legally imported into the European Union, where there is considerable supplier and consumer reluctance to use GM products for consumer or animal use.^ For pre-emergence herbicides to be effective, they must be moved into the soil by rainfall before the weed seeds germinate.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They do, however, point a definite finger at animal protein consumption, which helps explain the reduced rates of osteoporosis in people consuming soyfoods.

^ But what all the positive stories fail to mention is that there is a very real -- but very overlooked -- downside to the heavy or long-term use of soy products.

.Difficulties with coexistence and subsequent traces of cross-contamination of non-GM stocks have caused shipments to be rejected and have put a premium on non-GM soy.^ The primary ingredient in these products is Australian grown organic, non-GM soy beans.
  • KingInternational 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.kingintl.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43]

Uses

.Soybeans can be broadly classified as "vegetable" (garden) or field (oil) types.^ Brazil's Vegetable Oils Industry Association cut its estimate of Brazil's soybean crop from 56.9 to 52.8 million tons.

^ Determinate type soybeans complete their vegetative growth prior to flowering and the main stem ends in a rather large terminal raceme (group of flowers along the stem).
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brazil's Vegetable Oils Industry Association said that the Soybean crop is only 53.9 million tons.

.Vegetable types cook more easily, have a mild nutty flavor, better texture, are larger in size, higher in protein, and lower in oil than field types.^ It can be hard to find foods that don't contain soy flour, soy oil, lecithin (extracted from soy oil and used as an emulsifier in high-fat products), soy protein isolates and concentrates, textured vegetable protein (TVP), hydrolyzed vegetable protein (usually made from soy) or unidentified vegetable oils.

^ I can tolerate a small amount of soy oil in a product, but anything with soy protein, such as Textured Vegetable Protein, give me major problems.
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ It is true that the protein in cooked soybeans is slightly less digestible than that found in most animal foods.

.Tofu and soy milk producers prefer the higher protein cultivars bred from vegetable soybeans originally brought to the United States in the late 1930s.^ Today, the United States is the world's leading commercial producer of soybeans.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Furthermore, the stats regarding Asian consumption of soy products includes tofu, so the original point still stands.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Drinking soymilk during pregnancy can cause a failure to produce breast milk, which can lead to feeding the baby soy formula.

.The "garden" cultivars are generally not suitable for mechanical combine harvesting because there is a tendency for the pods to shatter upon reaching maturity.^ Treat only when defoliation reaches 40% in pre-bloom, 20% during bloom and pod-fill, and 35% from pod-fill to harvest.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mechanical harvesting takes place in the fall when soybeans are combined in the field.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do not apply a desiccant until soybean moisture is under 30 percent and 65 percent of the seed pods have reached a mature brown color.
  • Soybean Production 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ag.ndsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Among the legumes, the soybean, also classed as an oilseed, is pre-eminent for its high (38–45%) protein content as well as its high (20%) oil content.^ A high intake of all legumes resulted in a 38% reduction in risk, while a high intake of soybeans, specifically, was associated with a 47% risk reduction.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The protein and fiber in soybeans can also prevent high blood sugar levels and help in keeping blood sugar levels under control.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For high cholesterol: 20-50 grams per day of soy protein.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.Soybeans are the second most valuable agricultural export in the United States behind corn.^ Diseases are second to weeds as the most common yield-limiting pest in soybean.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seventy-one of the cases were reported in the southern state of Parana, Brazil's second largest soybean producer while 18 cases were reported in the No.

^ In November 2004 soybean rust was identified on soybeans in at least nine states in the southern United States.
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The bulk of the soybean crop is grown for oil production, with the high-protein defatted and "toasted" soy meal used as livestock feed.^ Soybeans are grown for oil, meal processing, animal feed, and food in Minnesota.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do not feed soybean hay or residue to livestock.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Avoid using soy products.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.A smaller percentage of soybeans are used directly for human consumption.^ "The association between soybean consumption and goiter in animals and humans has a long history," wrote Dr Doerge.
  • Soy Alert -- Tragedy and Hype, by Sally Fallon and Mary Enig, 2000 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]
  • soy information 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.leaflady.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Why Avoid Soy Products 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.mindbodyhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is being accomplished through increased animal productivity and use of soy protein directly in human consumption.
  • Soybean Production 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ag.ndsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Immature soybeans may be boiled whole in their green pod and served with salt, under the Japanese name edamame (枝豆 edamame?).^ Select soybean seed that is free of disease, seed coat cracking, splits and green immature seed.
  • Soybean Production 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ag.ndsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For more than 5 millennia, they've eaten whole, organic and fermented soy foods like miso, tempeh, tofu, soy milk, and edamame (young soybeans in the pod).
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ Just add the soybean pods to slightly salted water and boil for approximately 10 minutes.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.In China, Japan, and Korea the bean and products made from the bean are a popular part of the diet.^ The use of fermented and precipitated soy products soon spread to other parts of the Orient, notably Japan and Indonesia.
  • Soy Alert -- Tragedy and Hype, by Sally Fallon and Mary Enig, 2000 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Why Avoid Soy Products 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.mindbodyhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many high protein diets are high in oxalates such as meats, dairy products, vegetables, milk, nuts, beans, seafood products are also high in oxalates.
  • Truth About Soy -- Debunking the Myth. 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC earthclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The answers: Tofu originated around the 2nd century BC in China, and it was made from fermented bean curd.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Chinese invented tofu (豆腐 dòufu), and also made use of several varieties of soybean paste as seasonings.^ Earlier seeding allows the use of full-season varieties which typically yield more than shorter season varieties.
  • Soybean Production 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ag.ndsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The chart will be completed once the Section 18, special use permits are obtained for the 2005 growing season and will be made readily available to growers throughout the state.
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soybean yield and quality are affected if a season ending freeze occurs before a variety reaches its physiological maturity.
  • Soybean Production 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ag.ndsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Japanese foods made from soya include miso (味噌), nattō (納豆), kinako (黄粉) and edamame (枝豆).^ Tofu, natto, miso and many other important ingredients of Japanese cooking are made of soya beans.
  • Popular Soya Bean Dishes in Japan, Favorite Soya Bean Dishes in Japan, Well Known Soya Bean Dishes in Japan. 15 September 2009 2:59 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Miso is traditionally eaten at every meal in Japan and it is made from bonito, which includes the heads of the fish.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Korean cuisine, soybean sprouts, called kongnamul (콩나물), are also used in a variety of dishes, and are also the base ingredient in doenjang, cheonggukjang and ganjang.^ Mix sprouted soybeans into salads or use as toppings for sandwiches.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Soybean variety selection should be based on maturity, yield, lodging and disease reaction.
  • Soybean Production 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ag.ndsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A variety of soyfoods commonly eaten in the Asian diet contain isoflavones including tofu, miso, soymilk, soy sauce, soy flour, green or dried soybeans, soybean sprouts and a fermented soy food called natto.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.In Vietnam, soya bean are used to make soybean paste- tương in the North with the most popular products are tương Bần, tương Nam Đàn, tương Cự Đà as a garnish of phở dish and gỏi cuốn dish), tofu (đậu hũ or đậu phụ or tàu hũ), soya sauce (nước tương, literally: soya water), soya milk (nước đậu in the North or sữa đậu nành in the South), đậu hũ nước đường (tofu sweet soup).^ Miso Miso is brown soya bean paste.
  • Popular Soya Bean Dishes in Japan, Favorite Soya Bean Dishes in Japan, Well Known Soya Bean Dishes in Japan. 15 September 2009 2:59 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yudofu, Tofu, Natto and Miso Soup are some of the most popular soya bean based dishes.
  • Popular Soya Bean Dishes in Japan, Favorite Soya Bean Dishes in Japan, Well Known Soya Bean Dishes in Japan. 15 September 2009 2:59 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soya Sauce Soya sauce or shoyu is the most important Japanese seasoner and is used in many Japanese dishes.
  • Popular Soya Bean Dishes in Japan, Favorite Soya Bean Dishes in Japan, Well Known Soya Bean Dishes in Japan. 15 September 2009 2:59 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


The beans can be processed in a variety of ways. .Common forms of soy (or soya) include soy meal, soy flour, soy milk, tofu, textured vegetable protein (TVP, which is made into a wide variety of vegetarian foods, some of them intended to imitate meat), tempeh, soy lecithin and soybean oil.^ Tofu is made by adding a curdling agent to soya milk.
  • Popular Soya Bean Dishes in Japan, Favorite Soya Bean Dishes in Japan, Well Known Soya Bean Dishes in Japan. 15 September 2009 2:59 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As an Asian, I made soy bean milk.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If I consume any kind of soy protein (tofu, miso, tempeh, etc.
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

.Soybeans are also the primary ingredient involved in the production of soy sauce (or shoyu).^ That means that if you eat soy at all, you should stick to fermented soy products like miso, tempeh, natto, or a naturally fermented soy sauce (tamari).
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soy flour contains 2.6 mg isoflavones per gram of soy flour, fermented soybeans contain 1.3 mg per gram, boiled soybeans contain 0.6 mg per gram, soymilk contains 0.4 mg per gram, soybean curd contains 0.5 mg per gram, fried soybean curd contains 0.7 mg per gram, soybean paste contains 0.4 mg per gram, and soy sauce contains 0.016 mg per gram.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Quality of life improvement with soy sauce ingredients, Shoyu polysaccharides, in perennial allergic rhinitis: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study.

Soybeans grow throughout Asia and North and South America.
Soybean fields in the United States
.Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) is among the largest processors of soybeans and soy products.^ Agribusiness giant Archer Daniels Midland withdrew its application for the coveted GRAS status for soy protein, after an outcry from scientists about the toxins and carcinogens that come with it.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have heard that most of the soy products now on the market are far removed from the whole soybean from which they are made.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Only two soy products, soy sauce and soybean oil, do not contain isoflavones.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.ADM along with Dow Chemical Company, DuPont and Monsanto Company support the industry trade associations United Soybean Board and Soyfoods Association of North America.^ It is a major soybean pest in the southern United States and has been found as far north as Saskatchewan.
  • Pests of Soybeans 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC ipm.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Native to Asia, the soybean aphid has spread across North America over the past 4-5 years.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Intensive scouting is continuing throughout eastern North America from the Gulf coast to southern Ontario wherever soybean is grown with no new finds.
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These trade associations have increased the consumption of soy products dramatically in recent years.^ Furthermore, the stats regarding Asian consumption of soy products includes tofu, so the original point still stands.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a recent petition to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Protein Technologies International (PTI) identified "allergenicity" as one of the "most likely potential adverse effects associated with ingestion of large amounts of soy products".

^ Soy products increase the risk of thyroid disease.

Oil

.Soybean seed contains about 19% oil.^ The soybean seed contains about 20 percent oil and 34 to 36 percent protein.
  • Soybean Production 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ag.ndsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One pound of medium sized soybean will contain about 2800 seeds.
  • Soybean Production 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ag.ndsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cooked soybeans will keep fresh in the refrigerator for about three days if placed in a covered container.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.To extract soybean oil from seed, the soybeans are cracked, adjusted for moisture content, rolled into flakes and solvent-extracted with commercial hexane.^ Select soybean seed that is free of disease, seed coat cracking, splits and green immature seed.
  • Soybean Production 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ag.ndsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For best results, peat-based materials should be applied as a slurry and mixed with the seed, particularly when planting into ground without a previous soybean history.
  • Soybean Production 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ag.ndsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Massey LK, Palmer RG, Horner HT. Oxalate content of soybean seeds (Glycine max.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

The oil is then refined, blended for different applications, and sometimes hydrogenated. .Soybean oils, both liquid and partially hydrogenated, are exported abroad, sold as "vegetable oil," or end up in a wide variety of processed foods.^ Soybeans are grown for oil, meal processing, animal feed, and food in Minnesota.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My uncle remembers growing up in post war Hong Kong when food was scarce and making ends meet was not easy.
  • Making Soy Sauce At Home - eG Forums 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC forums.egullet.org [Source type: General]

^ Soy oil is the most widely used oil in the U.S., accounting for more than 75 percent of our total vegetable fats and oil intake.

.The remaining soybean husks are used mainly as animal feed.^ Soybeans are grown for oil, meal processing, animal feed, and food in Minnesota.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soy farming started around 1100 BC in China, where it was used to build soil fertility and feed animals.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do not use straw or hay for animal feed or bedding.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Meal

.Soybean meal is the material remaining after solvent extraction of oil from soybean flakes, with a 50% soy protein content.^ I can tolerate a small amount of soy oil in a product, but anything with soy protein, such as Textured Vegetable Protein, give me major problems.
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ Bone-sparing effect of soy protein in ovarian hormone-deficient rats is related to its isoflavone content.

^ Twenty-five grams of soy protein isolate, the minimum amount PTI claimed to have cholesterol-lowering effects, contains from 50 to 70 mg of isoflavones.
  • Soy Alert -- Tragedy and Hype, by Sally Fallon and Mary Enig, 2000 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]
  • soy information 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.leaflady.org [Source type: Academic]

The meal is 'toasted' (a misnomer because the heat treatment is with moist steam) and ground in a hammer mill. .Soybean meal is an essential element of the American production method of growing farm animals such as poultry and swine on an industrial scale that began in the 1930s; and more recently the aquaculture of catfish.^ Soybeans are grown for oil, meal processing, animal feed, and food in Minnesota.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, I particularly discourage people from eating factory-farmed, industrialized animal products.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polk County ranked the top ten for Minnesota soybean production in the 2000-growing season.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ninety-eight percent of the U.S. soybean crop is used for livestock feed.^ Do not feed soybean hay or residue to livestock.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ White mold uses soybean as a host and this allows the organism to carry-over to other susceptible crops.
  • Soybean Production 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ag.ndsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trade name and formulation: Percent crop treated: 5 Use rates: 0.026 - 0.035 lb ai/Ac Application timing: postemergence prior to soybean bloom Pre-harvest interval: none.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30] .Soybean meal is also used in lower end dog foods.^ A study of the history of soy use in Asia shows that the poor used it during times of extreme food shortage, and only when the soybeans were carefully prepared (e.g.

^ Soybeans are grown for oil, meal processing, animal feed, and food in Minnesota.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Limited lipid-lowering effects of regular consumption of whole soybean foods.

Flour

.Soy flour refers to defatted soybeans ground finely enough to pass through a 100-mesh or smaller screen where special care was taken during desolventizing (not toasted) in order to minimize denaturation of the protein to retain a high Protein Dispersibility Index (PDI), for uses such as extruder cooking of textured vegetable protein.^ These days it can be hard to find foods that don't contain soy flour, soy oil, lecithin (extracted from soy oil and used as an emulsifier in high-fat products), soy protein isolates and concentrates, textured vegetable protein (TVP), hydrolyzed vegetable protein (usually made from soy) or unidentified vegetable oils.

^ May I ask your opinion of soy protein in such supplements as Met-Rx?
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ Care must be taken during seed cleaning and conditioning to prevent seed damage.
  • Soybean Production 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ag.ndsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is the starting material for production of soy concentrate and soy protein isolate.^ These days it can be hard to find foods that don't contain soy flour, soy oil, lecithin (extracted from soy oil and used as an emulsifier in high-fat products), soy protein isolates and concentrates, textured vegetable protein (TVP), hydrolyzed vegetable protein (usually made from soy) or unidentified vegetable oils.

^ I can tolerate a small amount of soy oil in a product, but anything with soy protein, such as Textured Vegetable Protein, give me major problems.
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ Gallagher JC, Satpathy R, Rafferty K, Haynatzka V. The effect of soy protein isolate on bone metabolism.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.
  • Defatted soy flour is obtained from solvent extracted flakes, and contains less than 1% oil.
  • Full-fat soy flour is made from unextracted, dehulled beans, and contains about 18% to 20% oil.^ As an Asian, I made soy bean milk.
    • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ These days it can be hard to find foods that don't contain soy flour, soy oil, lecithin (extracted from soy oil and used as an emulsifier in high-fat products), soy protein isolates and concentrates, textured vegetable protein (TVP), hydrolyzed vegetable protein (usually made from soy) or unidentified vegetable oils.

    ^ Soy flour contains 2.6 mg isoflavones per gram of soy flour, fermented soybeans contain 1.3 mg per gram, boiled soybeans contain 0.6 mg per gram, soymilk contains 0.4 mg per gram, soybean curd contains 0.5 mg per gram, fried soybean curd contains 0.7 mg per gram, soybean paste contains 0.4 mg per gram, and soy sauce contains 0.016 mg per gram.
    • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Due to its high oil content a specialized Alpine Fine Impact Mill must be used for grinding rather than the more common hammer mill.
  • Low-fat soy flour is made by adding back some oil to defatted soy flour.^ Endometrial cancer is less common in Japan, China, and other Asian countries where the usual diet is low in calories and high in soy and whole grain foods, vegetables, and fruits.
    • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ These days it can be hard to find foods that don't contain soy flour, soy oil, lecithin (extracted from soy oil and used as an emulsifier in high-fat products), soy protein isolates and concentrates, textured vegetable protein (TVP), hydrolyzed vegetable protein (usually made from soy) or unidentified vegetable oils.

    ^ Effects of high- and low-isoflavone (phytoestrogen) soy foods on inflammatory biomarkers and proinflammatory cytokines in middle-aged men and women.
    • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

    .The lipid content varies according to specifications, usually between 4.5% and 9%.
  • High-fat soy flour can also be produced by adding back soybean oil to defatted flour at the level of 15%.
  • Lecithinated soy flour is made by adding soybean lecithin to defatted, low-fat or high-fat soy flours to increase their dispersibility and impart emulsifying properties.^ Endometrial cancer is less common in Japan, China, and other Asian countries where the usual diet is low in calories and high in soy and whole grain foods, vegetables, and fruits.
    • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ These days it can be hard to find foods that don't contain soy flour, soy oil, lecithin (extracted from soy oil and used as an emulsifier in high-fat products), soy protein isolates and concentrates, textured vegetable protein (TVP), hydrolyzed vegetable protein (usually made from soy) or unidentified vegetable oils.

    ^ Soy oil has become the base for most vegetable oils; soy lecithin, the waste product left over after the soybean is processed, is used as an emulsifier; soy flour appears in baked and packaged goods; different forms of processed soy protein are added to everything from animal feed to muscle-building protein powders.
    • The Dark Side of Soy | Personal Health | AlterNet 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

    The lecithin content varies up to 15%.
Reference: Soybeans: Chemistry and Technology. page 442. A.K. Smith and S.J. Circle. The AVI Publishing Company,1972.

Infant formula

.Soy-based infant formula (SBIF) is used for infants who are allergic to pasteurized cow milk proteins.^ Soy is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when used as an alternative to cow’s milk in children who are allergic to cow’s milk.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The highest risk is for infants who are fed soy formula.
  • The Dark Side of Soy | Personal Health | AlterNet 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Soy protein-based formulas: recommendations for use in infant feeding.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

It is sold in powdered, ready-to-feed, and concentrated liquid forms.
.Some reviews have expressed the opinion that more research is needed to determine what effect the phytoestrogens in soybeans may have on infants.^ Although rust may cost producers time and money over the next few seasons, it may also encourage people to take soybean pest management more seriously.
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Effects of the phytoestrogen genistein on some predictors of cardiovascular risk in osteopenic, postmenopausal women: a 2-years randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

^ The good ingredients in soybeans, for instance, are synergised and hugely concentrated with no thought as to the possible bad side effects which may ensue.
  • The Dark Side of Soy | Personal Health | AlterNet 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

[44] .Diverse studies have concluded there are no adverse effects in human growth, development, or reproduction as a result of the consumption of soy-based infant formula.^ Soy protein-based formulas: recommendations for use in infant feeding.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ How about the human consumption of soy?

^ Some 20 million infants have used soy formula since the 1960s -- but some people are concerned that the isoflavones it contains could affect a child's growth and reproductive development.
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

[45][46][47] One of these studies, published in the Journal of Nutrition,[47] concludes that there are:
...no clinical concerns with respect to nutritional adequacy, sexual development, neurobehavioral development, immune development, or thyroid disease. .SBIFs provide complete nutrition that adequately supports normal infant growth and development.^ The results of this study provide additional support for the findings of a review study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition .
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Providing nutrition to infants who can't digest milk sugars.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Disease develops in cooler than normal years with reduced plant growth.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

FDA has accepted SBIFs as safe for use as the sole source of nutrition.

Meat and dairy substitutes and extenders

Open package of a soy-based cream cheese alternative with chives
.Soybeans can be processed to produce a texture and appearance similar to many other foods.^ The texture of soybeans is so adaptable that they can be processed in a host of different ways making it easy for you to enjoy them in your daily diet.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I’ve already eaten too many industrialized, processed foods in my life to take proper nutrition lightly any more.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are quite delicious, like many other mildly goitrogenic foods — cabbage, tahini, pine nuts, millet, etc.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, soybeans are the primary ingredient in many dairy product substitutes (e.g., soy milk, margarine, soy ice cream, soy yogurt, soy cheese, and soy cream cheese) and meat substitutes (e.g.^ Meat and/or dairy products are (hidden) in so many processed foods it's ridiculous.
  • The Dark Side of Soy | Personal Health | AlterNet 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Is there a substitute for soy milk and yogurt that you would recommend?
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ It is the main ingredient in soy burgers, ice cream, milk shakes, and fake cheese.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

veggie burgers). These substitutes are readily available in most supermarkets. .Soy milk does not naturally contain significant amounts of digestible calcium.^ I'm one of those people who does fine with fermented soy products but doesn't tolerate unfermented soy products like soy milk very well.
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ Studies have shown that women who consume soy foods report a significant reduction in the amount of hot flashes that they experience.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If your digestive tract is healthy, and you do a good job of chewing and relaxing while you enjoy your meals, you will get significant benefits C including absorption of calcium C from calcium-rich foods plant foods that also contain oxalic acid.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

many manufacturers of soy milk sell calcium-enriched products as well. .Soy is also used in Tempeh: the beans (sometimes mixed with grain) are fermented into a solid cake.^ A healthy diet should include plenty of vegetables, fruits, nuts, beans, and whole grains, as well as some tasty and versatile soy foods.
  • The Dark Side of Soy | Personal Health | AlterNet 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ That means that if you eat soy at all, you should stick to fermented soy products like miso, tempeh, natto, or a naturally fermented soy sauce (tamari).
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (The soy bean extract used in product is called Nova Soy).
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

.Soy products also are used as a low cost substitute in meat and poultry products.^ Soy: Soy is a great substitution for meat and other animal products.
  • The Dark Side of Soy | Personal Health | AlterNet 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Avoid using soy products.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I have heard all the bad, but have continued to use natural soy products for 20 years.
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

[48][49] .Food service, retail and institutional (primarily school lunch and correctional) facilities regularly use such "extended" products.^ So are the organophosphates, insecticides such as malathion used in food production in the name of efficiency."

^ Some of these opinions may contain information about uses of drug products that have not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.Extension may result in diminished flavor, but fat and cholesterol are reduced.^ Soy may reduce the common menopausal symptom known as "hot flashes," but study results conflict.

^ One study suggests that the isoflavone daidzein may be only effective for reducing cholesterol when it is converted by intestinal bacterial into a substance called equol.

.Vitamin and mineral fortification can be used to make soy products nutritionally equivalent to animal protein; the protein quality is already roughly equivalent.^ Avoid using soy products.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ And when we eat animal products from animals fed soy, we are eating soy.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since then I only consume soy if I get in the mood to make a smoothie fortified with soy protein.
  • The Dark Side of Soy | Personal Health | AlterNet 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

.Ammonia doctored beef containing fatty trimmings, once relegated to pet food and cooking oil has found its way, with USDA approval, into hamburgers of the American fast-food industry, grocery stores and the federal school lunch program.^ WIC (Women, Infants & Children) is the federal food distribution program for the poor.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So the soy industry transforms a small yellow soy bean into something resembling a hamburger.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I got sucked into all the hype of this awful processed food as well as most of the American people.
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

.But government and industry records obtained by The New York Times show that in testing for the school lunch program, E. coli and salmonella pathogens have been found dozens of times in Beef Products Inc meat, challenging claims by the company and the U.S.D.A. about the effectiveness of the treatment.^ Application timing: seed treatment REI: NA Component of other products: Primary use: seed rots and seedling blights ( Pythium, Phytophthora ) .
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Learn about simple, natural, inexpensive and effective approach to cleansing and weight loss programs.

^ Application timing: seed treatment REI: NA Component of other products: Apron MAXX, other seed treatment mixtures Primary use: seed rots and seedling blights .
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Since 2005, E. coli has been found 3 times and salmonella 48 times, including back-to-back incidents in August, 2009 in which two 27,000-pound batches were found to be contaminated. The meat was caught before reaching lunch-rooms trays.[50] .By comparison rehydrated textured vegetable protein, TVP, has a more than 50 year safe-track record of inexpensively extending ground beef for hamburgers, without reducing its nutritional value.^ I can tolerate a small amount of soy oil in a product, but anything with soy protein, such as Textured Vegetable Protein, give me major problems.
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ Soy oil is the most widely used oil in the U.S., accounting for more than 75 percent of our total vegetable fats and oil intake.

^ "This study was performed in the free-living state; therefore, dietary soy may be a practical, safe and inexpensive modality to reduce blood pressure.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

[51][52][53][54][55]

Other products

.Soybeans are the bean used in Chinese fermented black beans, douchi, not the sometimes confused black turtle beans.^ The Chinese name for soybeans means greater bean, and this amazing legume could not deserve a more fitting title.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Soy beans were not considered fit for humans until the Chinese learned to ferment them, which makes them digestible.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although fungicides are rarely used to control white mold in soybeans, they are used in dry beans.
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Soybeans are also used in industrial products including oils, soap, cosmetics, resins, plastics, inks, crayons, solvents, and clothing.^ They’re industrial waste products dressed up in pretty clothes and marketed to an ignorant public.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two-thirds of the funds will be spent on monitoring through the use of sentinel soybean plots in 35 states (including Michigan) and Puerto Rico.
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ballad biofungicide registered for soybean rust and can be used for organic soybean production .
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Soybean oil is the primary source of biodiesel in the United States, accounting for 80% of domestic biodiesel production.^ In November 2004 soybean rust was identified on soybeans in at least nine states in the southern United States.
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soybeans made their first appearance in the United States in the 18th century, planted by an American who brought them back from China.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is a major soybean pest in the southern United States and has been found as far north as Saskatchewan.
  • Pests of Soybeans 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC ipm.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56] .Soybeans have also been used since 2001 as fermenting stock in the manufacture of a brand of vodka.^ Since the whole fish is used in the fermenting process, you get the iodine from the head.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57]

Cattle feed

Cattle are often fed soy. Spring grasses are rich in Omega-3 fatty acids whereas soy is predominantly Omega-6.

Health benefits

Omega-3 fatty acids

Roasted soybeans
.Omega-3 fatty acids, for example, alpha-linolenic acid C18-3, all cis, 9,12,15 octadecatrienoic acid (where the omega-3 refers to carbon number 3 counting from the hydrocarbon tail whereas C-15 refers to carbon number 15 counting from the carboxyl acid head) are special fat components that benefit many body functions.^ Soybeans' key benefits are related to their excellent protein content, their high levels of essential fatty acids, numerous vitamins and minerals, their isoflavones, and their fiber.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Scientists may need to isolate soy's isoflavones and protein components to better study how this amazing legume provides its many benefits, but our goal is to receive them all.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, soybeans are a good source of iron, phosphorus, dietary fiber, omega-3 fatty acids, magnesium, copper, vitamin B2, and potassium.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, the effects which are beneficial to health are associated mainly with the longer-chain, more unsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) found in fish oil and oily fish.^ Canola oil is a very long chain fatty acid oil (c22).

^ Essential Fatty Acids Found to be deficient in those with MS. Support immune and nervous systems.

^ The effects of fish oil and isoflavones on delayed onset muscle soreness.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.For instance, EPA and DHA, inhibit blood clotting, while there is no evidence that alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n−3, aLNA) can do this.^ There is inconsistent evidence regarding whether soy might help reduce high blood pressure .

^ As far as I know, there is no study done linking the rise in instances of precocious puberty to dietary intake of soy.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its conclusion was this: There is no evidence of significant benefit or harm based on the quality of evidence that exists today.
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

.Soybean oil is one of the few common vegetable oils that contains a significant amount of aLNA (others include canola, walnut, hemp, and flax).^ I can tolerate a small amount of soy oil in a product, but anything with soy protein, such as Textured Vegetable Protein, give me major problems.
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ Roasted soybeans are an especially good source; just one-half cup contains 167 mg of isoflavones.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, soybeans also contain very good amounts of fiber.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

However, soybean oil does not contain EPA or DHA. Soybean oil does contain significantly greater amount of omega-6 fatty acids in the oil: 100g of soybean oil contains 7g of omega-3 fatty acids to 51g of omega-6: a ratio of 1:7. Flaxseed, in comparison, has an omega-3:omega-6 ratio of 3:1.

Isoflavones

.Soybeans also contain the isoflavones genistein and daidzein, types of phytoestrogen, that are considered by some nutritionists and physicians to be useful in the prevention of cancer and by others to be carcinogenic[58] and endocrine disruptive.^ Soy flour contains 2.6 mg isoflavones per gram of soy flour, fermented soybeans contain 1.3 mg per gram, boiled soybeans contain 0.6 mg per gram, soymilk contains 0.4 mg per gram, soybean curd contains 0.5 mg per gram, fried soybean curd contains 0.7 mg per gram, soybean paste contains 0.4 mg per gram, and soy sauce contains 0.016 mg per gram.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tamoxifen (Nolvadex) interacts with SOY Some types of cancer are affected by hormones in the body.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Homeopathy can be used successfully to prevent and treat smallpox , measles , whooping cough , chickenpox , and other ailments.

[59][60] .Soy's content of isoflavones are as much as 3 mg/g dry weight.^ Soy flour contains 2.6 mg isoflavones per gram of soy flour, fermented soybeans contain 1.3 mg per gram, boiled soybeans contain 0.6 mg per gram, soymilk contains 0.4 mg per gram, soybean curd contains 0.5 mg per gram, fried soybean curd contains 0.7 mg per gram, soybean paste contains 0.4 mg per gram, and soy sauce contains 0.016 mg per gram.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bone-sparing effect of soy protein in ovarian hormone-deficient rats is related to its isoflavone content.

^ Improvements in hot flashes, as well as other symptoms, such as vaginal dryness, have been seen in many studies of soy, mixed soy isoflavones, isoflavone aglycones, or genistein alone.

[citation needed] Isoflavones are polyphenol compounds, produced primarily by beans and other legumes, including peanuts and chickpeas. .Isoflavones are closely related to the antioxidant flavonoids found in other plants, vegetables and flowers.^ No soybean rust has been found on soybeans or other plants in Michigan or anywhere in the North Central Region, including Ontario , Canada .
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Isoflavones are water-soluble chemicals found in many plants.

^ Other concerns relate to the estrogenic properties of soy isoflavones.

.Isoflavones such as genistein and daidzein are found in only some plant families, because most plants do not have an enzyme, chalcone isomerase which converts a flavone precursor into an isoflavone.^ Red clover also contains two other isoflavones: biochanin (which can be turned into genistein) and formonenetin (which can be turned into daidzein).

^ Improvements in hot flashes, as well as other symptoms, such as vaginal dryness, have been seen in many studies of soy, mixed soy isoflavones, isoflavone aglycones, or genistein alone.

^ As I understand it, the chief isoflavone in soy is genistein, which is used in biological research to investigate signal transduction pathways because it disrupts signaling.
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

.In contradiction to well known benefits of isoflavones, genistein acts as an oxidant (stimulating nitrate synthesis),[61] and blocks formation of new blood vessels (antiangiogenic effect).^ Effects of high- and low-isoflavone soyfoods on blood lipids, oxidized LDL, homocysteine, and blood pressure in hyperlipidemic men and women.

^ Soy protein and isoflavones: their effects on blood lipids and bone density in postmenopausal women.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Soy - HealthLibrary 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]

[62] .Some studies show that genistein acts as inhibitor of substances that regulate cell division and cell survival (growth factors).^ Effects of the phytoestrogen genistein on some predictors of cardiovascular risk in osteopenic, postmenopausal women: a 2-years randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

^ Hemagglutinin and trypsin inhibitors are both "growth depressant" substances.

^ Studies in mice WITH ovaries and functioning immune systems show inhibition of tumor growth.
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

.A review of the available studies by the United States Health and Human Services Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) found little evidence of substantial health improvements and no adverse effects, but also noted that there was no long-term safety data on estrogenic effects from soy consumption.^ I'm eager to see more research on the effects of soy on our health.
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ As you say, there is so much evidence of soy's health benefits.
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ Effects of soy on health outcomes.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[63]

Cholesterol reduction

.The dramatic increase in soyfood sales is largely credited to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) approval of soy as an official cholesterol-lowering food, along with other heart and health benefits.^ The sale of soy products is big business, and the increasing demand for soy protein products, soy powders and soy isoflavone supplements is making that an even more profitable business than ever before.

^ They can still put soy protein in your food, but they have to get pre-market approval for every product.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The FDA refused to approve isolated soy protein as a safe food additive with the designation “Generally Recognized as Safe.” .
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[64] .A 2001 literature review argued that these health benefits were poorly supported by the available evidence, and noted that disturbing data on soy's effect on the cognitive function of the elderly existed.^ As you say, there is so much evidence of soy's health benefits.
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ Effects of soy on health outcomes.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Effects of soy isoflavone supplementation on cognitive function in Chinese postmenopausal women: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial.

[65] .In 2008, an epidemiological study of 719 Indonesian elderly found that tofu intake was associated with worse memory, but tempeh (a fermented soy product) intake was associated with better memory.^ "Fermented soy is better than non-fermented soy."
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ That means that if you eat soy at all, you should stick to fermented soy products like miso, tempeh, natto, or a naturally fermented soy sauce (tamari).
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, the stats regarding Asian consumption of soy products includes tofu, so the original point still stands.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[66] This study replicated other studies.
.From 1992 to 2003, sales have experienced a 15% compound annual growth rate, increasing from $300 million to $3.9 billion over 11 years, as new soyfood categories have been introduced, soyfoods have been repositioned in the market place, thanks to a better emphasis on marketing nutrition.^ A 1992 report of the Weed Science Society of America estimated that weeds cause more than a $52 million loss in Minnesota soybean production each year.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 1995, the New England Journal of Medicine (Vol. 333, No. .5) published-Title- "Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids",[67] financed by DuPont Protein Technologies International (PTI), which produces and markets soy through The Solae Company.^ Anderson JW, Johnstone BM, Cook-Newell ME. Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A meta-analysis of the effect of soy protein supplementation on serum lipids.

^ Anderson JW, Johnstone BM, Cooke-Newell ME. Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids.

.The meta-analysis concluded that soy protein is correlated with significant decreases in serum cholesterol, LDL (bad cholesterol) and triglycerides.^ A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial compares the cholesterol lowering effects of two different soy protein preparations in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

^ Dietary intake of flavonols, flavones and isoflavones by Japanese women and the inverse correlation between quercetin intake and plasma LDL cholesterol concentration.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Isolated soy protein consumption reduces urinary albumin excretion and improves the serum lipid profile in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus and nephropathy.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, HDL(good cholesterol) did not increase by a significant amount.^ In addition, blood levels of beneficial HDL-cholesterol increased by 4.3% after the soy protein diet but tended to be lower after casein consumption.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While the control group consuming the soy-free diet containing olive oil also experienced an increase in their HDL cholesterol levels, their blood pressure was not affected, nor did their levels of LDL (potentially harmful) cholesterol drop.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Numerous controlled studies indicate that soy can reduce LDL (“bad”) cholesterol by about 10%, and perhaps slightly raise HDL (“good”) cholesterol as well.

.Soy phytoestrogens (isoflavones: genistein and daidzein) adsorbed onto the soy protein were suggested as the agent reducing serum cholesterol levels.^ Soy protein, isoflavones, and cardiovascular health.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Diet Three contained soy protein and the isoflavone, genistein, a phytoestrogen found in soy.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dietary soy supplementation and phytoestrogen levels.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.On the basis of this research PTI filed a petition with FDA in 1998 for a health claim that soy protein may reduce cholesterol and the risk of heart disease.^ Soy protein, isoflavones, and cardiovascular health.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ After all, in 1999 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved labeling I found on nearly every soy product I purchased: "Diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol that include 25 grams of soy protein a day may reduce the risk of heart disease."
  • The Dark Side of Soy | Personal Health | AlterNet 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ In a recent petition to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Protein Technologies International (PTI) identified "allergenicity" as one of the "most likely potential adverse effects associated with ingestion of large amounts of soy products".

.The FDA granted the following health claim for soy: "25 grams of soy protein a day, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease."^ Soy protein, isoflavones, and cardiovascular health.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ After all, in 1999 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved labeling I found on nearly every soy product I purchased: "Diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol that include 25 grams of soy protein a day may reduce the risk of heart disease."
  • The Dark Side of Soy | Personal Health | AlterNet 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ For high cholesterol: 20-50 grams per day of soy protein.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[68] .One serving, (1 cup or 240 mL) of soy milk, for instance, contains 6 or 7 grams of soy protein.^ Soy flour contains 2.6 mg isoflavones per gram of soy flour, fermented soybeans contain 1.3 mg per gram, boiled soybeans contain 0.6 mg per gram, soymilk contains 0.4 mg per gram, soybean curd contains 0.5 mg per gram, fried soybean curd contains 0.7 mg per gram, soybean paste contains 0.4 mg per gram, and soy sauce contains 0.016 mg per gram.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The effects of dietary soy protein containing phytoestrogens on lipids and indices of bone turnover in postmenopausal women.

^ Soy protein containing isoflavones does not decrease colorectal epithelial cell proliferation in a randomized controlled trial.

.Solae resubmitted their original petition, asking for a more vague health claim, after their original was challenged and highly criticized.^ The health claims of the soy industry have one purpose and one purpose alone - to sell more soy!

.Solae also submitted a petition for a health claim that soy can help prevent cancer.^ Eating soy protein seems to help hot flashes caused by menopause, but it doesn't seem to help hot flashes in women with breast cancer.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Since the 2 hydroxy metabolites of estrogen are less likely to initiate hormone-related cancers than estrogen's 16 hydroxyestrone metabolites, soy's effect of increasing the amount of 2 hydroxy estrogen produced in relation to the amount of 16 hydroxyestrone made in the prostate may help prevent prostate cancer.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, soy might help prevent osteoporosis .

.They quickly withdrew the petition for lack of evidence and after more than 1,000 letters of protest were received.^ Many thanks to the more than 2,000 respondents who participated in the first-ever Society survey.
  • Making Soy Sauce At Home - eG Forums 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC forums.egullet.org [Source type: General]

.In February 18, 2008 Weston A. Price Foundation submitted a petition for removal of this health claim.^ This is old news to Weston A. Price Foundation members.

^ I encourage you to read more about soy on the Weston A Price foundation website.
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ Early in 2007, the Weston A. Price Foundation began hearing from inmates who were suffering from a myriad of serious health problems due to the large amounts of soy in the diet.

[69]
.An American Heart Association review of a decade long study of soy protein benefits casts doubt on the FDA allowed "Heart Healthy" claim for soy protein and does not recommend isoflavone supplementation.^ Soy protein, isoflavones, and cardiovascular health.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Now, a study published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition has investigated the effects of soy protein and soy isoflavones on blood pressure and cholesterol levels in 61 middle-aged men, at high risk of developing coronary heart disease.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nilausen K, Meinertz H. Variable lipemic response to dietary soy protein in healthy, normolipemic men.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.The review panel also found that soy isoflavones have not been shown to reduce post menopause "hot flashes" in women and the efficacy and safety of isoflavones to help prevent cancers of the breast, uterus or prostate is in question.^ Eating soy protein seems to help hot flashes caused by menopause, but it doesn't seem to help hot flashes in women with breast cancer.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Soy causes breast cancer."
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ Observational studies hint that soy may help prevent breast and uterine cancer in women.

[58]

Phytic acid

.Soybeans contain a high level of phytic acid, which has many effects including acting as an antioxidant and a chelating agent.^ The protein and fiber in soybeans can also prevent high blood sugar levels and help in keeping blood sugar levels under control.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Soybeans' key benefits are related to their excellent protein content, their high levels of essential fatty acids, numerous vitamins and minerals, their isoflavones, and their fiber.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, soybeans have been shown to lower high triglyceride levels.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.The beneficial claims for phytic acid include reducing cancer,[70] minimizing diabetes,[71] and reducing inflammation.^ Soy also appears to lengthen the menstrual cycle by a few days, 70,78,92 and this too would be expected to reduce breast cancer risk.

[72] .However, phytic acid is also criticized for reducing vital minerals due to its chelating effect, especially for diets already low in minerals.^ Researchers noted that the reduced LDL cholesterol seen in the carotid arteries with soy was due to decreased delivery of LDL to the arteries, which could partly explain the soy's cardioprotective effects.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The soy toxins (such as phytic acid) can certainly act in this manner, but they also have the ability to target specific organs, cells and enzyme pathways, and their effects can be devastating.

[73]

Health risks

Phytoestrogen

.Soybeans contain isoflavones called genistein and daidzein, which are one source of phytoestrogens in the human diet.^ Diet Three contained soy protein and the isoflavone, genistein, a phytoestrogen found in soy.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Two reasons soy may help prevent endometrial cancer: Soybeans contain the isoflavones genistein and daidzein, which, although about 1,000 times less potent than human estrogen, can bind to estrogen receptors in the body, blocking out human estrogens and providing a much more gentle estrogenic effect.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The most investigated phytoestrogen isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, are found both in soy products and the herb red clover .

.Because most naturally occurring estrogenic substances show weak activity, normal consumption of foods that contain these phytoestrogens should not provide sufficient amounts to elicit a physiological response in humans.^ Soybeans are among a small number of foods that contain measurable amounts of oxalates, naturally-occurring substances found in plants, animals, and human beings.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These phytoestrogens bind to estrogen receptors and may provide enough stimulation to help eliminate some of the uncomfortable symptoms that occur when natural estrogen levels decline.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For these reasons, growers should follow their normal agronomic practices for soybeans.
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[74]
.
Plant lignans associated with high fiber foods such as cereal brans and beans are the principal precursor to mammalian lignans which have an ability to bind to human estrogen sites.
^ It also is extremely high in protein for a plant food.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A diet high in soy foods has been associated with reduced risk of several types of cancer, such as breast, endometrial and prostate.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Plus, minimally processed soy foods are rich in dietary fiber, which has also been shown to lower estrogen levels.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.Soybeans are a significant source of mammalian lignan precursor secoisolariciresinol containing 13–273 µg/100 g dry weight.^ Roasted soybeans are an especially good source; just one-half cup contains 167 mg of isoflavones.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

[75] .Another phytoestrogen in the human diet with estrogen activity is coumestans, which are found in beans, split-peas, with the best sources being alfalfa, clover, and soybean sprouts.^ Another great bean is the Chick Pea.
  • The Dark Side of Soy | Personal Health | AlterNet 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Threecornered alfalfa hoppers prefer leguminous plants such as alfalfa, soybean, bean, cowpea, and sweet clover.
  • Pests of Soybeans 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC ipm.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hosts of the bean leaf beetle include bean, clover, corn, cowpea, soybean, peanut, and several leguminous weeds.
  • Pests of Soybeans 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC ipm.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Coumestrol, an isoflavone coumarin derivative is the only coumestan in foods.[76][77]
.Soybeans and processed soy foods are among the richest foods in total phytoestrogens (wet basis per 100g), which are present primarily in the form of the isoflavones daidzein and genistein.^ Genistein, a soy isoflavone: 54 mg per day.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The most investigated phytoestrogen isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, are found both in soy products and the herb red clover .

^ A 9-year Japanese study involving 43,509 men ranging in age from 45 to 74 years found that those eating the most soy food and miso (and therefore consuming more genistein and daidzein, the isoflavones found in soybeans) had a significantly lower risk of localized prostate cancer.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

[78]

Women

.A 2001 literature review suggested that women with current or past breast cancer should be aware of the risks of potential tumor growth when taking soy products, based on the effect of phytoestrogens to promote breast cancer cell growth in animals.^ And when we eat animal products from animals fed soy, we are eating soy.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Migration patterns and breast cancer risk in Asian-American women.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Soy, isoflavones, and breast cancer risk in Japan.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[79]
.A 2006 commentary reviewed the relationship with soy and breast cancer.^ "Soy causes breast cancer."
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ Soy will give you breast cancer...
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ Eating soy protein seems to help hot flashes caused by menopause, but it doesn't seem to help hot flashes in women with breast cancer.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.They stated that soy may prevent breast cancer, but cautioned that the impact of isoflavones on breast tissue needs to be evaluated at the cellular level in women at high risk for breast cancer.^ Soy foods may also reduce risk of endometrial cancer.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ (High estrogen levels have been linked to cancers of the reproductive system in women.
  • The Dark Side of Soy | Personal Health | AlterNet 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ "Soy causes breast cancer."
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

[80]
.A high consumption of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are found in most types of vegetable oil including soybean oil, may increase the likelihood that postmenopausal women will develop breast cancer.^ Phytoestrogens and breast cancer in postmenopausal women: a case control study.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reducing the risk of developing breast cancer.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Eating soy foods does not increase risk of breast or endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women, and may even be protective, suggests a study published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism .
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

[81] .Another analysis suggests an inverse association between total polyunsaturated fatty acids and breast cancer risk.^ Reducing the risk of developing breast cancer.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A diet high in soy foods has been associated with reduced risk of several types of cancer, such as breast, endometrial and prostate.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This may reduce some of the risks of excess estrogen (for example, breast and uterine cancer) while still providing some of estrogen's benefits (such as, preventing osteoporosis).

[82]

Men

.Because of the phytoestrogen content, some studies have suggested that there is an inverse correlation between soybean ingestion and testosterone in men.^ There is very little in-field time logged by producers of soybeans, however, the recent explosion of soybean aphid is prompting some growers to scout fields or pay for this service.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But a 20/20 investigation has found that amid all of this praise, some scientists are now challenging this popular wisdom, and suggesting there may be a downside to this miracle food.

^ Dietary intake of flavonols, flavones and isoflavones by Japanese women and the inverse correlation between quercetin intake and plasma LDL cholesterol concentration.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[83] .For this reason, they may protect against the development of prostate cancer.^ Protection against Prostate Cancer .
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other studies have found that soy seems to protect against breast cancer.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition to its fiber, soy's isoflavones also contribute to its protective effect against breast and prostate cancer.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

[84] .A theoretical decrease in the risk of prostate cancer should, however, be weighed against the possible side-effects of decreased testosterone, which are still unclear.^ Research on the effect of soy on prostate cancer risk has been mixed.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All population studies (studies of groups of people) of soy either show reduced breast cancer risk or no effect.
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ The specific role of isoflavones in reducing prostate cancer risk.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.The popular fear that soybeans might cause reduced libido and even feminine characteristics in men has not been indicated by any study; the popularity of the notion seems to be based on the simplistic misapprehension that estrogen and testosterone have a simple, inverse relationship in sexual hormone systems and sex-related behavior.^ Only after a long period of fermentation (as in the creation of miso or tempeh) are the phytate and "antinutrient" levels of soybeans reduced, making their nourishment available to the human digestive system.

^ Insects and mites attacking soybeans can be grouped by the type of damage they cause, and can be categorized as stand-reducing, leaf-feeding, and pod-feeding .
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A very small study found hints that soy isoflavones might help reduce buildup of abdominal fat.

Their interplay is very complicated and still largely unknown.[85]
.A study published in April 2008 concluded that soy food intake has an inverse association with sperm concentration in fertility-deficient men.^ Inverse association of soy product intake with serum androgen and estrogen concentrations in Japanese men.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Effects of high- and low-isoflavone (phytoestrogen) soy foods on inflammatory biomarkers and proinflammatory cytokines in middle-aged men and women.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A controlled 2-mo dietary fat reduction and soy food supplementation study in postmenopausal women.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.The same study found that soy intake does not affect sperm motility, morphology, or ejaculate volume.^ One animal study found that soy isoflavones might remove the benefit of tamoxifen treatment.

^ Mice studies may not reflect the effect of soy on humans (in case you didn't notice, mice and humans are not the same species).
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ Other studies have found that soy seems to protect against breast cancer.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[86]

Allergy

.Allergy to soy is often said to be rather common, and the food is listed with other foods that commonly cause allergy, such as milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, shellfish.^ Endometrial cancer is less common in Japan, China, and other Asian countries where the usual diet is low in calories and high in soy and whole grain foods, vegetables, and fruits.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other foods commonly associated with allergic reactions include: cow's milk, wheat, peanuts, shrimp, oranges, eggs, chicken, strawberries, tomato, spinach, pork, corn and beef.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Severe reactions to soy are rare compared to reactions to peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish, but Swedish researchers recently concluded that "Soy has been underestimated as a cause of food anaphylaxis" (Foucard T., Malmheden Yman, I., Allergy 1999, 53(3):261-265).11 read the entire article .

.The problem has been reported amongst younger children and the diagnosis of soy allergy is often based on symptoms reported by parents and/or results of skin tests or blood tests for allergy.^ Unfortunately, soy can seriously damage the thyroid gland, most often causing hypo-thyroidism, with its symptoms of weight gain, leththargy, fatigue and malaise.

^ Jabbar MA, Larrea J, Shaw RA. Abnormal thyroid function tests in infants with congenital hypothyroidism: the influence of soy-based formula.

^ Nagata C, Takatsuka N, Kawakami N, Shimizu H. Soy product intake and hot flashes in Japanese women: results from a community-based prospective study.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.Only a few reported studies have attempted to confirm allergy to soy by direct challenge with the food under controlled conditions.^ A controlled 2-mo dietary fat reduction and soy food supplementation study in postmenopausal women.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ News reports out of HK last year detailed alot of the lack of quality controls in foods produced in China - so they decided to start making their own soy sauce.
  • Making Soy Sauce At Home - eG Forums 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC forums.egullet.org [Source type: General]

^ The only studies to show increased cancer risk are on mice with no ovaries or damaged immune systems and who eat high amounts of processed soy.
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

.In these circumstances it is clear that skin/blood tests considerably overestimate the problem, as do parental reports.^ Eventually after CATS and MRIs showed no problems the doctor gave me a blood test and when it came back she said that I had Lupus .

[87] It is very difficult to give a reliable estimate of the true prevalence of soy allergy in the general population. .To the extent that it does exist, soy allergy may cause cases of urticaria (hives) and angioedema (swelling), usually within minutes to two hours of ingestion of the food.^ This in itself indicates that the method of preparing soy may affect the estrogen content of the final food.

^ THE RISE IN SOY ALLERGIES Soy is one of the top allergenssubstances that cause allergic reactions.

^ Soy is the most processed and modified food that exists.
  • The Dark Side of Soy | Personal Health | AlterNet 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

.In rare, severe cases true anaphylaxis may occur, a condition that is much more common with allergy to foods such as peanut and shellfish.^ Severe reactions to soy are rare compared to reactions to peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish, but Swedish researchers recently concluded that "Soy has been underestimated as a cause of food anaphylaxis" (Foucard T., Malmheden Yman, I., Allergy 1999, 53(3):261-265).11 read the entire article .

^ Geographical variation is typical with migratory insect problems, such as green cloverworm and potato leafhopper, both of which are more common in southern Minnesota.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There can also be drought-related insect problems such as grasshoppers and two-spotted spider mites, which are more common in western Minnesota.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The reason for the discrepancy is likely that soy proteins, the causative factor in allergy, are far less potent at triggering allergy symptoms than the proteins of peanut and shellfish.^ Eating soy protein seems to help hot flashes caused by menopause, but it doesn't seem to help hot flashes in women with breast cancer.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ THE RISE IN SOY ALLERGIES Soy is one of the top allergenssubstances that cause allergic reactions.

^ Two reasons soy may help prevent endometrial cancer: Soybeans contain the isoflavones genistein and daidzein, which, although about 1,000 times less potent than human estrogen, can bind to estrogen receptors in the body, blocking out human estrogens and providing a much more gentle estrogenic effect.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

[88] .An allergy test that is positive demonstrates that the immune system has formed IgE antibodies to soy proteins.^ Zoppi G. Soy milk feeding and the immune system.

^ Allergies are abnormal inflammatory responses of the immune system to dust, pollen, a food or some other substance.

^ Ultimately, unless you have a soy allergy, a small amount of soy -- using fermented forms as a food condiment in small amounts like the Asians do -- is usually not a problem.
  • The Dark Side of Soy | Personal Health | AlterNet 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

.However, when soy is ingested proteins must evade digestion and be absorbed in a form capable of triggering allergy and also in sufficient quantities to reach a threshold to provoke actual symptoms.^ Ok, ok, soy does have more overall protein, but hemp has the most digestible protein.
  • The Dark Side of Soy | Personal Health | AlterNet 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Soy protein may alleviate osteoarthritis symptoms.

^ Effect of soy protein supplementation on serum lipoproteins, blood pressure, and menopausal symptoms in perimenopausal women.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Soy - HealthLibrary 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Isoflavones 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.The low potency of soy proteins as allergens may help explain why allergy skin/blood tests suggest that soy allergy is common, yet few cases are confirmed when the food is eaten under observation.^ Endometrial cancer is less common in Japan, China, and other Asian countries where the usual diet is low in calories and high in soy and whole grain foods, vegetables, and fruits.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This in itself indicates that the method of preparing soy may affect the estrogen content of the final food.

^ Effects of high- and low-isoflavone (phytoestrogen) soy foods on inflammatory biomarkers and proinflammatory cytokines in middle-aged men and women.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.Soy can also trigger symptoms via food intolerance, a situation where no immunologic (allergic) mechanism can be proven.^ Food "intolerances", "sensitivities" and "idiosyncrasies" to soy are commonly called "food allergies", but differ from true allergies in that they are not caused by immune system reactions but by little-understood or unknown metabolic mechanisms.79 Strictly speaking, gas and bloatingcommon reactions to soy and other beansare not true allergic responses.

^ Isolated soy protein is no health food.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Based on my assessment of this and other research, I am convinced that normal amounts of traditional soy foods pose no risk to thyroid function.
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

.One scenario is seen in very young infants who have vomiting and diarrhoea when fed soy-based formula.^ Soy protein-based formulas: recommendations for use in infant feeding.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The highest risk is for infants who are fed soy formula.
  • The Dark Side of Soy | Personal Health | AlterNet 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ In foods, soy is used as a milk substitute in infant feeding formulas, and as an alternative to cow's milk.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

The symptoms resolve when the formula is withdrawn and recur when it is re-administered. .Older infants can suffer a more severe disorder with vomiting, diarrhoea that may be bloody, anemia, weight loss and failure to thrive.^ Corn planted the next year may suffer severe infestations, particularly if the weed control program in corn forces any stalk borers in giant ragweed into corn.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the pH of the body gets out of balance (too acidic), we may experience low energy, fatigue, excess weight, poor digestion, aches and pains, and even more serious disorders.

.The most common cause of this unusual disorder is a sensitivity to cow's milk, but there is no doubt that soy formulas can also be the trigger.^ I have substituted soy milk for cow's milk.
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ There is absolutely no reason to ever give your child soy formula or soy milk.

^ Drinking soymilk during pregnancy can cause a failure to produce breast milk, which can lead to feeding the baby soy formula.

The precise mechanism is unclear and it could be immunologic, although not through the IgE-type antibodies that have the leading role in urticaria and anaphylaxis. Fortunately it is also self-limiting and will often disappear in the toddler years.[89]

Brain

Estrogen helps protect and repair the brain during and after injury.[90] .The mimicry of estrogen by the phytoestrogens in soy has introduced a controversy over whether such a replacement is harmful or helpful to the brain.^ There is conflicting evidence regarding whether soy or isoflavones may be helpful for preventing osteoporosis , but on balance the evidence suggests a modest beneficial effect.

^ Soy Supplements Fail to Help Menopause Symptoms - Supplements that contain concentrated phytoestrogens -- plant-based estrogens found in soy -- do not appear to improve mood, memory or menopause symptoms in women over age 45.

^ "The estrogens in soy will affect the hormonal development of these children, and it will certainly affect their growing brains, reproductive systems, and thyroids."
  • The Dark Side of Soy | Personal Health | AlterNet 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

.Several studies have found soy to be harmful for rats.^ Other studies have found that soy seems to protect against breast cancer.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the second study, animals eating soy were found to have an increase in bone mass compared to those not given soy.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are also several studies that demonstrate the harm of feeding soy formula to infant--damage to developing nervous systems.
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

[91] Nevertheless the cited study was based on rats fed with concentrated phytoestrogens and not common soybeans. .The common amounts of phytoestrogens in soy beans are not to be compared to concentrated estrogen.^ Soy Supplements Fail to Help Menopause Symptoms - Supplements that contain concentrated phytoestrogens -- plant-based estrogens found in soy -- do not appear to improve mood, memory or menopause symptoms in women over age 45.

^ Soy contains "isoflavones" which are changed in the body to "phytoestrogens," which are similar to the hormone estrogen.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Group Three was given soy protein concentrate from which the isoflavones had been removed and replaced with conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin, the equine estrogen commonly used in HRT) in an amount comparable to the usual dose given women, 0.625 mg/day.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

.One study followed over 3000 Japanese men between 1965 and 1999, and that showed a positive correlation between brain atrophy and consumption of tofu.^ Brain aging and midlife tofu consumption.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Isoflavones 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lead researcher Dr. Lon R. White said that men who ate tofu at least twice weekly showed brain aging about five years faster than those who seldom ate tofu.

^ Direct studies designed to test the potential effects of isoflavones on brain function, and lasting up to 12 months, have found either no effect or a slightly positive effect on brain function.

[92] .A study on elderly Indonesian men and women found that tempeh consumption was independently related to better memory.^ Hogervorst said vegetarians and elderly women seemed to be highly susceptible to potential memory loss from soy consumption.

^ Prospective cohort study of soy food consumption and risk of bone fracture among postmenopausal women.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In one study, genistein concentration was found to be 93 micrograms per gram in nonzukuri miso; 193 micrograms per gram in tempeh; and 223 micrograms per gram in fermented bean curd.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

[66]

Carcinogen

.Raw soy flour is known to cause pancreatic cancer in rats.^ "Soy causes breast cancer."
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ This is not surprising, since it has been known for years that isoflavones in soy can depress thyroid function, causing autoimmune thyroid disease and even cancer.

^ Eating soy protein seems to help hot flashes caused by menopause, but it doesn't seem to help hot flashes in women with breast cancer.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[93] .However, studies suggest heated soy flour is not carcinogenic in fat rats.^ A study of the quality of commercially available soy supplements suggests that less than 25% of products contain within 90% of labeled isoflavone content.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A controlled 2-mo dietary fat reduction and soy food supplementation study in postmenopausal women.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[94][95] .Whether soy might promote pancreatic cancer in humans is unknown because studies have not yet attempted to single out soy intake and the incidence of pancreatic cancer in humans.^ There is some evidence that increasing soy intake might lower the risk of endometrial cancer.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One animal study found that soy isoflavones might remove the benefit of tamoxifen treatment.

^ Mice studies may not reflect the effect of soy on humans (in case you didn't notice, mice and humans are not the same species).
  • How soy can kill you AND save your life... 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

.The doses of soy used to induce pancreatic cancer in rats are said to be larger than humans would normally consume.^ This could indicate a slightly increased risk of uterine cancer with high-dose isoflavone use.

^ The long history of the use of soy as food in Asia would tend to suggest they are safe as well.

^ Don’t give children soy in amounts larger than what is found in food or formula.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.In the meantime, several epidemiologic studies have found a protective effect against pancreatic cancer in high consumers of soy and other foods typical of the traditional Japanese and modern Seventh Day Adventist diet.^ Other studies have found that soy seems to protect against breast cancer.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in Japan: possible protective effect of traditional Japanese diet.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In other words, it’s not a traditional food.
  • Dangers of Soy | Food Renegade 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.foodrenegade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[96]
.Existing cancer patients have been advised by the Cancer Council of New South Wales, Australia to avoid high consumption of soy foods and supplements because of conflicting evidence these may accelerate the growth of hormone-dependent tumours.^ Endometrial cancer is less common in Japan, China, and other Asian countries where the usual diet is low in calories and high in soy and whole grain foods, vegetables, and fruits.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This in itself indicates that the method of preparing soy may affect the estrogen content of the final food.

^ Effects of high- and low-isoflavone (phytoestrogen) soy foods on inflammatory biomarkers and proinflammatory cytokines in middle-aged men and women.
  • SOY: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

."While they [soy foods] may have a protective effect, there is also some evidence that phyto-oestrogens may stimulate the growth of existing hormone-dependent cancers," according to a 2007 statement by the council.^ Day NE. Phyto-estrogens and hormonally dependent cancers.

^ Soy foods may also reduce risk of endometrial cancer.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A study published in Carcinogenesis suggests that not only is the cancer-preventive ability of soy foods markedly reduced in highly purified soy products and supplements, but that such processed foods can stimulate the growth of pre-existing estrogen-dependent breast tumors.
  • WHFoods: Soybeans 3 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: Academic]

[97]

Soybean futures

.Soybean futures are traded on the Chicago Board of Trade and have delivery dates in January (F), March (H), May (K), July (N), August (Q), September (U), November (X).^ Soybeans are planted in southern states in March and April, and in Michigan, most soybean plantings occur during late May and early June.
  • Soybean Rust 13 January 2010 16:32 UTC www.ipm.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In southern states, peak periods of adult activity generally occur the last of May, the last of July, the second and third weeks in August, and the second and third weeks of September.
  • Pests of Soybeans 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC ipm.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dingy cutworms prefer laying eggs in soybeans and alfalfa when adults are active in August and September.
  • Crop Profiles 17 September 2009 1:37 UTC www.ipmcenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[98]
It is also traded on other commodity futures exchanges under different contract specifications:
Soy beans also come from Mack and Bewick in the city of Detroit.

See also

References

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External links


Simple English

Soybean
File:Soybean.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Genus: Glycine
Species: G. max
Binomial name
Glycine max
(L.) Merr.

The Soybean (or Soya bean) is a plant. The fruit of the soybean plant are the beans. This plant comes from Eastern Asia. It is an annual plant. This means that one plant lives for one year only. It can grow close to the ground. Then it will not grow larger than 20 cm. Or it can grow all upright. In this case, it can reach 2 metres. Originally, it probably was a vine.

Uses

Soybeans are used for food. They are also used to make soybean oil, tofu, soy sauce, soy milk and soybean flour. Many vegetarians use foods made of soy, as it is rich in protein. Many other products also contain soya.

Another use for soybean is to produce biofuel

History

In 1997, 81% of all soybeans were of genetically modified stock. This means that genes were changed directly to make things happen.

In China, going back the ancient Chou dynasty soy beans were considered to be one of the five sacred foods.

Other pages


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 18, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Soybean, which are similar to those in the above article.








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