The Full Wiki

Sp1 transcription factor: Wikis


Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sp1 transcription factor

PDB rendering based on 1sp1.
Available structures
1sp1, 1sp2, 1va1, 1va2, 1va3
Symbols SP1;
External IDs OMIM189906 MGI98372 HomoloGene8276 GeneCards: SP1 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE SP1 214732 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 6667 20683
Ensembl ENSG00000185591 ENSMUSG00000001280
UniProt P08047 O89090
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_138473 NM_013672
RefSeq (protein) NP_612482 NP_038700
Location (UCSC) Chr 12:
52.06 - 52.1 Mb
Chr 15:
102.23 - 102.26 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
See also SP1.

Sp1 is a human transcription factor involved in gene expression in the early development of an organism. It belongs to the Sp/KLF family of transcription factors. The protein is 785 amino acids long, with a molecular weight of 81 kDA[1]. The full protein sequence can be found banked in the NCBI homepage, with the accession number NP_612482. The SP1 transcription factor contains a zinc finger protein motif, by which it binds directly to DNA and enhances gene transcription. Its zinc fingers are of the Cys2/His2 type and binds the consensus sequence 5'-(G/T)GGGCGG(G/A)(G/A)(C/T)-3' (GC box element). It was discovered in 1983 and has since been modified to form Sp1C, which has a zinc finger protein DNA binding domain.

In the SV40 virus, Sp1 binds to the GC boxes in the regulatory region(RR) of the genome.

Sp1 has been used as a control protein to compare with when studying the increase or decrease of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and/or the estrogen receptor, since it binds to both and generally remains at a relatively constant level.[2]



Sp1 transcription factor has been shown to interact with MEF2C,[3] MEF2D,[4] E2F1,[5][6][7] POU2F1,[8][9] Host cell factor C1,[10][9] RELA,[11][12] CEBPB,[13][14] HMGA1,[14] MSX1,[15] GABPA,[16] Small ubiquitin-related modifier 1,[17] Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3,[18][19] HDAC1,[20][21][22][23] Histone deacetylase 2,[24][22][23] Huntingtin,[25] KLF6,[26] PSMC5,[27][17] Apoptosis antagonizing transcription factor,[20] PPP1R13L,[28] Steroidogenic factor 1,[29] Myogenin,[30] TAL1,[31] Promyelocytic leukemia protein[32] and Ubiquitin C.[17]


  1. ^ See UniProtKB entry
  2. ^ The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Mediates Degradation of Estrogen Receptor α through Activation of Proteasomes. Mark Wormke, Matthew Stoner, Bradley Saville, Kelcey Walker, Maen Abdelrahim, Robert Burghardt, and Stephen Safe. Molecular and Cellular Biology, March 2003, p. 1843-1855, Vol. 23, No. 6. DOI: 10.1128/MCB.23.6.1843-1855.2003
  3. ^ Krainc, D; Bai G, Okamoto S, Carles M, Kusiak J W, Brent R N, Lipton S A (Oct. 1998). "Synergistic activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 promoter by myocyte enhancer factor 2C and Sp1". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 273 (40): 26218–24. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 9748305.  
  4. ^ Park, So-Youn; Shin Hyun-Mu, Han Tae-Hee (Sep. 2002). "Synergistic interaction of MEF2D and Sp1 in activation of the CD14 promoter". Mol. Immunol. (England) 39 (1-2): 25–30. ISSN 0161-5890. PMID 12213324.  
  5. ^ Lin, S Y; Black A R, Kostic D, Pajovic S, Hoover C N, Azizkhan J C (Apr. 1996). "Cell cycle-regulated association of E2F1 and Sp1 is related to their functional interaction". Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 16 (4): 1668–75. ISSN 0270-7306. PMID 8657142.  
  6. ^ Rotheneder, H; Geymayer S, Haidweger E (Nov. 1999). "Transcription factors of the Sp1 family: interaction with E2F and regulation of the murine thymidine kinase promoter". J. Mol. Biol. (ENGLAND) 293 (5): 1005–15. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1999.3213. ISSN 0022-2836. PMID 10547281.  
  7. ^ Karlseder, J; Rotheneder H, Wintersberger E (Apr. 1996). "Interaction of Sp1 with the growth- and cell cycle-regulated transcription factor E2F". Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 16 (4): 1659–67. ISSN 0270-7306. PMID 8657141.  
  8. ^ Ström, A C; Forsberg M, Lillhager P, Westin G (Jun. 1996). "The transcription factors Sp1 and Oct-1 interact physically to regulate human U2 snRNA gene expression". Nucleic Acids Res. (ENGLAND) 24 (11): 1981–6. ISSN 0305-1048. PMID 8668525.  
  9. ^ a b Gunther, M; Laithier M, Brison O (Jul. 2000). "A set of proteins interacting with transcription factor Sp1 identified in a two-hybrid screening". Mol. Cell. Biochem. (NETHERLANDS) 210 (1-2): 131–42. ISSN 0300-8177. PMID 10976766.  
  10. ^ Wysocka, Joanna; Myers Michael P, Laherty Carol D, Eisenman Robert N, Herr Winship (Apr. 2003). "Human Sin3 deacetylase and trithorax-related Set1/Ash2 histone H3-K4 methyltransferase are tethered together selectively by the cell-proliferation factor HCF-1". Genes Dev. (United States) 17 (7): 896–911. doi:10.1101/gad.252103. ISSN 0890-9369. PMID 12670868.  
  11. ^ Kuang, Ping-Ping; Berk John L, Rishikof David C, Foster Judith A, Humphries Donald E, Ricupero Dennis A, Goldstein Ronald H (Jul. 2002). "NF-kappaB induced by IL-1beta inhibits elastin transcription and myofibroblast phenotype". Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (United States) 283 (1): C58-65. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00314.2001. ISSN 0363-6143. PMID 12055073.  
  12. ^ Sif, S; Gilmore T D (Nov. 1994). "Interaction of the v-Rel oncoprotein with cellular transcription factor Sp1". J. Virol. (UNITED STATES) 68 (11): 7131–8. ISSN 0022-538X. PMID 7933095.  
  13. ^ Liu, Yi-Wen; Tseng Hui-Ping, Chen Lei-Chin, Chen Ben-Kuen, Chang Wen-Chang (Jul. 2003). "Functional cooperation of simian virus 40 promoter factor 1 and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta and delta in lipopolysaccharide-induced gene activation of IL-10 in mouse macrophages". J. Immunol. (United States) 171 (2): 821–8. ISSN 0022-1767. PMID 12847250.  
  14. ^ a b Foti, Daniela; Iuliano Rodolfo, Chiefari Eusebio, Brunetti Antonio (Apr. 2003). "A nucleoprotein complex containing Sp1, C/EBP beta, and HMGI-Y controls human insulin receptor gene transcription". Mol. Cell. Biol. (United States) 23 (8): 2720–32. ISSN 0270-7306. PMID 12665574.  
  15. ^ Shetty, S; Takahashi T, Matsui H, Ayengar R, Raghow R (May. 1999). "Transcriptional autorepression of Msx1 gene is mediated by interactions of Msx1 protein with a multi-protein transcriptional complex containing TATA-binding protein, Sp1 and cAMP-response-element-binding protein-binding protein (CBP/p300)". Biochem. J. (ENGLAND) 339 ( Pt 3): 751–8. ISSN 0264-6021. PMID 10215616.  
  16. ^ Galvagni, F; Capo S, Oliviero S (Mar. 2001). "Sp1 and Sp3 physically interact and co-operate with GABP for the activation of the utrophin promoter". J. Mol. Biol. (England) 306 (5): 985–96. doi:10.1006/jmbi.2000.4335. ISSN 0022-2836. PMID 11237613.  
  17. ^ a b c Wang, Yi-Ting; Chuang Jian-Ying, Shen Meng-Ru, Yang Wen-Bin, Chang Wen-Chang, Hung Jan-Jong (Jul. 2008). "Sumoylation of specificity protein 1 augments its degradation by changing the localization and increasing the specificity protein 1 proteolytic process". J. Mol. Biol. (England) 380 (5): 869–85. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2008.05.043. PMID 18572193.  
  18. ^ Botella, L M; Sánchez-Elsner T, Rius C, Corbí A, Bernabéu C (Sep. 2001). "Identification of a critical Sp1 site within the endoglin promoter and its involvement in the transforming growth factor-beta stimulation". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 276 (37): 34486–94. doi:10.1074/jbc.M011611200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11432852.  
  19. ^ Poncelet, A C; Schnaper H W (Mar. 2001). "Sp1 and Smad proteins cooperate to mediate transforming growth factor-beta 1-induced alpha 2(I) collagen expression in human glomerular mesangial cells". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 276 (10): 6983–92. doi:10.1074/jbc.M006442200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11114293.  
  20. ^ a b Di Padova, Monica; Bruno Tiziana, De Nicola Francesca, Iezzi Simona, D'Angelo Carmen, Gallo Rita, Nicosia Daniela, Corbi Nicoletta, Biroccio Annamaria, Floridi Aristide, Passananti Claudio, Fanciulli Maurizio (Sep. 2003). "Che-1 arrests human colon carcinoma cell proliferation by displacing HDAC1 from the p21WAF1/CIP1 promoter". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 278 (38): 36496–504. doi:10.1074/jbc.M306694200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 12847090.  
  21. ^ Singh, Jarnail; Murata Kenji, Itahana Yoko, Desprez Pierre-Yves (Mar. 2002). "Constitutive expression of the Id-1 promoter in human metastatic breast cancer cells is linked with the loss of NF-1/Rb/HDAC-1 transcription repressor complex". Oncogene (England) 21 (12): 1812–22. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1205252. ISSN 0950-9232. PMID 11896613.  
  22. ^ a b Zhang, Ying; Dufau Maria L (Sep. 2002). "Silencing of transcription of the human luteinizing hormone receptor gene by histone deacetylase-mSin3A complex". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (36): 33431–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M204417200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 12091390.  
  23. ^ a b Sun, Jian-Min; Chen Hou Yu, Moniwa Mariko, Litchfield David W, Seto Edward, Davie James R (Sep. 2002). "The transcriptional repressor Sp3 is associated with CK2-phosphorylated histone deacetylase 2". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (39): 35783–6. doi:10.1074/jbc.C200378200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 12176973.  
  24. ^ Won, Jaejoon; Yim Jeongbin, Kim Tae Kook (Oct. 2002). "Sp1 and Sp3 recruit histone deacetylase to repress transcription of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter in normal human somatic cells". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (41): 38230–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M206064200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 12151407.  
  25. ^ Li, Shi-Hua; Cheng Anna L, Zhou Hui, Lam Suzanne, Rao Manjula, Li He, Li Xiao-Jiang (Mar. 2002). "Interaction of Huntington disease protein with transcriptional activator Sp1". Mol. Cell. Biol. (United States) 22 (5): 1277–87. ISSN 0270-7306. PMID 11839795.  
  26. ^ Botella, Luisa M; Sánchez-Elsner Tilman, Sanz-Rodriguez Francisco, Kojima Soichi, Shimada Jun, Guerrero-Esteo Mercedes, Cooreman Michael P, Ratziu Vlad, Langa Carmen, Vary Calvin P H, Ramirez Jose R, Friedman Scott, Bernabéu Carmelo (Dec. 2002). "Transcriptional activation of endoglin and transforming growth factor-beta signaling components by cooperative interaction between Sp1 and KLF6: their potential role in the response to vascular injury". Blood (United States) 100 (12): 4001–10. doi:10.1182/blood.V100.12.4001. ISSN 0006-4971. PMID 12433697.  
  27. ^ Su, K; Yang X, Roos M D, Paterson A J, Kudlow J E (Jun. 2000). "Human Sug1/p45 is involved in the proteasome-dependent degradation of Sp1". Biochem. J. (ENGLAND) 348 Pt 2: 281–9. ISSN 0264-6021. PMID 10816420.  
  28. ^ Takada, Norio; Sanda Takaomi, Okamoto Hiroshi, Yang Jian-Ping, Asamitsu Kaori, Sarol Lilen, Kimura Genjiro, Uranishi Hiroaki, Tetsuka Toshifumi, Okamoto Takashi (Aug. 2002). "RelA-associated inhibitor blocks transcription of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by inhibiting NF-kappaB and Sp1 actions". J. Virol. (United States) 76 (16): 8019–30. ISSN 0022-538X. PMID 12134007.  
  29. ^ Sugawara, T; Saito M, Fujimoto S (Aug. 2000). "Sp1 and SF-1 interact and cooperate in the regulation of human steroidogenic acute regulatory protein gene expression". Endocrinology (UNITED STATES) 141 (8): 2895–903. ISSN 0013-7227. PMID 10919277.  
  30. ^ Biesiada, E; Hamamori Y, Kedes L, Sartorelli V (Apr. 1999). "Myogenic basic helix-loop-helix proteins and Sp1 interact as components of a multiprotein transcriptional complex required for activity of the human cardiac alpha-actin promoter". Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 19 (4): 2577–84. ISSN 0270-7306. PMID 10082523.  
  31. ^ Lécuyer, Eric; Herblot Sabine, Saint-Denis Marianne, Martin Richard, Begley C Glenn, Porcher Catherine, Orkin Stuart H, Hoang Trang (Oct. 2002). "The SCL complex regulates c-kit expression in hematopoietic cells through functional interaction with Sp1". Blood (United States) 100 (7): 2430–40. doi:10.1182/blood-2002-02-0568. ISSN 0006-4971. PMID 12239153.  
  32. ^ Vallian, S; Chin K V, Chang K S (Dec. 1998). "The promyelocytic leukemia protein interacts with Sp1 and inhibits its transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor promoter". Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 18 (12): 7147–56. ISSN 0270-7306. PMID 9819401.  

Further reading

  • Dreier B, Beerli R, Segal D, Flippin J, Barbas C (2001). "Development of zinc finger domains for recognition of the 5'-ANN-3' family of DNA sequences and their use in the construction of artificial transcription factors". J Biol Chem 276 (31): 29466–78. doi:10.1074/jbc.M102604200. PMID 11340073.  
  • Tseng L, Gao J, Mazella J, et al. (1997). "Differentiation-dependent and cell-specific regulation of the hIGFBP-1 gene in human endometrium.". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 828: 27–37. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1997.tb48521.x. PMID 9329821.  
  • Dyson N (1998). "The regulation of E2F by pRB-family proteins.". Genes Dev. 12 (15): 2245–62. doi:10.1101/gad.12.15.2245. PMID 9694791.  
  • Zhang Y, Dufau ML (2003). "Dual mechanisms of regulation of transcription of luteinizing hormone receptor gene by nuclear orphan receptors and histone deacetylase complexes.". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 85 (2-5): 401–14. doi:10.1016/S0960-0760(03)00230-9. PMID 12943729.  
  • Kino T, Pavlakis GN (2004). "Partner molecules of accessory protein Vpr of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1.". DNA Cell Biol. 23 (4): 193–205. doi:10.1089/104454904773819789. PMID 15142377.  
  • Seelamgari A, Maddukuri A, Berro R, et al. (2006). "Role of viral regulatory and accessory proteins in HIV-1 replication.". Front. Biosci. 9: 2388–413. doi:10.2741/1403. PMID 15353294.  
  • Le Rouzic E, Benichou S (2006). "The Vpr protein from HIV-1: distinct roles along the viral life cycle.". Retrovirology 2: 11. doi:10.1186/1742-4690-2-11. PMID 15725353.  
  • Kamine J, Chinnadurai G (1992). "Synergistic activation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 promoter by the viral Tat protein and cellular transcription factor Sp1.". J. Virol. 66 (6): 3932–6. PMID 1583736.  
  • Szpirer J, Szpirer C, Riviere M, et al. (1992). "The Sp1 transcription factor gene (SP1) and the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor gene (VDR) are colocalized on human chromosome arm 12q and rat chromosome 7.". Genomics 11 (1): 168–73. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(91)90114-T. PMID 1662663.  
  • Gumucio DL, Rood KL, Blanchard-McQuate KL, et al. (1991). "Interaction of Sp1 with the human gamma globin promoter: binding and transactivation of normal and mutant promoters.". Blood 78 (7): 1853–63. PMID 1912570.  
  • Kamine J, Subramanian T, Chinnadurai G (1991). "Sp1-dependent activation of a synthetic promoter by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88 (19): 8510–4. doi:10.1073/pnas.88.19.8510. PMID 1924310.  
  • Courey AJ, Holtzman DA, Jackson SP, Tjian R (1990). "Synergistic activation by the glutamine-rich domains of human transcription factor Sp1.". Cell 59 (5): 827–36. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(89)90606-5. PMID 2512012.  
  • Harrich D, Garcia J, Wu F, et al. (1989). "Role of SP1-binding domains in in vivo transcriptional regulation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat.". J. Virol. 63 (6): 2585–91. PMID 2657100.  
  • Jackson SP, Tjian R (1988). "O-glycosylation of eukaryotic transcription factors: implications for mechanisms of transcriptional regulation.". Cell 55 (1): 125–33. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(88)90015-3. PMID 3139301.  
  • Kadonaga JT, Carner KR, Masiarz FR, Tjian R (1988). "Isolation of cDNA encoding transcription factor Sp1 and functional analysis of the DNA binding domain.". Cell 51 (6): 1079–90. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(87)90594-0. PMID 3319186.  
  • Zhang R, Min W, Sessa WC (1995). "Functional analysis of the human endothelial nitric oxide synthase promoter. Sp1 and GATA factors are necessary for basal transcription in endothelial cells.". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (25): 15320–6. PMID 7541039.  
  • Hagen G, Dennig J, Preiss A, et al. (1995). "Functional analyses of the transcription factor Sp4 reveal properties distinct from Sp1 and Sp3.". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (42): 24989–94. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.42.24989. PMID 7559627.  
  • Datta PK, Raychaudhuri P, Bagchi S (1995). "Association of p107 with Sp1: genetically separable regions of p107 are involved in regulation of E2F- and Sp1-dependent transcription.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 15 (10): 5444–52. PMID 7565695.  
  • Wang L, Mukherjee S, Jia F, et al. (1995). "Interaction of virion protein Vpr of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with cellular transcription factor Sp1 and trans-activation of viral long terminal repeat.". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (43): 25564–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.43.25564. PMID 7592727.  
  • Howcroft TK, Palmer LA, Brown J, et al. (1995). "HIV Tat represses transcription through Sp1-like elements in the basal promoter.". Immunity 3 (1): 127–38. doi:10.1016/1074-7613(95)90165-5. PMID 7621073.  
  • Ferrari N, Desmarais D, Royal A (1995). "Transcriptional activation of the neuronal peripherin-encoding gene depends on a G + C-rich element that binds Sp1 in vitro and in vivo.". Gene 159 (2): 159–65. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(95)00140-2. PMID 7622044.  
  • Tan NY, Midgley VC, Kavurma MM, Santiago FS, Luo X, Peden R, Fahmy RG, Berndt MC, Molloy MP, Khachigian LM. (2008). "Angiotensin II-inducible platelet-derived growth factor-D transcription requires specific Ser/Thr residues in the second zinc finger region of Sp1.". Circ Res. 102 (4): e38–51. doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.107.167395. PMID 18258854.  

External links



Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address