The Full Wiki

Spa: Wikis

  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ayurvedic spa in Goa, India.

The term spa is associated with water treatment which is also known as balneotherapy. Spa towns or spa resorts (including hot springs resorts) typically offer thermal or mineral water for drinking and bathing. They also offer various health treatments. The belief in the curative powers of mineral waters goes back to prehistoric times. Such practices have been popular worldwide, but are especially widespread in Europe and Japan. Day spas are also quite popular, and offer various personal care treatments.

Contents

Origins of the term

The term is derived from the name of the town of Spa, Belgium, whose name is known back to Roman times, when the location was called Aquae Spadanae,[1] perhaps related to the Latin word "spargere" meaning to scatter, sprinkle or moisten.[2]

Since medieval times illnesses caused by iron deficiency were treated by drinking chalybeate (iron-bearing) spring water (in 1326, the ironmaster Collin le Loup claimed a cure,[3] when the spring was called Espa, a Walloon word for "fountain"[3]).

In 16th century England the old Roman ideas of medicinal bathing were revived at towns like Bath, and in 1571 William Slingsby who had been to the Belgian town (which he called Spaw) discovered a chalybeate spring in Yorkshire. He built an enclosed well at what became known as Harrogate, the first resort in England for drinking medicinal waters, then in 1596 Dr Timothy Bright called the resort The English Spaw, beginning the use of the word Spa as a generic description rather than as the place name of the Belgian town. At first this term referred specifically to resorts for water drinking rather than bathing, but this distinction was gradually lost and many spas offer external remedies.[4]

It is commonly claimed, in a commercial context, that the word is an acronym of various Latin phrases such as "Salus Per Aquam” or "Sanitas Per Aquam" meaning "health through water".[5] This is very unlikely: the derivation doesn't appear before the early 21st century and is probably a "backronym" as there is no evidence of acronyms passing into the language before the 20th century;[6] nor does it match the known Roman name for the location.

History

Photograph of the Baths showing a rectangular area of greenish water surrounded by yellow stone buildings with pillars. In the background is the tower of the abbey.
Ancient Roman Baths in Bath Spa, England

The practice of traveling to hot or cold springs in hopes of effecting a cure of some ailment dates back to pre-historic times. Archaeological investigations near hot springs in France and Czech Republic revealed Bronze Age weapons and offerings. In Great Britain, ancient legend credited early Celtic kings with the discovery of the hot springs at Bath, England.[7]

Many people around the world believed that bathing in a particular spring, well, or river resulted in physical and spiritual purification. Forms of ritual purification existed among the native Americans, Persians, Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. Today, ritual purification through water can be found in the religious ceremonies of Jews, Muslims, Christians, Buddhists, and Hindus. These ceremonies reflect the ancient belief in the healing and purifying properties of water. Complex bathing rituals were also practiced in ancient Egypt, in pre-historic cities of the Indus Valley, and in Aegean civilizations. Most often these ancient people did little building construction around the water, and what they did construct was very temporary in nature.[7]

Bathing in Greek and Roman times

Some of the earliest descriptions of western bathing practices came from Greece. The Greeks began bathing regimens that formed the foundation for modern spa procedures. These Aegean people utilized small bathtubs, wash basins, and foot baths for personal cleanliness. The earliest such findings are the baths in the palace complex at Knossos, Crete, and the luxurious alabaster bathtubs excavated in Akrotiri, Santorini; both date from the mid-2nd millennium BC. They established public baths and showers within their gymnasium complexes for relaxation and personal hygiene. Greek mythology specified that certain natural springs or tidal pools were blessed by the gods to cure disease. Around these sacred pools, Greeks established bathing facilities for those desiring healing. Supplicants left offerings to the gods for healing at these sites and bathed themselves in hopes of a cure. The Spartans developed a primitive vapor bath. At Serangeum, an early Greek balneum (bathhouse, loosely translated), bathing chambers were cut into the hillside from which the hot springs issued. A series of niches cut into the rock above the chambers held bathers' clothing. One of the bathing chambers had a decorative mosaic floor depicting a driver and chariot pulled by four horses, a woman followed by two dogs, and a dolphin below. Thus, the early Greeks used the natural features, but expanded them and added their own amenities, such as decorations and shelves. During later Greek civilization, bathhouses were often built in conjunction with athletic fields.[7]

The Romans emulated many of the Greek bathing practices. Romans surpassed the Greeks in the size and complexity of their baths. This came about by many factors: the larger size and population of Roman cities, the availability of running water following the building of aqueducts, and the invention of cement, which made building large edifices easier, safer, and cheaper. As in Greece, the Roman bath became a focal center for social and recreational activity. As the Roman Empire expanded, the idea of the public bath spread to all parts of the Mediterranean and into regions of Europe and North Africa. With the construction of the aqueducts, the Romans had enough water not only for domestic, agricultural, and industrial uses, but also for their leisurely pursuits. The aqueducts provided water that was later heated for use in the baths. Today, the extent of the Roman bath is revealed at ruins and in archaeological excavations in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East.[7]

The Romans also developed baths in their colonies, taking advantage of the natural hot springs occurring in Europe to construct baths at Aix and Vichy in France, Bath and Buxton in England, Aachen and Wiesbaden in Germany, Baden, Austria, and Aquincum in Hungary, among other locations. These baths became centers for recreational and social activities in Roman communities. Libraries, lecture halls, gymnasiums, and formal gardens became part of some bath complexes. In addition, the Romans used the hot thermal waters to relieve their suffering from rheumatism, arthritis, and overindulgence in food and drink. The decline of the Roman Empire in the west, beginning in A.D. 337 after the death of Emperor Constantine, resulted in Roman legions abandoning their outlying provinces and leaving the baths to be taken over by the local population or destroyed.[7]

Coriovallum Roman baths in Heerlen, Holland (reconstructed)

Thus, the Romans elevated bathing to a fine art, and their bathhouses physically reflected these advancements. The Roman bath, for instance, included a far more complex ritual than a simple immersion or sweating procedure. The various parts of the bathing ritual — undressing, bathing, sweating, receiving a massage, and resting — required separated rooms which the Romans built to accommodate those functions. The segregation of the sexes and the additions of diversions not directly related to bathing also had direct impacts on the shape and form of bathhouses. The elaborate Roman bathing ritual and its resultant architecture served as precedents for later European and American bathing facilities. Formal garden spaces and opulent architectural arrangement equal to those of the Romans reappeared in Europe by the end of the eighteenth century. Major American spas followed suit a century later.[7]

Bathing in Medieval times

With the decline of the Roman Empire, the public baths often became places of licentious behavior, and such use was responsible for the spread rather than the cure of diseases. A general belief developed among the European populace was that frequent bathing promoted disease and sickness. Medieval church authorities encouraged this belief and made every effort to close down public baths. Ecclesiastical officials believed that public bathing created an environment open to immorality and disease. Roman Catholic Church officials even banned public bathing in an unsuccessful effort to halt syphilis epidemics from sweeping Europe. Overall, this period represented a time of decline for public bathing.[7]

People continued to seek out a few select hot and cold springs, believed to be holy wells, to cure various ailments. In an age of religious fervor, the benefits of the water were attributed to God or one of the saints. In 1326 Collin le Loup, an ironmaster from Liège, Belgium, discovered the chalybeate springs of Spa, Belgium. Around these springs, a famous health resort eventually grew and the term "spa" came to refer to any health resort located near natural springs. During this period, individual springs became associated with the specific ailment that they could allegedly benefit.[7]

Bathing procedures during this period varied greatly. By the 16th century, physicians at Karlsbad, Bohemia, prescribed that the mineral water be taken internally as well as externally. Patients periodically bathed in warm water for up to 10 or 11 hours while drinking glasses of mineral water. The first bath session occurred in the morning, the second in the afternoon. This treatment lasted several days until skin pustules formed and broke resulting in the draining of "poisons" considered to be the source of the disease. Then followed another series of shorter, hotter baths to wash the infection away and close the eruptions.[7]

In the English coastal town of Scarborough in 1626, a Mrs. Elizabeth Farrow discovered a stream of acidic water running from one of the cliffs to the south of the town. This was deemed to have beneficial health properties and gave birth to Scarborough Spa. Dr Wittie's book about the spa waters published in 1660 attracted a flood of visitors to the town. Sea bathing was added to the cure, and Scarborough became Britain's first seaside resort. The first rolling bathing machines for bathers are recorded on the sands in 1735.[8]

Bathing in the 18th century

In the 17th century most upper-class Europeans washed their clothes with water often and washed only their faces (with linen), feeling that bathing the entire body was a lower-class activity; but the upper-class slowly began changing their attitudes toward bathing as a way to restore health later in that century. The wealthy flocked to health resorts to drink and bathe in the waters. In 1702 Queen Anne of England traveled to Bath, the former Roman development, to bathe. A short time later, Richard (Beau) Nash came to Bath. By the force of his personality, Nash became the arbiter of good taste and manners in England. He along with financier Ralph Allen and architect John Wood transformed Bath from a country spa into the social capital of England. Bath set the tone for other spas in Europe to follow. Ostensibly, the wealthy and famous arrived there on a seasonal basis to bathe in and drink the water; however, they also came to display their opulence. Social activities at Bath included dances, concerts, playing cards, lectures, and promenading down the street.[7]

A typical day at Bath might be an early morning communal bath followed by a private breakfast party. Afterwards, one either drank water at the Pump Room (a building constructed over the thermal water source) or attended a fashion show. Physicians encouraged health resort patrons to bathe in and drink the waters with equal vigor. The next several hours of the day could be spent in shopping, visiting the lending library, attending concerts, or stopping at one of the coffeehouses. At 4:00 P.M., the rich and famous dressed up in their finery and promenaded down the streets. Next came dinner, more promenading, and an evening of dancing or gambling.[7]

Similar activities occurred in health resorts throughout Europe. The spas became stages on which Europeans paraded with great pageantry. These resorts became infamous as places full of gossip and scandals. The various social and economic classes selected specific seasons during the year's course, staying from one to several months, to vacation at each resort. One season aristocrats occupied the resorts; at other times, prosperous farmers or retired military men took the baths. The wealthy and the criminals that preyed on them moved from one spa to the next as the fashionable season for that resort changed.[7]

During the 18th century a revival in the medical uses of spring water took place among some Italian, German, and English physicians. This revival changed the way of taking a spa treatment. For example, in Karlsbad the accepted method of drinking the mineral water required sending large barrels to individual boardinghouses where the patients drank physician-prescribed dosages in the solitude of their rooms. Dr. David Beecher in 1777 recommended that the patients come to the fountainhead for the water and that each patient should first do some prescribed exercises. This innovation increased the medicinal benefits obtained and gradually physical activity became part of the European bathing regimen. In 1797 in England Dr. James Currier published The Effects of Water, Cold and Warm, as a Remedy in Fever and other Diseases. This book stimulated additional interest in water cures and advocated the external and internal use of water as part of the curing process.[7]

Bathing in the 19th and 20th centuries

An old thermal spa in Budapest, Hungary.

In the 19th century, bathing became a more accepted practice as physicians realized some of the benefits that cleanliness could provide. A cholera epidemic in Liverpool, England in 1842 resulted in a sanitation renaissance, facilitated by the overlapping hydropathy and sanitation movements, and the implementation of a series of statutes known collectively as "The Baths and Wash-houses Acts 1846 to 1896".[9][10][11 ][12 ] The result was increased facilities for bathing and washed clothes, and more people participating in these activities.

Also in 1842, a house in Cincinnati, Ohio, received the first indoor bathtub in the United States. Bathing, however, was still not a universal custom. Only one year later — in 1843 — bathing between November 1 and March 15 was outlawed in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as a health measure, and in 1845 bathing was banned in Boston, Massachusetts, unless under the direct orders of a physician. The situation improved, however, and by 1867 in Philadelphia most houses of the well-to-do had tubs and indoor plumbing. In England, hot showers were installed in barracks and schools by the 1880s. The taboos against bathing disappeared with advancements in medical science; the worldwide medical community was even promoting the benefits of bathing. In addition, the Victorian taste for the exotic lent itself perfectly to seeking out the curative powers of thermal water.[7]

In most instances the formal architectural development of European spas took place in the 18th and 19th centuries. The architecture of Bath, England, developed along Georgian and Neoclassical lines, generally following Palladian structures. The most important architectural form that emerged was the "crescent" — a semi-elliptical street plan used in many areas of England. The architecture of Karlsbad, Marienbad, Franzenbad, and Baden-Baden was primarily Neoclassical, but the literature seems to indicate that large bathhouses were not constructed until well into the 19th century. The emphasis on drinking the waters rather than bathing in them led to the development of separate structures known as Trinkhallen (drinking halls) where those taking the cure spent hours drinking water from the springs.[7]

By the mid-19th century the situation had changed dramatically. Visitors to the European spas began to stress bathing in addition to drinking the waters. Besides fountains, pavilions, and Trinkhallen, bathhouses on the scale of the Roman baths were revived. Photographs of a 19th century spa complex taken in the 1930s, detailing the earlier architecture, show a heavy use of mosaic floors, marble walls, classical statuary, arched openings, domed ceilings, segmental arches, triangular pediments, Corinthian columns, and all the other trappings of a Neoclassical revival. The buildings were usually separated by function — with the Trinkhalle, the bathhouse, the inhalatorium (for inhaling the vapors), and the Kurhaus or Conversationhaus that was the center of social activity. Baden-Baden featured golf courses and tennis courts, "superb roads to motor over, and drives along quaint lanes where wild deer are as common as cows to us, and almost as unafraid."[7]

The European spa, then, started with structures to house the drinking function — from simple fountains to pavilions to elaborate Trinkhallen. The enormous bathhouses came later in the 19th century as a renewed preference for an elaborate bathing ritual to cure ills and improve health came into vogue. European architects looked back to Roman civilizations and carefully studied its fine architectural precedents. The Europeans copied the same formality, symmetry, division of rooms by function, and opulent interior design in their bathhouses. They emulated the fountains and formal garden spaces in their resorts, and they also added new diversions. The tour books always mentioned the roomy, woodsy offerings in the vicinity and the faster-paced evening diversions.[7]

Waterfall, Carolus Spa, Aachen, Germany.

By the beginning of the 19th century the European bathing regimen consisted of numerous accumulated traditions. The bathing routine included soaking in hot water, drinking the water, steaming in a vapor room, and relaxing in a cooling room. In addition doctors ordered that patients be douched with hot or cold water and given a select diet to promote a cure. Authors began writing guidebooks to the health resorts of Europe explaining the medical benefits and social amenities of each. Rich Europeans and Americans traveled to these resorts to take in cultural activities and the baths.[7]

Each European spa began offering similar cures while maintaining a certain amount of individuality. The 19th century bathing regimen at Karlsbad can serve as a general portrayal of European bathing practices during this century. Visitors arose at 6:00 AM to drink the water and be serenaded by a band. Next came a light breakfast, bath, and lunch. The doctors at Karlsbad usually limited patients to certain foods for each meal. In the afternoon visitors went sight-seeing or attended concerts. Nightly theatrical performances followed the evening meal. This ended around 9:00 PM with the patients returning to their boardinghouses to sleep until six the next morning. This regimen continued for as long as a month and then the patients returned home until the next year. Other 19th century European spa regimens followed similar schedules.[7]

At the beginning of the 20th century, European spas combined a strict diet and exercise regimen with a complex bathing procedure to achieve benefits for the patients. One example will suffice to illustrate the change in bathing procedures. Patients at Baden-Baden, which specialized in treating rheumatoid arthritis, were directed to see a doctor before taking the baths. Once this occurred the bathers proceeded to the main bathhouse where they paid for their baths and stored their valuables before being assigned a booth for undressing. The bathhouse supplied bathers with towels, sheets, and slippers.[7]

The Baden-Baden bathing procedure began with a warm shower. The bathers next entered a room of circulating, 140-degree hot air for 20 minutes, spent another ten minutes in a room with 150-degree temperature, partook of a 154-degree vapor bath, then showered and received a soap massage. After the massage, the bathers swam in a pool heated approximately to body temperature. After the swim, the bathers rested for 15 to 20 minutes in the warm "Sprudel" room pool. This shallow pool's bottom contained an 8-inch (200 mm) layer of sand through with naturally carbonated water bubbled up. This was followed by a series of gradually cooler showers and pools. After that, the attendants rubbed down the bathers with warm towels and then wrapped them in sheets and covered them with blankets to rest for 20 minutes. This ended the bathing portion of the treatment. The rest of the cure consisted of a prescribed diet, exercise, and water-drinking program.[7]

The European spas provided various other diversions for guests after the bath, including gambling, horse racing, fishing, hunting, tennis, skating, dancing, golf, and horseback riding. Sight-seeing and theatrical performances served as further incentives for people to go to the spa. Some European governments even recognized the medical benefits of spa therapy and paid a portion of the patient's expenses. A number of these spas catered to those suffering from obesity and overindulgence in addition to various other medical complaints. In recent years, elegance and style of earlier centuries may have diminished, but people still come to the natural hot springs for relaxation and health.[7]

Gentlemen's Pool House, Jefferson Pools, Warm Springs, Virginia, built 1761 it is the oldest spa building in the USA. The spa waters flow through the centre of the building. President Thomas Jefferson bathed here.

Spas in colonial America

Some European colonists brought with them knowledge of the hot water therapy for medicinal purposes, and others learned the benefits of hot springs from the Native Americans. Europeans gradually obtained many of the hot and cold springs from the various Indian tribes. They then developed the spring to suit European tastes. By the 1760s British colonists were traveling to hot and cold springs in Connecticut, Pennsylvania, New York, and Virginia in search of water cures. Among the more frequently visited of these springs were Bath, Yellow, and Bristol Springs in Pennsylvania; Saratoga Springs, Kinderhook, and Ballston Spa in New York; and Warm Springs, Hot Springs, and White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia (now in West Virginia) in Virginia.[7]

Colonial doctors gradually began to recommend hot springs for ailments. Dr. Benjamin Rush, American patriot and physician, praised the springs of Bristol, Pennsylvania, in 1773. Dr. Samuel Tenney in 1783 and Dr. Valentine Seaman in 1792 examined the water of Saratoga Springs in New York and wrote of possible medicinal uses of the springs. Hotels were constructed to accommodate visitors to the various springs. Entrepreneurs opened taverns where the travelers could lodge, eat, and drink. Thus began the health resort industry in the United States.[7]

Bathing in 19th and 20th century America

After the American Revolution, the spa industry continued to gain popularity. By the mid 1850s hot and cold spring resorts existed in 20 states. Many of these resorts contained similar architectural features. Most health resorts had a large, two-story central building near or at the springs, with smaller structures surrounding it. The main building provided the guests with facilities for dining, and possibly, dancing on the first floor, and the second story consisted of sleeping rooms. The outlying structures were individual guest cabins, and other auxiliary buildings formed a semicircle or U-shape around the large building.[7]

These resorts offered swimming, fishing, hunting, and horseback riding as well as facilities for bathing. The Virginia resorts, particularly White Sulphur Springs, proved popular before and after the Civil War. After the Civil War, spa vacations became very popular as returning soldiers bathed to heal wounds and the American economy allowed more leisure time. Saratoga Springs in New York became one of the main centers for this type of activity. Bathing in and drinking the warm, carbonated spring water only served as a prelude to the more interesting social activities of gambling, promenading, horse racing, and dancing.[7]

Saratoga Springs in New York had extensive architectural development by the 1830s — a time when the buildings of Hot Springs, Arkansas, were small log and frame structures without particularly distinctive detailing — just basic envelopes to keep occupants from the weather. By 1815 Saratoga had large, four-story, Greek revival hotels. The availability of train and steamship service to that destination by 1832 meant larger numbers of more sophisticated clients. With the exception of specialized baths provided in boardinghouses or small bathhouses connected with the hotels, Saratoga's development during the 19th century was based on leisure pursuits other than baths. Although Saratoga and other spas in New York centered their developments around the healthful mineral waters, their real drawing card was the complex social life — that included pursuits from gambling on racehorses to seeing the latest Paris fashions. Going to the mountains for the summer was a major exodus undertaken by urban dwellers who could afford it, and Saratoga became a hub of summer activity. Private development there featured enormous hotels with great ballrooms, opera houses, stores, and clubhouses. In 1865 the Union Hotel had its own esplanade, with fountain and formal landscaping, and two small bathhouses. Yet, during the 19th century the bathhouses were auxiliary structures and not the central features of the resort.[7]

During the last half of the 19th century western entrepreneurs developed natural hot and cold springs into resorts — from the Mississippi River to the West Coast. Many of these spas offered individual tub baths, vapor baths, douche sprays, needle showers, and pool bathing to their guests. The various railroads that spanned the country promoted these resorts to encourage train travel. Hot Springs, Arkansas, became a major resort for people from the large metropolitan areas of St. Louis and Chicago.[7]

The popularity of the spas continued into the 20th century. Some medical critics, however, charged that the thermal waters in such renowned resorts as Hot Springs, Virginia, and Saratoga Springs, New York, were no more beneficial to health than ordinary heated water. The various spa owners countered these arguments by developing better hydrotherapy for their patients. At the Saratoga spa, treatments for heart and circulatory disorders, rheumatic conditions, nervous disorders, metabolic diseases, and skin diseases were developed. In 1910 the New York state government began purchasing the principal springs to protect them from exploitation. When Franklin Delano Roosevelt was governor of New York, he pushed for a European type of spa development at Saratoga. The architects for the new complex spent two years studying the technical aspects of bathing in Europe. Completed in 1933, the development had three bathhouses — Lincoln, Washington, and Roosevelt — a drinking hall, the Hall of Springs, and a building housing the Simon Baruch Research Institute. Four additional buildings composed the recreation area and housed arcades and a swimming pool decorated with blue faience terra-cotta tile. Saratoga Spa State Park's Neoclassical buildings were laid out in a grand manner, with formal perpendicular axes, solid brick construction, and stone and concrete Roman-revival detailing. The spa was surrounded by a 1,200-acre (4.9 km2) natural park that had 18 miles (29 km) of bridle paths, "with measured walks at scientifically calculated gradients through its groves and vales, with spouting springs adding unexpected touches to its vistas, with the tumbling waters of Geyser Brook flowing beneath bridges of the fine roads. Full advantage has been taken of the natural beauty of the park, but no formal landscaping". Promotional literature again advertised the attractions directly outside the spa: shopping, horse races, and historic sites associated with revolutionary war history. New York Governor Herbert Lehman opened the new facilities to the public in July 1935.[7]

Other leading spas in the country during this period were French Lick, Indiana; Hot Springs and White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia; Hot Springs, Arkansas; and Warm Springs, Georgia. French Lick specialized in treating obesity and constipation through a combination of bathing and drinking the water and exercising. Hot Springs, Virginia, specialized in digestive ailments and heart diseases, and White Sulphur Springs, Virginia, treated these ailments and skin diseases. Both resorts offered baths where the water would wash continuously over the patients as they lay in a shallow pool. Warm Springs, Georgia, gained a reputation for treating infantile paralysis by a procedure of baths and exercise. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who earlier supported Saratoga, became a frequent visitor and promoter of this spa.[7]

Spa treatment

A body treatment, spa treatment, or cosmetic treatment is non-medical procedure to help the health of the body. It is often performed at a resort, destination spa, day spa, beauty salon or school.

Typical treatments include:

Recent trends

Macaques enjoying an open air hot spring or onsen in Nagano, Japan.

By the late 1930s more than 2,000 hot- or cold-springs health resorts were operating in the United States. This number had diminished greatly by the 1950s and continued to decline in the following two decades. In recent past, spas in the U.S. emphasized dietary, exercise, or recreational programs more than traditional bathing activities.

Up until recently, the public bathing industry in the U.S. remained stagnant.[7] Nevertheless, in Europe, therapeutic baths have always been very popular, and remain so today. The same is true in Japan, where the traditional hot springs baths, known as onsen, always attracted plenty of visitors.

But also in the U.S., with the increasing focus on health and wellness, such treatments are again becoming popular.[13]

Resort or Place of Treatment

  • A destination spa, a resort for personal care treatments.
  • A day spa, a form of beauty salon.
  • A spa town, a town visited for the supposed healing properties of the water.

Medication or Equipment

International Spa Association definitions

Spa - places devoted to overall well-being through a variety of professional services that encourage the renewal of mind, body and spirit.[15]

Types of spa

  • Club spa - A facility whose primary purpose is fitness and which offers a variety of professionally administered spa services on a day-use basis.
  • Cruise ship spa – A spa aboard a cruise ship providing professionally administered spa services, fitness and wellness components and spa cuisine menu choices.
  • Day spa – A spa offering a variety of professionally administered spa services to clients on a day-use basis.
  • Dental spa – A facility under the supervision of a licensed dentist that combines traditional dental treatment with the services of a spa.
  • Destination spa - A destination spa is a facility with the primary purpose of guiding individual spa-goers to develop healthy habits. Historically a seven-day stay, this lifestyle transformation can be accomplished by providing a comprehensive program that includes spa services, physical fitness activities, wellness education, healthful cuisine and special interest programming.
  • Medical spa - A facility that operates under the full-time, on-site supervision of a licensed health care professional whose primary purpose is to provide comprehensive medical and wellness care in an environment that integrates spa services, as well as traditional, complimentary and/or alternative therapies and treatments. The facility operates within the scope of practice of its staff, which can include both aesthetic/cosmetic and prevention/wellness procedures and services. These spas typically use balneotherapy, employing a variety of peloids.

    "Balneotherapy treatments can have different purposes. In a spa setting, they can be used to treat conditions such as arthritis and backache, build up muscles after injury or illness or to stimulate the immune system, and they can be enjoyed as a relief from day-to-day stress."[16]

  • Mineral springs spa - A spa offering an on-site source of natural mineral, thermal or seawater used in hydrotherapy treatments.
  • Resort/hotel spa - A spa owned by and located within a resort or hotel providing professionally administered spa services, fitness and wellness components and spa cuisine menu choices.

Notes

  1. ^ Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, George Rosen, Yale University Dept. of the History of Science and Medicine, Project Muse, H. Schuman, 1954
  2. ^ A brief history of spa therapy, A van Tubergen and S van der Linden
  3. ^ a b Medical Hydrology, Sidney Licht, Sidney Herman Licht, Herman L. Kamenetz, E. Licht, 1963 Google Books
  4. ^ Discover the Spa Research Fellowship
  5. ^ For instance, Leisure and Recreation Management, George Torkildsen, Routledge, 2005, ISBN 0415309956 "Sanitas+Per+Aqua" Google Books
  6. ^ World Wide Words
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae Paige, John C; Laura Woulliere Harrison (1987). Out of the Vapors: A Social and Architectural History of Bathhouse Row, Hot Springs National Park. U.S. Department of the Interior. http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/hosp/bathhouse_row.pdf.  
  8. ^ "A Brief History of Scarborough Spa". http://www.scarboroughspa.co.uk/about_us/spa_history.asp. Retrieved 2008-06-16.  
  9. ^ "'Action of Baths on the Human System': Sub-section in 'Baths' article". 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica (1911encyclopedia.org). http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Baths. Retrieved 2009-11-05.  
  10. ^ Metcalfe, Richard (1877). Sanitus Sanitum et omnia Sanitus. Vol.1. London: The Co-operative Printing Co.. http://www.archive.org/details/sanitassanitatu00metcgoog. Retrieved 2009-11-04.   Full text at Internet Archive (archive.org)
  11. ^ "London Gazette listings for 'Baths and Wash-houses Act'". London Gazette. http://www.london-gazette.co.uk/issues/1846-01-01;1900-12-31/exact=Baths+and+Wash-houses+Act/start=1. Retrieved 2009-11-05.  
  12. ^ "Parliamentary Archives search portal for listings of 'Baths and Wash-houses Act'". Portcullis - Gateway to Parliamentary Archives. http://www.portcullis.parliament.uk/DServe/dserve.exe?dsqApp=Archive&dsqDb=Catalog&dsqCmd=Search.tcl. Retrieved 2009-11-05.  . Typing (or copying-and-pasting) the phrase: Baths and Wash-houses reliably yields 10 lisings, including that for the original 1846 act and its amendment of the same year, along with other results.
  13. ^ "The increasing focus on fitness and wellness has fuelled the reemergence of the spa industry..." Anne Williams, Spa bodywork: a guide for massage therapists. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006. p. 173. ISBN 0781755786
  14. ^ "The increasing focus on fitness and wellness has fuelled the reemergence of the spa industry and, with it, the use of fango [medicinal clay] for healing." Anne Williams, Spa bodywork: a guide for massage therapists. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006. p. 173. ISBN 0781755786
  15. ^ http://www.experienceispa.com The International SPA Association
  16. ^ Jane Crebbin-Bailey, John W. Harcup, John Harrington, The Spa Book: The Official Guide to Spa Therapy.‎ Publisher: Cengage Learning EMEA, 2005. p. 1959 ISBN 1861529171

See also

Bibliography

  • Nathaniel Altman, Healing springs: the ultimate guide to taking the waters : from hidden springs to the world's greatest spas. Inner Traditions / Bear & Company, 2000. ISBN 0892818360
  • Dian Dincin Buchman, The complete book of water healing. 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill Professional, 2001. ISBN 0658013785
  • Jane Crebbin-Bailey, John W. Harcup, John Harrington, The Spa Book: The Official Guide to Spa Therapy.‎ Publisher: Cengage Learning EMEA, 2005. ISBN 1861529171
  • Esti Dvorjetski, Leisure, pleasure, and healing: spa culture and medicine in ancient eastern Mediterranean., Brill, 2007 (illustrated). ISBN 900415681X
  • Carola Koenig, Specialized Hydro-, Balneo-and Medicinal Bath Therapy. Publisher: iUniverse, 2005. ISBN 0595365086
  • Anne Williams, Spa bodywork: a guide for massage therapists. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006. ISBN 0781755786

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Spas article)

From Wikitravel

This article is a travel topic.

A trip to the spa is a common travel activity. It can be a great way to experience local culture and customs, enjoy some serious relaxation and/or remove the grime that accumulates while on the global road.

See also: Hot springs.

The scented oil menu at a spa in Sanur, Bali
The scented oil menu at a spa in Sanur, Bali
Pedestrian bliss awaits
Pedestrian bliss awaits

Although most services are ordered a la carte, if you opt for a package treatment you'll most likely begin with a foot bath delivered by your attendant. This usually involves having your feet washed and scrubbed in a basin of warm water with flowers. A pumice stone may be applied to your feet as well as some scented oils and/or soaps. Foot baths, accompanied with a foot massage, are also popular treatments for those wanting some personal care (especially after a long day of sight seeing) but aren't interested in the full body experience.

Scrubs

A body scrub is an exfoliating spa treatment. A therapist rubs a coarse mixture over the body to remove dead skin cells and stimulate circulation. The mixture is rinsed off leaving the skin soft and smooth. A variety of materials are used as the exfoliant - salt, sugar, apricot shells, polyethylene beads, jojoba beads, pumice, ground loofah, sand, crushed grape seed and more. This material is suspended in a liquid that can contain essential oils, oils such as sweet almond, sunflower, and coconut, herbs, and/or vitamin A, C, E. Scrubs are also known as Salt Glow, Sugar Scrub, Full Body Exfoliation. The beauty of body scrubs is that they are one of the spa treatments that you can do yourself at home with great results.

Wraps

Wraps can be enjoyed on their own or as part of a package, in which it will usually follow the scrub. During a wrap treatment, your attendant will cover you in a warm sticky covering that has the consistency of jam or jelly and comes in lovely smelling mixtures, such as papaya and aloe or more earthy concoctions such as seaweed or volcanic mud. Either way, you'll covered from your neck down in your selection and then you'll be wrapped up in a cocoon made from a variety of natural materials, banana leaves are common. For the next 15 - 30 minutes, you'll be left in isolation and your skin will soak up the ingredients while you drift in and out of a light sleep.

Facials

A facial treatment can also be enjoyed on its own or as part of a spa package. When part of a package, it typically follows a wrap or scrub -- after most of your body has been scrubbed and you are relaxed, you'll be stretched out on a table and all of your attendents attention will be focused on your face, neck and head. Usually a facial involves the deep cleansing of the skin on your face and may also include a neck and/or scalp massage. A facial treatment may use scented cleansers and may last between 15 minutes and one hour.

Aromatherapy baths

Aromatherapy baths are often part of a spa package and entail relaxing in a large tub filled with warm water. Typically, the tub will decorated with fresh flowers floating on the surface and may also have scented oils, where the aromathereapy comes in, added to the water. The idea is that while relaxing in the water, the scents will deepen your state of relaxation.

Hamam

The Hamam is a Turkish style bathing system that occurs at a marble setting. Usually the real hamams in Turkey were built on thermal fountains.

Destinations

Africa

South Africa

Asia

Particularly in South-East Asia, you'll find your spa visit to be much less expensive than you would find in North America and Europe without cutting out any of the ambiance or experience (you'll likely have more).

  • Bali - Probably one of the premier destinations for those looking for a variety of spa treatments. Coffee and Javanese lulur body scrubs are popular items on most spas menus. Facilities range from the quiet, basic and unpretentious (such as in Lovina on the northern part of the island) to the opulent, extravagent, and luxurious (such as in Ubud and Seminyak). Better yet, Bali is one of the most affordable locations in the world to have a treatment; if you ever had an urge to splurge on a spa and were on a budget, this would be the place to do it.
  • Boracay - Has a wide variety of spas and treatments available, probably due to its large international visitor base. As a result, you choice of spas will be quite broad to suite any appetite and price range.
  • India- Being the land of Ayurveda and Siddha Vaidya[2], India offers unique spas with various shades of Indian treatments. An Indian spa experience is best enjoyed at traditional and reputed clinics and homes of traditional Ayurveda [3] and Siddha Vaidya physicians. Authenticity is the core of an Indian spa rather than the luxuary component. Indian spa therapiees are generally priced lower than imported ones.
  • Kuala Lumpur — While not as inexpensive as other places in Asia, KL does not disappoint those looking to be pampered. A variety of treatments can be found in this cosmopolitan environment for a variety of prices. Even the finest treatments in the most luxurious spa will be at least half of what you would pay in Europe or North America. Individual spas are located throughout the city with the largest concentration being found in Starhill Gallery shopping center, where you'll find a dozen treatment centers appropriately clustered on the floor called "pamper".
  • Maldives - Most resorts at this famously beautiful honeymoon paradise include a spa, but treatments tend to be charged at famously expensive Maldivian prices.
  • Manila - You'll find most of the spas within the Makati business district's upscale hotels: Mandarin Oriental, Peninsula, Discorvery Suites, etc. Like the hotels that host them, the spas within these establishments offer an excellent value compared to what you would find outside of Asia.
  • Singapore - It is become one of spa destinations in Asia. Singapore Tourism Board and Spa Association Singapore have been continue to support and ensure excellent services and treatments from Spa outlets. Today, You can find Spa outlets in every corner of Singapore. Most of them provide their uniquely spa services and treatments. However, unlike in neighbouring countries, spas are generally expensive with prices only slightly lower, if not on par with Western countries.
  • Thailand - A visit to the spa seems to be on the agenda of every visitor to Thailand, and for a good reason; Cities such as Bangkok and Chiang Mai - and islands popular with tourists, such as Phuket, & Ko Samui - have affordable, high-quality spas[4]. They cover the full spectrum from resort[5], hotel [6], medical[7], to day spa[8] making a comprehensive offering; with short duration body treatments/ facials, or longer half-day packages, to programs lasting days with strict diet and exercise regimes.

And although not strictly speaking the same as spas, even the smallest provincial town will have massage parlors dishing out bone-crackingly good Thai massages for a few hundred baht per hour.

Australia and Oceania

North America

Holistic healing incense at the Yaxkin Spa
Holistic healing incense at the Yaxkin Spa
  • Chichen Itza, Yucatan, Mexico. In this famous Mayan archaeological site, the traditional Mayan healing methods are still practice by native Maya medicine elders [9] female healers are known as X-Men while male healers are known as J'Meen. Mayan healers offer various unique spa experiences based on ancient herbal traditions, holistic healing ceremonies, purification and beauty rituals. Chichen Itza has one of the best eco-spa wellness destinations in North America, Yaxkin Spa [10] which is dedicated to preserve the Maya culture and bring Spa goers the opportunity to experience the vast Mayan holistic traditions still practice by the Maya in Yucatan.
  • Vermont, United States. Vermont has some of the best known destination spas in North America. Spa goers can take advantage of the outdoor activities such as hiking and cross country skiing in the Green Mountains.

South America

  • SPA Brazilian Spa Guide

Central America

Europe

Portugal

Estonia

Finland

There are dozens of spas and spa hotels in Finland [11]. Some of these are traditional health spas and others are modern tropically warm indoor water amusement parks with spa treatments. Sauna bathing is very important in Finnish spas because Finland is the country of sauna's origin. Modern spas are family resorts with children's pools, water slides, jacuzzis etc. There are famous spas in these destinations: Hämeenlinna, Imatra, Kuopio, Lappeenranta, Naantali (the largest spa in Finland, the only Scandinavian member in the Royal Spas of Europe affiliation), Nokia (the most popular family spa destination in Finland), Saariselkä (the northermost spa in Europe), Savonlinna, Siuntio, Tampere and Turku.

Hungary

Somewhat different traditions from South-Eastern Asia, see Budapest#Baths for background and listings.

Ireland

  • County Kerry in the south west of Ireland is home to many five star hotels that specialise in many different Spa treatments.
  • West Cork is easily accessibly to nearby Cork and many quality hotels have stunning views of the Atlantic Ocean and Irish Coast.

Lithuania

UK

  • Stratford-upon-Avon has some of the highest visitor numbers in the United Kingdom, all of who now have the opportunity to visit the local spa and health club [12] for a day of high quality relaxation.

Middle East


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

(There is currently no text in this page)


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also spa, SpA, and spá

English

Proper noun

Singular
Spa

Plural
-

Spa

  1. A town located in the Belgian province of Liège, famous for its hot springs.

Anagrams








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message