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Space Mountain is a themed indoor roller coaster at the Magic Kingdom, opened on January 15, 1975. It is the original version of the iconic attraction that is included in all five Disneyland-style theme parks worldwide. It is also currently the oldest operating roller coaster in the state of Florida.[1]

Space Mountain
SpaceMountainMK.jpg
Space Mountain, as viewed from the Tomorrowland Transit Authority. The old Skyway terminal (now demolished) is on the far right.
Magic Kingdom
Land Tomorrowland
Designer WED Enterprises
Manufacturer Arrow Development Company
Attraction type Steel Roller coaster
Theme Space travel
Soft opening date December 15, 1974 and November 13, 2009
Opening date January 15, 1975 and November 22, 2009
Vehicle type Rocket sled
Vehicle capacity 3
Cars per vehicle 2
Guests per car 3
Ride duration 2.5 minutes
Length 3186-3196 ft (2211.9 m)
Total height 183 ft (55.8 m)
Track height 65 ft (19.8 m)
Maximum speed 30 mph (48.3 km/h)
Height requirements 44" (112 cm)
Number of lifts 1-1
Sponsored by RCA (1975-1993)[2]
FedEx (1994-2004)
Handicapped/disabled access Wheelchair accessible
Attraction transfer icon.svg Must transfer from wheelchair
Fastpass availability icon.svg Fastpass available

Contents

Original concept and design

The Space Mountain concept was a descendant of the first Disney "mountain" attraction, the Matterhorn Bobsleds at Disneyland, which opened in 1959.[3] The Matterhorn's success had convinced Walt Disney that thrilling rides did have a place in his park.[4]

In 1964, Walt first approached designer John Hench with his idea for a new attraction that would be the focal point of a renovated Tomorrowland planned for 1967.[4] His "Space Port" would include a roller-coaster-style ride in the dark, with lighting and other special effects.[4] Originally called "Space Voyage" with concept artwork by John Hench, Clem Hall, George McGinnis, and Herb Ryman.[2]. The attraction concept continued to be refined over the coming years by WED Enterprises, and in June 1966, the "Space Port" attraction was called "Space Mountain" for the first time.[5]

WED partnered with Arrow Development Company, the same company that had helped design the Matterhorn's roller coaster systems years before.[6] The initial concept was to have four separate tracks, but the technology available at the time, combined with the amount of space required versus that which was available within Disneyland, made such a design impossible.[6] Walt Disney's death in December 1966 and the new emphasis on preparing for the newly-announced Disney World project forced WED to put aside the design of Space Mountain indefinitely.[7] The Magic Kingdom's early success, and its unexpected popularity with teens and young adults, prompted WED to begin planning thrill rides for the new park shortly after its opening in October 1971.[8] A new Matterhorn Bobsleds attraction was considered, but it wouldn't fit within Florida's Fantasyland.[8]

Ultimately, designers returned to the Space Mountain concept; the Magic Kingdom's Tomorrowland had the right amount of available land, and computing technology had improved significantly since the initial design phases.[9] To help cover the cost of developing and building Space Mountain, Card Walker, the CEO of Walt Disney Productions, convinced RCA chairman Robert Sarnoff to sponsor the new attraction; RCA was contracted by Disney to provide the communications hardware for the Walt Disney World Resort, and their contract stated that if Disney presented an attraction of interest, RCA would provide USD$10 million to support it.[10]

The inside of the structure, the queue area, the tracks of the roller coaster, and the post-show each went through a large number of various design changes before the current layout was selected. Originally, the mountain was to be positioned in the southern portion of Tomorrowland, which would be where Disneyland would install their Space Mountain in 1977. Instead, it was placed outside the park's perimeter berm, roughly due east of Cinderella Castle, with a tunnel (called the "star corridor") under the Walt Disney World Railroad tracks installed for guests to reach it.

The roller coaster

This initial "energizing" tunnel leads the trains to the lift hill.

Original ride (1975-2009)

The 180 degree turn-arounds at the top of the lift hills, as seen from the queue with the work lights on. This view is no longer possible because of ceilings installed over the loading stations. These turnarounds are still visible when riding the Tomorrowland Transit Authority through Space Mountain when the lights are on.

Guests board the trains in the Space Port, which is enclosed within the dome itself. The ride dome is hollow and 300 ft in diameter, allowing waiting guests and passengers aboard the Tomorrowland Transit Authority to see many of the different effects used in the attraction.

As the rockets leave the Space Port, they travel past the loading area, the Space Port queue, and the Mission Control Booth for the Space Port, where they make a brief stop to await their turn to proceed to the lift hill. After this brief stop, the vehicles wind down a small slope and enter a tunnel of circular and flashing blue lights, while a repetitive sound, meant to signify a building of energy, propels the trains along the track to the opposite end of the dome. At the far end, the trains make a 180 degree turn around and then start climbing up the lift hill. A mirror positioned here gives the illusion that riders are about to collide with another rocket.

A projection of Earth, stars, comets, meteors, and asteroids can be seen when looking past the lift hill bay's open ceiling. It is possible to make out trains climbing the lift hill on the other side and also rockets passing through on the side, as well as the Tomorrowland Transit Authority passing through the lift hill bay. Once at the top, space shuttles then make a small and quick dip before plunging into numerous twists and turns as the shuttles travel through the dome in near-complete darkness, including the coaster's steepest drop of 39 degrees. The ride ends with the trains passing through a red swirling wormhole, before hitting the final brake run and entering the unload station.

Current ride (2009-Present)

Space Mountain closed on April 19, 2009 for a lengthy renovation project.[11][12] It was the first extensive renovation since a previous closure in September 1999,[12] and was estimated to cost USD $12.3 million.[13]

A major component of the renovation was to have been the installation of new track for the roller coasters, utilizing the original layout. Ultimately this plan was scaled back, with only small sections of track being replaced. Stated one Disney spokeswoman, "We're retaining many of the classic elements that made Space Mountain a rite of passage at the Magic Kingdom that's been enjoyed by generations."[12] Other renovations included an upgraded queue area, including some new interactive elements,[13] and a new ceiling for the dome's shell.[12] Pictures and updates of the new queue were released on November 10, 2009.[14] The new queue includes interactive games that can accommodate up to 86 players, and last about 90 seconds. The new loading area has been enclosed, and is lit with blue soft neon lighting.

On November 13, it was also confirmed that the refurbished Space Mountain would have on-ride photos.[15] The cameras on both tracks are positioned at the end of the blue strobe tunnels at the beginning of the ride, in the 180 degree turns leading to the lift hill. The ride soft-opened to guests on November 13, 2009. Fastpass began running the following week. Space Mountain was officially reopened on November 21, 2009.[16]

The queuing area for the Alpha side after the 2009 refurbishment

Changes with the ride are very obvious upon entering the loading station. Blue neon lights light up the ceilings above the queue, with black windows looking out into space recessed into the ceiling, where guests can see projections of stars, nebulae, comets, planets, and a space station. The ceilings over the loading station hide the station from the eyes of riders on the Tomorrowland Transit Authority. Riders can choose to ride one of two tracks: Alpha, the left hand track, or Omega, the right hand track. The two tracks are near-mirror images of each other. Both offer the same experience for guests, with effects equally shared and duplicated, however, so as to permit for the two tracks to cross each other, the Alpha track is ten feet longer than the Omega track.

The loading area for the Omega side after the 2009 refurbishment

Riders then queue at newly installed loading gates and enter the six person rockets. Pulling out of the loading station, riders make a 180 degree turn and come to a stop in a purple lit tunnel while waiting for the train in front to climb the lift hill. After a few seconds, the holding brake is released and the trains roll down a slope into a blue strobe tunnel. These blue lights flash at a slow rate, but gradually flash at a faster rate.

A repetitive warping sound signifies an energy charge as the riders roll towards a blue orb. At the far end of the tunnel, a field of stars appears as the blue strobe lights turn off. This is followed shortly afterwards by the strobe light effect of the flash of the on-ride photo camera taking pictures of the riders. These photos can be viewed at the unload station, and purchased at the Tomorrowland Light & Power Company Arcade after the ride. After the camera flashes, the trains climb up the lift hill.

Another train may pass by the riders climbing the lift hill. It is also possible to make out riders on the Tomorrowland Transit Authority passing through the lift hill bay, as well as riders on the other track climbing the lift hill. At the top, riders descend a short drop and then descend through a series of turns, sharp climbs, and steep drops in the darkness of the dome. The ride ends with trains passing through a red swirling wormhole and then hitting the final brake run, before returning to the unload station.

Differences between the 1975 and 2009 versions of the ride

Space Mountain underwent a seven month overhaul in 2009. Although it did have some renovations in 1999, the changes were minor. Unlike the changes that were made during sponsorships of the ride by both RCA and FedEx from 1975 to 2005, and which mainly were on the ride's pre-show and post-show, the 2009 refurbishment marked a number of changes for not only the pre-show and post-show, but also for the main ride.

Reception of the new ride

The new Space Mountain has received mixed reviews among fans.[citation needed] Praise for its lack of light pollution has been nearly universal, although some guests have complained about people playing the queue games more than once and holding up the line. Some fans have voiced displeasure with the new post-show and exit sections, which were awaiting completion when the attraction reopened and are now finished with an effect resembling that of a green screen.

List of changes made to the ride

  • The exterior of the Space Mountain area has been spruced up and unified in graphic presentation and color scheme. The orange lettering — a relic from the days of Federal Express sponsorship — is now green. The video arcade/gift shop has been painted a more neutral tone, away from the salmon hue of the past. The demolition of the neighboring (and abandoned) Skyway station gives Space Mountain a bigger presence from within Tomorrowland. The colors throughout are whites, blues and metallics with some bright green thrown in. The 1994 sign remains, but is painted in the new lime green color.[17]
  • The storyline starts right inside the door of the satellite building. No longer is the rider in Tomorrowland. Instead, they are entering, according to the large mural, Starport Seven-Five, “Your gateway to the galaxies.” One mural in the satellite building part of the queue line also mentions the Starport's other space stations on Earth and the Moon. The "Active Earth Stations" part of the mural is in reality a list of all five Space Mountain attractions in the world: Tomorrowland MK-1 (this Space Mountain), TL Space Station 77 (Space Mountain at Disneyland), Discovery Landing Station (Space Mountain: Mission 2 at Disneyland Paris), Ashita Base (Space Mountain at Tokyo Disneyland), and HK Spaceport (Space Mountain at Hong Kong Disneyland).[17]
  • Along the inclines of the queue are lighted panels of intergalactic route maps. Careful observers will notice a number of Disney-centric references to Hyperion, Pluto, and dwarves.[17]
  • Where the line flattens out again are big-screen video-games. The idea is derived from interactive video-games in the queue line for Soarin' at Epcot, but much more individualized and in tighter quarters. There are 87 player positions and four games. An asteroid-based game is currently in operation. Testing is currently ongoing on for a “Lost & Found” game using “sorter bots.” Also underway are a game with cargo modules moving across lanes of traffic and a game where players build a Starport with “expando-bots.” All four games are expected to be operational by mid-December 2009.[17]
  • The merger point of the FastPass line and stand-by line has been moved farther into the main loading area.[17]
  • The main loading station is much more enclosed than before, which obscures more of the view of the ride and makes it more mysterious. The hole in the “roof” is very reminiscent the old Texas Stadium, former home of the Dallas Cowboys. This limits the amount of light that makes it up to riders, who are now even more in the dark.[17]
  • Up through the hole, guests can see a space station, nebula and a planet with moons. A viewer looking closely at the space station might see a rocket come into view at times. The queue rails are silver and the panels in the loading station have been painted in a fuchsia color.[17]
  • The loading station holes are outlined in blue lighting and the floor has a new sparkling look. On-deck riders are now separated from the ride vehicles by air-gates. Tile indicating the waiting spots on the floor will be added by December 2009.[17] Both loading areas are now capable of loading two trains at a time, reducing wait times, and moving 24 Guests at a time through the ride. The usage of the second loading zone is strictly dependent on how busy the attraction is and how many Cast Members are available to work at the dispatch/loading location.
  • The trains are the same as before but have been altered. The seats are new and more padded. The “arm” along the side is now sturdier — tough enough to stand on when entering. Gone are the glow-in-the-dark strips along the side. One Imagineer said that even with less light in the building, the strips were giving off a surprising amount of light, which was counterproductive to the deep, dark goal.[17]
  • The blue strobe tunnel is mostly the same but has a new sound effect and a new visual effect. Instead of having the trains rolling toward a mirror, the trains are aimed at a glowing blue orb, which is meant to represent the energy that launches the vessel, followed by several strobe lights flashes and one bright flash from the newly added on-ride cameras.[17]
  • The ride itself is the same track and design and a similar experience as before, but it is much noticeably darker and the stars are brighter. The wormhole finale has a slightly repitched sound effect.[17]
  • A lot of tweaks and adjustments were made to keep even more light out. For example, the lip of the Tomorrowland Transit Authority exit was extended to prevent exterior light from leaking in.[17]
  • At the unloading station, riders can preview their on-ride photos, available for purchase in the gift shop.
  • The long, slanted, moving sidewalk to the exit remains. Some components left over from the FedEx era were removed, such as the cargo hold, which is now a luggage claim. One of the pieces of luggage has a sticker that says "Mesa Verde" on it, in reference to the defunct Epcot attraction Horizons.There is also a package with a sticker for Space Station X-1, an attraction that was in Disneyland's Tomorrowland. The Lost & Found Distribution Center references back to a video game from the queue. Also here is the video game host robot, whose name is DRL.[17]
  • On the right are post-show vignettes presenting intergalactic travel destinations such as the Crater Caverns and the Coral Moons of Pisces 7. These occupy a diorama visible from the Tomorrowland Transit Authority.[17]
  • The last scene, which housed monitors with images of ascending/exiting guests superimposed over a starfield, now has a temporary sign that says “Thanks for Flying with us.” This sign is expected to be replaced by a system using green screen technology for a similar effect, but will place riders' images over scenarios of the previous post-show scenes.[17]

As of January 29, 2010, the green screen monitors are in working order.

References to Horizons

The post-show for Space Mountain now features a number of tributes to the defunct Epcot attraction Horizons.

  • The theme of Space Mountain being a futuristic air-port hearkens back to Horizon's 'Futureport', the airport of the future.
  • One of the bags in the baggage claim (located on guests' left at the start of the exit moving sidewalk) features the words "Mesa Verde" written on it.[18]
  • The undersea post-show scene after the desert scene is reminiscent of a scene in Horizons. This scene is the only post-show scene to be completely new in Space Mountain's 2009 refurbishment. The flatscreen display in the new scene describes the scene as "20,000 Light Years under the Sea," a pun on "20,000 Leagues Under the Sea," which is a reference onto to the defunct Magic Kingdom attraction 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea: Submarine Voyage.[19]
  • The robot valet and futuristic city skyline, which is the last post-show diorama, are similar to a scene in Horizons and to the lounge that Disney used to operate in LAX.[18]

Trains

Prior to the 2009 refurbishments each train had luminescent stripes that would glow during the ride
One of the trains after the 2009 refurbishment

Space Mountain has 15 trains for each side, though only 13 are usually in operation at any given time. Each train consists of two single-file rocket-shaped cars. From 1975-1989, each of these two rockets featured two seats, each seat designed to hold two passengers (the front passenger rode in the rear passenger's lap, again like the Matterhorn Bobsleds), for a total capacity of eight passengers per train. Each rider had his/her own seat belt. In 1989, the trains were completely replaced. These new trains were externally and cosmetically very similar to the originals, and still consisted of two rockets joined together.

As before, guests ride single-file. Now, however, the rockets have three seats, with one guest per seat, reducing each train's potential capacity from eight riders to six. The 1989 vehicles introduced the use of lap bars, but in 1998 the lap bars were replaced with a new T-bar design, rather than the square design previously used. On November 13 it was announced that the rockets would have a new paint scheme and new seat fabric.[15] They now have a blue and gray color scheme.

Building characteristics and sponsorship

RCA sponsorship (1975-1993)

From 1975-1993, Space Mountain was sponsored by RCA, who presented Space Mountain as an actual exhibit, more so than an experience as it is billed now. While the white and blue color scheme of the iconic Space Mountain structure remains the same, the entrance and exit building was also painted white and blue, and even included blue patterns painted on the exterior walls. The left entrance wall had the words "Space Mountain" displayed in bold, blue colored letters. The RCA logo was above this, and under the Space Mountain lettering was and still is Space Mountain's slogan "A Journey Through Time and Space", beneath this was the phrase "presented by RCA".

The ceiling and flooring for the entrance building was done in reds, yellows, and oranges. A large white pylon structure had the RCA logo placed above it in three areas, and four passengers, dressed as astronauts, were placed in an original four seater vehicle, which was attached to the pylon. Below the pylon, in a planter was Space Mountain's dedication plaque which read: "ONE GIANT STEP... Dedicated to the men and women whose skills, sacrifice, courage and teamwork opened the door to the exploration of man's exciting new frontier...outer space. Because they dared to reach for the stars and the planets, man's knowledge of his universe, earth and himself has been greatly enriched.

Presented by missile, space and range pioneers. January 15, 1975." Inside, guests entered the spacious lobby, which did not feature the current mural of the Milky Way, but was simple black and blue painted walls that had various angular designs in yellows and oranges placed upon them. There were also floor to ceiling mirrors, support columns, and blue lighting under the floor. The floors themselves were made out of a combination of plastic and vinyl and featured black textured circles sticking out of the flooring. The rest of the inside of the structure, with the exception of the warning film, and the changes made to the vehicles, remains nearly the same from 1975.

Exterior of the ride as seen from the Monorail.

In 1989 RCA had the entrance cosmetically refurbished. The entrance door now had a yellow and black pattern around it. The entrance walls were repainted with the 1975 white and blue color scheme, but with solid and different patterns. The roof was still the same blue and white, as was the roof border, a solid white, but the ceiling was now also a solid white. The left entrance wall still featured the RCA logo, but a new font was selected for the phrase "Space Mountain", still bold, but was more angular, and now colored white. This was reflected in the phrase underneath it "A Journey Through Time and Space", and "presented by RCA" was not included in the 1989 refurbishment.

The RCA logos atop the pylon were removed, and a new three seater vehicle replaced the old four seater vehicle that was attached to the pylon. Everything else, including warning signage and other features dating back to 1975, remained the same. RCA once again had the entrance refurbished in 1992, this time all the entrance walls were covered over with blue vinyl covers. Some patterns were different than others. The 1989 left entrance wall lettering was simply placed on top of the new wall coverings. The yellow and black pattern around the entrance door remained the same. The ceiling and flooring remained the same, but the roof was now solid white, and the border to the roof was now red, white, and blue.

FedEx sponsorship (1994-2004)

From 1994-2004, Space Mountain's sponsorship was held by FedEx. The 1992 entrance remained very much the same, but now the entrance and exit building was partially demolished, forcing guests exiting Space Mountain to exit into an arcade and gift shop that occupies part of the still vacant space left for the proposed but never built Tomorrowland Train Station. The left hand entrance wall, that served for years as the signage for Space Mountain was demolished in the 1994 refurbishment. The right hand entrance wall was now used for signage and simply had the words "Space Mountain" in a tall, thin, orange font, that was meant to reflect the architecture of the New Tomorrowland.

The large entrance door was kept, but now had storm shutters placed within the frame, creating a smaller entrance. New warning signage, and warning spiels also came in 1994. A new, but different pylon tower was placed over the site of the old one. It too featured the new Space Mountain font and FedEx sponsorship. The warning film was also changed in 1994 for updated footage and to also feature FedEx Sponsorship. The film included both the warning footage and the futuristic but funny "SMTV" with its space themed news program. The warning film has so far changed only three times. The original in 1975, and two updated versions both in 1985 and 1994. The FedEx footage was removed in 2005.

The entrance lobby was refurbished with an orange and brown color scheme, but still maintained the blue floor lights, and black vinyl flooring, while adding in a FedEx sponsored intergalactic tracking network mural of the Milky Way. In 1998, the original flooring was removed and a staircase was added in the left hand queue, which is now the Stand By queue. The right queue, which has a ramp instead of a staircase, making it wheelchair accessible, is for the FastPass return line. FastPass machines were also added outside of Space Mountain at this time.

Sponsorless (2005-)

In 2004 FedEx left as sponsor, leaving Space Mountain sponsorless; the majority of FedEx logos, and sponsorship themes were removed in 2005, but some, and even noticeable logos and sponsorship themes were not removed until 2009. Particularly interesting is the sign used to label Space Mountain for passengers on the Tomorrowland Transit Authority. It was, until 2009, still the original 1975 frame, border, and bold and blue Space Mountain lettering.

Only the phrase "A Journey Through Time and Space" was updated in font design, along with the visual and narrated mention of Space Mountain in 2005 (a shorter version of the 1994 Peter Renaday narration was used from 2005 to 2009, saying "Now arriving in Space Mountain, Tomorrowland's gateway to the Galaxy." The original 1994 narration was slightly longer, and said "Now arriving in Space Mountain, Tomorrowland's gateway to the Galaxy, presented by Federal Express")

In mid October 2009, the original sign welcoming TTA travelers was removed, and replaced with a modified version of the 1994 Space Mountain logo, with lime green instead of orange. The 1994 Space Mountain pylon and entrance building were also redone in a similar way, with lime greens replacing orange tones. And in early November 2009, new signs inside the mountain refer to it as "Star Port Seven-Five", a nod to its opening year. The narration for Space Mountain via the WEDway Peoplemover, now Tomorrowland Transit Authority has had different spiels from 1975, 1985, 1994, 2005, and 2009, both pre-reopening and post-reopening.

Musical score

From 1975-1985 the entrance and exit building had overhead speakers playing the big band and orchestral portion of RCA's song "Here's to the Future and You". The entrance lobby had the softer and less loud portion of this song, however the music heard in the Star Corridor, and the music heard in the Zig-Zag corridor near the loading station remain original from 1975. The warning spiel for the trains, and most sound effects are also original from 1975. Guests could hear music to the song "Music Makers" and "Sentimental Journeys" where the left and right side unload corridors merged together to form the line for the post show.

In 1985 RCA removed their theme song, and instead commissioned new generic music for Space Mountain. Since 1985 there is no outside area music around the exit and entrance building. Only the current warning narration spiel is played. In the lobby a composition to RCA's new song "We've Come So Far" can be heard and has remained since 1985. When guests unloaded from their ride vehicle, they entered the ride's post-show, which was also accessible for guests who decided not to experience the main roller coaster ride. From 1985-2005, the unload and merger corridor both had a slightly different soft tune to RCA's new song "We've Come so Far".

In 2005, this was replaced with a musical score commissioned for Disneyland's newly refurbished Space Mountain. After the 2009 renovations, the same songs in the queue line play, but the musical score commissioned for Disneyland's Space Mountain is no longer played in the post-show. Most of the main ride sound effects were updated and replaced.

Post show

The post show for The Magic Kingdom's Space Mountain is unique only to itself. No other Space Mountain has an extensive post show like the Magic Kingdom version, which allows it to somehow maintain its original 1975 designs as an exhibit rather than as an experience. Guests board a moving walkway, known as a speedramp, that takes guests back to Tomorrowland. As guests enter the post show, above them is a flashing warning sign and spiel, both original from 1985. To the left is a half octagon shaped room and on the right are four large octagon rooms.

All of these rooms are shown and viewed on an even surface, but after the final octagon room, the speedramp dips down at an angle, where guests go under the train tracks for the Walt Disney World Railroad. As guests travel back up to ground level, and toward the exit to Tomorrowland, the pass by other outer-space destinations Star Port Seven-Five can take them. The first two octagon rooms and the first four hexagon rooms can all be viewed from the Tomorrowland Transit Authority just after passing through the lift hill bay because their ceilings are non existent, which allows open space to look into.

Tomorrowland Transit Authority

The Tomorrowland Transit Authority was also closed with Space Mountain on April 19, 2009, during which time it also underwent a refurbishment.[20] The closure was necessary due to extensive construction work planned for the roller coaster, and the inherent safety risks such activity would pose to Transit Authority riders. Additionally, Space Mountain has access doors that open onto the TTA track which can not be safely used while the attraction is running.

The Tomorrowland Transit Authority reopened on September 11, 2009. Although traveling the same path through the dome, the ongoing renovation inside was obscured by walls and posters announcing Space Mountain's re-opening date. On November 11, 2009 the construction walls were removed, providing an early glimpse of the refurbished roller coaster and post show.

References

  1. ^ Dewayne Bevil (2009-04-16). "Weekend outlook: Nelly, joe gardener, Ventures plus farewells to Mardi Gras, Space Mountain". Orlando Sentinel. http://blogs.orlandosentinel.com/features_orlando/2009/04/space-mountain-magic-kingdom-disney-world-universal-mardi-gras-nelly-ventures.html. Retrieved 2009-04-16. 
  2. ^ a b Janzen (Fall 1998, #30). "Disney's Space Mountain". The "E" Ticket: 30–41. 
  3. ^ Surrell, Jason (2007). The Disney Mountains: Imagineering at Its Peak. New York, New York: Disney Editions. pp. 37–49. ISBN 978-1-4231-0155-0. 
  4. ^ a b c Surrell, p. 37.
  5. ^ Surrell, p. 38.
  6. ^ a b Surrell, pp. 38-40.
  7. ^ Surrell, p. 40.
  8. ^ a b Surrell, p. 41.
  9. ^ Surrell, pp. 41-44
  10. ^ Surrell, p. 43
  11. ^ "Walt Disney World Resort - Operational Updates". www.disneyworld.com. http://disneyworld.disney.go.com/wdwi/en_GB/calendar/refurbishmentslisting/index?id=MKCalendarRefurbishmentsListingPage&date=20090401. Retrieved 2009-01-06. 
  12. ^ a b c d Jason Garcia (2009-01-08). "Walt Disney World's Space Mountain closing for 'refreshment' on April 19". Orlando Sentinel. http://www.orlandosentinel.com/travel/attractions/orl-disney0809jan08,0,5715705.story. Retrieved 2009-01-07. 
  13. ^ a b Jason Garcia and Sara K. Clarke (2009-06-08). "Wait may be more fun at Disney's Space Mountain". Orlando Sentinel. http://www.orlandosentinel.com/travel/attractions/orl-cfbtourism-disney-060809060809jun08,0,5876331.story. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  14. ^ http://disneyparks.disney.go.com/blog/2009/11/walt-disney-world%E2%80%99s-classic-space-mountain-attraction-to-reopen-with-a-few-surprises/
  15. ^ a b http://disneyparks.disney.go.com/blog/2009/11/space-mountain-attraction-update/#comments
  16. ^ "Magic Kingdom Park - Calendar". www.disneyworld.com. http://disneyworld.disney.go.com/parks/magic-kingdom/calendardayview/?asmbly_day=20090419. Retrieved 2009-03-23. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Inside Disney World's Revamped Space Mountain - TheDailyDisney.com from OrlandoSentinel.com
  18. ^ a b Space Mountain soft-opens to guests - JeffLangeDVD
  19. ^ Space Mountain soft-opens to guests with enhanced queue and video games - Attractions Magazine
  20. ^ "Magic Kingdom Park Operational Updates". http://disneyworld.disney.go.com/parks/magic-kingdom/calendardayview/?asmbly_day=20090419. Retrieved 2009-04-20. 

External links

28°25′09″N 81°34′38″W / 28.41917°N 81.57722°W / 28.41917; -81.57722Coordinates: 28°25′09″N 81°34′38″W / 28.41917°N 81.57722°W / 28.41917; -81.57722


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