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Kingdom of Spain
Reino de España
Flag Coat of arms
Motto"Plus Ultra"  (Latin)
"Further Beyond"
Anthem"Marcha Real"  (Spanish)[note 1]
"Royal March"
Location of  Spain  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (light green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (light green)  —  [Legend]

Capital
(and largest city)
Madrid
40°26′N 3°42′W / 40.433°N 3.7°W / 40.433; -3.7
Official language(s) Spanish[note 2]
Recognised regional languages Aranese, Basque, Catalan/Valencian and Galician
Ethnic groups  88.0% Spanish, 12.0% (Romanian, Moroccan, Ecuadorian) other (2009)[1]
Demonym Spanish, Spaniard
Government Parliamentary democracy and Constitutional monarchy
 -  King Juan Carlos I
 -  Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (PSOE)
Formation 15th century 
 -    Dynastic 1479 
 -    de facto 1516 
 -    de jure 1716 
 -    Constitutional democracy 1978 
EU accession 1 January 1986
Area
 -  Total 504,030 km2 (51st)
195,364 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.04
Population
 -  2009 estimate 46,661,950[2] (27th)
 -  Density 90 people/km2 (106th)
231/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $1.395 trillion[3] (12th)
 -  Per capita $30,588[3] (28th)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $1.602 trillion[3] (9th)
 -  Per capita $35,116[3] (25th)
Gini (2005) 32[4] 
HDI (2007) 0.955 (very high) (15th)
Currency Euro ()[note 3] (EUR)
Time zone CET[note 4] (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Date formats dd.mm.yyyy (Spanish; CE)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .es[note 5]
Calling code 34
.Spain (pronounced /ˈspeɪn/ ( listen) spayn; Spanish: España, pronounced [esˈpaɲa]  ( listen)), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de España), is a member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.^ Wednesday, 6 January 2010, 3:00 pm Press Release: US Department of State - Background Notes OFFICIAL NAME: Kingdom of Spain Geography Area: 504,750 sq.
  • Alltop - Top Spain News 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC spain.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Schengen Area The Member States of the European Union (EU) (not including the United Kingdom and Ireland), along with Norway, Iceland, and Switzerland, make up the Schengen Area, which aims for common rules regarding visas, asylum rights, and controls at external borders.
  • Spain Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ In spite of the expulsion of 1492, a large population of Christian converts remained in Spain and, as members of the educated elite, continued to make significant contributions to Spanish culture.
  • Spain News - Breaking World Spain News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[note .6] Its mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the northwest and west by the Atlantic Ocean and Portugal.^ In the west, Spain borders on the Atlantic Ocean both north and south of its frontier with Portugal.
  • Spain News - Breaking World Spain News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The geographical boundaries of Spain are: on the north, the Pyrenees, the Republic of Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay (known in Spain as Mar Cantabrico , or "Cantabrian Sea"); on the east, the Mediterranean; on the south, the Mediterranean, the Straits of Gibraltar and the Atlantic; on the west, Portugal and the Atlantic.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The contrast extends even to the seas surrounding Spain — the tranquil Mediterranean, the stormy Bay of Biscay, and the Atlantic with a character midway between.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Spanish territory also includes the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean, the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean off the African coast, and two autonomous cities in North Africa, Ceuta and Melilla, that border Morocco.^ It has both Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines and incorporates two archipelagos - the Balearics and the Canary Islands .
  • Cheap Spain holidays and holiday deals at Thomas Cook 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.thomascook.com [Source type: General]

^ Two of the enclaves, Ceuta and Melilla , are Spanish municipalities.
  • Spain News - Breaking World Spain News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Balearic Islands, with Palma as their capital, are off the coast of Valencia.
  • Spain News - Breaking World Spain News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With an area of 504,030 km², Spain is the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union after France.^ In the second half of the 20th century, Spain has played a catch-up role in the western international community; it joined the EU in 1986.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ECONOMY Spain's accession to the European Community--now European Union (EU)--in January 1986 required the country to open its economy to trade and investment, modernize its industrial base, improve infrastructure, and revise economic legislation to conform to EU guidelines.
  • Spain (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even on many international issues beyond Western Europe, Spain prefers to coordinate its efforts with its EU partners through the European political cooperation mechanism.
  • Spain (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since January 1, 2010, Spain has held the Presidency of the Council of the European Union.^ Since 1986, Spain has been a member of the European Union.
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Spain assumes the EU presidency in January 2010.
  • Spain (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Secretary General of NATO (1995–1999) and High Representative (since 1999) of the CFSP of the Council of the European Union.

.Because of its location, the territory of Spain was subject to many external influences, often simultaneously, since prehistoric times and through the dawn of Spain as a country.^ The kingdom of Spain is the main country on the Iberian Peninsula , which it shares with Portugal and the British-dependent territory Gibraltar .
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Even on many international issues beyond Western Europe, Spain prefers to coordinate its efforts with its EU partners through the European political cooperation mechanism.
  • Spain (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Great Schism of the West Spain played a great part, chiefly through the influence of the Aragónese , Pedro de Luna ( antipope Benedict XIII ).
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Conversely, the country itself has been an important source of influence to other regions, chiefly during the Modern Era, when it became a global empire that has left a legacy of over 400 million Spanish speakers today—making it the world's second most spoken language by native speakers.^ Native Spanish speakers instantly understand them.

^ Get this – I am conversing with them in their native language!
  • Rocket Spanish Reviews and Success Stories 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.rocketlanguages.com [Source type: General]

^ Native Spanish speaker teacher .
  • Spanish Teachers / Spanish Tutors - SpaniCity 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.spanicity.com [Source type: General]

.Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a parliamentary government under a constitutional monarchy.^ Spanish constitution dates from 1978, which established Spain as a parliamentary monarchy.
  • Spain - Economic analysis of government's policies, investment climate and political risk. 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Spain is a constitutional monarchy governed under the constitution of 1978.
  • Spain News - Breaking World Spain News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Politically, Spain is a parliamentary monarchy – democracy and the monarchy having been restored in 1977, after the death of General Franco, the dictator who seized power in the Civil War of 1936–39.

.It is a developed country with the ninth or tenth largest economy in the world by nominal GDP, and very high living standards (15th highest Human Development Index), including the seventeenth-highest quality of life index rating in the world[5].^ My name is Frank Kalich I had already purchased a different Spanish learning program, of very high quality.
  • Rocket Spanish Reviews and Success Stories 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.rocketlanguages.com [Source type: General]

^ Country profile (World Health Organization) Children's health (Unicef) Development indicators (World Bank) Natural disasters and relief efforts (ReliefWeb) .
  • Spain News - Breaking World Spain News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High levels of education, like in any country, is the only way by which people from these lower classes could improve their level of living.
  • Spain - Economic analysis of government's policies, investment climate and political risk. 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is a member of the United Nations, European Union, NATO, OECD, and WTO.^ Links to: Official Journal of the European Union, Official Gazette, Autonomous Communities Gazettes, Provincial Gazettes and Official Gazettes of other members of the European Union .
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1986 Spain became a member of the European Union and transferred the exercise of certain domains and State powers.
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The United Nations, refusing to recognize the constitutionality of the Franco regime, urged its members in 1946 to break diplomatic relations with Spain; this resolution was not rescinded until 1950.
  • Spain News - Breaking World Spain News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Etymology

.The true origins of the name España and its cognates "Spain" and "Spanish" are disputed.^ The etymology of the name Spain ( España ) is uncertain.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The history of the Spanish language and the origin of the dialects of Spain begin with the linguistic evolution of Vulgar Latin.
  • Spanish - Language Information & Resources 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.alsintl.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the Spaniards named one part of America — Mexico — Nueva España (New Spain), we speak of "the Spains", in the plural, to signify the Spanish possessions.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The ancient Roman name for Iberia, Hispania, may derive from poetic use of the term Hesperia to refer to Spain, reflecting Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia) and Spain, being still further west, as Hesperia ultima.^ Some derive it from the Punic word tsepan , "rabbit", basing the opinion on the evidence of a coin of Galba, on which Spain is represented with a rabbit at her feet, and on Strabo, who calls Spain "the land of rabbits".
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Spain has made great economic progress in recent decades, but it still lags behind most of Western Europe.
  • Spain News - Breaking World Spain News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The immense majority of the people are professed adherents of the Roman Catholic faith, so that, so far as numbers go, Spain is still the most Catholic country in the world, as it has long been styled.

[6]
.It may also be a derivation of the Punic Ispanihad meaning "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean; Roman coins struck in the region from the reign of Hadrian show a female figure with a rabbit at her feet.^ His quest takes one from the quay side of Vera Cruz, 'where the Mediterranean comes to an end in the Caribbean', back to Spain to the dark caves of Altimira, to the harsh sunlight of the bull ring, and the stamping feet of the Flamenco dancer.
  • Spanish Resources 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.nd.edu [Source type: General]

^ Some derive it from the Punic word tsepan , "rabbit", basing the opinion on the evidence of a coin of Galba, on which Spain is represented with a rabbit at her feet, and on Strabo, who calls Spain "the land of rabbits".
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the early days, organic farming research was developed by the farmers themselves, as researchers in the European Mediterranean countries, including Spain, were not interested in organic farming until the end of the 1980s.

[7] .There are also claims that España derives from the Basque word Ezpanna meaning "edge" or "border", another reference to the fact that the Iberian peninsula constitutes the southwest of the European continent.^ The word commonwealth had no meaning either east or west of the Iberian range.

[6]
The humanist Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". According to a new research by Jesús Luis Cunchillos published in 2000 with the name of Gramática fenicia elemental (Basic phoenician grammar), the root of the term span is spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged".[8]

Geography

Llívia, Catalonia
.At 504,782 km2 (194,897 sq mi), Spain is the world's 51st-largest country.^ The immense majority of the people are professed adherents of the Roman Catholic faith, so that, so far as numbers go, Spain is still the most Catholic country in the world, as it has long been styled.

^ Area: 195,364 sq mi (505,990 sq km).
  • Spain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ PROFILE OFFICIAL NAME: Kingdom of Spain Geography Area: 504,750 sq.
  • Spain (12/09) 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is some 47,000 km2 (18,000 sq mi) smaller than France and 81,000 km2 (31,000 sq mi) larger than the U.S. state of California.^ It is thus rather more than twice the size of Great Britain ., nearly 50,000 sq.

^ Area: 195,364 sq mi (505,990 sq km).
  • Spain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ As the Revolution has generally shown some respect for the Piarists , they have kept a larger number of their colleges than the Jesuits , who have been repeatedly expelled, and so obliged to establish their colleges over again.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

El Sardinero, Santander, Cantabria
.On the west, Spain borders Portugal; on the south, it borders Gibraltar (a British overseas territory) and Morocco, through its cities in North Africa (Ceuta and Melilla).^ Its situated in the South-West of Europe and its territory also includes the Balearic Islands , Canary Islands and the cities of Ceuta and Melilla ( North Africa ).
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The kingdom of Spain is the main country on the Iberian Peninsula , which it shares with Portugal and the British-dependent territory Gibraltar .
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to remain a British colony and against a "total shared sovereignty" arrangement while demanding participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; Morocco serves as the primary launching site of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the northeast, along the Pyrenees mountain range, it borders France and the tiny principality of Andorra.^ On the e~ast of the Basques, along the line of the Pyrenees, were others of kindred blood, who also kept a rude freedom on the slopes and in the valleys of the mountains.

.Spain also includes the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea, the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean and a number of uninhabited islands on the Mediterranean side of the strait of Gibraltar, known as Plazas de soberanía, such as the Chafarine islands, the isle of Alborán, the "rocks" (peñones) of Vélez and Alhucemas, and the tiny Isla Perejil.^ It has both Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines and incorporates two archipelagos - the Balearics and the Canary Islands .
  • Cheap Spain holidays and holiday deals at Thomas Cook 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.thomascook.com [Source type: General]

^ Balearic and Canary islands, SW Europe.
  • Spain News - Breaking World Spain News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Elsewhere the country is bounded by water: by the Mediterranean Sea to the east and southeast, by the Atlantic Ocean to the northwest and southwest, and by the Bay of Biscay (an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean) to the north.
  • Spain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Along the Pyrenees in Catalonia, a small exclave town called Llívia is surrounded by France.^ The small Catalan town of Port Bou is the last stop in Spain before reaching the nearby border with France.
  • Alltop - Top Spain News 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC spain.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ It was henceforth ~ of a small state lying across the Pyrenees, dependent on France, and doomed inevitably to be partitioned between its great neighbors to north and south.

^ On all sides except that of Portugal the boundaries of continental Spain are natural, the Peninsula being separated from France by the Pyrenees and on every other side being surrounded by the sea.

The little Pheasant Island in the River Bidasoa is a Spanish-French condominium.
.Mainland Spain is dominated by high plateaus and mountain ranges, such as the Sierra Nevada.^ Sierra Nevada and the coast ranges in the south.

^ The Sierra Nevada mountain range also climbs to around 3800m so can see very cold temperatures and heavy winter snowfalls.

^ North-east of the Sierra Nevada two small ranges, Alcaraz and La Sagra, rise with remarkable abruptness from the plateau of Murcia , where it merges in that of the interior.

.Running from these heights are several major rivers such as the Tagus, the Ebro, the Duero, the Guadiana and the Guadalquivir.^ It is traversed from west to east by mountain chains-notably the Sierra de Guadarrama-and the valleys of the Douro (Duero), the Tagus, and Guadiana rivers.
  • Spain News - Breaking World Spain News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Alluvial plains are found along the coast, the largest of which is that of the Guadalquivir in Andalusia.

Climate

Spain's climatic areas.
Due to Spain's geographical situation and orographic conditions, the climate is extremely diverse; discounting the mountain climate, it can be roughly divided into five areas:
.
  • A Continental Mediterranean climate in the inland areas of the Peninsula (largest city, Madrid).
  • An Oceanic climate in Galicia and the coastal strip near the Bay of Biscay or (largest city, Bilbao).^ Madrid is the nation's capital and largest city.
    • Spain News - Breaking World Spain News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Elsewhere the country is bounded by water: by the Mediterranean Sea to the east and southeast, by the Atlantic Ocean to the northwest and southwest, and by the Bay of Biscay (an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean) to the north.
    • Spain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Spanish summers are often very hot, but winters vary sharply, being mild in coastal areas and colder inland.
    • Spain News - Breaking World Spain News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This area is often called Green Spain.
  • A Semiarid climate or arid Mediterranean in the southeast (largest city, Murcia).
  • A Mediterranean climate region extends from the Andalusian plain along the southern and eastern coasts up to the Pyrenees, on the seaward side of the mountain ranges that run near the coast.^ Along the eastern coast, S of Catalonia, extend the regions of Valencia and Murcia , named after their chief cities.
    • Spain News - Breaking World Spain News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The arid prairies of certain parts of the Castiles and Estremadura are in as striking contrast with the fertile, though monotonous, plains of the Campos district and Lower Aragón , and the extremely rich arable lands and meadows of Andalusia and the eastern provinces, as are the perpetual snows of the Pyrenees, the Cantabrian Range, and the Sierra Nevada with the parched lowlands of Estremadura, Andalusia , Murcia, and Alicante.
    • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Spain is bordered to the west by Portugal; to the northeast it borders France, from which it is separated by the tiny principality of Andorra and by the great wall of the Pyrenees Mountains.
    • Spain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    .Also in Ceuta and Melilla (largest city, Barcelona).^ Administratively, the country is divided into 17 regions (autonomous communities) and 2 autonomous cities (Ceuta and Melilla).
    • Spain News - Breaking World Spain News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Its situated in the South-West of Europe and its territory also includes the Balearic Islands , Canary Islands and the cities of Ceuta and Melilla ( North Africa ).
    • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Barcelona , the chief Catalan city, is the largest port and the second largest city of Spain.
    • Spain News - Breaking World Spain News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Localized Subtropical climate areas exist in the coasts of Granada and Málaga (Costa Tropical).
  • A Subtropical climate in the Canary Islands (largest city, Las Palmas).
.The rain in Spain does not stay mainly in the plain.^ The reign of Spain stays mainly in the plain .
  • Alltop - Top Spain News 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC spain.alltop.com [Source type: General]

It falls mainly in the northern mountains.[9]

History

.After a long and hard conquest, the Iberian Peninsula became a region of the Roman Empire known as Hispania.^ Except for the Basques, the Iberian population became thoroughly romanized, perhaps more so than any subject population.
  • Spain News - Breaking World Spain News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fauna.The Iberian Peninsula belongs to the Mediterranean sub-region of the Palaearctic region of the animal kingdom.

.During the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later was conquered by Muslim invaders.^ Isidore of Seville (560–636), major scholar of the early Middle Ages, wrote Etymologiae, first encyclopedia known to be compiled in western civilization.

.Through a very long and fitful process, the Christian kingdoms in the north gradually rolled back Muslim rule, finally extinguishing its last remnant in Granada in 1492, the same year Columbus reached the Americas.^ In the early 8th century most of the peninsula fell to Muslims (Moors) from North Africa, and it remained under their control until it was gradually reconquered by the Christian kingdoms of Castile , Aragon , and Portugal.
  • Spain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Little more than the kingdom of Granada remained in Moorish hands; it held out until its conquest by Ferdinand and Isabella in 1492.
  • Spain News - Breaking World Spain News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The return of their blond exiled god was forecast for the very year Cortez reached their shores.
  • Spanish Resources 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.nd.edu [Source type: General]

.A global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe and the leading world power in the 16th century and first half of the 17th century.^ Islamic arts: Western Islāmic art: Moorish ) literature ( in Islamic arts: Achievements in the western Muslim world ) jewelry ( in jewelry: 17th century ) Jewish literature ( in Hebrew literature: The golden age in Spain, 900–1200 ) literature ( in Spanish literature ) metalwork ( in metalwork: 16th century ; in metalwork: Spain ) mosaic ( in mosaic (art): Early Christian mosaics ) motion pictures ( in history of the motion picture: Spain and Mexico ) music .
  • Spain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Spain ) chairs ( in furniture: Spain: 17th century ) garden and landscape design ( in garden and landscape design: 17th- and 18th-century French ) interior design ( in interior design: Spain ) Islamic art .
  • Spain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Tomás Luis de Victoria (1548–1611), the most famous composer of the 16th century (late Renaissance) in Spain.

.Continued wars and other problems however, eventually led to a diminished status.^ This bellicose policy, however, brought him into collision with the queen, who feared that the outbreak of war would diminish the revenues which she squandered in selfindulgence.

^ However, the rigor and heroism displayed by the common people of Spain in their struggle against the conqueror (see Peninsular War ) was an important factor in the eventual downfall of Napoleon.
  • Spain News - Breaking World Spain News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, since Spain has problems with unemployment and does not have a very rich economy, Spain is not the most attractive country for other Europeans to come to work and settle down.
  • Spain - Economic analysis of government's policies, investment climate and political risk. 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: Original source]

.The French invasion of Spain in the early 19th century led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire and left the country politically unstable.^ The 18th century - - The 19th and early 20th centuries .
  • Spain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Spain ) chairs ( in furniture: Spain: 17th century ) garden and landscape design ( in garden and landscape design: 17th- and 18th-century French ) interior design ( in interior design: Spain ) Islamic art .
  • Spain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Tomás Luis de Victoria (1548–1611), the most famous composer of the 16th century (late Renaissance) in Spain.

.In the 20th century it suffered a devastating civil war and came under the rule of an authoritarian government, leading to years of stagnation, but finishing in an impressive economic surge.^ He brought aid to the Catholics of Ireland , sending an expedition under Aguilar (1602), and intervened in behalf of the German Catholics in the first period of the Thirty Years' War .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was thus under Castilian leadership that the reconquest was completed, and it was the Castilian nobility that formed the nucleus of the class of feudal magnates-the grandees-who were the ruling class of Spain for centuries after the reconquest.
  • Spain News - Breaking World Spain News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Dissidents of the Right consist of the old Carlist party, dormant during the last years of the reign of Isabel II, but which developed extraordinary vigour under the Republic and the period of extreme Liberalism , maintaining a civil war .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Democracy was restored in 1978 in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy.^ Spanish constitution dates from 1978, which established Spain as a parliamentary monarchy.
  • Spain - Economic analysis of government's policies, investment climate and political risk. 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.mkeever.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The political form of the Spanish State is the Parliamentary Monarchy (article 1.3 SC).
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ His successor as head of state, Juan Carlos I , restored the monarchy with his accession to the throne; a new constitution in 1978 established a constitutional monarchy.
  • Spain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.In 1986, Spain joined the European Union; experiencing a cultural renaissance and steady economic growth.^ Spain joined NATO in 1982 and the European Community in 1986.
  • Spain -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Since 1986, Spain has been a member of the European Union.
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1986 Spain became a member of the European Union and transferred the exercise of certain domains and State powers.
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

Prehistory and pre-Roman peoples

.Archaeological research at Atapuerca indicates the Iberian Peninsula was populated by hominids 1.2 million years ago.^ Finally, 110 organic research project proposals were presented and only 24 were approved; EUR 2.1 million were spent in three years.

[11] Modern humans first arrived in Iberia, from the north on foot, about 32,000 years ago.[12] .The best known artifacts of these prehistoric human settlements are the famous paintings in the Altamira cave of Cantabria in northern Spain, which were created about 15,000 BCE by cro-magnons.^ These attempts merely led (1718) to the formation of the Quadruple Alliance , which in 1720 imposed upon Spain a but slightly more favorable settlement in Italy.
  • Spain News - Breaking World Spain News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Basques may be descended from the prehistoric humans whose art has been preserved in the caves at Altamira.
  • Spain News - Breaking World Spain News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]
.Archaeological and genetic evidence strongly suggests that the Iberian Peninsula acted as one of three major refugia from which northern Europe was repopulated following the end of the last ice age.^ These three rebellious states, to which the divisions of the peninsula had been reduced, completed the Reconquest; they were not united, to form Iberian national unity, until three centuries later.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They were repaid by the confidence of the king, and the period which includes the reign of Fernando and lasts till the end of the I 4th century was the golden age of their history in Spain.

^ Christmas is officially coming to an end for another year, with the last of the major events on Wednesday - Three Kings Day.
  • Alltop - Top Spain News 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC spain.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.The two main historical peoples of the peninsula were the Iberians and the Celts, the former inhabiting the Mediterranean side from the northeast to the southwest, the latter inhabiting the Atlantic side, in the north and northwest part of the peninsula.^ The kingdom of Spain is the main country on the Iberian Peninsula , which it shares with Portugal and the British-dependent territory Gibraltar .
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These were the Iberians, who were divided into Iberians proper and Tartesians; the latter, in the South; the former, in the North.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Spanish Peninsula has also been called the Iberian, from its original inhabitants, and (by synecdoche) the Pyrenean, from the mountains which bound it on the north.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

In the inner part of the peninsula, where both groups were in contact, a mixed, distinctive culture—known as Celtiberian—was present. .In addition, Basques occupied the western area of the Pyrenees mountains.^ The Basques on either side of the Western Pyrenees dissatisfied with Frankish rule, rebelled on several occasions.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the e~ast of the Basques, along the line of the Pyrenees, were others of kindred blood, who also kept a rude freedom on the slopes and in the valleys of the mountains.

.Other ethnic groups existed along the southern coastal areas of present day Andalusia.^ Cicerone - Walking in the Algarve (1995) Walking guide to Southern Portugal with 34 coastal and inland day walks described.

.Among these southern groups there grew the earliest urban culture in the Iberian Peninsula, that of the semi-mythical southern city of Tartessos (perhaps pre-1100 BC) in the location of present-day triangle between Seville, Huelva and Jerez.^ These three rebellious states, to which the divisions of the peninsula had been reduced, completed the Reconquest; they were not united, to form Iberian national unity, until three centuries later.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These colourful photos are from the indoor market just off La Rambla in Barcelona.There's far more choice for your '5 a day' here!
  • Alltop - Top Spain News 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC spain.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ There are many great reasons to speak Spanish, the language is becoming so valuable these days.
  • Synergy Spanish, lessons that makes it easy to learnSpanish quickly 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.synergyspanish.com [Source type: General]

The flourishing trade in gold and silver between the people of Tartessos and Phoenicians and Greeks is documented in the history of Strabo and in the biblical book of king Solomon. .Between about 500 BC and 300 BC, the seafaring Phoenicians and Greeks founded trading colonies all along the Spanish Mediterranean coast.^ With Spain, Philip had also inherited Sicily, Naples, Sardinia, Milan, Franche-Comt, the Netherlands, and all the Spanish colonies.
  • Spain News - Breaking World Spain News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I ordered Rocket Spanish about six months ago I've gone through all of the lessons.
  • Rocket Spanish Reviews and Success Stories 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.rocketlanguages.com [Source type: General]

^ Your course really is the easiest way I have found to make sense of all the Spanish I knew but didn't know how to put together.

.Carthaginians briefly took control of much of the Mediterranean coast in the course of the Punic Wars, until they were eventually defeated and replaced by the Romans.^ Leovigild drove the imperial officers from Seville and Cordova, though they still retained control of the coast.

^ As a result, the Almoravids took over Moorish Spain, but they in turn were replaced (c.1174) by the Almohads , another Berber dynasty.
  • Spain News - Breaking World Spain News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Roman victory over Hannibal in the second of the Punic Wars (218-201 B.C.) resulted in the expulsion of the Carthaginians.
  • Spain News - Breaking World Spain News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]

Roman Empire and the Gothic Kingdom

.During the Second Punic War, an expanding Roman Empire captured Carthaginian trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast from roughly 210 BC to 205 BC, leading to eventual Roman control of nearly the entire Iberian Peninsula; this lasted over 500 years, bound together by law, language, and the Roman road.^ The Carthaginians had extended their influence no great distance from the eastern coast and their Roman successors had all the work to do.

^ At seven biannual congresses organized by SEAE during the last 15 years, more than 1,000 papers have been presented and published.

^ But Rome had already her eyes on the Spanish men and mines, and, in the second Punic War, drove Carthage finally and completely out of the Peninsula (201 B.C.).

[14]
The base Celt and Iberian population remained in various stages of Romanisation, and local leaders were admitted into the Roman aristocratic class.[note .7][13] Hispania served as a granary for the Roman market, and its harbors exported gold, wool, olive oil, and wine.^ They usually produce for external markets (the European Union and - in the oil and wine sector - the United States and Japan).

^ The most relevant processing industries deal with vegetable production, wine and olive oil.

.Agricultural production increased with the introduction of irrigation projects, some of which remain in use.^ Although the introduction of agri-environmental support measures for organic production through the Common Agricultural Policy came later than in other EU countries.

^ The money will be used for promotion, communication and the marketing of DTT. In addition some of the money will be used for market surveys and to help with technical areas concerning products and services.
  • DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting - Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.dvb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Emperors Trajan, Theodosius I, and the philosopher Seneca were born in Hispania.^ The emperor Trajan , indeed, and his relative and successor Hadrian , were born in Spain, but they were both of Roman stock and Roman training.

[note 8]
.Christianity was introduced into Hispania in the 1st century CE and it became popular in the cities in the 2nd century CE.[13] Most of Spain's present languages and religion, and the basis of its laws, originate from this period.^ In the eleventh century the Cluniac Reform was introduced into Spain.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1809, Joseph Bonaparte, the intruded occupant of the Throne, divided Spain into 38 departments, and the present division, into 49 provinces, was legally enacted in 1834.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The present civil code was put into force on the 1st of May 1889 for the whole kingdom.

[14] .Rome's loss of jurisdiction in Hispania began in 409, when the Germanic Suevi and Vandals, together with the Sarmatian Alans crossed the Rhine and ravaged Gaul until the Visigoths drove them into Iberia that same year.^ He destroyed the Alans, and drove the Vandals and Suebi into the north-west.

The Suevi established a kingdom in what is today modern Galicia and northern Portugal.
.The Alans' allies, the Hasdingi Vandals, established a kingdom in Gallaecia, too, occupying largely the same region but extending farther south to the Duero river.^ Roman province of the same name extending from the Bay of Biscay to the line of the Duero, from the ocean to the foot of the mountains of Navarre.

.The Silingi Vandals occupied the region that still bears a form of their name – Vandalusia, modern Andalusia, in Spain.^ In Andalusia and Murcia the bull-fight still holds first place; in Valencia the enthusiasm for it is not so great, and still less in Catalonia , Aragón , and other regions.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Vandals , after establishing themselves in Baetica, to which they gave the name of Vandalusia (Andalusia), passed on into Africa , while the Visigoths hemmed in the Suevi in Galicia until the latter were completely brought under control.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Source: Digitag Item added: 27th March 2007 First Regional licence awarded The Government of Andalusia, in southern Spain, has awarded the first DTT licences, with regional coverage.
  • DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting - Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.dvb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Byzantines established an enclave, Spania, in the south, with the intention of reviving the Roman empire throughout Iberia. Eventually, however, Hispania was reunited under Visigothic rule.

Muslim Iberia

.In the 8th century, nearly all of the Iberian Peninsula was conquered (711–718) by Muslim armies (see Moors) from North Africa.^ The Spanish Peninsula has also been called the Iberian, from its original inhabitants, and (by synecdoche) the Pyrenean, from the mountains which bound it on the north.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These three rebellious states, to which the divisions of the peninsula had been reduced, completed the Reconquest; they were not united, to form Iberian national unity, until three centuries later.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the last years of the 8th and begiiining of the 9th century, Charlemagne and Louis the Pius began conquering the north-east of Spain, which the Arabs had occupied as early as 713.

These conquests were part of the expansion of the Umayyad Islamic Empire.[note .9] Only a number of areas in the mountainous north of the Iberian Peninsula managed to resist the initial invasion and they were the starters of the Reconquista.^ The capture of Seville resulted in the dissolution of the central junta, and the Peninsula was only saved from final submission by the obstinate resistance of Wellington in Portugal and by dissensions among the French.

^ They are to be sought for along the line of the mountains of the north.

^ The Spanish Peninsula has also been called the Iberian, from its original inhabitants, and (by synecdoche) the Pyrenean, from the mountains which bound it on the north.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.These areas roughly correspond to modern Asturias, Cantabria, Navarre, northern Aragon and northern Catalonia.^ In these last, however, the prevailing frtut-trees are those of central Europe, and above all the apple , which is very extensively cultivated in Asturias, the Basque Provinces and Navarre.

^ The northern provinces, especially Guip6zcoa and Biscay, Navarre and Oviedo, have followed in the wake of Catalonia for linen and cotton industries and for paper-mills.

^ The roads which wind through the Pyrenees in northern Aragon, Navarre and Catalonia had long been the channels of an important traffic, although great inconvenience was caused by the snow which blocks the passes in winter.

.Under Islam, Christians and Jews were recognised as "peoples of the book", and were free to practice their religion, but faced a number of mandatory discriminations and penalties as dhimmis.^ The prevalence of predial slavery in Aragon and Valencia can be largely explained by the number of Mudjares, that is Mahommedans living under Christian rule, and of Moriscoes converted Mohammedans.

[15] Conversion to Islam proceeded at a steadily increasing pace. The muladies (Muslims of ethnic Iberian origin) are believed to have comprised the majority of the population of Al-Andalus by the end of the 10th century.[16][17]
La Giralda, the bell tower of Seville Cathedral.
The Muslim community in the Iberian peninsula was itself diverse and beset by social tensions. .The Berber people of North Africa, who had provided the bulk of the invading armies, clashed with the Arab leadership from the Middle East.^ It was the rule of a strong man who made, and kept under his own control, a janissary army of slaves from all nations, Christian mercenaries from the north, Berbers and negroes from Africa.

^ In the last years of the 8th and begiiining of the 9th century, Charlemagne and Louis the Pius began conquering the north-east of Spain, which the Arabs had occupied as early as 713.

[note .10] Over time, large Moorish populations became established, especially in the Guadalquivir River valley, the coastal plain of Valencia, the Ebro River valley and (towards the end of this period) in the mountainous region of Granada.^ On the north-east and east, where the edge of the table-land sweeps round in a wide curve , the surface sinks in broad terraces to the valley of the Ebro and the Bay of Valencia, and is crowned by more or less isolated mountains, some of which have been already mentioned.

^ Many of the old irrigation workssuch as those of the plain of Tarragonadate from the time of the Romans, and many others from the Moorish period, while new ones are still being laid out at the present day.

^ The only two important lowland valleys of Spain are those of the Ebro and the Guadalquivir.

[17]
Córdoba, the capital of the caliphate, was the largest, richest and most sophisticated city in western Europe.[note 11] Mediterranean trade and cultural exchange flourished. Muslims imported a rich intellectual tradition from the Middle East and North Africa. Muslim and Jewish scholars played an important part in reviving and expanding classical Greek learning in Western Europe. The Romanized cultures of the Iberian peninsula interacted with Muslim and Jewish cultures in complex ways, thus giving the region a distinctive culture.[17] .Outside the cities, where the vast majority lived, the land ownership system from Roman times remained largely intact as Muslim leaders rarely dispossessed landowners, and the introduction of new crops and techniques led to a remarkable expansion of agriculture.^ It was the first city outside of Italy which obtained such a municipal charter, without the usual implantation of Roman citizens (either poor men needing land or discharged veteran soldiers) from Italy.

^ In the majority of cases the conversion had occurred so long ago that the memory of the time when they were Mahommedans was lost, and multitudes of the children of Mudjares remained.

^ But the most extensive and interesting Tertiary accumulations are those of the great lakes which in Oligocene and Miocene time spread over so large an expanse of the table-land.

.However, by the 11th century, Muslim holdings had fractured into rival Taifa kingdoms, allowing the small Christian states the opportunity to greatly enlarge their territories and consolidate their positions.^ By the beginning of the 11th century the leading place among the Christian kings had been taken by Sancho the Sancho El Mayor (the Great) of Navarre.

^ After its fleeting day of glory, the Caliphate fell into a rapid decay, until it was broken up into more than twenty states known as the Kingdom of Taifas.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The 10th century and the first years of the 11th saw a great set-back of the Christian revival.

[17] .The arrival of the North African Muslim ruling sects of the Almoravids and the Almohads restored unity upon Muslim holdings, with a stricter, less tolerant application of Islam, and saw a revival in Muslim fortunes, but after more than a century of successes, including invading the north of the country, finally fell to the increasing military strength of a Christian alliance.^ "I have learned more from your programs than all the different programs I've bought including all three Pimsleur programs."

^ It is the only Spanish member of the Trans European Law Firms Alliance (TELFA), one of the most important networks of independent law, present in more than 27 countries.
  • List of Attorneys 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.embusa.es [Source type: Original source]

^ In Madrid, the regional government will finance up to 50% of costs in areas covering more than 20 flats and 20-30% of costs in areas with less than 20 flats.
  • DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting - Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.dvb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]

Fall of Muslim rule and unification

Ávila city walls
.The Reconquista ("Reconquest") is the centuries-long period of expansion of Spain's Christian kingdoms; Reconquista is viewed as beginning with the battle of Covadonga in 722 and being concurrent with the period of Muslim rule on the Iberian peninsula.^ The kingdom of Spain is the main country on the Iberian Peninsula , which it shares with Portugal and the British-dependent territory Gibraltar .
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Earliest Historic Period.Phoenician traders probably reached Spain long before our historical knowledge of the Peninsula begins, possibly as early as the 11th century B.C. The Ph One of their earlier settlements, Gades (now ki Cadiz), has been called the oldest town in the world (or in Europe) which has kept a continuity of life and name from its first origin.

^ In the fifth century the see was made metropolitan , and after the Reconquest it became the principal see of the Spains.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Christian army's victory over the Muslim forces led to the creation of the Christian Kingdom of Asturias along the northern coastal mountains.^ The greatest destiny was preserved for the Christian remnant which stood out to the west of the Basques, in the mountains of Asturias.

.Muslim armies had also moved north of the Pyrenees, but they were defeated at the Battle of Poitiers in France.^ It was henceforth ~ of a small state lying across the Pyrenees, dependent on France, and doomed inevitably to be partitioned between its great neighbors to north and south.

.Subsequently, they retreated to more secure positions south of the Pyrenees with a frontier marked by the Ebro and Duero valleys in Spain.^ Rother - Pyrenees 1 - Spain (2003) 50 selected valley and mountain walks in the Central Pyrenees on the Spanish side of the border.

^ The only two important lowland valleys of Spain are those of the Ebro and the Guadalquivir.

^ They treated the occupation of Spain as a financial speculation more than as a war for the faith.

.As early as 739 Muslim forces were driven from Galicia, which was to host one of medieval Europe's holiest sites, Santiago de Compostela.^ University of Santiago de Compostela, 1940.
  • List of Attorneys 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.embusa.es [Source type: Original source]

^ Santiago de Compostela , for example.

^ University of Santiago de Compostela, 1956.
  • List of Attorneys 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.embusa.es [Source type: Original source]

.A little later Frankish forces established Christian counties south of the Pyrenees; these areas were to grow into kingdoms, in the north-east and the western part of the Pyrenees.^ But B i ion before the end was reached all had been persuaded or XpUS forced into Christianity, had ceased to be Mudjares, Moriscoes.

^ The present civil code was put into force on the 1st of May 1889 for the whole kingdom.

^ Under Fernando, they advanced to of the the banks of the Tagus in the south, and into Valencia Christian on the south-east.

These territories included Navarre, Aragon and Catalonia.[18]
In 842, another group of Germanic tribe, Vikings or Norsemen, invaded the peninsula. They attacked Cadiz in 844.
.The breakup of Al-Andalus into the competing Taifa kingdoms helped the expanding Christian kingdoms.^ One of them, al- Mamun , even sought Fernandos help to regain his throne in Morocco, and ceded a suburb of the city to his Christian allies.

^ After its fleeting day of glory, the Caliphate fell into a rapid decay, until it was broken up into more than twenty states known as the Kingdom of Taifas.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The capture of Toledo in 1085 was soon followed by the completion of the Christian powers reconquest of Spain's northern half.^ Thus was the progress of the Reconquest favoured by circumstances; it would have been completed in the thirteenth century, had not divisions and discords among the Christians impeded it.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

[note .12] After a Muslim resurgence in the 12th century, the great Moorish strongholds in the south fell to Christian Spain in the 13th century—Córdoba in 1236 and Seville in 1248—leaving only the Muslim enclave of Granada as a tributary state in the south.^ The influences which by the 13th century had abolished serfdom in western Spain were all at work before the reign of Ramiro II. In spite of revolts and of fratricidal struggles a state was formed.

^ By the beginning of the 11th century the leading place among the Christian kings had been taken by Sancho the Sancho El Mayor (the Great) of Navarre.

^ A part of the work of christianizing the Spain of the 13th century, and not the least part, was done by the monks of Cluny introduced by the French wife of Alphonso VI. To them was due the impulse given to the reform of the church, and to education.

[19]
.Marinid invasions from north Africa in the 13th and 14th centuries failed to re-establish Muslim rule.^ The king accordingly proposed to set aside the Salic Law and re-establish the ancient Spanish law of succession, which admitted females , failing male issues.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For them, as for the Jews, the 13th and 14th centuries were a golden age.

.Also in the 13th century, the Crown of Aragon, formed by Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia and the Balearic Islands expanded its reach across the Mediterranean to Sicily.^ Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia by arms.

^ Barcelona, Tarragona and Lrida (the old principality of Catalonia), and of Castellon de la Plana, Valencia and Alicante (the old kingdom of Valencia), and, in the Mediterranean, that of the Balearic Islands (the old kingdom of li.Iajorca).

^ Madrid, Valencia, Canaries Islands and Catalonia are the regions where DTT is most widely watched.
  • DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting - Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.dvb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20] Around this time the universities of Palencia (1212/1263) and Salamanca (1218/1254) were established; among the earliest in Europe. The Black Death of 1348 and 1349 devastated Spain.[21]
.In 1469, the crowns of the Christian kingdoms of Castile and Aragon were united by the marriage of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon.^ The marriage united the crowns in 1479, .

^ His marriage with Isabella united the crowns.

^ If now we look at the internal history of Spain from the conclusion of the period of the reconquest, which may be put in the middle of the 13th century down to the union of the crowns of Castile and of Aragon by the marriage of Ferdinand Cbi latlanand Isabel in 1469, it will be found to be occupied ~zatlonof with two great processes.

.In 1478 began the final stage of the conquest of Canary Islands and in 1492, these united kingdoms captured Granada, ending the last remnant of a 781-year presence of Islamic rule in Iberia.^ Member of the Madrid and Canary Islands bar association for the last 6 years.
  • List of Attorneys 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.embusa.es [Source type: Original source]

^ The conquest was begun by Hamilcar Barca, and extended as far as the Ebro; then, too, began that struggle of the Spaniards for independence which was to last until the nineteenth century of the Christian Era .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the regency the Cuban Insurrection, and that of the Philippines , gave rise to the war with the United States , which led to the loss of the last remnants of Spain's colonial empire.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

The Treaty of Granada guaranteed religious tolerance toward Muslims.[22]
.The year 1492 also marked the arrival in the New World of Christopher Columbus, during a voyage funded by Isabella.^ The voyage of Columbus had unforeseen consequences which led to diplomatic difficulties with Portugal, and the treaty of Tordesillas in 1494, which defined the respective spheres of influence of the two powers in the New World and in Asia.

^ Extensive DVB-H services at the 3GSM 2007 World Congress Four dedicated DVB-H multiplexes are planned to be in operation during this years World GSM Congress in Barcelona.
  • DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting - Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.dvb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The voyage of Columbus Spanish ~n 1492, and the intervention of Ferdinand in the History great conflict of France, the empire and the papacy alter 1479.

.That same year, Spain's Jews were ordered to convert to Catholicism or face expulsion from Spanish territories during the Spanish Inquisition.^ The chief exporters to Spain (in the same order) are Great Britain, France, Cuba, Germany and Portugal.

^ During this period the Jews in Spain became very numerous and acquired great power; they were not only the physicians, but also the treasurers of the kings.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But the history of the persecution and expulsion of the Jews is the same everywhere except in date.

[23] Not long after, Muslims were also expelled under the same conditions.[note 13][24]
.As Renaissance New Monarchs, Isabella and Ferdinand centralized royal power at the expense of local nobility, and the word España, whose root is the ancient name Hispania, began to be commonly used to designate the whole of the two kingdoms.^ Martin IV having excommunicated Pedro III, the Aragónese nobles took advantage of the fact to extend their privileges at the expense of the royal power.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ferdinand re-established the ancient churches and sees of Jaén , Cordova (where the great mosque became the cathedral ), and Seville, and began the erection of the magnificent cathedrals of Burgos and Toledo.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Each of the two island groups forms one of the forty-nine provinces of the kingdom, although only the first named belongs geographically to Spain.

[24] .With their wide-ranging political, legal, religious and military reforms, Spain emerged as the first world power.^ World Wide News Events - War Ends in Spain Madrid - the stronghold of the Red forces surrenders without firing a shot.
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^ World-Wide News Events: Naples, Italy 20,000 Italian troops given hero s welcome on return from fighting w/ Franco s forces in Spain.
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^ The Spaniard became the swordsman and executioner of the counter-Reformation, because the power of the House of Austria depended on the imposition of religious unity in Europe.

Imperial Spain

Spanish Empire
.The unification of the crowns of Aragon and Castile laid the basis for modern Spain and the Spanish Empire.^ One of the first measures adopted by them in Castile, before the union with Aragon, was to stop the nomination of foreigners to Spanish benefices by the pope.

^ Medieval Spain divides itself into three con quistasthat of Castile (much the most considerable), that of Portugal, and that of Aragon.

[25] .Spain was Europe's leading power throughout the 16th century and most of the 17th century, a position reinforced by trade and wealth from colonial possessions.^ This tragedy, which rightly or wrongly aroused the most widespread indignation throughout Europe, produced a ministerial crisis in Spain.

^ He commented, “Spain is leading the DTT take-up in Europe following the sales of set-top-boxes increasing over recent months”.
  • DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting - Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.dvb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Andalusia, Murcia, Valencia, Catalonia and the Balearic Islands were subject to their raids throughout the whole of the 16th and 17th centuries.

.Spain reached its apogee during the reigns of the first two Spanish HabsburgsCharles I (1516–1556) and Philip II (1556–1598).^ Each of the two island groups forms one of the forty-nine provinces of the kingdom, although only the first named belongs geographically to Spain.

^ He was aucceeded by his grandson Charles of Habsburg, and when Charles was elected to the empire in 15f9 Spain was dragged into the wars and politics of central Europe.

^ The process did not cease, but, during the reign of Isabella the Catholic (1474-1504) until the death of her husband Ferdinand in 1516, was carried, not to completion, but to the stopping place at which it was destined to rest for two centuries.

.This period also saw the Italian Wars, the revolt of the comuneros, the Dutch revolt, the Morisco revolt, clashes with the Ottomans, the Anglo-Spanish war and wars with France.^ [World Wide News - Spanish Civil War] Amposta - Fighting scenes on Catalonian front with Italian legionnaires attacking Loyalist positions.
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^ World At War, R3 German & Italian troops in Spanish civil war fighting.
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^ [Worldwide News Events - Spanish Civil War Refugees in Luchon] Spanish refugees cross the Pyrenees at Luchon, France.
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[26]
.The Spanish Empire expanded to include great parts of the Americas, islands in the Asia-Pacific area, areas of Italy, cities in Northern Africa, as well as parts of what are now France, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands.^ Charles V , attracted to Italy by the ancient strife with France for the possession of the Italian states, and to Germany by his inheritance of the imperial Throne from his grandfather Maximilian, was more the Emperor of Germany than the King of Spain, and completely diverted Spanish policy from America and Africa.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The most important of these islands formed what is now Galicia and the North of Portugal , with parts of the Provinces of Cáceres, Salamanca, and Zamora.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This was denounced at Rome as a unilateral assertion on the part of the Spanish government of an authority which, under the concordat, belonged to the Holy See as well.

It was the first empire about which it was said that the sun never set.
.This was an age of discovery, with daring explorations by sea and by land, the opening-up of new trade routes across oceans, conquests and the beginnings of European colonialism.^ AVE trains run at up to 186 mph over the new line between Madrid & Malaga, the final section of which opened on 24 December 2007.
  • How to travel by train from London to Spain:  Madrid, Barcelona,Seville... 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ The foreign trade of the country is of course carried on mainly by sea, and of the land commerce by far the largest proportion is with or through France.

^ An activity playground/tent will be open to children up to 12yrs of age in Lloret until 4th Jan.
  • Alltop - Top Spain News 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC spain.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.Along with the arrival of precious metals,[note 14] spices, luxuries, and new agricultural plants, Spanish and other explorers brought back knowledge from the New World, playing a leading part in transforming European understanding of the globe.^ World Wide News Events - Catalonia, Spain Spanish Civil War, Battle for Barcelona and refugees, troops across fields.
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^ Since being back in Australia I found a Colombian lady teaching Spanish so have been using her services, but your course far surpasses any other course I have come across.
  • Rocket Spanish Reviews and Success Stories 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.rocketlanguages.com [Source type: General]

^ There are also some other publishing companies (Icaria, MundiPrensa, Eumedia and others) that have brought out organic farming books in Spanish.

[27] The cultural efflorescence witnessed is now referred to as the Spanish Golden Age. .The rise of humanism, the Protestant Reformation and new geographical discoveries raised issues addressed by the influential intellectual movement now known as the School of Salamanca.^ Castelar, too, raised his eloquent protest against popular risings and barrack, conspiracies.

A sixteenth century Spanish galleon.
.In the late 16th century and first half of the 17th century, Spain was confronted by unrelenting challenges from all sides.^ All this also did not bear its full frOit till later times, but by the 17th century it had made Spain one of the two most beggarly nations in Europe the other being Portugal.

^ Converting shared antenna distribution systems, which are common in Spain, is a challenge because not all neighbours are prepared to pay for it.
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^ Spain, after intervening on the side of Catholicism in all the conflicts of the European states, now saw herself an object of ambition to foreigners.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Barbary pirates under the aegis of the rapidly growing Ottoman empire, disrupted life in many coastal areas through their slave raids and renewed the threat of an Islamic invasion.^ Under the influence of Maria Christina Ferdinand VII. formally promulgated it Isabella IL, at the close of his life, after some hesitation, and Queen, amid many intrigues.

^ In 1125 he carried out a great raid through Mahommedan Spain, camping in its midst for months, and returning with many thousands of the Christian rayahs, who, under the name of Mozrabes, had hitherto continued to live under Moslem rule.

[note .15] This at a time when Spain was often at war with France in Italy and elsewhere.^ In 1497 Ferdinand, with the support of his wife, Foreign entered on those wars of Italy in which the Spanish Po1k~ of regular soldiers first gained their reputation, and Ferdinand which made Spain for a time the dominant power andisabella.

^ Philip was consequently drawn Spain and into intervention in the religious wars of France the Nether- (q.v.

^ Spain had to pay a monthly subsidy of six million francs, and to enforce strict neutrality upon Portugal, this involving war with England.

.The Protestant Reformation schism from the Catholic Church dragged the kingdom ever more deeply into the mire of religiously charged wars.^ After its fleeting day of glory, the Caliphate fell into a rapid decay, until it was broken up into more than twenty states known as the Kingdom of Taifas.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Philip was consequently drawn Spain and into intervention in the religious wars of France the Nether- (q.v.

^ In Andalusia the downfall of the Almorvides had War with opened the way to the Almohdes, or followers of theAlmothe Mabdi, an even more bigoted religious sect than hades, the other.

.The result was a country forced into ever expanding military efforts across Europe and in the Mediterranean.^ In Spain these measures came into force later than in other EU countries (only in 1995).

[28] .During the 17th century, the Spanish Catholic church kept nearly 20% of the land in the kingdom, and the Castilian clergy were as much as 10% of adult males.^ The Reconquest All the elements of the Spanish People already existed in the Kingdom of the Catholic Goths ; the Latinized Celtibarian race, or Hispano-Romans, the Gothic element, and the Catholic faith .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In a country noted for its fanatical loyalty to the Crown and the Church, the kingship was to be deprived of all power and influence, and the clergy to be excluded as such from Spanish all share in legislation.

^ Finane.Spanish finance passed - through many vicissitudes during tue 19th century.

[29]
.By the middle decades of a war- and plague-ridden 17th century Europe (see Great Plague of Seville),[29] the effects of the strain began to show.^ Railways have made great advance since the middle of the 19th century.

^ Ferdinand re-established the ancient churches and sees of Jaén , Cordova (where the great mosque became the cathedral ), and Seville, and began the erection of the magnificent cathedrals of Burgos and Toledo.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The church and the university were the great promoters of the effort to secure religious unity which began in the 14th and produced its full effects in the 17th century.

[note .16] The Spanish Habsburgs had enmeshed the country in the continent-wide religious-political conflicts.^ Pro DTT Association launches campaign The Pro DTT Association formed by the major Spanish TV operators, has launched a country wide advertising campaign to boost the take-up of DTT in Spain.
  • DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting - Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.dvb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The political and religious development which we have outlined above resulted in Spanish national unity, and explains the character of Spain as a Catholic nation.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Leovigild restored the political unity of the Peninsula, subduing the Suevians, but the religious divisions of the country, reaching even the royal family, brought on a civil war .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

These conflicts drained it of resources and undermined the European economy generally. .Spain managed to hold on to most of the scattered Habsburg empire, and help the imperial forces of the Holy Roman Empire reverse a large part of the advances made by Protestant forces, but it was finally forced to recognise the separation of Portugal (with whom it had been united in a personal union of the crowns from 1580 to 1640) and the Netherlands, and eventually suffered some serious military reverses to France in the latter stages of the immensely destructive, Europe-wide Thirty Years War.^ "Our experience was due in large part to being able to communicate in Spanish" My wife and I belong to Friendship Force International, which is an organization that sponsors home hosting.

^ Great Britain, France, the United States, Germany and Portugal, named in the order of their importance, are the chief consumers of Spanish exports.

^ This good feeling was unfortunately not destined to be of long duration; and in the following year the struggle between the antagonistic forces in Spain once more produced a perilous crisis.

[30]
El Escorial, built in Philip II's reign.
.In the latter half of the 17th century, Spain went into a gradual relative decline, during which it surrendered a number of small territories to France.^ Philip was consequently drawn Spain and into intervention in the religious wars of France the Nether- (q.v.

^ Communications.The communications in Spain were greatly improved during the 19th century.

^ One party went beyond federalism and proposed to split Spain into cantons.

.However Spain maintained and enlarged its vast overseas empire, which remained intact until the beginning of the 19th century.^ This neutrality was maintained until the close of the 19th century.

^ It is now expected that the introduction of mobile TV in Spain will be delayed until the end of 2008 or the beginning of 2009.
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^ Communications.The communications in Spain were greatly improved during the 19th century.

.The decline culminated in a controversy over succession to the throne which consumed the first years of the 18th century.^ The 10th century and the first years of the 11th saw a great set-back of the Christian revival.

^ The new sovereign was one of the most sincere, and the most successful, of the enlightened despots of the 18th century.

^ In his later years Philip added to all his other burdens a costly intervention in France to support the league and resist the succession of Henry IV. to the throne.

.The War of Spanish Succession, a wide ranging international conflict combined with a civil war, cost Spain its European possessions and its position as one of the leading powers on the Continent.^ Spanish Civil War - related .
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^ At the head of each province is a civil governor, the office being both administrative and political in character, and one of the few the incumbents of which change with the changes of political parties in power.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ [Spanish Civil War] Pan over desert battlefield.
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[31]
.During this war, a new dynasty—the French Bourbons—was installed.^ New York, N.Y. [Communists Picket NYC French Embassy Over Deportation Of Spanish War Refugees] Ca.
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.Long united only by the Crown, a true Spanish state was established when the first Bourbon king Philip V of Spain united the crowns of Castile and Aragon into a single state, abolishing many of the regional privileges (fueros).^ Kings of the Visigoths established in Spain: .

^ As the Marca Hispanica on the cast became the county of Barcelona, so the chiefs of Bardulia became the counts of Castile, then the count of Castile, the rival of the king at Leon, and in time the king of Castile, and head of Christian Spain.

^ Fernando (Ferdinand III.) who was in all ways worthy of his mother, took up the crusading duty of a king of Castile, and Ferdinand continued the advance into Andalusia.

[32]
.The 18th century saw a gradual recovery and an increase in prosperity through much of the empire.^ I didn't memorize as much because it was just too much new content for me, but I was still able to go through all 30 lessons with increasing confidence and satisfaction.
  • Rocket Spanish Reviews and Success Stories 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.rocketlanguages.com [Source type: General]

^ But such commercial prosperity characterized many districts of the empire during the first two centuries of our era.

^ The 3rd and 4th centuries saw a decline in the prosperity of Roman Spain.

The new Bourbon monarchy drew on the French system of modernising the administration and the economy. Enlightenment ideas began to gain ground among some of the kingdom's elite and monarchy. .Military assistance for the rebellious British colonies in the American War of Independence improved Spain's international standing.^ As soon as Bonaparte saw himself involved in a new war with England, he turned to Spain for assistance and extorted a new treaty (Oct.

^ The old colonies of Spain in Mexico and South America took advantage of this conflict to make themselves independent.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ News in Brief [Civil War Anniversary, Spain] (1949) Madrid, Spain Spanish victory parade on anniversary of Civil War, military march past large crowds.
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[33]

Napoleonic rule and its consequences

Second of May, 1808: the people revolt against the Napoleonic regime
.In 1793, Spain went to war against the new French Republic, which had overthrown and executed its Bourbon king, Louis XVI.^ Louis Philippe , king of the French, saw in.

^ In his time the French Revolution broke out, and the Spanish Bourbons went so far as to ally themselves eventually with that Revolutionary France which had beheaded Louis XVI. The Aranda ministry, having overthrown that of Floridablanca, was in turn overthrown by Don Manuel Godoy, the queen's favourite no less than the king's, who made the Treaty of S. Ildefonso, allying Spain with France against England , and leading up to the disaster of Trafalgar (1805).
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Her brother Bermudo, the last of his line, could not live in peace with the new king, and lost his life in the battle of Tamaron, in a war which he had himself provoked.

The war polarised the country in an apparent reaction against the gallicised elites. .Defeated in the field, Spain made peace with France in 1795 and effectively became a client state of that country; the following year, it declared war against Britain and Portugal.^ Great Britain, France, the United States, Germany and Portugal, named in the order of their importance, are the chief consumers of Spanish exports.

^ Theudis, who made his headquarters at Seville, endeavoured to complete his mastery of the diocese of Spain by occupying Mauritania Tingitana, but he was defeated by the The imperial officers at Ceuta.

^ This good feeling was unfortunately not destined to be of long duration; and in the following year the struggle between the antagonistic forces in Spain once more produced a perilous crisis.

.A disastrous economic situation, along with other factors, led to the abdication of the Spanish king in favour of Napoleon's brother, Joseph Bonaparte.^ The king being without issue, the rivalries of France and Austria for the succession began even in his lifetime and led up to the project for the dismemberment of the Spanish monarchy.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The king and queen having sought refuge at Bayonne , Napoleon made them surrender the Crown of Spain to him, intending it for his brother Joseph Bonaparte.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

This foreign puppet monarch was widely regarded with scorn. .The 2nd of May 1808 revolt, was one of many nationalist uprisings against the Napoleonic regime across the country.^ With unemployment across the country nearing 18 per cent and consumer spending dropping, many bullfight fans are cutting back on their hobby.
  • Alltop - Top Spain News 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC spain.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[34] .These revolts marked the beginning of what is known to the Spanish as the War of Independence, and to the British as the Peninsular War.^ Spanish Civil War Aircraft over - Bomb damaged buildings and bullet marks in mosaics - debris on ground.
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^ Yet he was able to recover Minorca and Florida in the War of American Independence , and he finally extorted a treaty wiCi Algiers which put a stop to piratical raids on the Spanish coast.

[35] Napoleon was forced to intervene personally, defeating several badly coordinated Spanish armies and forcing a British army to retreat. .However, further military action by Spanish guerrillas, armies and Wellington's British-Portuguese forces, combined with Napoleon's disastrous invasion of Russia, led to the ousting of the French imperial armies from Spain in 1814, and the return of King Ferdinand VII.^ Napoleonic invasion and other disastrous wars.

^ In 1135 he was Aiphonso crowned at Leon, in the presence of the new king vii., of Navarre, of the counts of Barcelona and Toulouse, Emperor and of other princes, Christian and Mahommedan, in Spain.

^ The combined French and Portuguese frontiers measure 3094 miles.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

[36]
.The French invasion proved disastrous for Spain's economy, and left a deeply divided country that was prone to political instability for more than a century.^ He lost his hold on his slaves and merEnd of the cenaries, whose chiefs had begun to think it would Empire of be more to their interest to divide the country among AJUI ~ themselves.

^ This defeat was the more disastrous because it deprived Spain of the revenues derived from her colonies.

^ Charles IV (1788-1808), even more deficient in ability and character than Charles III, had to suffer the consequences of political errors committed in the preceding reign.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The power struggles of the early 19th century led to the loss of all of Spain's colonies in Latin America, with the exception of Cuba and Puerto Rico.^ The influences which by the 13th century had abolished serfdom in western Spain were all at work before the reign of Ramiro II. In spite of revolts and of fratricidal struggles a state was formed.

^ During the regency the Cuban Insurrection, and that of the Philippines , gave rise to the war with the United States , which led to the loss of the last remnants of Spain's colonial empire.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The merchant navy of Spain, far from decaying through the loss of her colonies in 1898, seems to have been given fresh impetus.

Spanish–American War

.Amid the instability and economic crisis that afflicted Spain in the 19th century there arose nationalist movements in the Philippines and Cuba.^ Communications.The communications in Spain were greatly improved during the 19th century.

^ Finally, in the nineteenth century, there arose the division of laws into political, civil, penal, and laws of procedure.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Spain left with ham mountain after poor Christmas sales and economic crisis .
  • Alltop - Top Spain News 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC spain.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.Wars of independence ensued in those colonies and eventually the United States became involved.^ During the regency the Cuban Insurrection, and that of the Philippines , gave rise to the war with the United States , which led to the loss of the last remnants of Spain's colonial empire.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cortes had guaranteed, and by 6o,ooo,ooo of debts contracted at a high rate of interest, and with the national guarantee , to meet the expenses of the struggle with the colonies and of the war with the United States.

^ The worst result for Spain of his foreign policy was that the example set by the United States excited a desire for independence in the Spanish colonies, and was the direct incitement to the rebellions at the beginning of the I oth century.

.Despite the commitment and ability shown by some military units, they were so mismanaged by the highest levels of command that the Spanish–American War, fought in the Spring of 1898, did not last long.^ United States support of the Spanish dictatorship in our current struggle against totalitarianism has been explained as a matter of military necessity.
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^ MegaVerbs has been specifically designed for students and people with an intermediate to advanced level of Spanish so that they can get to grips with the questions that are always asked in tests and exams.
  • Learn Spanish like a Rocket with Rocket Spanish Premium | Learn to speak Spanish 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC spanishneeds.com [Source type: General]

^ [American Refugees Arrive Home From Spanish Civil War] ca 05Aug36 Large ship into port past camera w/ people at rail.
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."El Desastre" (The Disaster), as the war became known in Spain, helped give impetus to the Generation of 98 who were already conducting much critical analysis concerning the country.^ It has helped us a great deal already in from ordering in restaurants, directions to local amenities and general chit chat to our Spanish neighbors.
  • Rocket Spanish Reviews and Success Stories 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.rocketlanguages.com [Source type: General]

^ Sagasta conducted the first general election in 1886 much after the usual precedents.

^ Spain against his political enemies in Rome, the Spaniards who supported him were already half Romanized.

It also weakened the stability that had been established during Alfonso XII's reign.

20th century

.The 20th century brought little peace; Spain played a minor part in the scramble for Africa, with the colonisation of Western Sahara, Spanish Morocco and Equatorial Guinea.^ In the Great Schism of the West Spain played a great part, chiefly through the influence of the Aragónese , Pedro de Luna ( antipope Benedict XIII ).
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But the temporary cessation of foreign wars brought no real peace to Spain.

^ As the Spaniards named one part of America — Mexico — Nueva España (New Spain), we speak of "the Spains", in the plural, to signify the Spanish possessions.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The heavy losses suffered during the Rif war in Morocco helped to undermine the monarchy.^ During the regency the Cuban Insurrection, and that of the Philippines , gave rise to the war with the United States , which led to the loss of the last remnants of Spain's colonial empire.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.A period of authoritarian rule under General Miguel Primo de Rivera (1923–1931) ended with the establishment of the Second Spanish Republic.^ That is the only official guarantee for consumers that this produce is of this quality and complies with the rules established under Regulation (CEE) 2092/91 .

^ Flags of Mexico & Spanish Republic flying from poles in front outside second floor windows.
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^ Nationalist troops under General Queipo de Llano cheered in Seville.
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.The Republic offered political autonomy to the Basque Country, Catalonia and Galicia and gave voting rights to women.^ This affects all of the planned switchover projects in the regions of Galicia, Castilla y Leon, Andalucia, and the Basque country.
  • DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting - Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.dvb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Besides these political parties there are the Regionalists of Catalonia and the Basque Provinces, whose aim is administrative decentralization.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

Evacuees give the republican salute.
The Spanish Civil War (1936–39) ensued. .Three years later the Nationalist forces, led by General Francisco Franco, emerged victorious with the support of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy.^ His son Enrique (Henry) was, killed by the fall of a tile three years later; and Berengaria, to whom the crown came, sent to Leon for her son Fernando, and abdicated in his favor.

^ Franco greeted by crowd of supporters giving Fascist salutes - Falange banner - Nationalist troops marching.
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^ General Franco inspects fleet at Castellon, Valencia - sailors march in review - Franco tours battleship - departure w/ motorcade through crowd giving Nationalist salute.
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The Republican side was supported by the Soviet Union and Mexico and International Brigades, including the American Abraham Lincoln Brigade, but it was not supported officially by the Western powers due to the British-led policy of Non-Intervention.
.The Spanish Civil War has been called the first battle of the Second World War; under Franco, Spain was neutral in the Second World War though sympathetic to the Axis.^ Spanish Civil War - related .
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^ [Spanish Civil War] Pan over desert battlefield.
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^ On the War Front - Italy - Mussolini presents medals to heroes of the Spanish Civil War.
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[note .17] The conflict had claimed the lives of over 500,000 people[37] and had caused the flight of up to a half-million citizens.^ On the 30th June analogue switch-off is set to take place in 500 municipalities across the country, affecting 3 million people.
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^ If the homes watching DTT services from the pay TV operators are added, DTT penetration goes up to 58%, which amounts to 9 million homes or 23 million people.
  • DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting - Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.dvb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Digital satellite TV is received in 2.16 million homes, up 36.4%, with cable in 760,000, up 12.7%.
  • DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting - Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.dvb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38]
.The only legal party under Franco's regime was the Falange española tradicionalista y de las JONS, formed in 1937; the party emphasised anti-Communism, Catholicism and nationalism.^ I r e often appears under the form dir (aisles de diros = antes de iros), which it is not necessary to explain by de-ire (see H. Schuchardt, Ztschr.f.

^ The Academy of Fine Arts of St. Ferdinand was founded in 1752 under the name of "Real Academia de las tres nobles Artes de S. Fernando".
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The political parties form three groups: Dissidents of the Right, legal parties, and Dissidents of the Left.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

Nonetheless, since Franco's anti-democratic ideology was opposed to the idea of political parties, the new party was renamed officially a National Movement (Movimiento Nacional) in 1949.
.After World War II, Spain was politically and economically isolated, and was kept out of the United Nations until 1955, when due to the Cold War it became strategically important for the U.S. to create a military presence on the Iberian peninsula, next to the Mediterranean Sea and the Strait of Gibraltar, in order to protect southern Europe.^ The Iberian Peninsula is not a linguistic unit.

^ Spain s strategic location makes her valuable to the democratic world as a possible air, naval base & beach head should the east & west ideologies come to a military showdown.
  • Footage Farm: Spanish Civil War 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The kingdom of Spain is the main country on the Iberian Peninsula , which it shares with Portugal and the British-dependent territory Gibraltar .
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

In the 1960s, Spain registered an unprecedented economic growth in what was called the Spanish miracle, which rapidly resumed the long interrupted transition towards a modern industrial economy with a thriving tourism sector and a high degree of human development.
.With Franco's death in November 1975, Juan Carlos assumed the position of King of Spain and head of state in accordance with the law.^ As the Marca Hispanica on the cast became the county of Barcelona, so the chiefs of Bardulia became the counts of Castile, then the count of Castile, the rival of the king at Leon, and in time the king of Castile, and head of Christian Spain.

^ King Juan Carlos of Spain speaks of the new threats from Al Qaeda .
  • Alltop - Top Spain News 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC spain.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Spain is defined at Constitution as a social and democratic State of law whose sovereignty belongs to the Spanish people (articles 1.1 ad 1.2 SC) .
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

.With the approval of the new Spanish Constitution of 1978 and the arrival of democracy, the State devolved autonomy to the regions and created an internal organization based on autonomous communities.^ Under the Constitution of 1978, these provinces are organized into 9 autonomous communities.
  • List of Attorneys 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.embusa.es [Source type: Original source]

^ Spanish, Autonomous Communities and European legislation.
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ States ordinary representation in the Autonomous Community .
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

In the Basque Country, moderate Basque nationalism coexisted with a radical nationalism supportive of the separatist group ETA, which was formed during Franco's rule.
On 23 February 1981, rebel elements among the security forces seized the Cortes and tried to impose a military-backed government. .However, the great majority of the military forces remained loyal to King Juan Carlos, who used his personal authority and addressed the usurpers via national TV as commander in chief to put down the bloodless coup attempt.^ DVB-SH available in Barcelona Major players who have joined forces to form the ‘DVB-SH ecosystem’ are demonstrating live mobile TV using DVB-SH in S-Band at the Mobile World Conference in Barcelona this February.
  • DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting - Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.dvb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ King Juan Carlos of Spain speaks of the new threats from Al Qaeda .
  • Alltop - Top Spain News 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC spain.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Vzquez used the UK as an example of a country where interactive services have taken off and put this down to the fact that interactive functions are the norm for the STB’s being sold.
  • DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting - Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.dvb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 30 May 1982, NATO gained a new member when, following a referendum, the newly democratic Spain joined the alliance.^ But the return of Bonaparte , followed as it was by the fall of the Directory and the establishment of the Consulate, commenced a new epoch for Spain.

.Also in 1982, the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE) came to power, representing the return of a left-wing government after 43 years.^ "My husband just retired from 43 years of teaching high school in May and we decided to learn Spanish and have been studying your course for the past 6 weeks.

^ This wn followed by Godoys return to power, though he left the depart ment of foreign affairs to a subordinate.

^ Face to face with the Spanish people, so strongly attached to their ancient traditions and forms of government, there arose the Constitutional Party, which at first proclaimed no further aim than the establishment of representative government, saving the principle of religious unity.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1986, Spain joined the European Community; what has now become the European Union.^ Spain, after intervening on the side of Catholicism in all the conflicts of the European states, now saw herself an object of ambition to foreigners.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A hacker briefly hijacked Spain's official website for its presidency of the European Union, inserting a large smiling picture of Mr Bean, an official said on Monday.
  • Alltop - Top Spain News 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC spain.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Spain took over the presidency of the European Union on Friday, when the six-month rotating post passed from Sweden to Spain at the stroke of midnight.
  • Alltop - Top Spain News 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC spain.alltop.com [Source type: General]

The PSOE was replaced in government by the Partido Popular (PP) after the latter won the 1996 General Elections; at that point the PSOE had served almost 14 consecutive years in office.
.The Government of Spain has been involved in a long-running campaign against the separatist and terrorist organization ETA ("Basque Homeland and Freedom"), founded in 1959 in opposition to Franco and dedicated to promoting Basque independence through violent means.^ Charles, who believed that the Jesuits had promoted the outbreak, and also that they had organized a murder plot against him, allowed his minister Aranda (q.v.

^ In the centre were the Basques, dwelling on both sides of the Pyrenees, who kept against the Mahommedan the independence they had vindicated against the Visigoth.

.They consider themselves a guerrilla organization while they are listed as a terrorist organization by both the European Union and the United States on their respective watchlists.^ Links to other organs of the State, to Official Journal of the European Union, Official Gazettes of other members of the European Union, Autonomous Communities Gazettes and Provincial Gazettes.
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1986 Spain became a member of the European Union and transferred the exercise of certain domains and State powers.
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These three rebellious states, to which the divisions of the peninsula had been reduced, completed the Reconquest; they were not united, to form Iberian national unity, until three centuries later.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

The current Basque Autonomous government does not endorse ETA's nationalist violence, which has caused over 800 deaths in the past 40 years.

21st century

A Spanish issued euro
.On 1 January 2002, Spain ceased to use the peseta as currency replacing it with the euro, which it shares with 15 other countries in the Eurozone.^ Spain becomes the third country to trial the DVB-T2 system; the others are the UK and Italy.
  • DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting - Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.dvb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its extraordinary lack of population differentiates Spain from every other country possessed of equal natural advantages and an historic civilization.

^ In the production of pod-fruits and kitchen vegetables Spain is ahead of many other countries.

Spain has also seen strong economic growth, well above the EU average, but well publicised concerns issued by many economic commentators at the height of the boom that the extraordinary property prices and high foreign trade deficits of the boom were likely to lead to a painful economic collapse were confirmed by a severe property led recession that struck the country in 2008/9.[39]
.A series of bombs exploded in commuter trains in Madrid, Spain on 11 March 2004. After a five month trial in 2007 it was concluded the bombings were perpetrated by a local Islamist militant group inspired by al-Qaeda.^ GRJ offers five-star upmarket rail-based escorted tours to Spain, including a tour to Barcelona, Madrid and Seville with travel from London by train and a range of departure dates.
  • How to travel by train from London to Spain:  Madrid, Barcelona,Seville... 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ King Juan Carlos of Spain speaks of the new threats from Al Qaeda .
  • Alltop - Top Spain News 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC spain.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ How to travel by train from London to Spain: Madrid, Barcelona, Seville...
  • How to travel by train from London to Spain:  Madrid, Barcelona,Seville... 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

[40] .The bombings killed 191 people and wounded more than 1800, and the intention of the perpetrators may have been to influence the outcome of the Spanish general election, held three days later.^ "I have never seen anyone more interested in helping people to speak a foreign language than making the dollar.

^ It's possible to get from London to Barcelona in a day, although it may cost more and feel longer than the trainhotel option.
  • How to travel by train from London to Spain:  Madrid, Barcelona,Seville... 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Here the culture of the Spanish Arabs reached its greatest splendour, influenced, in great measure, by the Mozarabs, who were more advanced in the sciences and arts.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

[41]
Though initial suspicions focused on the Basque group ETA, evidence soon emerged indicating possible Islamist involvement. Because of the proximity of the election, the issue of responsibility quickly became a political controversy, with the main competing parties PP and PSOE exchanging accusations over the handling of the aftermath.[42] .At the 14 March elections, PSOE, led by José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, obtained a large plurality, enough to form a new cabinet with Rodríguez Zapatero as the new Presidente del Gobierno or prime minister of Spain, thus succeeding the former PP administration.^ But that was enough for a computer hacker's caricature of the prime minister, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, as Mr Bean to spoil Spain's launch week as holder of the European Union's presidency.The beaming face of Rowan Atkinson's bumbling comic fool was transplanted on to the Spanish presidency's website yesterday.Where Zapatero's warm, smiling image should have been reassuring millions of Europeans that they were in his capable… .
  • Alltop - Top Spain News 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC spain.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ For his prime ministers and favourites he had, first, the Conde-Duque de Olivares and then Don Luis de Haro.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ El Mundo has a large front page photo of the Prime Minister with the previous Socialist PM, Felipe González.
  • Alltop - Top Spain News 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC spain.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[43]

Government

Constitution

José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, President of the Government.
The Spanish Constitution of 1978 is the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy. .The constitutional history of Spain dates back to the constitution of 1812. Impatient with the pace of democratic political reforms in 1976 and 1977, Spain's new King Juan Carlos, known for his formidable personality, dismissed Carlos Arias Navarro and appointed the reformer Adolfo Suárez as President of the Government.^ King Juan Carlos of Spain speaks of the new threats from Al Qaeda .
  • Alltop - Top Spain News 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC spain.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Though ruling in the spirit of an enlightened despotism rather than in that of a constitutional government, Seor Maura had succeeded in doing a notable work for Spain.

^ In 1135 he was Aiphonso crowned at Leon, in the presence of the new king vii., of Navarre, of the counts of Barcelona and Toulouse, Emperor and of other princes, Christian and Mahommedan, in Spain.

[44][45] .The resulting general election in 1977 convened the Constituent Cortes (the Spanish Parliament, in its capacity as a constitutional assembly) for the purpose of drafting and approving the constitution of 1978.[46] After a national a referendum on 6 December 1978, 88% of voters approved of the new constitution.^ The result of the new elections to the Cortes, declared on the 26th of April, revealed tendencies unfavourable to the government and even to the dynasty; the large towns returned 34 Republicans.

^ The elections in April resulted in a sweeping Conservative victorythe government secured a majority in the lower house of 88 over all other groups combined.

^ What more could be done would depend on the result of the elections necessitated by ~he dissolution of the Cortes on the 15th of April.

.As a result, Spain is now composed of 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities with varying degrees of autonomy thanks to its Constitution, which nevertheless explicitly states the indivisible unity of the Spanish nation as well as that Spain has today no official religion but all are free to practice and believe as they wish.^ Spanish, Autonomous Communities and European legislation.
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ States ordinary representation in the Autonomous Community .
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ And all Autonomous Communities languages .
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

Branches of government

.Spain is a constitutional monarchy, with a hereditary monarch and a bicameral parliament, the Cortes Generales.^ Constitution and Government .S pain is an hereditary monarchy the constitution of which was voted by the Cortes and became the fundamental law of the 3oth of June 1876.

.The executive branch consists of a Council of Ministers presided over by the President of Government (comparable to a prime minister), nominated and appointed by the monarch and confirmed by the Congress of Deputies following legislative elections.^ They appoint an alcalde or mayor from among themselves to act as president, chief executive officer, and justice of the peace .

^ The Spanish Government confirmed the attack this morning and the Home Office Minister said the hostages had probably been snatched by al-Qaida in the .
  • Alltop - Top Spain News 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC spain.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ The Restored Monarchy, 1874-1900.The first act of Aiphonso was a royal decree confirming the appointment of Canovas del Castillo as prime minister.

.By political custom established by King Juan Carlos since the ratification of the 1978 Constitution, the king's nominees have all been from parties who maintain a plurality of seats in the Congress.^ Fernando (Ferdinand III.) who was in all ways worthy of his mother, took up the crusading duty of a king of Castile, and Ferdinand continued the advance into Andalusia.

^ In the circumstances, Sefior Maura dropped the Suppression Bill, and the king issued an ordinance re-establishing constitutional guarantees in Catalonia.

^ King Juan Carlos of Spain speaks of the new threats from Al Qaeda .
  • Alltop - Top Spain News 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC spain.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.The legislative branch is made up of the Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados) with 350 members, elected by popular vote on block lists by proportional representation to serve four-year terms, and a Senate (Senado) with 259 seats of which 208 are directly elected by popular vote and the other 51 appointed by the regional legislatures to also serve four-year terms.^ The members of Congress ( diputados ) are all elected.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is made up of a president [at present (1910) the Bishop of Madrid-Alcalá ] and 18 members, nine of whom represent the nine ecclesiastical provinces.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Extensive DVB-H services at the 3GSM 2007 World Congress Four dedicated DVB-H multiplexes are planned to be in operation during this years World GSM Congress in Barcelona.
  • DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting - Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.dvb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Spanish nation is organizationally composed in the form of called Estado de las Autonomías ("State of Autonomies"); it is one of the most decentralized countries in Europe, along with Switzerland, Germany and Belgium;[47] for example, all Autonomous Communities have their own elected parliaments, governments, public administrations, budgets, and resources; therefore, health and education systems among others are managed regionally, besides, the Basque Country and Navarre also manage their own public finances based on foral provisions.^ It is, however, noteworthy that Spanish capitalists are, as a class, though exclusive of the Catalans, unduly conservative Hence the capital for the establishment of electrical industries was almost exclusively subscribed in Germany, France, Belgium , Switzerland and the United States, just as, in the 19th century, the railways and mining industries had been mainly financed by British investors, and the Valencian silk industry by French.

^ The Regional Government, along with public TV group CCRTV and two Universities, has launched a state-of-the-art project - T-Ciudadano (T-Citizen) - based on DTT, designed to enable e-government, allowing citizens to contact the administration through their TV sets.
  • DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting - Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.dvb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Spanish railway system at this time communicated with the French at Irun and Portbou, west and east respectively of the Pyrenees; and with the Portuguese at or near Tuy on the northern frontier of Portugal, and near La Fregeneda, Ciudad Rodrigo , Valencia de Alcntara and Badajoz on the E. All the Spanish railways belong to private companies, most of which have received state subventions, and they will fall in to the government mostly at the end of 99 yearS. In granting a concession for a new railway the practice is to give it to the company that offers to construct it with the lowest subvention.

In Catalonia and the Basque Country, a full fledged autonomous police corps replaces some of the State police functions (see Mossos d'Esquadra and Ertzaintza).

Gender equality in Government

As of November 2009, the Government of Spain keeps a balanced gender equality ratio. .Nine out of the 18 members of the Government are women.^ It is made up of a president [at present (1910) the Bishop of Madrid-Alcalá ] and 18 members, nine of whom represent the nine ecclesiastical provinces.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Under the administration of José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, Spain has been described as being "at the vanguard" in gender equality issues and also that "[n]o other modern, democratic, administration outside Scandinavia has taken more steps to place gender issues at the centre of government".[48] The Spanish administration has also promoted gender-based positive discrimination by approving gender equality legislation in 2007 aimed to provide equality between genders in the Spanish political and economic life (Gender Equality Act).^ On the 11th of June a further and still more significant step was taken.

^ Altogether no other country in Europe of equal extent has so great a wealth of species as Spain.

^ The Spanish Constitution (SC) [1] was approved by the Spanish legislative chamber ( Cortes Generales ) on October 31, 1978 , ratified by national referendum on December 6 and sanctioned by the King on December 27.
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

[49][50] However, in the legislative branch, only 127 out of the 350 members of the Congress are women (36,3%). Nowadays, it positions Spain as the 13th country with more women in its lower house. In the Senate, the ratio is even lower, since there are only 79 women out of 263 (30.0%).[51] .The Gender Empowerment Measure of Spain in the United Nations Human Development Report is 0.794, the 12th in the world.^ Rapid TV News reports that mobile TV hasn't developed as expected in Spain because the Telco’s haven't invested sufficiently in 3G networks.
  • DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting - Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.dvb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The political and religious development which we have outlined above resulted in Spanish national unity, and explains the character of Spain as a Catholic nation.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The foreign commerce of Spain rapidly developed in the decade 1882-1892, Great Britain, France and the United States figuring at the head of the imports, Great Britain and France at the head of the exports.

[52]

Administrative divisions

The basic institutional law of the autonomous community is the Statute of Autonomy. .The Statutes of Autonomy establish the denomination of the community according to its historical identity, the limits of their territories, the name and organization of the institutions of government and the rights they enjoy according the constitution.^ As a consequence of the recognition of autonomy at Spanish Constitution, Autonomous Communities can organize: .
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They also may create or modify rights and duties of the citizens, or just organize administration activities affecting only the citizen who has a special relationship with the administration.
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Though the Constitution doesnt impose a model to organize the institutions of the Autonomous Communities, all of them have followed the model set by article 152 SC and theyre governed by a Legislative Assembly, which shall apply the President, and an Executive Council with executive and administrative functions.
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

[53]
The government of all autonomous communities must be based on a division of powers comprising:
  • a Legislative Assembly whose members must be elected by universal suffrage according to the system of proportional representation and in which all areas that integrate the territory are fairly represented;
  • a Government Council, with executive and administrative functions headed by a president, elected by the Legislative Assembly and nominated by the King of Spain;
  • a Supreme Court of Justice, under the Supreme Court of the State, which head the judicial organization within the autonomous community.
.Besides Andalusia, Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia, which identified themselves as nationalities, other communities have also taken that denomination in accordance to their historical regional identity, such as the Valencian Community,[54] the Canary Islands,[55] the Balearic Islands,[56] and Aragon.^ The Peninsula and its adjacent islands are divided into fourteen military districts, or captaincies-general ( capitanias generales ): New Castile, Catalonia , Andalusia , Valencia , Galicia, Aragón , Granada , Old Castile , Estremadura, Navarre , Burgos , The Basque District, the Balearic, and the Canary Islands .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Madrid, Valencia, Canaries Islands and Catalonia are the regions where DTT is most widely watched.
  • DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting - Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.dvb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Andalusia, Murcia, Valencia, Catalonia and the Balearic Islands were subject to their raids throughout the whole of the 16th and 17th centuries.

[57]
.The autonomous communities have wide legislative and executive autonomy, with their own parliaments and regional governments.^ Control of the constitutionality of the legislation of the Autonomous Communities .
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The country is divided in 17 Autonomous Communities, each with its own Parliament and Government.
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Autonomous Communities legislation .
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

.The distribution of powers may be different for every community, as laid out in their Statutes of Autonomy.^ Neither the executive nor the Cortes may interfere with provincial and communal administration, except when the local authorities exceed their legal power to the detriment of public interests.

^ Every commune or municipality has its own elected ayuntamiento , which has complete control over municipal administration, with power to levy and collect taxes.

.There used to be a clear de facto distinction between so called "historic" communities (Basque Country, Catalonia, Galicia, Andalusia) and the rest.^ This affects all of the planned switchover projects in the regions of Galicia, Castilla y Leon, Andalucia, and the Basque country.
  • DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting - Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.dvb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But the distinctions between Class Disnoble and not noble, between town and country, were tinctions.

^ Besides these political parties there are the Regionalists of Catalonia and the Basque Provinces, whose aim is administrative decentralization.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The "historic" ones initially received more functions, including the ability of the regional presidents to choose the timing of the regional elections (as long as they happen no more than four years apart).^ But for an interval of more than twenty-five years they stood apart.

^ YOU will be the one talking to the Spanish guys and girls - everyone loves people who can speak more than one language!
  • Learn Spanish like a Rocket with Rocket Spanish Premium | Learn to speak Spanish 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC spanishneeds.com [Source type: General]

^ This good feeling was unfortunately not destined to be of long duration; and in the following year the struggle between the antagonistic forces in Spain once more produced a perilous crisis.

.As another example, the Basque Country, Navarre and Catalonia have full-range police forces of their own: Ertzaintza in the Basque Country, Policía Foral in Navarre and Mossos d'Esquadra in Catalonia.^ Another rallying-point of the Reconquest was Aragón ; the other two, Navarre and Catalonia, were placed by the circumstances of their origin in peculiar relations with France .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Then all the forces of King Aiphonso under Marshal Quesada gradually closed round the remaindel of the Carlist army in Navarre and in the Basque Provinces at the beginning of 1876.

^ At Roncesvalles they annihilated the forces of Charlemagne , and in 824 another victory secured the independence of the Basques of Pamplona .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Other communities have a more limited force or none at all (like the Policía Autónoma Andaluza[58] in Andalusia or the BESCAM in Madrid).^ Lifetime membership to the Rocket Spanish Learning Lounge, which gives you 24/7 access to other Rocket Spanish learners, all your course materials, notes and more!
  • Learn Spanish like a Rocket with Rocket Spanish Premium | Learn to speak Spanish 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC spanishneeds.com [Source type: General]

^ Maize also is cultivated in all the provinces; nevertheless, its cultivation is limited, since, being a summer crop, it requires irrigation except in the Atlantic provinces, and other products generally yield a more profitable return where irrigation is pursued.

^ In Andalusia the downfall of the Almorvides had War with opened the way to the Almohdes, or followers of theAlmothe Mabdi, an even more bigoted religious sect than hades, the other.

However, the recent amendments made to their respective Statute of Autonomy by a series of "ordinary" Autonomous Communities such as the Valencian Community or Aragon have quite dilluted this original de facto distinction.

Subdivisions

.Autonomous communities are composed of provinces (provincias), which serve as the territorial building blocks for the former.^ In order to make the Embassy list of attorneys easier to handle, it has been divided into sections, grouped by autonomous communities, provinces and cities.
  • List of Attorneys 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.embusa.es [Source type: Original source]

^ Under the Constitution of 1978, these provinces are organized into 9 autonomous communities.
  • List of Attorneys 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.embusa.es [Source type: Original source]

.In turn, provinces are composed of municipalities (municipios).^ Each alcalde is dependent on the governor of the province, and in his turn controls the officials of his own municipal government.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

The existence of these two subdivisions is granted and protected by the constitution, not necessarily by the Statutes of Autonomy themselves. .Municipalities are granted autonomy to manage their internal affairs, and provinces are the territorial divisions designed to carry out the activities of the State.^ They undertook to carry out a general conversion of the consolidated external and internal debts by a considerable reduction of capital and interest, to which the bondholders assented.

[59]
.The current fifty province structure is based—with minor changes—on the one created in 1833 by Javier de Burgos.^ At the head of each province is a civil governor, the office being both administrative and political in character, and one of the few the incumbents of which change with the changes of political parties in power.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The communities of Asturias, Cantabria, La Rioja, the Balearic Islands, Madrid, Murcia and Navarre, having been granted autonomy as single-provinces for historical reasons, are counted as provinces as well.^ Andalusia, Murcia, Valencia, Catalonia and the Balearic Islands were subject to their raids throughout the whole of the 16th and 17th centuries.

^ Navarre forms a single province, with Pamplona for its capital.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Barcelona, Tarragona and Lrida (the old principality of Catalonia), and of Castellon de la Plana, Valencia and Alicante (the old kingdom of Valencia), and, in the Mediterranean, that of the Balearic Islands (the old kingdom of li.Iajorca).

Foreign relations

Spain is a founding member of the European Union in 1993 and signed the Maastricht Treaty.
.After the return of democracy following the death of Franco in 1975, Spain's foreign policy priorities were to break out of the diplomatic isolation of the Franco years and expand diplomatic relations, enter the European Community, and define security relations with the West.^ Spain, after intervening on the side of Catholicism in all the conflicts of the European states, now saw herself an object of ambition to foreigners.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This wn followed by Godoys return to power, though he left the depart ment of foreign affairs to a subordinate.

^ World-Wide News Events: Naples, Italy 20,000 Italian troops given hero s welcome on return from fighting w/ Franco s forces in Spain.
  • Footage Farm: Spanish Civil War 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a member of NATO since 1982, Spain has established itself as a major participant in multilateral international security activities.^ Barat , with 15 houses, established in Spain since 1846.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Visitandines of St. Jeanne Francoise Frémoit de Chantal, established in Spain since 1758.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Members: Owner/Partner Carlos Rivera Mendoza, U.S. Citizen licensed to practice in Spain since 1978.
  • List of Attorneys 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.embusa.es [Source type: Original source]

.Spain's EU membership represents an important part of its foreign policy.^ Apart from the Italian intrigues, the most important foreign affairs of the reign were connected with the relations of Spain with England.

.Even on many international issues beyond western Europe, Spain prefers to coordinate its efforts with its EU partners through the European political cooperation mechanisms.^ Again, some Bascophiles would assert a Basque origin for the name of Spain: Españia , "Land of the Shoulder", because it formed the western shoulder of ancient Europe .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.With the normalization of diplomatic relations with North Korea in 2001, Spain completed the process of universalizing its diplomatic relations.^ Kings of the Visigoths, having relations with Spain, but not established within it Ataulf - -, 410415 Entered the north-east of Spain, murdered at Barcelona.

.Spain has maintained its special identification with Latin America.^ The special development of the vulgar Latin tongue in Spain, and the formation of the three linguistic types just enumerated, were promoted by political circumstances.

.Its policy emphasizes the concept of an Iberoamerican community, essentially the renewal of the historically liberal concept of hispanoamericanismo, or hispanism as it is often referred to in English, which has sought to link the Iberian peninsula with Latin America through language, commerce, history and culture.^ It is very remarkable that the differences of language in the Iberian Peninsula still, partially, correspond to this first distribution of the inhabiting races.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Spain has been an effective example of transition from dictatorship to democracy for formerly non-democratic South American states, as shown in the many trips that Spain's King and Prime Ministers have made to the region.^ The complicated story of the Christian kingdoms of Spain during the next two generations can be best made intelligible by taking the king of Castile as the centre of the Am,nso Viii.

^ The king and queen having sought refuge at Bayonne , Napoleon made them surrender the Crown of Spain to him, intending it for his brother Joseph Bonaparte.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was no wonder that the death of a king who had shown so much capacity for rule, so much unselfish energy and courage, Regency ~ and so many amiable personal qualities, should Queen have made Spaniards and foreigners extremely Christina.

Territorial disputes

Territory claimed by Spain
.Spain claims Gibraltar, a 6 square km Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom in the southernmost part of the Iberian Peninsula.^ The Iberian Peninsula is not a linguistic unit.

^ SPAIN (Espana), a kingdom in the extreme south-west of Europe , comprising about eleven-thirteenths of the Iberian Peninsula, in addition to the Balearic Islands , the Canary Islands , and the fortified station of Ceuta , on the Moroccan coast opposite to Gibraltar .

^ Fauna.The Iberian Peninsula belongs to the Mediterranean sub-region of the Palaearctic region of the animal kingdom.

.Then a Spanish town, it was conquered by an Anglo-Dutch force in 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of the Archduke Charles, pretender to the Spanish throne.^ Ferdinand conquered the Spanish half of Navarre later, and recovered Roussillon from Charles VIII ., the successor of Louis XI. .

^ No attempt was made, during the decade which followed the Spanish-American War , to replace the squadrons destroyed at Manila and Santiago de Cuba .

.The legal situation concerning Gibraltar was settled in 1713 by the Treaty of Utrecht, in which Spain ceded the territory in perpetuity to the British Crown[60] stating that, should the British abandon this post, it would be offered to Spain first.^ He was the first Visigothic king who wore the crown, and it would appear that he threw off all pretence of allegiance to the empire.

^ In the preliminary treaty with Great Britain he ceded the Spanish colony of Trinidad without even consulting the court of Madrid, while he sold Louisiana to the United States in spite of his promire not to alienate it except to Spain.

^ Spain, clearly stipulated that her rule in the New World must be considered at an end, and that the fate of the Philippines would be settled at the Paris negotiations.

Ever since the 1940s Spain has called for the return of Gibraltar. The overwhelming majority of Gibraltarians strongly oppose this, along with any proposal of shared sovereignty.[61] .UN resolutions call on the United Kingdom and Spain, both EU members, to reach an agreement over the status of Gibraltar.^ Fernando now united all the north-west of Spain into the kingdom of Castile and Leon with Gallicia.

[62][63]
.However, the Spanish claim handles in a different way the Rock and the city of Gibraltar, ceded by the Treaty of Utrecht, and, on the other hand, the isthmus that connects the Rock to the Spanish mainland.^ Rock of Gibraltar above Spanish border post.
  • Footage Farm: Spanish Civil War 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If, on the other hand, you order the Hardcopy Version, I will mail Rocket Spanish Premium to you as a 25-CD set within 10-15 working days.
  • Learn Spanish like a Rocket with Rocket Spanish Premium | Learn to speak Spanish 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC spanishneeds.com [Source type: General]

^ Buying connecting train tickets within the UK : Advice on buying tickets from other UK towns & cities to connect with Eurostar .
  • How to travel by train from London to Spain:  Madrid, Barcelona,Seville... 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

Spain notes that this territory was not ceded by said Treaty and therefore asserts that the "occupation of the isthmus is ilegal and against the principles of the International Law".[64] The United Kingdom relies on de facto arguments of possession by prescription in relation to the isthmus,[65] as there has been "continuous possession [of the isthmus] over a long period".[66]
.Spain claims the sovereignty over the Perejil Island, a small, uninhabited rocky islet located in the South shore of the Strait of Gibraltar.^ The geographical boundaries of Spain are: on the north, the Pyrenees, the Republic of Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay (known in Spain as Mar Cantabrico , or "Cantabrian Sea"); on the east, the Mediterranean; on the south, the Mediterranean, the Straits of Gibraltar and the Atlantic; on the west, Portugal and the Atlantic.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ From the Straits of Gibraltar a bold and rocky coast continues almost to Cape Palos, a little beyond the fine natural harbour of Cartagena.

^ SPAIN (Espana), a kingdom in the extreme south-west of Europe , comprising about eleven-thirteenths of the Iberian Peninsula, in addition to the Balearic Islands , the Canary Islands , and the fortified station of Ceuta , on the Moroccan coast opposite to Gibraltar .

.The island lies 250 meters just off the coast of Morocco, 8 km from Ceuta and 13.5 km from mainland Spain.^ SPAIN (Espana), a kingdom in the extreme south-west of Europe , comprising about eleven-thirteenths of the Iberian Peninsula, in addition to the Balearic Islands , the Canary Islands , and the fortified station of Ceuta , on the Moroccan coast opposite to Gibraltar .

Its sovereignty is disputed between Spain and Morocco. .It was the subject of an armed incident between the two countries in 2002. The incident ended when both countries agreed to return to the status quo ante which existed prior to the Moroccan occupation of the island.^ Godoy found himself between two parties, the Liberals and the Ultramontanes, who agreed only in hatred of himself.

^ The national colors are red and yellow- The flag is divided into three horizontal stripes, two red stripes with a yellow one between bearing the royal arms.

The islet is now deserted and without any sign of sovereignty.
Spanish territories claimed by other countries
.Morocco claims the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla and the plazas de soberanía islets off the northern coast of Africa.^ Apart from Ceuta, Spain possesses on the Moroccan seaboard Melilla , Alhucemas, Penon de Ia Gomera , Ifni, and the Chaffarinas islets.

^ Its situated in the South-West of Europe and its territory also includes the Balearic Islands , Canary Islands and the cities of Ceuta and Melilla ( North Africa ).
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ He had to sett) some knotty questions, foremost a conflict with Morocco, which was the consequence of the aggression of the unruly Riff tribes upon the Spanish outposts around Melilla.

.Portugal does not recognise Spain's sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza.^ The kingdom of Spain is the main country on the Iberian Peninsula , which it shares with Portugal and the British-dependent territory Gibraltar .
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

Emblem of Spanish Armed Forces

Military

The armed forces of Spain are known as the Spanish Armed Forces (Spanish: Fuerzas Armadas Españolas). .Their Commander-in-chief is the King of Spain, Juan Carlos I.^ As the Marca Hispanica on the cast became the county of Barcelona, so the chiefs of Bardulia became the counts of Castile, then the count of Castile, the rival of the king at Leon, and in time the king of Castile, and head of Christian Spain.

^ The kings chief Elements iii difficulties lay in the attitude of the extreme mon- Spain.

^ The check which the justiza, or chief justice , of Aragon imposed on the king was supported by the force of nobles and cities, but it was an exception in Spain.

[67]
The Spanish Armed Forces are divided into three branches:[68]

Economy

Barcelona: finance center
The city of Valencia
Zaragoza on the Ebro, at sunset.
According to the World Bank, Spain's economy is the ninth largest worldwide and the fifth largest in Europe. It is also the third largest world investor.[69]
.The centre-right government of former prime minister José María Aznar had worked successfully to gain admission to the group of countries launching the euro in 1999. Unemployment stood at 7.6% in October 2006, a rate that compared favorably to many other European countries, and especially with the early 1990s when it stood at over 20%.^ If you're a UK citizen travelling in Europe, you should apply for a free European Health Insurance Card, which entitles you to free or reduced rate health care if you become ill or get injured in many European countries, under a reciprocal arrangement with the NHS. This replaced the old E111 forms as from January 2006.
  • How to travel by train from London to Spain:  Madrid, Barcelona,Seville... 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Great Rail Journeys also offer rail-based escorted tours to other European countries.
  • How to travel by train from London to Spain:  Madrid, Barcelona,Seville... 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Attacked by Maura and Moret alike, the prime minister (June 20) accused his former colleague of acting through personal pique; on a motion of confidence, however, he was defeated by 204 votes to 54, and resigned.

Perennial weak points of Spain's economy include high inflation,[70] a large underground economy,[71] and an education system which OECD reports place among the poorest for developed countries, together with the United States and UK.[72]
However, the property bubble that had begun building from 1997, fed by historically low interest rates and an immense surge in immigration, imploded in 2008, leading to a rapidly weakening economy and soaring unemployment. By the end of May 2009 unemployment had already reached 18.7% (37% for youths).[73][74]
.The Spanish economy had been credited for having avoided the virtual zero growth rate of some of its largest partners in the EU.[75] In fact, the country's economy had created more than half of all the new jobs in the European Union over the five years ending 2005, a process that is rapidly being reversed.^ Rocket Spanish has given me all that and more.
  • Rocket Spanish Reviews and Success Stories 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.rocketlanguages.com [Source type: General]

^ But for an interval of more than twenty-five years they stood apart.

^ Large as this number is, it represents less than one-half the number of those that have existed and those that still exist without being known.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

[76] .The Spanish economy had been until recently regarded as one of the most dynamic within the EU, attracting significant amounts of foreign investment.^ Foreign investments and Spanish credit and banking legislation; legal separation and divorces; dissolution and nullity of marriage.
  • List of Attorneys 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.embusa.es [Source type: Original source]

^ Sancho III, the Great, was one of the monarchs who most influenced Spanish history; he was eventually King of Navarre, Castile , Aragón , and Sobrarbe.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And that's saying a great deal, since spoken Chilean Spanish is difficult to understand -- most Spanish speakers consider it one of the most difficult forms of spoken Spanish for foreigners.
  • Rocket Spanish Reviews and Success Stories 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.rocketlanguages.com [Source type: General]

[77] During the last four decades the Spanish tourism industry has grown to become the second biggest in the world, worth approximately 40 billion Euros, about 5% of GDP, in 2006.[78][79]
.More recently, the Spanish economy had benefited greatly from the global real estate boom, with construction representing an astonishing 16% of GDP and 12% of employment in its final year.^ Economist, Juan Antonio Baena Lopez, University of Mlaga, licensed Spanish real estate agent (API).
  • List of Attorneys 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.embusa.es [Source type: Original source]

^ The benefits of it is that I've been listening to it in the car as I drive, playing the games and things and it's really helped me improve my Spanish skills, especially in the area of grammar.
  • Rocket Spanish Reviews and Success Stories 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.rocketlanguages.com [Source type: General]

^ General practice: residency and N.I.E. papers, tax returns and local rates, IRS representative, real estate matters, insurance collecting agency, other legal matters.
  • List of Attorneys 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.embusa.es [Source type: Original source]

[78] .According to calculations by the German newspaper Die Welt, Spain had been on course to overtake countries like Germany in per capita income by 2011.[80] However, the downside of the now defunct real estate boom was a corresponding rise in the levels of personal debt; as prospective homeowners had struggled to meet asking prices, the average level of household debt tripled in less than a decade.^ Buy your Spain calling card from ComFi, and receive your personal identification number (PIN) and on-screen instructions in less than a minute.
  • Call from Spain with Spain calling card. Cheap calls from Spain to Europe. 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.comfi.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cortes had guaranteed, and by 6o,ooo,ooo of debts contracted at a high rate of interest, and with the national guarantee , to meet the expenses of the struggle with the colonies and of the war with the United States.

^ I downloaded the course for less than what four private lessons would have cost and was immediately impressed with the high quality and quantity of teaching techniques and materials.
  • Rocket Spanish Reviews and Success Stories 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.rocketlanguages.com [Source type: General]

This placed especially great pressure upon lower to middle income groups; by 2005 the median ratio of indebtedness to income had grown to 125%, due primarily to expensive boom time mortgages that now often exceed the value of the property.[81]
In 2008/2009 the credit crunch and world recession manifested itself in Spain through a massive downturn in the property sector. .Fortunately, Spain's banks and financial services avoided the more severe problems of their counterparts in the USA and UK, due mainly to a stringently enforced conservative financial regulatory regime.^ They treated the occupation of Spain as a financial speculation more than as a war for the faith.

.The Spanish financial authorities had not forgotten the country's own banking crisis of 1979 and an earlier real estate precipitated banking crisis of 1993. Indeed, Spain's largest bank, Banco Santander, took part in the UK government's bail-out of part of the UK banking sector.^ Economist, Juan Antonio Baena Lopez, University of Mlaga, licensed Spanish real estate agent (API).
  • List of Attorneys 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.embusa.es [Source type: Original source]

^ The principal banks are the Bank of Spain; the Bank of Barcelone, the Banco Hipotecario, the Sociedad Tabacalera de Filipinas, etc.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This was denounced at Rome as a unilateral assertion on the part of the Spanish government of an authority which, under the concordat, belonged to the Holy See as well.

[82]
.A European Commission forecast had predicted Spain would enter a recession by the end of 2008.[83] According to Spain’s Finance Minister, “Spain faces its deepest recession in half a century”.^ In Spain itself, tutored by misfortune, the efforts of the kings ministers, in the latter part of his reign, were directed to restoring order in the finances and reviving agriculture Reactionary and industry in.

^ Spain, clearly stipulated that her rule in the New World must be considered at an end, and that the fate of the Philippines would be settled at the Paris negotiations.

^ They were repaid by the confidence of the king, and the period which includes the reign of Fernando and lasts till the end of the I 4th century was the golden age of their history in Spain.

[84] .Spain's government forecast the unemployment rate would rise to 16% in 2009. The ESADE business school predicts 20%.^ In the speech from the throne at the opening of the new Cortes (June 16) the king declared that his government would strive to give expression to the i The composition of the new parliament was as followsSenate: .

^ By the School Census of 1903, there were in Spain altogether 31,838 schools (20,324 for boys; 10,970 for girls; 544 for infants).
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

[85]

Transportation

.Spanish road system is mainly centralized, with 6 highways connecting Madrid to Basque Country, Catalonia, Valencia, Andalusia, Extremadura and Galicia.^ The Peninsula and its adjacent islands are divided into fourteen military districts, or captaincies-general ( capitanias generales ): New Castile, Catalonia , Andalusia , Valencia , Galicia, Aragón , Granada , Old Castile , Estremadura, Navarre , Burgos , The Basque District, the Balearic, and the Canary Islands .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Spanish Earth [Reel 2 of 6] Directed by Joris Ivens / Co-written & Narrated by Ernest Hemingway Map showing the village's position near the main highway from Madrid to Valencia.
  • Footage Farm: Spanish Civil War 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castilian is the official Spanish language but coexists with other regional languages that are official in their respective Autonomous Communities (article 3 Spanish Constitution), mainly Catalan, Basque and Galician.
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

.Additionally, there are highways along the Atlantic (Ferrol to Vigo), Cantabrian (Oviedo to San Sebastián) and Mediterranean (Girona to Almeria) coasts.^ As early as the eighth century there existed the monasteries of San Millán (or S. Emiliano), Sahagún (S. Facundo), S. Vicente de Oviedo, and Sta.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Spain currently has a total of 1272 km of high speed train linking Málaga, Seville, Madrid, Barcelona and Valladolid.^ How to travel by train from London to Spain: Madrid, Barcelona, Seville...
  • How to travel by train from London to Spain:  Madrid, Barcelona,Seville... 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Use your Spain phone card to stay connected with friends, relatives, and business associates in cities across Spain, including Barcelona, Madrid, and Seville.
  • Call from Spain with Spain calling card. Cheap calls from Spain to Europe. 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.comfi.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The new high-speed line from Cordoba to Malaga opened on 24 December 2007, cutting Madrid-Malaga journey time to 2 hours 40 minutes by AVE train.
  • How to travel by train from London to Spain:  Madrid, Barcelona,Seville... 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.Should the aims of the ambitious AVE program (Spanish high speed trains) be met, by 2020 Spain will have 7000 km (4300 mi) of high-speed trains linking almost all provincial cities to Madrid in less than 3 hours and Barcelona within 4 hours.^ AVE trains from Madrid to Seville run every hour or better.
  • How to travel by train from London to Spain:  Madrid, Barcelona,Seville... 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ How to travel by train from London to Spain: Madrid, Barcelona, Seville...
  • How to travel by train from London to Spain:  Madrid, Barcelona,Seville... 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Buy your Spain calling card from ComFi, and receive your personal identification number (PIN) and on-screen instructions in less than a minute.
  • Call from Spain with Spain calling card. Cheap calls from Spain to Europe. 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.comfi.com [Source type: Academic]

The busiest airport in Spain is the airport of Madrid (Barajas), with 50,8 million passengers in 2008, being the world's 11th busiest airport. .The airport of Barcelona (El prat) is also important with 30 million passangers in 2008. Other airports are located in Zaragoza, Málaga, Valencia, Seville, Asturias (near Avilés) and Bilbao.^ There are Piarist colleges at Madrid , Barcelona , Valencia , Saragossa , etc., besides others at less important centres of population.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Spain has nine universities: Madrid, the most numerotisly attended; Salamanca, the most ancient; Granada, Seville, Barcelona, Valencia, Santiago, Saragossa and Valladolid.

^ Offices in Madrid, Barcelona, Seville, Valencia and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Canary Islands).
  • List of Attorneys 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.embusa.es [Source type: Original source]

.Spain aims to put 1 million electric cars on the road by 2014 as part of the government’s plan to save energy and boost energy efficiency.^ Bridge not hit - successful counter-attack for Government troops - Valencia Road saved.
  • Footage Farm: Spanish Civil War 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In all, about 9% of the entire surface of Spain is artificially watered, but in 1900 the government adopted plans for the construction of new canals and reservoirs on a vast scale.

[86] The Minister of Industry Miguel Sebastian said that "the electric vehicle is the future and the engine of an industrial revolution." [87]

Demographics

Geographical distribution of the Spanish population in 2008
.Native Spaniards have a culture and ancestry similar to other south-western European peoples, particularly to neighbouring Portugal.^ On the one hand were the Spaniards who desired to assimilate their country to western Europe, and on the other those of them who adhered to the old order.

^ But other fragments stil rose above the waves, and of these the great irassif of Portugal arc western Spain was one.

.There are clear historical and cultural connections with other Mediterranean peoples as well as with those of Atlantic, Western, and Northern Europe.^ There are also Academies of Medicine at Madrid , Barcelona , and other leading cities, as well as Academies of Jurisprudence and Legislation, of the Fine Arts, etc.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Atlantic at Oporto , and south-east to the Mediterranean at Cape Tortosa , from their sources in the great northern watershed .

^ There are intermediate schools in all the provincial capitals, as well as others in certain other localities — Baeza, Cabra, Figueras, Gijón, Jerez, Mahón, and Reus.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

In 2008 the population of Spain officially reached 46 million people, as recorded by the Padrón municipal.[88] .Spain's population density, at 91/km² (235/sq mi), is lower than that of most Western European countries and its distribution across the country is very unequal.^ It is the only Spanish member of the Trans European Law Firms Alliance (TELFA), one of the most important networks of independent law, present in more than 27 countries.
  • List of Attorneys 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.embusa.es [Source type: Original source]

^ The immense majority of the people are professed adherents of the Roman Catholic faith, so that, so far as numbers go, Spain is still the most Catholic country in the world, as it has long been styled.

^ Rocket Spanish is by far the most useful for my needs, far better than other packages, and at a considerably lower price.
  • Rocket Spanish Reviews and Success Stories 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.rocketlanguages.com [Source type: General]

With the exception of the region surrounding the capital, Madrid, the most populated areas lie around the coast.
.The population of Spain doubled during the 20th century, principally due to the spectacular demographic boom in the 1960s and early 1970s.^ In the fifth century the see was made metropolitan , and after the Reconquest it became the principal see of the Spains.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Communications.The communications in Spain were greatly improved during the 19th century.

^ It is, however, clear from the census returns that at the beginning of the 20th century, rea and Population of the Former and Present Provinces.

The pattern of growth was extremely uneven, however, due to large-scale internal migration from the rural interior to the industrial cities during this period. .Eleven of Spain's fifty provinces saw an absolute decline in population over the century.^ The 3rd and 4th centuries saw a decline in the prosperity of Roman Spain.

^ It is, however, clear from the census returns that at the beginning of the 20th century, rea and Population of the Former and Present Provinces.

.After the birth rate plunged in the 1980s and Spain's population growth rate dropped, the population again trended upward, based initially on the return of many Spaniards who had emigrated to other European countries during the 1970s, and more recently, fueled by large numbers of immigrants, mostly from Latin America (39%), Eastern Europe (15%), North Africa (16%) and Sub-Saharan Africa (4%).^ Map of Spain, Europe & North Africa w/ animation.
  • Footage Farm: Spanish Civil War 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you're a UK citizen travelling in Europe, you should apply for a free European Health Insurance Card, which entitles you to free or reduced rate health care if you become ill or get injured in many European countries, under a reciprocal arrangement with the NHS. This replaced the old E111 forms as from January 2006.
  • How to travel by train from London to Spain:  Madrid, Barcelona,Seville... 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Fishenies.The catching of tunnies, sardines, anchovies and salmon on the coasts employs large numbers of fishermen (about 67,000 in 1910), and the salting, smoking and packing of the first three give employment to many others.

[89] .In 2005, Spain instituted a three-month amnesty program through which certain hitherto undocumented aliens were granted legal residency.^ In 1125 he carried out a great raid through Mahommedan Spain, camping in its midst for months, and returning with many thousands of the Christian rayahs, who, under the name of Mozrabes, had hitherto continued to live under Moslem rule.

.A sizeable portion of foreign residents in Spain (21%) also comes from other Western and Central European countries.^ Spain, after intervening on the side of Catholicism in all the conflicts of the European states, now saw herself an object of ambition to foreigners.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Altogether no other country in Europe of equal extent has so great a wealth of species as Spain.

^ When France and other European nations abandoned free trade for protection towards 1890, a strong movement set in in Spain in favor of protection.

.These are mostly British, French, German, Dutch, and Norwegian.^ Languages: Spanish, English, German, Dutch, French Address : Fernandez de la Hoz, 27 4 Centro Izda.
  • List of Attorneys 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.embusa.es [Source type: Original source]

^ Criminal: Corporate crime, White collar defence Languages: English, French, German, Portuguese, Dutch, Italian, Japanese, Spanish and Catalan.
  • List of Attorneys 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.embusa.es [Source type: Original source]

These people reside primarily on the Mediterranean costas and Balearic islands, where many are choosing to live their retirement or telework.
.Substantial populations descended from Spanish colonists and immigrants exist in other parts of the world, most notably in Latin America.^ The Reconquest All the elements of the Spanish People already existed in the Kingdom of the Catholic Goths ; the Latinized Celtibarian race, or Hispano-Romans, the Gothic element, and the Catholic faith .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But the most characteristic part of their ecclesiastical policy was the establishment of the Spanish Inquisition (q.v.

^ Canary Island power which the Spanish people has always Total exhibited after warthe most notable instance of which is the above-mentioned net increase of nearly 50% .

.Beginning in the late 15th century, large numbers of Iberian colonists settled in what became Latin America and at present most white Latin Americans (about one-third of the total population) are of Spanish or Portuguese origin.^ It is the only Spanish member of the Trans European Law Firms Alliance (TELFA), one of the most important networks of independent law, present in more than 27 countries.
  • List of Attorneys 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.embusa.es [Source type: Original source]

^ Canary Island power which the Spanish people has always Total exhibited after warthe most notable instance of which is the above-mentioned net increase of nearly 50% .

^ The Spanish Peninsula has also been called the Iberian, from its original inhabitants, and (by synecdoche) the Pyrenean, from the mountains which bound it on the north.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

In the 16th century perhaps 240,000 Spaniards emigrated, mostly to Peru and Mexico.[90] They were joined by 450,000 in the next century.[91] Between 1846 and 1932 nearly 5 million Spaniards went to the Americas, especially to Argentina and Brazil.[92] .From 1960 to 1975, approximately two million Spaniards migrated to other Western European countries.^ On the one hand were the Spaniards who desired to assimilate their country to western Europe, and on the other those of them who adhered to the old order.

^ Great Rail Journeys also offer rail-based escorted tours to other European countries.
  • How to travel by train from London to Spain:  Madrid, Barcelona,Seville... 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.During the same time period, about 300,000 people left Spain for Latin America.^ During this period many very important councils were held in Spain.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During this period, too, many councils were held in Spain, the most important being those of Elvira (or Illiberis) and of Saragossa, and the First Council of Toledo.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Spain 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the kingdom of Aragon the right was secured about the same time.

[93]

Metropolitan areas

Map of the main metropolitan areas
The city of Seville.
The city of Girona.
The city of Burgos.
The city of Toledo.
The city of Palma of Mallorca.
The city of Alicante.
Pos. City(ies) Region Prov. population
1 Madrid Madrid Madrid 5,263,000
2 Barcelona Catalonia Barcelona 4,251,000
3 Valencia Valencian Community Valencia 1,499,000
4 Seville Andalusia Seville 1,262,000
5 Bilbao Basque Country Biscay 947,000
6 Málaga Andalusia Málaga 844,000
7 OviedoGijón Asturias Asturias 844,000
8 AlicanteElche Valencian Community Alicante 793,000
9 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Canarias Las Palmas de Gran Canaria 640,000
10 Zaragoza Aragon Zaragoza 639,000

Main cities

Pos. City Region Prov. population
1 Madrid Madrid Madrid 3,213,271
2 Barcelona Catalonia Barcelona 1,615,908
3 Valencia Valencian Community Valencia 810,064
4 Seville Andalusia Seville 699,759
5 Zaragoza Aragon Zaragoza 666,129
6 Málaga Andalusia Málaga 566,447
7 Murcia Murcia Murcia 430,571
8 Palma de Mallorca Balearic Islands Palma de Mallorca 396,570
9 Las Palmas Canary Islands Las Palmas 381,123
10 Bilbao Basque Country Biscay 353,340

Peoples

.The Spanish Constitution of 1978, in its second article, recognises historic entities ("nationalities", a carefully chosen word in order to avoid the more politically charged "nations") and regions, within the context of the Spanish nation.^ Within the country the traditional antagonisms, regional, political, religious, still lived on, tending even to become more pronounced and to be complicated by the introduction of fresh elements of discord.

.For some people, Spain's identity consists more of an overlap of different regional identities than of a sole Spanish identity.^ Spain is defined at Constitution as a social and democratic State of law whose sovereignty belongs to the Spanish people (articles 1.1 ad 1.2 SC) .
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We're running on time, which is more than can be said for most airline passengers who tried to reach Spain for Christmas.
  • How to travel by train from London to Spain:  Madrid, Barcelona,Seville... 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ The work of political unification was essentially more difficult than the christianization of Spain.

.Indeed, some of the regional identities may even conflict with the Spanish one.^ He had to sett) some knotty questions, foremost a conflict with Morocco, which was the consequence of the aggression of the unruly Riff tribes upon the Spanish outposts around Melilla.

.Distinct cultural groups within Spain include the Basques, Catalans, Galicians and Castilians, between others.^ In conjugation the peculiarities of Gallego are more marked; some find their explanation within the dialect itself, others seem to be due to Castilian influence.

^ Within the Castilian domain, thus embracing all in Spain that is neither Portuguese nor Catalan, there exist linguistic varieties which it would perhaps be an exaggeration.

^ Spain occupies an unsurpassed geographical position; its resources are rich, varied and to some extent unexploited; its inhabitants include the Basques and Catalans, noted for their commercial enterprise, and the Galicians, noted for their industry.

[95]
.It is this last feature of "shared identity" between the more local level or Autonomous Community and the Spanish level which makes the identity question in Spain complex and far from univocal.^ Spanish, Autonomous Communities and European legislation.
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In order to make the Embassy list of attorneys easier to handle, it has been divided into sections, grouped by autonomous communities, provinces and cities.
  • List of Attorneys 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.embusa.es [Source type: Original source]

^ Castilian is the official Spanish language but coexists with other regional languages that are official in their respective Autonomous Communities (article 3 Spanish Constitution), mainly Catalan, Basque and Galician.
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

Minority groups

.Spain has a number of descendants of populations from former colonies (especially Equatorial Guinea) and immigrants from several Sub-Saharan and Caribbean countries have been recently settling in Spain.^ The immense majority of the people are professed adherents of the Roman Catholic faith, so that, so far as numbers go, Spain is still the most Catholic country in the world, as it has long been styled.

^ The population made a considerable advance, and the dense cloud of sloth and ignorance which had settled on the country in the 17th century was lifted.

^ As regards the distribution of population between town and country, Spain contrasts in a marked manner with Italy, Spain having but few large towns and a relatively large country population.

.There are also sizeable numbers of Asian immigrants, most of whom are of Chinese, Filipino, Middle Eastern, Pakistani and Indian origins; the population of Spaniards of Latin American descent is sizeable as well and a fast growing segment.^ On the side of Portugal a tract of inhospitable country sled originally to the separation between the two kingdoms, inasmuch as it caused the reconquest of the comparatively populous maritime tracts from the Moors to be carried out independently of that of the eastern kingdoms, which were also well peopled.

Other growing groups are Britons, 760,000 in 2006, Germans and other immigrants from the rest of Europe.[96]
.The arrival of the Gitanos, a Romani people, began in the 16th century; estimates of the Spanish Gitano population fluctuate around 700,000.[97] The Mercheros (also Quinquis) are a minority group, formerly nomadic, that share a lot of the way of life of Gitanos.^ The Spanish population is about 40,000,000 people.
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The estimated area and population of the Spanish possessions in Africa, exclusive of Ceuta, are shown below: Area in sq.

^ The wars of the 16th, 17th and i8th centuries, and the vast potentialities of fortune which drew men to the Spanish colonies in America, caused a further serious drain upon the population.

Their origin is unclear.

Immigration

.According to the Spanish government there were 4.5 million foreign residents in Spain in 2007; independent estimates put the figure at 4.8 million people, or 11% of the total population.^ Canary Island power which the Spanish people has always Total exhibited after warthe most notable instance of which is the above-mentioned net increase of nearly 50% .

^ In 1905 the workmen employed on mines in Spain numbered 105,000, and the total value of the output was estimated at 7,734,805.

^ The Spanish population is about 40,000,000 people.
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

[98] .According to residence permit data for 2005, about 500,000 were Moroccan, another 500,000 were Ecuadorian, more than 200,000 were Romanian, and 260,000 were Colombian.^ Another tract, about 500 sq.

^ It is thus rather more than twice the size of Great Britain ., nearly 50,000 sq.

^ In 1808 there were little more than 500 m.

.Other sizeable foreign communities are British (8%), French (8%), Argentine (6%), German (6%) and Bolivian (3%).^ The page includes an international portal in Spanish, English, French and German, which includes relevant information for foreigners about Spanish institutions and administration.
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

.Spain has more than 200,000 migrants from West and Central Africa.^ It is thus rather more than twice the size of Great Britain ., nearly 50,000 sq.

^ We're running on time, which is more than can be said for most airline passengers who tried to reach Spain for Christmas.
  • How to travel by train from London to Spain:  Madrid, Barcelona,Seville... 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ The work of political unification was essentially more difficult than the christianization of Spain.

[99] .Since 2000, Spain has experienced high population growth as a result of immigration flows, despite a birth rate that is only half the replacement level.^ Despite all the efforts of the breeders and of the government, a decline has gone on not only in horse-rearing, but also in other classes of livestock since 1865.

This sudden and ongoing inflow of immigrants, particularly those arriving clandestinely by sea, has caused noticeable social tension.[100]
Within the EU, Spain has the second highest immigration rate in percentage terms after Cyprus, but by a great margin, the highest in absolute numbers.[101] .There are a number of reasons for the high level of immigration, including Spain's cultural ties with Latin America, its geographical position, the porosity of its borders, the large size of its underground economy and the strength of the agricultural and construction sectors, which demand more low cost labour than can be offered by the national workforce.^ It's possible to get from London to Barcelona in a day, although it may cost more and feel longer than the trainhotel option.
  • How to travel by train from London to Spain:  Madrid, Barcelona,Seville... 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ His reorganization of the national debt was very complete; in fact, he exacted even more sacrifices from the bondholders than from other taxpayers.

^ Castile, by its geographical position as the centre of Spain from Cantabria to the Sierra Morena, was the forefront of the struggle with the Moors.

.Another statistically significant factor is the large number of residents of EU origin typically retiring to Spain's Mediterranean coast.^ The number of endemic species is exceptionally large, the number of monotypic genera in the Peninsula greater than in any other part of the Mediterranean domain.

.In fact, Spain was Europe's largest absorber of migrants from 2002 to 2007, with its immigrant population more than doubling as 2.5 million people arrived.^ The average result of the vintage was estimated between 440 and 500 million gallons in 1880 to 1884, and it rose to more than double that amount towards 1890, and amounted in 1898 to 880 million gallons.

^ We're running on time, which is more than can be said for most airline passengers who tried to reach Spain for Christmas.
  • How to travel by train from London to Spain:  Madrid, Barcelona,Seville... 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ The work of political unification was essentially more difficult than the christianization of Spain.

[102] According to the Financial Times, Spain is the most favoured destination for West Europeans considering a move from their own country and seeking jobs elsewhere in the EU.[103]
.The number of immigrants in Spain has grown up from 500,000 people in 1996 to 5.2 million in 2008 out of a total population of 46 million.^ The immense majority of the people are professed adherents of the Roman Catholic faith, so that, so far as numbers go, Spain is still the most Catholic country in the world, as it has long been styled.

^ In 1905 the workmen employed on mines in Spain numbered 105,000, and the total value of the output was estimated at 7,734,805.

^ The Spanish population is about 40,000,000 people.
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

[104][105] .In 2005 alone, a regularisation programme increased the legal immigrant population by 700,000 people.^ The Spanish population is about 40,000,000 people.
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

[106] .Unemployment among immigrants has risen 67% in 2007. Spain's new Plan of Voluntary Return encourages immigrants to leave Spain for three years and offers up to €25,000, but so far, only 186 Ecuadorans have signed up to return.^ Barcelona was only taken in 1714, the year after the signing of the treaty of Utrecht .

^ World-Wide News Events: Naples, Italy 20,000 Italian troops given hero s welcome on return from fighting w/ Franco s forces in Spain.
  • Footage Farm: Spanish Civil War 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In all, about 9% of the entire surface of Spain is artificially watered, but in 1900 the government adopted plans for the construction of new canals and reservoirs on a vast scale.

[107][108] .In the program's first two months last year, just 1,400 immigrants took up the offer.^ The Liberal administration which that statesman formed lasted two years and some months.

[109]
The languages of Spain (simplified)
     Spanish official and spoken all over the country      Catalan/Valencian, co-official      Basque, co-official      Galician, co-official      Aranese, co-official (dialect of Occitan)      Asturian, recognised      Aragonese, unofficial      Leonese, unofficial      Extremaduran, unofficial      Fala, unofficial

Languages

.Spanish (español or castellano, Castilian) is spoken all over the country and so is the only language with official status nationwide.^ In a country noted for its fanatical loyalty to the Crown and the Church, the kingship was to be deprived of all power and influence, and the clergy to be excluded as such from Spanish all share in legislation.

^ Castilian is the official Spanish language but coexists with other regional languages that are official in their respective Autonomous Communities (article 3 Spanish Constitution), mainly Catalan, Basque and Galician.
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Supplement to the Official Journal of the EU. Available in all EU languages.
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

But a number of regional languages have been declared co-official, along with Spanish, in the constituent communities where they are spoken:
.There are also some other surviving Romance minority languages such as the Astur-Leonese group, which includes two languages in Spain: Asturian (officially called "Bable") which has protected status in Asturias, and Leonese, which is protected in Castile and León.^ Each of the two island groups forms one of the forty-nine provinces of the kingdom, although only the first named belongs geographically to Spain.

^ Asturian.The Asturian idiom, called by the natives bable, is differentiated from the Castilian by the following characters.

^ The complicated story of the Christian kingdoms of Spain during the next two generations can be best made intelligible by taking the king of Castile as the centre of the Am,nso Viii.

Aragonese is vaguely recognized in Aragon.[111] .Unlike Basque, Catalan/Valencian and Galician, these languages do not have any official status.^ Aragonese, Catalans and Valencians werp N Li ~, as different as Galicians, Basques, Castilians and DIf Andalusians.

This might be due to their very small number of speakers, a less significant written tradition in comparison to Catalan or Galician, and lower self-awareness of their speakers which traditionally meant lack of strong popular demand for their recognition in the regions in which they are spoken.[112]
.In the North African Spanish city of Melilla, Tarifit is spoken by a significant part of the population.^ Its situated in the South-West of Europe and its territory also includes the Balearic Islands , Canary Islands and the cities of Ceuta and Melilla ( North Africa ).
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This undoubtedly was the case in the north, where the Asturians and Basques, the least Romanized part of the population, appear from the beginning of the age of barbarization as acting for themselves.

In the tourist areas of the Mediterranean coast and the islands, English and German are widely spoken by tourists, foreign residents, and tourism workers.

Culture

The Hemispheric at the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències, Valencia.
Spain is known for its culturally diverse heritage, having been influenced by many nations and peoples throughout its history. .Spanish culture has its origins in the Iberian, Celtiberian, Latin, Visigothic, Roman Catholic, and Islamic cultures.^ The Spanish Roman and the Visigoth, so-called, of that epoch of poorness of spirit, accustomed as he was to compound with one master after another, saw nothing dishonourable in making such an arrangement.

.The definition of a national Spanish culture has been characterized by tension between the centralized state, dominated in recent centuries by Castile, and numerous regions and minority peoples.^ It would be unjustifiable to assume from the inadequate data available that the Spanish people retains the vitality which characterized it from 1797 to 5857.

^ The great school of Spanish historians died out with the other glories of the nation in the 17th century.

^ The close of the period of the great reconquest, five centuries of struggle, left Spain divided between two states of different Spain after character.

In addition, the history of the nation and its Mediterranean and Atlantic environment have played strong roles in shaping its culture. After Italy, Spain has the second highest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the world, with a total of 40.[113]

Religion

Spain religiosity
Christianity
  
76%
Irreligion / others
  
20%
Islam
  
2.3%
Judaism
  
0.1%
Others
  
1.7%
.Roman Catholicism has long been the main religion of Spain, though it no longer has official status.^ The immense majority of the people are professed adherents of the Roman Catholic faith, so that, so far as numbers go, Spain is still the most Catholic country in the world, as it has long been styled.

^ Religion.Roman Catholicism is the established religion, and the Church and clergy are maintained by the state at an annual cost of about f1 600,000.

According to a July 2009 study by the Spanish Center of Sociological Research about 76% of Spaniards self-identify as Catholics, 2% other faith, and about 20% identify with no religion. Most Spaniards do not participate regularly in religious services. .This same study shows that of the Spaniards who identify themselves as religious, 58% hardly ever or never go to church, 17% go to church some times a year, 9% some time per month and 15% every Sunday or multiple times per week.^ In some respects Castilian is hardly further removed from classical Latin than is Italian; in others it has approximately reached the same stage as Provenal.

^ Of the others some were passing phantoms, and the records of the later times of the kingdom are so obscure that we cannot be sure of knowing the names of all who perished by violence.

^ Departures from Portugal every Sunday, see www.navieraarmas.com for sailing dates, times, fares & online booking.
  • How to travel by train from London to Spain:  Madrid, Barcelona,Seville... 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

[114]
But according to a December 2006 study, 48% of the population declared a belief in a supreme being, while 41% described themselves as atheist or agnostic.[115] Altogether, about 22% of the entire Spanish population attends religious services at least once per month.[116] .Though Spanish society has become considerably more secular in recent decades, the influx of Latin American immigrants, who tend to be strong Catholic practitioners, has helped the Catholic Church to recover.^ Arias Miranda (navy), Cobian, a strong Catholic though a Liberal (finance), Ruiz Valarino, a Democrat (justice), Calbeton (public works) and Count Romanones, who advocated a liberal settlement with the Church (education).

^ England, who, as duke of Aquitaine, by right of his marriage with the duchess Eleanor, had a strong direct interest in Spanish politics.

^ No attempt was made, during the decade which followed the Spanish-American War , to replace the squadrons destroyed at Manila and Santiago de Cuba .

.Several Protestant denominations exist in the country, all of them with fewer than 50,000 members.^ It is thus rather more than twice the size of Great Britain ., nearly 50,000 sq.

Evangelism has been better received among Gypsies than among the general population; pastors have integrated flamenco music in their liturgy. Taken together, all self-described "Evangelicals" slightly surpass Jehovah's Witnesses (105,000) in number. .In addition, about 41,000 residents of Spain are members of the The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.^ Religion.Roman Catholicism is the established religion, and the Church and clergy are maintained by the state at an annual cost of about f1 600,000.

[117]
A view of the Segovia Cathedral with its old walls.
.The recent waves of immigration have also led to an increasing number of Muslims, who number approximately one million in Spain.^ The Carlists increased rapidly in numbers, and were joined by many Royalists, who looked upon them as the last resource.

^ Every one of the kingdoms grouped round the two sovereigns who shared modern Spain was itself a loose conglomeration of classes.

^ But other fragments stil rose above the waves, and of these the great irassif of Portugal arc western Spain was one.

Presently, Islam is the second largest religion in Spain, accounting for approximately 2.3% of the total population.[118] Since their expulsion in 1492, Muslims did not live in Spain for centuries. .Late 19th-century colonial expansion in northwestern Africa gave some number of residents in the Spanish Morocco and the Western Sahara full citizenship.^ Finane.Spanish finance passed - through many vicissitudes during tue 19th century.

^ He had to sett) some knotty questions, foremost a conflict with Morocco, which was the consequence of the aggression of the unruly Riff tribes upon the Spanish outposts around Melilla.

^ The exports of Spanish Cotton goods were, until the close of the 19th century, hardly worth mentioning outside the colonial markets, which took an average of two millions sterling in the decade 1888-1898.

Their ranks have since been bolstered by recent immigration, especially from Morocco.
.Judaism was practically non-existent in Spain from the 1492 expulsion until the 19th century, when Jews were again permitted to enter the country.^ Communications.The communications in Spain were greatly improved during the 19th century.

^ The latter were dealt with by expulsion, which in the case of the Jews was enforced in 1492, and in the case of the subject Mahommedans or Mudjares in 1502.

^ This neutrality was maintained until the close of the 19th century.

.Currently there are around 62,000 Jews in Spain, or less than 1% of the total population.^ Of these but a few occur only there, or at least have not yet been observed elsewhere than in that great province of southern Spain.

^ The total population Catalonia then ascertained to exist in Spain was 15,464,340, Lrida an increase of not much less than 50% since Gerona the census of 1797.

^ In 1905 the workmen employed on mines in Spain numbered 105,000, and the total value of the output was estimated at 7,734,805.

Most are arrivals in the past century, while some are descendants of earlier Spanish Jews. Approximately 80,000 Jews are thought to have lived in Spain on the eve of the Spanish Inquisition.[119] This figure seems too low. Compare with estimates in the Wikipedia article, "Jews in Spain."

Schools

.State education in Spain is free and compulsory from the age of 6 to 16. The current education system was established by an educational law of 1990, Ley Orgánica de Ordenación General del Sistema Educativo - Law on the General Organization of the Educational System.^ The electoral system of Autonomous Communities is stated at the States law, LOREG, which appoints some common elements and its completed by the legislation of the Autonomous Communities.
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The rules and organization of the profession of lawyers are stated at the Estatuto General de la abogaca espaola , RD 658/ 2 001, June 22 nd .
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ General principles of law permeate the legal system, for instance art 1.1.
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

[120]

Literature

The term Spanish literature refers to literature written in the Spanish language, including literature composed in Spanish by writers not necessarily from Spain. For Spanish American literature specifically, see Latin American literature. Due to historic, geographic and generational diversity, Spanish literature has known a great number of influences and it is very diverse. Some major literary movements can be identified within it.
.Miguel de Cervantes is probably Spain's most famous author and his Don Quixote is considered the most emblematic work in the canon of Spanish literature and a founding classic of Western literature.^ The latest general history of Spain is Don Rafael Altamira y Creveas Historia de EspaCa y de la civilizacin espatiola, ~ vols(Barcelona 1902-1906).

^ The sovereign is grand-master of the eight Spanish orders of knighthood , the principal of which is that of the Golden Fleece (Toison de Oro), founded in 1431 by Philip of Burgundy .

^ E-mail: mbmartin@abogados.de Web: www.spanish-lawyers.info ROMAN PASTOR, Begoa Altamira 1, 3 Izda., 03002 Alicante, Spain.
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[121]

Institut d'Estudis Catalans

The Institut d'Estudis Catalans (Institute for Catalan Studies, or IEC, in Catalan) is an academic institution which seeks to undertake research and study into "all elements of Catalan culture." The IEC is known principally for its work in standardizing the Catalan language. The IEC is based in Barcelona, the capital of Catalonia. .Officially the IEC provides standards for Catalonia proper, Northern Catalonia (located in France), the Balearic Islands, and the Principality of Andorra (the only country where Catalan is the sole official language).^ Castilian is the official Spanish language but coexists with other regional languages that are official in their respective Autonomous Communities (article 3 Spanish Constitution), mainly Catalan, Basque and Galician.
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

.The Valencian Region south of Catalonia has its own language academy, the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua.^ Languages: Spanish, English, German, Dutch, French Address : Fernandez de la Hoz, 27 4 Centro Izda.
  • List of Attorneys 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.embusa.es [Source type: Original source]

^ Barcelona, Tarragona and Lrida (the old principality of Catalonia), and of Castellon de la Plana, Valencia and Alicante (the old kingdom of Valencia), and, in the Mediterranean, that of the Balearic Islands (the old kingdom of li.Iajorca).

.In an area known as the Franja de Ponent, the eastern edge of Aragon adjacent to Catalonia where Catalan is spoken, the rules are used de facto although Catalan is not an official language.^ Castilian is the official Spanish language but coexists with other regional languages that are official in their respective Autonomous Communities (article 3 Spanish Constitution), mainly Catalan, Basque and Galician.
  • GlobaLex - GUIDE TO LEGAL RESEARCH IN SPAIN 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Academic]

Real Academia Española

The Real Academia Española (Spanish for "Royal Spanish Academy"; RAE) is the institution responsible for regulating the Spanish language. .It is based in Madrid, but is affiliated with national language academies in 21 Spanish-speaking nations through the Association of Spanish Language Academies.^ Languages: : Spanish, and English Address: - Patio de Litografa, 2 5 Piso 2 P.C. 28030 Madrid Tel .: 912 377 774.
  • List of Attorneys 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.embusa.es [Source type: Original source]

^ Languages: English, German, Spanish, Italian and French Address: Henri Dunant, 19 28036 Madrid Tel.:.
  • List of Attorneys 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.embusa.es [Source type: Original source]

^ Above right : The Spanish royal palace at El Escorial, seen from your breakfast table on the trainhotel as it snakes through the hills north of Madrid...
  • How to travel by train from London to Spain:  Madrid, Barcelona,Seville... 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

Its emblem is a fiery crucible, and its motto is Limpia, fija y da esplendor ("It cleans, sets, and gives splendor").[122]

Art

.Artists from Spain have been highly influential in the development of various European artistic movements.^ When France and other European nations abandoned free trade for protection towards 1890, a strong movement set in in Spain in favor of protection.

.Due to historical, geographical and generational diversity, Spanish art has known a great number of influences.^ Of these chains, to which Spanish geographers give the name Carpetano-Vetonica, the most easterly is the Sierra de Guadarrama, the general trend of which is from south-west to northeast.

^ To Spanish geographers the coast ranges just mentioned are known collectively as the Sierra Penihetica.

.The Moorish heritage in Spain, especially in Andalusia, is still evident today in cities like Córdoba, Seville, and Granada.^ Highlights of Andalusia tour, 10 days to Seville, Cordoba, Granada, from around 675 per person.
  • How to travel by train from London to Spain:  Madrid, Barcelona,Seville... 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ The epidemic spread rapidly over the Peninsula, causing great havoc in important cities like Granada, Saragossa and Valencia.

^ The trains to Seville, Granada, Malaga leave from Madrid Atocha station (also known as Puerta de Atocha) about 20 minutes walk south of the city centre.
  • How to travel by train from London to Spain:  Madrid, Barcelona,Seville... 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.European influences include Italy, Germany and France, especially during the Baroque and Neoclassical periods.^ Not a few of the officers held Liberal opinions, and this was especially the case with those who had been prisoners in 1~seiv~iuduon France during the war and had been inoculated with foreign doctrines.

^ Huesca rate of increase during this period of forty Saragossa years was less than 45%, or lower than that Teruel of any other European state, except France Navarre (Nav~ in the later years of the I9th century.

^ Ferdinand secured the restoration of Roussillon from Charles VIII. of France by the fallacious treaty in which he undertook to remain neutral during the kings expedition to Italy.

Cinema

Spanish cinema has achieved major international success including Oscars for recent films such as Pan's Labyrinth and Volver.[123] .In the long history of Spanish cinema, the great filmmaker Luis Buñuel was the first to achieve world recognition, followed by Pedro Almodóvar in the 1980s.^ The voyage of Columbus Spanish ~n 1492, and the intervention of Ferdinand in the History great conflict of France, the empire and the papacy alter 1479.

^ Spanish monarchy with Napoleon, and the recognition of their independence de jure was, for Great Britain at least, merely a question of time.

^ If the fortunes of Aragon were to be followed in an outline of Spanish history, it would be necessary to wander as far as Athens and Constantinople.

Spanish cinema has also seen international success over the years with films by directors like Segundo de Chomón, Florián Rey, Luis García Berlanga, Carlos Saura, Julio Medem and Alejandro Amenábar.

Architecture

The Plaza de Cibeles in Madrid
Spanish architecture refers to architecture carried out during any era in what is now modern-day Spain, and by Spanish architects worldwide. .The term includes buildings within the current geographical limits of Spain before this name was given to those territories, whether they were called Hispania, Al-Andalus, or were formed of several Christian kingdoms.^ The complicated story of the Christian kingdoms of Spain during the next two generations can be best made intelligible by taking the king of Castile as the centre of the Am,nso Viii.

^ Spain within its present limits for that date is Malaga - .

^ Each of the two island groups forms one of the forty-nine provinces of the kingdom, although only the first named belongs geographically to Spain.

Nativity facade of the Sagrada Família Temple in Barcelona
Due to its historical and geographical diversity, Spanish architecture has drawn from a host of influences. .An important provincial city founded by the Romans and with an extensive Roman era infrastructure, Córdoba became the cultural capital, including fine Arabic style architecture, during the time of the Islamic Umayyad dynasty.^ Mhrida), which declares by its name its connection with time-expired veterans and still possesses extensive Roman ruins.

[124] Later Arab style architecture continued to be developed under successive Islamic dynasties, ending with the Nasrid, which built its famed palace complex in Granada.
.Simultaneously, the Christian kingdoms gradually emerged and developed their own styles; developing a pre-Romanesque style when for a while isolated from contemporary mainstream European architectural influences during the earlier Middle Ages, they later integrated the Romanesque and Gothic streams.^ By the end of the middle ages they had disappeared.

^ The complicated story of the Christian kingdoms of Spain during the next two generations can be best made intelligible by taking the king of Castile as the centre of the Am,nso Viii.

^ But, apart from this opening for foreign influence, the Christians were left to develop their order untouched by alien examples, and they developed from the Visigoth monarchy.

There was then an extraordinary flowering of the gothic style that resulted in numerous instances being built throughout the entire territory. .The Mudéjar style, from the 12th to 17th centuries, was developed by introducing Arab style motifs, patterns and elements into European architecture.^ Its cultivation was introduced by the Arabs in the 12th century or later, and was of great importance in the kingdom of Granada at the time of the expulsion of the Moors (1489), but has since undergone great vicissitudes, first in consequence of the introduction of the cane into America, and afterwards because of the great development of beet-sugar in central Europe.

El Capricho, in the rural town of Comillas, Cantabria
The arrival of Modernism in the academic arena produced much of the architecture of the 20th century. An influential style centered in Barcelona, known as modernisme, produced a number of important architects, of which Gaudí is one. The International style was led by groups like GATEPAC. .Spain is currently experiencing a revolution in contemporary architecture and Spanish architects like Rafael Moneo, Santiago Calatrava, Ricardo Bofill as well as many others have gained worldwide renown.^ In the production of pod-fruits and kitchen vegetables Spain is ahead of many other countries.

Music

Spanish music is often considered abroad to be synonymous with flamenco, an Andalusian musical genre, which, contrary to popular belief, is not widespread outside that region. .Various regional styles of folk music abound in Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, Castile, the Basque Country, Galicia and Asturias.^ Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia by arms.

^ Aragon, which was poor and tenacious of its rights, would give little; Catalonia and Valencia afforded small help.

^ Aragon was left free to R~ro~ftion conquer the Balearic Islands and Valencia, while of the lade- Murcia and Ardalusia were to fall to Castile.

Pop, rock, hip hop and heavy metal are also popular.
.In the field of classical music, Spain has produced a number of noted composers such as Isaac Albéniz, Manuel de Falla and Enrique Granados and singers and performers such as José Carreras, Montserrat Caballé, Plácido Domingo, Alicia de Larrocha, Alfredo Kraus, Pau Casals, Ricardo Viñes, José Iturbi, Pablo de Sarasate, Jordi Savall and Teresa Berganza.^ DE LOSADA VILAPLANA, Julin Pablo Paz 17, 1, puerta 2, 46003 Valencia, Spain.
  • List of Attorneys 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.embusa.es [Source type: Original source]

.In Spain there are over forty professional orchestras, including the Orquestra Simfònica de Barcelona, Orquesta Nacional de España and the Orquesta Sinfonica de Madrid.^ There's a fast catamaran from Barcelona to Palma de Majorca on most days of the week, journey time just 3 hours 45 minutes.
  • How to travel by train from London to Spain:  Madrid, Barcelona,Seville... 28 January 2010 0:53 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ The latest general history of Spain is Don Rafael Altamira y Creveas Historia de EspaCa y de la civilizacin espatiola, ~ vols(Barcelona 1902-1906).

^ [Alcala de Henares and Comendadoras prison] (ca 1942) Madrid, Spain Artists & intellectual prisoners.
  • Footage Farm: Spanish Civil War 24 January 2010 12:56 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Major opera houses include the Teatro Real,the Gran Teatre del Liceu, Teatro Arriaga and the El Palau de les Arts Reina Sofía.

Cuisine

The cochinillo in a Spanish bar.
.Spanish cuisine consists of a great variety of dishes which stem from differences in geography, culture and climate.^ FloraThe vegetation of Spain ezhibits a variety in keeping with the differences of climate just described.

It is heavily influenced by seafood available from the waters that surround the country, and reflects the country's deep Mediterranean roots. Spain's extensive history with many cultural influences has led to a unique cuisine. In particular, three main divisions are easily identified:
.
  • Mediterranean Spain – all such coastal regions, from Catalonia to Andalusia: heavy use of seafood, such as pescaíto frito.^ The Jurassic of Andalusia belongs to the Mediterranean facies of the system; the Jurassic of the rest of Spain is more nearly allied to that of northwestern Europe.

    Several cold soups like gazpacho and also many rice-based dishes like paella and arroz negro.
  • Inner Spain – Castile and Madrid: hot, thick soups such as the bread and garlic-based Castilian soup, along with substantious stews such as cocido madrileño. Food is traditionally conserved by salting, like Spanish ham, or immersed in olive oil, like Manchego cheese.
.
The Churros are famous desserts, usually eaten alongside hot chocolate.
  • Atlantic Spain – the whole Northern coast, from Galicia to Navarre: vegetable and fish-based stews like pote gallego and marmitako.^ Some English merchants had violated the shadowy claim of Spain to the whole west coast of America by founding a settlement at Nootka Sound .

    Also, the lightly cured lacón ham.

Sport

.Sport in Spain has been dominated by football since the early 20th century.^ In the last years of the 8th and begiiining of the 9th century, Charlemagne and Louis the Pius began conquering the north-east of Spain, which the Arabs had occupied as early as 713.

^ Under the concordat of the 20th of March 1851, by which the relations of Spain and the Vatican are Question of still governed, the law under which since 1836 the the Religi.

.Basketball, tennis, cycling, handball, motorcycling and, lately, Formula One are also important due to presence of Spanish champions in all these disciplines.^ The Spanish steppes deserve a special notice, since they are not confined to one of the four botanical provinces, but are found in all of them except the last.

.Today, Spain is a major world sports power, especially since the 1992 Summer Olympics that were hosted in Barcelona and promoted a great variety of sports in the country.^ Altogether no other country in Europe of equal extent has so great a wealth of species as Spain.

^ The immense majority of the people are professed adherents of the Roman Catholic faith, so that, so far as numbers go, Spain is still the most Catholic country in the world, as it has long been styled.

^ No European country produces so great a variety of minerals in large amount, and in the production of copper ore, lead ore and mercury Spain heads the list.

The tourism industry has led to an improvement in sports infrastructure, especially for water sports, golf and skiing.

Public holidays

.Public holidays celebrated in Spain include a mix of religious (Roman Catholic), national and regional observances.^ The immense majority of the people are professed adherents of the Roman Catholic faith, so that, so far as numbers go, Spain is still the most Catholic country in the world, as it has long been styled.

.Each municipality is allowed to declare a maximum of 14 public holidays per year; up to nine of these are chosen by the national government and at least two are chosen locally.^ The difference of the relations of these two states towards the comity of nations had corresponding internal distinctions.

[125]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Also serves as the Royal anthem
  2. ^ In some autonomous communities, Aranese (Occitan), Basque, Catalan/Valencian, and Galician are co-official languages. Bable and Leonese are officially recognised
  3. ^ Prior to 1999 (by law, 2002) : Spanish Peseta.
  4. ^ Except in the Canary Islands, which are in the WET time zone (UTC, UTC+1 in summer).
  5. ^ The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states. Also, the .cat domain is used in Catalan-speaking territories.
  6. ^ The Spanish constitution does not establish any official denomination of the country, even though España (Spain), Estado español (Spanish State) and Nación española (Spanish Nation) are used interchangeably. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in an Ordinance published in 1984, declared that "denominations "Spain" and "Kingdom of Spain" are equally valid to designate the Spain in international treaties..."
  7. ^ The latifundia (sing., latifundium), large estates controlled by the aristocracy, were superimposed on the existing Iberian landholding system.
  8. ^ The poets Martial, Quintilian and Lucan were also born in Hispania.
  9. ^ The Moorish armies continued northwards until they were defeated in central France at the Battle of Tours in 732.
  10. ^ The Berbers soon gave up attempting to settle the harsh lands in the north of the Meseta Central handed to them by the Arab rulers.
  11. ^ It was not until the 13th century that western medieval Christendom began reaching comparable levels of sophistication, and this was due in to a great extent to the stimulus coming from Muslim Al-Andalus.
  12. ^ Initially, as the Reconquista advanced south, different religions were respected and several Castilian kings in subsequent years (Ferdinand III, Alfonso X, Peter I) named themselves 'king of the three peoples' or 'king of the three religions'. Only rarely mosques and synagogues were converted into churches before 1492, and some areas of Christian Spain had large Muslim and Jewish populations that were a substantial component in the economic activity. Indeed they brought many of the Moorish influences in art, architecture and food with them.
  13. ^ For the related expulsions that followed see Morisco.
  14. ^ By the late 16th century American silver accounted for one-fifth of Spanish government's total revenue (the rest came mainly from taxes in Spain, especially Castile) [1]. From Europe, American silver was shipped to India, China, Levant and the Ottoman Empire. The silver was used to purchase goods, as European manufactured goods were not in demand in Asia and the Middle East. From the mid-17th Century around 28 million kilograms of silver was imported to China. The Manila Galleon brought in far more silver direct from South American mines to China than the overland Silk Road, or even European trade routes in the Indian oceans could.
  15. ^ The coastal villages and towns of Spain and Mediterranean islands were frequently attacked by Barbary pirates from North Africa, who were under the aegis of the Ottoman empire. The Formentera was even temporarily left by its population and long stretches of the Spanish and Italian coasts were almost completely abandoned by their inhabitants. In 1514, 1515 and 1521 coasts of the Balearic Islands and the Spanish mainland were raided by the Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral Hayreddin Barbarossa. According to Robert Davis between 1 million and 1.25 million Europeans were captured by North African pirates and sold as slaves during the 16th and 17th centuries. These slaves were captured mainly from seaside villages in Spain, Italy and Portugal.
  16. ^ At the end of the 16th century, the Spain had nearly 8,500,000 inhabitants, but in 1700 only about 7,000,000. Epidemic disease was the major cause for this decline, especially the bubonic plague but also typhus, smallpox, and other diseases. The other principal causes of population loss were emigration to America, deaths from warfare, and the expulsion of the Moriscos.
  17. ^ Over a hundred thousand Spanish Civil War veterans were to give both sides the benefit of their experience throughout the Second World War in Europe, the Eastern Front and North Africa. Many in the French Resistance and French Foreign Legion were Spanish as was the 9th Armoured Company that spearheaded Général Leclerc's 2nd Armoured Division's liberation of Paris. On the other side, some 47,000 Spaniards fought against the Soviet Union in the Wehrmacht's Blue Division (División Azul).

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  3. ^ a b c d "Spain". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=184&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=33&pr.y=6. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
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  8. ^ # ↑ Linch, John (director), Fernández Castro, María Cruz (del segundo tomo), Historia de España, El País, volumen II, La península Ibérica en época prerromana, pg. 40. Dossier. La etimología de España; ¿tierra de conejos?, ISBN 978-84-9815-764-2
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  11. ^ "'First west Europe tooth' found". BBC. 30 June 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/6256356.stm. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  12. ^ Typical Aurignacian items were found in Cantabria (Morín, El Pendo, Castillo), the Basque Country (Santimamiñe) and Catalonia. The radicarbon datations give the following dates: 32,425 and 29,515 BP.
  13. ^ a b c d Rinehart, Robert; Seeley, Jo Ann Browning (1998). "A Country Study: Spain - Hispania". Library of Congress Country Series. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/estoc.html. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  14. ^ a b Payne, Stanley G. (1973). "A History of Spain and Portugal; Ch. 1 Ancient Hispania". The Library of Iberian Resources Online. http://libro.uca.edu/payne1/spainport1.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  15. ^ "The Treatment of Jews in Arab/Islamic Countries". http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/anti-semitism/Jews_in_Arab_lands_(gen).html. Retrieved 2008-08-13.  See also: "The Forgotten Refugees". http://www.theforgottenrefugees.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=66&Itemid=39. Retrieved 2008-08-13.  and "The Almohads". http://www.myjewishlearning.com/history_community/Medieval/IntergroupTO/JewishMuslim/Almohads.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
  16. ^ Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages. Chapter 5: Ethnic Relations, Thomas F. Glick
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  19. ^ "Ransoming Captives in Crusader Spain: The Order of Merced on the Christian-Islamic Frontier". http://libro.uca.edu/rc/rc1.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-13.  See also: Payne, Stanley G. (1973). "A History of Spain and Portugal; Ch. 4 Castile-León in the Era of the Great Reconquest". The Library of Iberian Resources Online. http://libro.uca.edu/payne1/spainport1.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  20. ^ Payne, Stanley G. (1973). "A History of Spain and Portugal; Ch. 5 The Rise of Aragón-Catalonia". The Library of Iberian Resources Online. http://libro.uca.edu/payne1/spainport1.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  21. ^ "The Black Death". Channel 4. http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/H/history/a-b/blackdeath.html. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
  22. ^ "The Treaty of Granada, 1492". Islamic Civilisation. http://www.cyberistan.org/islamic/treaty1492.html. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
  23. ^ Spanish Inquisition left genetic legacy in Iberia. New Scientist. December 4, 2008.
  24. ^ a b Rinehart, Robert; Seeley, Jo Ann Browning (1998). "A Country Study: Spain - The Golden Age". Library of Congress Country Series. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/estoc.html. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  25. ^ "Imperial Spain". University of Calgary. http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/eurvoya/Imperial.html. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
  26. ^ Payne, Stanley G. (1973). "A History of Spain and Portugal; Ch. 13 The Spanish Empire". The Library of Iberian Resources Online. http://libro.uca.edu/payne1/spainport1.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  27. ^ Thomas, Hugh (2003). Rivers of gold: the rise of the Spanish Empire. London: George Weidenfeld & Nicholson. pp. passim. ISBN 978-0297645634. 
  28. ^ "The Seventeenth-Century Decline". The Library of Iberian resources online. http://libro.uca.edu/payne1/payne15.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
  29. ^ a b Chapter 15: A History of Spain and Portugal, Stanley G. Payne
  30. ^ Payne, Stanley G. (1973). "A History of Spain and Portugal; Ch. 14 Spanish Society and Economics in the Imperial Age". The Library of Iberian Resources Online. http://libro.uca.edu/payne1/spainport1.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  31. ^ Rinehart, Robert; Seeley, Jo Ann Browning (1998). "A Country Study: Spain - Spain in Decline". Library of Congress Country Series. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/estoc.html. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  32. ^ Rinehart, Robert; Seeley, Jo Ann Browning (1998). "A Country Study: Spain - Bourbon Spain". Library of Congress Country Series. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/estoc.html. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  33. ^ Gascoigne, Bamber (1998). "History of Spain: Bourbon dynasty: from AD 1700". Library of Congress Country Series. http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?HistoryID=ab50&ParagraphID=iss#iss. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  34. ^ David A. Bell. "Napoleon's Total War". TheHistoryNet.com
  35. ^ (Gates 2001, p.20)
  36. ^ (Gates 2001, p.467)
  37. ^ Spanish Civil War crimes investigation launched, Telegraph, October 16, 2008
  38. ^ Spanish Civil War fighters look back, BBC News, February 23, 2003
  39. ^ Pfanner, Eric (11 July 2002). "Economy reaps benefits of entry to the 'club' : Spain's euro bonanza". International Herald Tribune. http://www.iht.com/articles/2002/07/11/a10_18.php. Retrieved 2008-08-09.  See also: "Spain's economy / Plain sailing no longer". The Economist. 3 May 2007. http://www.economist.com/displayStory.cfm?story_id=9118701. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  40. ^ "Al-Qaeda 'claims Madrid bombings'". BBC. 2004-03-14. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/3509426.stm. Retrieved 2008-08-13.  See also: "Madrid bombers get long sentences". BBC. 2007-10-31. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/7070827.stm. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
  41. ^ "Del 11-M al 14-M: estrategia yihadista, elecciones generales y opinión pública". Fundación Real Instituto Elcano. http://www.realinstitutoelcano.org/wps/portal/rielcano/contenido?WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/Elcano_es/Zonas_es/Imagen+de+Espana/ARI+132-2004. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  42. ^ "Spain votes under a shadow". BBC. 2004-03-14. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/3509744.stm. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
  43. ^ "Spain awakes to socialist reality". BBC. 2004-03-15. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/3512222.stm. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
  44. ^ John Hooper, The New Spainards, 2001, From Dictatorship to Democracy
  45. ^ Spain's fast-living king turns 70 BBC News Friday, 4 January 2008 Extracted 18 June 2009
  46. ^ http://www.senado.es/constitu_i/index.html|Spanish Constitution in English
  47. ^ "Catalonians vote for more autonomy". CNN. 18 June 2006. http://edition.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/europe/06/18/catalonia.vote/index.html. Retrieved 2008-08-13.  See also: "Economic Survey: Spain 2005". Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development. http://www.oecd.org/document/57/0,2340,en_2649_201185_34578361_1_1_1_1,00.html. Retrieved 2008-08-13.  and "Country Briefings: Spain". The Economist. http://www.economist.com/countries/Spain/profile.cfm?folder=Profile-FactSheet. Retrieved 2008-08-09.  and "Swiss Experience With Decentralized Government" (PDF). The World Bank. http://www1.worldbank.org/wbiep/decentralization/Swiss%20Expertise/Muralt.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
  48. ^ Diverging paths on gender equality, BBC News, 10 May 2008.
  49. ^ SPAIN: No Turning Back from Path to Gender Equality, IPS News, 13 March 2007.
  50. ^ Gender equality law triumphs in Spain, IPS News, 31 January 2008
  51. ^ Women in National Parlaments
  52. ^ Human Development Report 2007/2008, p.330.
  53. ^ Chapter 3. Autonomous Communities. 147th Article. Spanish Constitution of 1978. Accessed: 10 December 2007
  54. ^ "Estatut" (in (Spanish)) (PDF). http://www.trobat.com/recursos/estatut-valencia.pdf. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 
  55. ^ Nuevo Estatuto de Autonomía de Canarias
  56. ^ "BOCAe32.QXD" (in (Catalan)) (PDF). http://www.caib.es/webcaib/govern_illes/estatut_autonomia/doc/estatut2007.ca.pdf. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 
  57. ^ "Estatuto de Autonomía de Aragón". Narros.congreso.es. http://narros.congreso.es/constitucion/estatutos/estatutos.jsp?com=64&tipo=2&ini=1&fin=10&ini_sub=1&fin_sub=1. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 
  58. ^ Cartujo.org. "Unidad de Policía de la Comunidad Autónoma de Andalucía". http://www.cartujo.org/pag(a9).htm. Retrieved 2007-10-23.  (Spanish)
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  71. ^ "Going Underground: America's Shadow Economy". FrontPage magazine. January 2005. http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/Read.aspx?GUID=3E2579A7-6002-4048-97BB-46679C5D8A88. Retrieved 2008-08-15. 
  72. ^ "OECD report for 2006" (PDF). OECD. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/51/21/37392840.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-09. 
  73. ^ Euro zone unemployment reaches 15 million. CBCNews.ca. July 2, 2009.
  74. ^ The unemployment timebomb is quietly ticking. Telegraph. July 4, 2009.
  75. ^ "OECD figures". OECD. http://stats.oecd.org/WBOS/ViewHTML.aspx?QueryName=198&QueryType=View&Lang=en. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
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  82. ^ Charles Smith, article: "Spain", in Wankel, C. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Business in Today's World, California, USA, 2009.
  83. ^ "Recession to hit Germany, UK and Spain". Financial Times. 2008-09-10. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/cf5d0f08-7f49-11dd-a3da-000077b07658.html?nclick_check=1. Retrieved 2008-09-11. 
  84. ^ Spain faces deepest recession in 50 years, Spanish News, January 18, 2009
  85. ^ Mounting joblessness in Spain | And worse to come, The Economist, January 22, 2009
  86. ^ "Algae Based Biofuels in Plain English: Why it Matters, How it Works. (algae algaebiofuels carbonsequestration valcent vertigro algaebasedbiofuels ethanol)". Triplepundit.com. July 30, 2008. http://www.triplepundit.com/pages/algae-based-biofuels-in-plain--003362.php. Retrieved 2008-11-19. 
  87. ^ "Spain to Put 1 million Electric Cars on the Road". Triplepundit.com. July 30, 2008. http://www.triplepundit.com/pages/spain-to-put-1-million-electri-003363.php. Retrieved 2008-11-19. 
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  89. ^ "Población extranjera por sexo, país de nacionalidad y edad". Instituto Nacional de Estadística. http://www.ine.es/inebase/cgi/axi?AXIS_PATH=/inebase/temas/t20/e245/p04/a2005/l0/&FILE_AXIS=00000010.px&CGI_DEFAULT=/inebase/temas/cgi.opt&COMANDO=SELECCION&CGI_URL=/inebase/cgi/. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
  90. ^ Migration to Latin America. Universiteit Leiden.
  91. ^ Axtell, James (September/October 1991), "The Columbian Mosaic in Colonial America", Humanities 12 (5): 12–18, http://www.millersville.edu/~columbus/data/art/AXTELL01.ART, retrieved 2008-10-08 
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  96. ^ "Immigration statistics". BBC. 2006-12-11. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/6161705.stm. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
  97. ^ "The Situation of Roma in Spain" (PDF). Open Society Institute. http://www.eumap.org/reports/2002/eu/international/sections/spain/2002_m_spain.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-14. 
  98. ^ "World Disasters Report 2006". Red Cross. http://www.ifrc.org/publicat/wdr2006/. Retrieved 2008-08-14. 
  99. ^ "Financial crisis reveals vulnerability of Spain's immigrants - Feature". The Earth Times. November 18, 2009.
  100. ^ "Avance del Padrón Municipal a 1 de enero de 2006. Datos provisionales" (PDF). Instituto Nacional de Estadística. http://www.ine.es/prodyser/pubweb/anuario06/anu06_02demog.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-13.  See also: "Immigration Shift: Many Latin Americans Choosing Spain Over U.S.". IMDiversity, Inc. http://www.imdiversity.com/villages/hispanic/world_international/pns_immigration_shift_1204.asp. Retrieved 2008-08-13.  and "Spain: Immigrants Welcome". Business Week. http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/07_21/b4035066.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-13.  and "Immigrants Fuel Europe's Civilization Clash". MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/14628564/site/newsweek/print/1/displaymode/1098/. Retrieved 2008-08-13.  and "Spanish youth clash with immigrant gangs". International Herald Tribune. http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/01/22/news/spain.php. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
  101. ^ "Population in Europe in 2005" (PDF). Eurostat. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-NK-06-001/EN/KS-NK-06-001-EN.PDF. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
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  103. ^ "Europeans Favour Spain for Expat Jobs". News.bg. http://international.ibox.bg/news/id_1406161495. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
  104. ^ Spain to increase immigration budget, October 10, 2007
  105. ^ Spain’s Immigration System Runs Amok, September 17, 2008
  106. ^ "Spain grants amnesty to 700,000 migrants". Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2005/may/09/spain.gilestremlett. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 
  107. ^ Spain Tries to Buy Out Immigrants, TIME, October 20, 2008
  108. ^ Madrid to pay surplus immigrant tradesman to go home, come back later, globeandmail.com, October 9, 2008
  109. ^ Spain's Jobs Crisis Leaves Immigrants Out of Work, The Wall Street Journal, January 24, 2009
  110. ^ CIA - The World Factbook -- Spain
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  114. ^ "Barómetro julio 2009, Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas, Jul 2009". http://www.cis.es/cis/opencms/-Archivos/Marginales/2800_2819/2811/es2811.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-16. 
  115. ^ Religion Important for Americans, Italians, Angus Reid Global Monitor, December 30, 2006
  116. ^ "October poll, questions 32 and 32a" (PDF). Centre of Sociological Investigations. http://mas.lne.es/documentos/archivos/20-11-06-cis.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
  117. ^ "Spain". The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. http://newsroom.lds.org/ldsnewsroom/eng/contact-us/spain. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
  118. ^ "Muslims in Europe: Country guide". BBC. 2005-12-23. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4385768.stm#spain. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
  119. ^ Kamen, Henry (1999). The Spanish Inquisition: A Historical Revision. Yale University Press. pp. 29–31. 
  120. ^ "Spain Education System". SpainExchange.com. http://www.spainexchange.com/educator_info/spain_education.php. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
  121. ^ a b "The top 100 books of all time". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2002/may/08/books.booksnews. Retrieved 2008-08-14. 
  122. ^ "Origins". Real Academia Española. http://www.rae.es/rae/gestores/gespub000001.nsf/voTodosporId/CEDF300E8D943D3FC12571360037CC94?OpenDocument&i=0. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
  123. ^ Jordan, Barry; Rikki Morgan-Tamosunas (1998). Contemporary spanish cinema. Manchester University Press. 
  124. ^ Cruz, Jo (1999). Edited by David R. Blanks and Michael Frassetto. ed. Western Views of Islam in Medieval and Early Modern Europe: Perception and Other. New York: Saint Martin's Press. pp. 56. 
  125. ^ "Bank holidays in Spain". bank-holidays.com. http://www.bank-holidays.com/holidays_2007_58.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
  • Gates, David (2001). .The Spanish Ulcer: A History of the Peninsular War.^ In internal affairs the years of the war were of capital importance in Spanish hl1~ ~ history.

    Da Capo Press. pp. 20. ISBN 0-306-81083-2.
     

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Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.Spain is a country in the Iberian Peninsula of southwestern Europe.^ Altogether no other country in Europe of equal extent has so great a wealth of species as Spain.

^ SPAIN (Espana), a kingdom in the extreme south-west of Europe , comprising about eleven-thirteenths of the Iberian Peninsula, in addition to the Balearic Islands , the Canary Islands , and the fortified station of Ceuta , on the Moroccan coast opposite to Gibraltar .

Sourced

.
  • En dos edades vivimos
    los propios y los ajenos:
    la de plata los estraños,
    y la de cobre los nuestros.
    • We live in different ages, non-Spaniards and ourselves: they in the age of silver, we in the age of brass.
    • Lope de Vega La Dorotea Act I, sc.^ Mucho de mayor precio a seer el tu manto Que non ser el nuestro (Berceo, S. Laur., str.

      ^ Hence the formation of the class of caballeros de fuero, non-nobles living nobly with a right to wear the sword.

      iv. Translation from Alan S. Trueblood and Edwin Honig (ed. and trans.) La Dorotea (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1985) p. 23.
  • In Mexico the gods ruled, the priests interpreted and interposed, and the people obeyed. .In Spain, the priests ruled, the king interpreted and interposed, and the gods obeyed.^ He obeyed the rule which has called upon all the intelligent governors of Spain to make sure of the African coast by occupying it.

    A nuance in an ideological difference is a wide chasm.
    • Richard Condon A Talent for Loving (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961) p. 53.
  • The French are wiser than they seem, and the Spaniards seem wiser than they are.
    • Francis Bacon, "Of Seeming Wise", in Essays (1625); Brian Vickers (ed.) The Major Works (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002) p. 389.
  • The genius of the Spanish people is exquisitely subtle, without being at all acute; hence there is so much humour and so little wit in their literature.
    • Samuel Taylor Coleridge, speaking on April 23, 1832; Henry Nelson Coleridge (ed.) Specimens of the Table Talk of Samuel Taylor Coleridge (Edinburgh: John Grant, 1905) p. 171.
  • The Spaniards have always been astonished at the likeness of their Berber foes in Morocco with themselves
  • Wee may say of him, as of the Spaniard, Hee is a bad Servant, but a worse Maister.
    • Thomas Adams The Sacrifice of Thankefulnesse (London: C. Knight, 1616) p. 6.
  • Cervantes smil'd Spain's chivalry away.

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Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Iberia : Spain
noframe
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:sp-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Madrid
Government Parliamentary Monarchy
Area Total: 504,782 km2
Population 40,525,002 (July 2009 est)
Language Castilian Spanish (official) 100%, Catalan (also official in Catalonia, Comunitat Valenciana and Balearic Islands) 17%, Galician (also official in Galicia)7%, Basque (also official in Basque Country and Navarra) 2%
Religion Roman Catholic 72%, none 20% other 8%
Electricity 230V/50Hz (European plug)
Calling Code 34
Internet TLD .es
Time Zone UTC + 1
.Spain [1] (Spanish: España) is a diverse country sharing the Iberian Peninsula with Portugal at the western end of the Mediterranean Sea.^ In a country noted for its fanatical loyalty to the Crown and the Church, the kingship was to be deprived of all power and influence, and the clergy to be excluded as such from Spanish all share in legislation.

^ On all sides except that of Portugal the boundaries of continental Spain are natural, the Peninsula being separated from France by the Pyrenees and on every other side being surrounded by the sea.

^ But other fragments stil rose above the waves, and of these the great irassif of Portugal arc western Spain was one.

.It is the country with the second-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites, after Italy, and the largest number of World Heritage Cities.^ The immense majority of the people are professed adherents of the Roman Catholic faith, so that, so far as numbers go, Spain is still the most Catholic country in the world, as it has long been styled.

.Spain is considered an exotic country in Europe due to its friendly inhabitants, relaxed lifestyle, its cuisine, vibrant nightlife, and world-famous folklore and festivities.^ Altogether no other country in Europe of equal extent has so great a wealth of species as Spain.

^ The immense majority of the people are professed adherents of the Roman Catholic faith, so that, so far as numbers go, Spain is still the most Catholic country in the world, as it has long been styled.

^ Spain, clearly stipulated that her rule in the New World must be considered at an end, and that the fate of the Philippines would be settled at the Paris negotiations.

Among many places worth visiting are Spain's thriving capital Madrid, the vibrant coastal city of Barcelona, the famous "Running of the Bulls" at Pamplona, major Andalucian cities with Moorish architecture, like Seville, Granada and Córdoba, the Way of St. James and the idyllic Balearic and Canary Islands.

Understand

.With great beaches, fun nightlife, many cultural regions and historic cities, Spain makes a great destination for any kind of trip.^ But the Phoenician exploitation of Spain dates principally from after the rise of Carthage , the great Phoenician city of North Africa.

.A country of large geographic and cultural diversity, Spain is a surprise to those who only know its reputation for great beach holidays.^ Each of the two island groups forms one of the forty-nine provinces of the kingdom, although only the first named belongs geographically to Spain.

^ Of these but a few occur only there, or at least have not yet been observed elsewhere than in that great province of southern Spain.

^ The Moors decimated the native population; when they in turn were expelled, the country lost not only a numerically large section of its inhabitants, but the section best able to develop its natural wealth.

There is everything from lush meadows and snowy mountains to huge marshes and deserts in the south east.

History

Once the center of a global empire with territories in North, Central and South America, Africa i.e. Equatorial Guinea, and Asia i.e. the Philippines, contemporary Spain has overcome civil war and fascism in the 20th century to stand proud and centered in itself.

Immigration

.Spain holds a historical attachment to its neighbors within the Iberian Peninsula, Andorra and Portugal, to its former colonies, to former citizens and their descendants, and to a special category of former citizens, namely Sephardic Jews.^ On all sides except that of Portugal the boundaries of continental Spain are natural, the Peninsula being separated from France by the Pyrenees and on every other side being surrounded by the sea.

.Individuals from these categories may acquire Spanish citizenship in an accelerated fashion which may or may not require that the individuals reside in Spain, and residency requirements are as short as one to three years depending on the category.^ Three presidents succeeded one another within a year, Pi y Margall, Salmeron.

^ The history of these three miserable years cannot be told except at impossible length.

^ Spain is, on the whole, a country whose production falls far short of her own requirements.

.Citizens of countries in the European Union may acquire citizenship after living in Spain for five years.^ For the next five years the political history of Spain.

^ No European country produces so great a variety of minerals in large amount, and in the production of copper ore, lead ore and mercury Spain heads the list.

.Citizens of any other country may acquire citizenship after residing in Spain for ten years.^ Its extraordinary lack of population differentiates Spain from every other country possessed of equal natural advantages and an historic civilization.

^ Altogether no other country in Europe of equal extent has so great a wealth of species as Spain.

^ In the production of pod-fruits and kitchen vegetables Spain is ahead of many other countries.

.The population of Spain is growing in large part due to migration from relatively poor or politically unstable areas of South America, such as Argentina, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador or Peru, Europe, mostly Eastern Europe, that have a historical or linguistic attachment to Spain, Africa and Asia.^ The special development of the vulgar Latin tongue in Spain, and the formation of the three linguistic types just enumerated, were promoted by political circumstances.

^ As regards the distribution of population between town and country, Spain contrasts in a marked manner with Italy, Spain having but few large towns and a relatively large country population.

^ Besides the date-palm the dwarf - palm grows spontaneously in some parts of the south, but it nowhere makes up a large element of the vegetation.

Regions

.Spain is divided into autonomías or autonomous regions, plus two independent cities.^ Spain is divided into seven military regions or army corps.

^ Internally it was divided into two belts.

^ The national colors are red and yellow- The flag is divided into three horizontal stripes, two red stripes with a yellow one between bearing the royal arms.

.Some of the autonomías - notably the ones which have other official languages alongside Spanish - are regions with their own unique historical tradition.^ Old Spanish with the meaning of the present; alongside of eres one finds (but only in old documents or in dialects) sos, formed like sois (2nd pen.

^ Se, sede, the gerundive sendo, the participle s/do, and some other tenses in the old language.

^ Vith the 2nd century the great Roman-Spanish literature ceased:it was left to other regions which felt later than Spain the stimulus of Romanization to enter into the literary tradition.

.These include the Basque Country or Euskadi (Basque), Galicia (Galician), Catalonia or Catalunya, the Valencian region or País Valencià, and the Balearic Islands or Illes Balears (Catalan), but also Andalucía.^ Aragonese, Catalans and Valencians werp N Li ~, as different as Galicians, Basques, Castilians and DIf Andalusians.

^ In the Basque Provinces and in Galicia the cultivable area is quite as fully utilized, but in these the difficulties are not so great.

^ Andalusia, Murcia, Valencia, Catalonia and the Balearic Islands were subject to their raids throughout the whole of the 16th and 17th centuries.

Travelers to these parts of the Iberian Peninsula should respect their history and language. .The Canary Islands lie off the coast of Morocco and are geographically part of Africa, as are the two cities of Ceuta and Melilla.^ Each of the two island groups forms one of the forty-nine provinces of the kingdom, although only the first named belongs geographically to Spain.

^ SPAIN (Espana), a kingdom in the extreme south-west of Europe , comprising about eleven-thirteenths of the Iberian Peninsula, in addition to the Balearic Islands , the Canary Islands , and the fortified station of Ceuta , on the Moroccan coast opposite to Gibraltar .

^ The cavalry includes a squadron of royal horse guards, 28 regiments of the line, remount and dpt establishments, 4 regional squadrons in Majorca , the Canaries, Ceuta, Melilla.

For ease of reference, Spain's many regions can be grouped as follows:
Regions of Spain
Regions of Spain
Northwestern Spain (Galicia, Asturias, Cantabria)
Northern Spain (Basque Country, Navarra, La Rioja)
Northeastern Spain (Catalonia, Aragón)
Central Spain (Madrid, Castile-La Mancha, Castile-Leon, Extremadura)
Eastern Spain (Murcia, Valencia)
Andalucia
Balearic Islands
Canary Islands

Cities

Spain has hundreds of interesting cities, here are nine of the most popular:
  • Madrid - The vibrant capital, with fantastic museums, great food and nightlife
  • Barcelona - Spain's second city, full of modernist buildings and a vibrant cultural life, nightclubs, and beaches.
  • Bilbao - former industrial city, home to the Guggenheim Museum.
  • Cadiz - oldest city in Western Europe, celebrates a famous carnival.
  • Córdoba - The Grand Mosque ('Mezquita') of Cordoba is one of the world's finest buildings.
  • Granada - stunning city in the south, surrounded by snow capped mountains of the Sierra Nevada, home of La Alhambra.
  • Zaragoza - recently held a Expo and is the 5th largest city.
  • Seville - a beautiful, verdant city, and home to the world's third largest cathedral.
  • Valencia - paella was invented here, has a very nice beach.
This article or section does not match our manual of style or needs other editing. Please plunge forward, give it your attention and help it improve!
  • Ceuta and Melilla - Spanish enclaves on the African continent.
  • El Arenosillo - rocket launch site near Mazagón in Huelva, Andalucia
  • La Rioja - Rioja wine and fossilized dinosaur tracks.
  • Rías Altas (comprising the province of Lugo plus the northern part of the province of Coruña) - beautiful beaches and food.
  • Rías Baixas (comprising the province of Pontevedra plus the southern part of the province of Coruña) - beautiful beaches and food.
  • Sitges - a seaside resort near Barcelona.
  • Costa Brava - the rugged coast.
  • Palma - On the island of Mallorca, is full of amazing beaches, and great nightlife.
  • Ibiza - Another Balearic island; one of the best places for clubbing, raving, and DJs in the entire world

Get in

Spain is a member of the Schengen Agreement. For EU, EEA (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway) or Swiss citizens, an officially approved ID card (or a passport) is sufficient for entry. In no case will they need a visa for a stay of any length. Others will generally need a passport for entry.
.There are no border controls between countries that have signed and implemented the treaty - the European Union (except Bulgaria, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania and the United Kingdom), Iceland, Norway and Switzerland.^ Spain only attempted to make new treaties of commerce with Holland, Norway , Sweden , Denmark and Switzerland.

^ But in this land, where nothing was consistent, there was in reality no sharp division except in the smaller and feudal portioncalled Aragon for convenmenceand save as between Christian and non-Christian, noble and non-noble.

Likewise, a visa granted for any Schengen member is valid in all other countries that have signed and implemented the treaty. But be careful: Not all EU members have signed the Schengen treaty, and not all Schengen members are part of the European Union.
.Airports in Europe are thus divided into "Schengen" and "non-Schengen" sections, which effectively act like "domestic" and "international" sections elsewhere.^ By a process which was going on elsewhere in Europe the frontier settled into a new political organism.

^ The Liberals were divided into sub-sections, distinguished from one another by a rising scale of violence.

.If you are flying from outside Europe into one Schengen country and continuing to another, you will clear Immigration and Customs at the first country and then continue to your destination with no further checks.^ The Liberals were divided into sub-sections, distinguished from one another by a rising scale of violence.

^ On the one hand were the Spaniards who desired to assimilate their country to western Europe, and on the other those of them who adhered to the old order.

Travel between a Schengen member and a non-Schengen country will result in the normal border checks. Note that regardless of whether you travelling within the Schengen area or not, some airlines will still insist on seeing your ID card or passport.
Keep in mind that the counter begins once you enter any country in the Schengen Area and is not reset by leaving a specific Schengen country for another Schengen country, or vice-versa.
As of January 2010 only the citizens of the following non-EU/EEA/Swiss countries do not need a visa for entry into the Schengen Area; note that they must not stay longer than three months in half a year and must not work while in the EU: Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Japan, Macedonia*, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Montenegro*, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, San Marino, Serbia*/**, Seychelles, Singapore, South Korea, United States, Uruguay, Vatican City, Venezuela, additionally persons holding British National (Overseas), Hong Kong SAR or Macau SAR passports.
Note that
  • while British subjects with the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British Overseas Territories citizens connected to Gibraltar are considered "United Kingdom nationals for European Union purposes" and therefore eligible for unlimited access to the Schengen Area,
  • British Overseas Territories citizens without the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British subjects without the right of abode in the United Kingdom as well as British Overseas citizens and British protected persons in general do require visas.
.However, all British Overseas Territories citizens except those solely connected to the Cyprus Sovereign Base Areas are eligible for British citizenship and thereafter unlimited access to the Schengen Area.^ In these last, however, the prevailing frtut-trees are those of central Europe, and above all the apple , which is very extensively cultivated in Asturias, the Basque Provinces and Navarre.

Further note that
(*) Macedonian, Montenegrin and Serbian citizens need a biometric passport to enjoy visa-free travel and
(**) Serbian citizens with passports issued by the Serbian Coordination Directorate (Serbs residing in Kosovo) still do need a visa.
There are a number of ways to get into Spain. From neighboring European countries, a drive with the car or a train ride is feasible; visitors from further away will probably be using air travel.

By plane

Spain's national carrier is Iberia.
The busiest airports are Madrid, A Coruña, Palma de Mallorca, Malaga, Murcia, Barcelona, Jerez de la Frontera, Seville, Valencia, Bilbao, Alicante, Santiago de Compostella, Vigo and Gran Canaria. All are listed on the official airport governing body website: [2]
Madrid and Bilbao have the most beautiful airports, designed by famous architects.
.Low cost carriers operating to Spain include: ClickAir[3], a discount subsidiary of Iberia, operating from Barcelona, Sevilla and Valencia, Vueling [4], easyJet [5], RyanAir [6], Blue Air [7], and Jet2.com [8].^ Spain has nine universities: Madrid, the most numerotisly attended; Salamanca, the most ancient; Granada, Seville, Barcelona, Valencia, Santiago, Saragossa and Valladolid.

Warning: If you buy an e-ticket from Iberia or ClickAir over the Internet with a credit card, you may have to show the original credit card upon check-in. If you fail to do so, you will have to purchase another ticket for the same fare, and the original ticket will be refunded many weeks or even months later.
  • RENFE [9] - Timetables and Prices
  • FEVE [10] - FEVE's web page
.Train system in Spain is modern and reliable, most of the trains are brand new and the punctuality rate is one of the highest in Europe, the only problem is that not all the populated areas have a train station; sometimes small towns don't have one, in those cases you need to take a bus.^ Each of the two island groups forms one of the forty-nine provinces of the kingdom, although only the first named belongs geographically to Spain.

^ Sometimes the ny becomes reduced to y; one occasionally meets in manuscripts with seyor, ay, for senyor, any, but this pronunciation has not become general, as has been the case with the y having its origin in it.

^ All this also did not bear its full frOit till later times, but by the 17th century it had made Spain one of the two most beggarly nations in Europe the other being Portugal.

.Another issue with the Spanish Rail network is that the lines are disposed in a radial way so almost all the lines head to Madrid.^ The air is extremely dry, which is all the more keenly felt from the fact that it is almost constantly in motion, At Madrid (2150 ft.

.That's why sometimes traveling from one city to another geographically close to it might take longer by train than by bus if they are not in the same line.^ These three varieties of the Romana rustica are marked off from one another more distinctly than is the case with, say the Romance dialects of Italy; they do not interpenetrate one another, but where the one ends the other begins.

^ They were one only as subjects of the same lords and members of the same Church.

Always check whether the bus or the train is more convenient.

By bus

Bus travel in Spain is increasingly an attractive option for people traveling on a tight budget. .Thanks largely to European Union funding, Spain's road network has vastly improved over the past twenty years, so bus journeys don't take nearly as long as they used to.^ Their disappearance greatly promoted the work of national unification, and was a gain, since they had long ceased to serve any really useful purpose.

^ But for an interval of more than twenty-five years they stood apart.

^ No European country produces so great a variety of minerals in large amount, and in the production of copper ore, lead ore and mercury Spain heads the list.

There are lots of private bus companies offering routes to all major Spanish cities. .If you want to travel around Spain by bus, the best idea is to go to your local bus station (Apart from Madrid and Barcelona, most towns and cities have just one) and see what is available.^ The same rule applies to their schools, which are, however, numerously attended, in Madrid, Seville, Barcelona and other towns, by children of Protestant families and of many Roman Catholics also.

^ Apart from the Italian intrigues, the most important foreign affairs of the reign were connected with the relations of Spain with England.

^ The Madrid foreign office welcomed most readily a clever move of Prince Bismarcks to estrange Spain from France and to flatter the young king of Spain.

Traveling by bus in Spain is usually reliable (except on peak holiday days when roads can be very crowded and you should expect long delays on popular routes), coaches are modern and comfortable. You can expect to pay about €8 per 100km.

By boat

Regular ferry services are run by P&O from Portsmouth to Bilbao (thrice a week) and from Plymouth and Southampton to Santander (once a week). This services should be booked well in advance, provided that many english tourist tend to book them as a fast way to get to Spain by car.
Moreover, Barcelona, and to a lesser extent, Valencia, are popular boat cruise destinations. From Barcelona, regular ferry services go to Genova and to Livorno, in Italy, and to Marseille in France.

Visas

.Spain is a member of the European Union and the Schengen Agreement, which governs its visa policies.^ Spain appealed in vain to European mediation , to the pope, to courts and governments.

.No visa is required for citizens of other EU member states, and those of nations with whom the European Union has special treaties.^ When France and other European nations abandoned free trade for protection towards 1890, a strong movement set in in Spain in favor of protection.

^ Canovas both inclined to assist national aspirations in Morocco, and jealously watched the relations of that empire with other European powers.

.There are no border controls between Spain and other Schengen Agreement nations, making travel less complicated.^ Altogether no other country in Europe of equal extent has so great a wealth of species as Spain.

^ When France and other European nations abandoned free trade for protection towards 1890, a strong movement set in in Spain in favor of protection.

^ There are other smaller areas containing little or no coal, but showing by the included plant-remains that the strata undoubtedly belong to the Carbonifei-ous system.

As of May 2004 citizens of the following countries do not need a visa for entry into Spain. .Note that citizens of these countries (except EU nationals) must not stay longer than three months in any 180 day period in any country covered by the Schengen Agreement and they and must not work in Spain: Andorra, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, El Salvador, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macao, Malaysia, Malta, Mexico, Monaco, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Netherlands, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Sweden, Switzerland, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, South Korea, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Vatican City and Venezuela.^ Spain only attempted to make new treaties of commerce with Holland, Norway , Sweden , Denmark and Switzerland.

^ On the north-west the valley of the Sil and a series of valleys farther south, along both of which military roads have been carried from an early period , open tip comrntinication between Leon and the hill country of Galicia, which explains why this province was united to Leon even before the conquest of Portugal from the Moors.

^ These three varieties of the Romana rustica are marked off from one another more distinctly than is the case with, say the Romance dialects of Italy; they do not interpenetrate one another, but where the one ends the other begins.

.For Latin American people, especially those from Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, Paraguay, and in some cases Venezuela, Chile and Argentina you need to have a hotel reservation confirmed, and international insurance for at least 30.000 EURO; if your trip is from 1-9 days you need €514, for each additional day €57 and a return air ticket.^ Not a few of the officers held Liberal opinions, and this was especially the case with those who had been prisoners in 1~seiv~iuduon France during the war and had been inoculated with foreign doctrines.

Venezuelan credit cards are not accepted like funds for immigration due to the currency exchange control in this country.
  • Renfe [11] is the Spanish national rail carrier. .Long-distance trains always get in time, but be aware that short-distance trains (called Cercanías) can bear long delays, from ten to twenty minutes, and especially in the Barcelona area.^ Called the Deacon , descendant of Alphonso I., r-.igned for a very short time, and retired to a religious house.

    To be safe, always take the train before the one you need.

By bus

The easiest way to get around most parts of Spain is by bus. Most major routes are point to point, and very high frequency. There is a different operator for each route, but usually just one operator per route. At the bus station, each operator has its own ticket. The staff at any of them is usually happy to tell you who operates which route, however.
  • Movelia [12] - provides schedules and fares for most operators.

By boat

Wherever you are in Spain, from your private yacht you can enjoy gorgeous scenery and distance yourself from the inevitable crowds of tourists that flock to these destinations. May is a particularly pleasant time to charter in the regions of Costa Brava, Costa Blanca and the Balearic Islands as the weather is good and the crowds have yet to descend. The summer months of July and August are the hottest and tend to have lighter winds. .There is no low season for the Canary Islands, as the weather resembles springtime all year round.^ The temperature is mild and equable; the rains are abundant all the year round, but fall chiefly in autumn, as in the west of Europe generally.

.If you would like to bareboat anywhere in Spain, including the Balearic or Canary Islands, a US Coast Guard License is the only acceptable certification needed by Americans to bareboat.^ SPAIN (Espana), a kingdom in the extreme south-west of Europe , comprising about eleven-thirteenths of the Iberian Peninsula, in addition to the Balearic Islands , the Canary Islands , and the fortified station of Ceuta , on the Moroccan coast opposite to Gibraltar .

^ The only considerable lakes in Spain are three coast lagoonsthe Albufera (q.v.

^ The flamingo is found native in the Balearic Islands and on the southern coasts, and a stray specimen is occasionally seen on the table-land of New Castile.

For everyone else, a RYA Yacht Master Certification or International Certificate of Competence will normally do. Although a skipper may be required, a hostess/chef may or may not be necessary. Dining out is strong part of Spanish custom and tradition. If you are planning on docking in a port and exploring fabulous bars and restaurants a hostess/cook may just be useful for serving drinks and making beds. Extra crew can take up valuable room on a tight ship.

By car

In major cities like Barcelona and in mid-sized like San Sebastian, moving around by car is both expensive and nerve-wracking. Fines for improper parking are uncompromising (€85 and up).
.Having a driving map is essential - many streets are one-way; left turns are more rare than rights (and are unpredictable).^ In Andalusia the downfall of the Almorvides had War with opened the way to the Almohdes, or followers of theAlmothe Mabdi, an even more bigoted religious sect than hades, the other.

^ The work of political unification was essentially more difficult than the christianization of Spain.

^ One of them, by name Ardabast, was deprived of his holding at a later date on the ground that he held more land than could be safely left in the hands of a Christian.

.Getting around by car makes sense if you plan to move from one city to another every other day, ideally if you don't plan to park overnight in large cities.^ The Spanish Roman and the Visigoth, so-called, of that epoch of poorness of spirit, accustomed as he was to compound with one master after another, saw nothing dishonourable in making such an arrangement.

It also doesn't hurt that the scenery is beautiful and well worth a drive.
There are two types of highway in Spain: autopistas, or motorways, and autovías, which are more akin to expressways. Most autopistas are toll roads while autovías are generally free of charge. Speed limits range from 50 km/h in towns to about 90 km/h on rural roads, 100 km/h on autovías, and 120 km/h on autopistas.
Intersections of two highways typically have a roundabout under the higher one--so you can both choose any turn and to start driving in an opposite direction there.
.Green light for cars about to turn is frequently on at the same time as green light for pedestrians: every time you turn, check if the pedestrians pass you cross doesn't also have green light for them.^ In the kingdom of Aragon the right was secured about the same time.

Between cities, drivers are required to have some rest every 2 hours they drive--there's a fine if you don't follow. It's unclear how it's enforced, however.
Filling procedure for gas stations varies from brand to brand. At Agip, you first fill the tank yourself, and then pay inside the shop. Gasoline is relatively inexpensive compared to other countries in the EU and Japan, but still more expensive than in the U.S.

By thumb

Spain isn't a good country for hitchhiking. Sometimes you can wait many hours. Try to speak with people at gas stations, parking lots etc. They are scared and suspicious, but when you show them that they shouldn't be afraid, they gladly accept you and mostly also show their generosity. In the South of Spain, in and around the Alpujarras, hitchhiking is very common and it is also very easy to get a ride. As long as you can speak a bit of spanish and don't look too dirty/frightening, you should be able to get a ride moderately easily.

Renting a car

.If you plan to move around large cities or explore further afield you will find many companies that offer car hire at affordable prices because of the high competition between car rental agencies, consider renting a car with GPS navigation--it will be even easier to drive than having an automobile map.^ Another feature of the period of reconstruction was the formation of numerous trusts or combinations of producing companies designed to take advantage of the high tariff , and to restrict competition, lower expenses an d raise prices.

Consider having full-coverage insurance instead of franchise: other drivers are not always careful parking near other cars, especially when parking space on a street is limited.
Spanish drivers can be unpredictable and some of the roads on the Southern area of Malaga and the Costa Del Sol are notoriously dangerous.
Therefore you will want a car with a fully comprehensive insurance package with includes a collision damage waiver (CDW) and a vehicle theft waiver, as well as liability cover. Many of the car hire companies offer an insurance option where you can choose to reduce your vehicle excess. This means that if you are in an accident you would not be financially liable for the whole excess fee.
Child seats are also available with all vehicles so that any children in your party can travel safely and in comfort.
Air conditioning is a must in the hot Spanish summer months. .Nevertheless you should make sure to take water with you at all times.^ Of the others some were passing phantoms, and the records of the later times of the kingdom are so obscure that we cannot be sure of knowing the names of all who perished by violence.

^ He obeyed the rule which has called upon all the intelligent governors of Spain to make sure of the African coast by occupying it.

If you break down while on holiday you will want a car hire company that gives you the free roadside assistance of trained mechanics. Cars often overheat in Spain while the tires are vulnerable on the hot roads.
Avis accepts payment in US dollars when you pay by a credit card. If you need to pay when you return rented car, payment is made from deposit you provided by credit card in the beginning--so you don't pay extra money upon return, waiting for weeks for deposit to be unblocked.

By bicycle

Spain is heaven for cycling, judging by how many cyclists you can see in the cities. Cycling lanes are available in mid-sized and large cities. .It must be taken into account that Spain is the second most mountainous country in Europe, and the mountains and hills are from coast to coast.^ This tragedy, which rightly or wrongly aroused the most widespread indignation throughout Europe, produced a ministerial crisis in Spain.

^ The immense majority of the people are professed adherents of the Roman Catholic faith, so that, so far as numbers go, Spain is still the most Catholic country in the world, as it has long been styled.

^ Medieval Spain divides itself into three con quistasthat of Castile (much the most considerable), that of Portugal, and that of Aragon.

For example, Madrid is between 600 and 700 meters above sea, so if you travel through it by bicycle you have to be in a good shape.

Talk

.Unsurprisingly, the official and universal language used in Spain is Spanish (español, castellano), but it's more complicated than that, as it differs in pronunciation and other details.^ Deposits of Tertiary age cover rather more than a third of Spain.

^ Vith the 2nd century the great Roman-Spanish literature ceased:it was left to other regions which felt later than Spain the stimulus of Romanization to enter into the literary tradition.

^ In Andalusia the downfall of the Almorvides had War with opened the way to the Almohdes, or followers of theAlmothe Mabdi, an even more bigoted religious sect than hades, the other.

.It is part of the Romance family of languages (others include Portuguese, Galician, Catalan, Italian, Occitan, French, and Romanian) and is one of the main branches of that family.^ As for features common to C~talan and Hispanic (Castilian and Portuguese) Romance, on the other hand, and which are unknown to French Romance, only one is of importance; the conservation, namely, of the Latin u with its original sound, while the same vowel has assumed in French and ProvencaI~ .

^ Spain, Portuguese-Galician being the other; both idioms, now separated by very marked differences, can be traced back directly to one common source the Hispanic Romance.

^ PORTUGUESE.Portuguese-Galician constitutes the second branch of the Latin of Spain.

It is more properly called Castilian (castellano).
.However, there are a number of languages — Catalan, Basque, Galician, Asturian, etc — spoken in various parts of Spain.^ Within the Castilian domain, thus embracing all in Spain that is neither Portuguese nor Catalan, there exist linguistic varieties which it would perhaps be an exaggeration.

^ Spain occupies an unsurpassed geographical position; its resources are rich, varied and to some extent unexploited; its inhabitants include the Basques and Catalans, noted for their commercial enterprise, and the Galicians, noted for their industry.

^ This undoubtedly was the case in the north, where the Asturians and Basques, the least Romanized part of the population, appear from the beginning of the age of barbarization as acting for themselves.

Some of these languages are dominant in their respective regions, and following their legalization in the 1978 constitution, they are co-official with Castilian. .Apart from Basque (whose origins are still debated) the languages of the Iberian Peninsula are part of the Romance family and are fairly easy to pick up if you know Castilian well.^ Not to speak of the Basque, which still forms an island of some importance in the north-west, three Romance languages share this extensive territory: (1) Portuguese-Galician, spoken in Portugal, Galicia, and a small portion of the province of Leon; (2) Castilian, covering about two-thirds of the Peninsula in the north, centre, and south; (3) Catalan, occupying a long strip of territory to the east and south-east.

Learning a few words in the local languages where you are traveling will help endear you to the locals.
.
  • Catalan (Catalan: català, Castilian: catalán), is a distinct language similar to Castilian but more closely related to the Oc branch of the Romance Languages and is considered by many to be part of a Dialect Continuum spanning across Spain, France, and Italy and including the other Lengas d'òc such as Provençal, Beàrnais, Limousin, Auvernhat and Niçard.^ In the central parts of the same table-land huge thisties (such as the Onopordum nervosunl), centaureas, artemisias and other Compositae are scattered in great piof usion.

    ^ Within the Castilian domain, thus embracing all in Spain that is neither Portuguese nor Catalan, there exist linguistic varieties which it would perhaps be an exaggeration.

    ^ When France and other European nations abandoned free trade for protection towards 1890, a strong movement set in in Spain in favor of protection.

    .Various dialects are spoken in the northeastern region of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, and Valencia (where it is often referred to as Valencià), east of Aragon, as well as neighboring Andorra and southern France.^ Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia by arms.

    ^ Aragon, which was poor and tenacious of its rights, would give little; Catalonia and Valencia afforded small help.

    ^ The first was to reunite the Balearic Islands and Roussillon , which James the Conqueror had left by will to a younger son, to the crown of Aragon.

    .To a casual listener Catalan superficially appears to be a cross between Spanish and French, and though it does share features of both it is an independent language in it's own right.
  • Galician (Galician: galego, Castilian: gallego), very closely related to Portuguese, Galician is spoken in Galicia and the western portion of Asturias.^ Not to speak of the Basque, which still forms an island of some importance in the north-west, three Romance languages share this extensive territory: (1) Portuguese-Galician, spoken in Portugal, Galicia, and a small portion of the province of Leon; (2) Castilian, covering about two-thirds of the Peninsula in the north, centre, and south; (3) Catalan, occupying a long strip of territory to the east and south-east.

    ^ In it we must distinguish (1) Portuguese (Portuguez, perhaps a contraction from the old Porlugalez = Portugalensis), the language of the kingdom of Portugal and its colonies in Africa, Asia and America (Brazil); (2) Galician (Gallego), or the language of the old kingdom of Galicia (the modern provinces of Pontevedra, La Coruna, Orense, and Lugo) and of a portion of the old kingdom of Leon (the territory of Vierzo in the province of Leon).

    ^ The railway from Madrid to Segovia passes through a tunnel close to the Guatlarrama Pass; and the railway from Madrid to Avila traverses the south-western portion of the range through a remarkable series of tunnels and cuttings.

    .Galician predates Portuguese and is deemed one of the four main dialects of the Galician-Portuguese family group which includes Brazilian, Southern Portuguese, Central Portuguese, and Galician.
  • Basque (Basque: euskara, Castilian: vasco), a language unrelated to Castilian (or any other known language), is spoken in the three provinces of the Basque Country, on the two adjacent provinces on the French side of the Spain-French border, and in Navarre.^ Portuguese and in the Castilian dialects of the north-west.

    ^ Not to speak of the Basque, which still forms an island of some importance in the north-west, three Romance languages share this extensive territory: (1) Portuguese-Galician, spoken in Portugal, Galicia, and a small portion of the province of Leon; (2) Castilian, covering about two-thirds of the Peninsula in the north, centre, and south; (3) Catalan, occupying a long strip of territory to the east and south-east.

    ^ Catalan, by its most characteristic features, belongs to the Romance of southern France and not to that of Spain; it is legitimate, therefore, to regard it as imported into Spain by those His pani whom the Arab conquest had driven back beyond the mountains into Languedoc , and who in the 9th century regained the country of their origin; this conclusion is confirmed by the fact that the dialect is also that of two French provinces on the north of the PyreneesRoussillon and Cerdagne.

    Basque is unrelated to any Romance language or to any branch of the Indo-European or Indo-Iranian family of languages. .It currently remains unclassified and is deemed a linguistic isolate seemingly unrelated to any branch of the linguistic family tree.
  • Asturiano (Asturiano: asturianu, Castilian: asturiano, also known as bable), is spoken in the province of Asturias, where it enjoys semi-official protection.^ In these last, however, the prevailing frtut-trees are those of central Europe, and above all the apple , which is very extensively cultivated in Asturias, the Basque Provinces and Navarre.

    It was also spoken in rural parts of Leon, Zamora, Salamanca, in a few villages in Portugal (where it is called Mirandes) and in villages in the extreme north of Extremadura. .While the constitution of Spain explicitly protects Basque, Balearic-Catalan-Valencian under the term Catalan, Galician, and Spanish, it does not explicitly protect Asturian.^ Spain occupies an unsurpassed geographical position; its resources are rich, varied and to some extent unexploited; its inhabitants include the Basques and Catalans, noted for their commercial enterprise, and the Galicians, noted for their industry.

    ^ PORTUGUESE.Portuguese-Galician constitutes the second branch of the Latin of Spain.

    ^ Aragonese, Catalans and Valencians werp N Li ~, as different as Galicians, Basques, Castilians and DIf Andalusians.

    The province of Asturias explicitly protects it and Spain implicitly protects it by not objecting before the Supreme Court.
  • Aragonese (Aragonese: aragonés, Castilian: aragonés, also known colloquially as fabla), is spoken in the north of Aragon. It is only vaguely recognized, but not official (as of June, 2008). .This language is close to Catalan (specially in Benasque) and to Castilian, with some Basque and Occitan (southern France) influences.^ All the proparoxytones of modern Catalan are of recent introduction and due to Castilian influence.

    ^ In conjugation the peculiarities of Gallego are more marked; some find their explanation within the dialect itself, others seem to be due to Castilian influence.

    ^ The Mediterranean province is that in which the vegetation agrees most closely with that of southern France and the lowlands i By conversion from Tb.

    .Nowadays only a few villages near the Pyrenees use the language vigorously, while most people mix it with Castilian in their daily speech.
  • Aranese (Castilian: Aranés, Catalan/Aranese Occitan: Aranès), is spoken in the Aran Valley, and is recognized as an official language of Catalonia (not of Spain), alongside Catalan and Spanish.^ Old Spanish with the meaning of the present; alongside of eres one finds (but only in old documents or in dialects) sos, formed like sois (2nd pen.

    ^ The immense majority of the people are professed adherents of the Roman Catholic faith, so that, so far as numbers go, Spain is still the most Catholic country in the world, as it has long been styled.

    ^ Of these but a few occur only there, or at least have not yet been observed elsewhere than in that great province of southern Spain.

    This language is a variety of Gascon Occitan, and as such is very closely related to Provençal, Limousin, Languedoc, and Catalan.
In addition to the native languages, English and French are commonly studied in school. If you are visiting a tourist area you will find people who are fluent in several languages. You may not be lucky elsewhere, and your best bet would be young urban people. Speak slowly, use simple words and don't hesitate to use gestures or a notebook to be understood. Chances are people will understand words more easily if you write them down.
.French is the most widely understood language in the north-east of Spain, like Alquezar and Cap de Creus (at times even better than English), as the majority of travelers there come from France.^ Kings of the Visigoths, having relations with Spain, but not established within it Ataulf - -, 410415 Entered the north-east of Spain, murdered at Barcelona.

^ Augustus (or Tiberius possibly) reorganized the administration of Roman Spain., Henceforward there were three proThe Bmplre,viflceS: (a) the north and north-west, the central 27 B.C.- table-land and the east coast as far south as New A.D. 406.

^ In the last years of the 8th and begiiining of the 9th century, Charlemagne and Louis the Pius began conquering the north-east of Spain, which the Arabs had occupied as early as 713.

Locals will appreciate any attempts you make to speak their language. For example, "Good morning" (Buenos días) and "Thank you" (Gracias).
.If you are interested in learning Spanish, there are several options available.^ BIBLIOGRAPHY,(I) Sources: There are several published collections of sources for Spanish history.

LSI (Language Studies International) offers quality Spanish courses in Spain [13].

See

.Spain is the country with the 2nd largest number of UNESCO Heritage Sites in the world.^ The immense majority of the people are professed adherents of the Roman Catholic faith, so that, so far as numbers go, Spain is still the most Catholic country in the world, as it has long been styled.

.The most popular beaches are the ones in the Mediterranean coasts and the Canary Islands.^ Canary Island power which the Spanish people has always Total exhibited after warthe most notable instance of which is the above-mentioned net increase of nearly 50% .

.Meanwhile, for hikking, the mountains of Sierra Nevada in the south, the Central Cordillera and the northern Pyrenees are the best places.^ Sierra Nevada and the coast ranges in the south.

^ The endemic species are naturally most numerous in the mountains, and above all in the loftiest ranges, the Pyrenees and the Sierra Nevada; but it is a peculiarity of the Spanish tableland, as compared with the plains and table-lands of central Europe, tha.t it also possesses a considerable number of endemic plants and plants of extremely restricted range.

^ The greater part of the interior of Spain is composed of a table-land bounded by the Cantabrian Mountains in the north and the Sierra Morena in the south, and divided into two by a series Central of mountain ranges stretching on the whole from east Table-land to west.

Do

Festivals

Spain has a lot of local festivals that are worth going to.
  • Málaga's Semana Santa (Easter) - worth to see. From Palm Sunday to Easter Sunday. Lots of procession accour within that week.
  • Córdoba en Mayo (Cordoba in May) - great month to visit the Southern city
  • Las Cruces (1st week in May) - big flower-made crosses embellishing public squares in the city center, where you will also find at night music and drinking and lot of people having fun!
  • Festival de Patios - one of the most interesting cultural exhibitions, 2 weeks when some people open doors of their houses to show their old Patios full of flowers
  • Cata del Vino Montilla-Moriles - great wine tasting in a big tent in the city center during one week in May
  • Fallas - Valencia's festival in March - burning the "fallas" is a must
  • Málaga's August Fair - flamenco dancing, drinking sherry, bullfights
  • Fiesta de San Isidro - May 15 in Madrid - a celebration of Madrid's patron saint.
  • Cabalgata de los Reyes Magos (Three wise men parade) - on the eve of epiphany, 5th of January, the night before Spanish kids get their Christmas presents, it rains sweets and toys in every single town and city
  • La Tomatina - a giant tomato fight in Buñol
  • Moros y Cristianos (Moors and Christians, mostly found in Southeastern Spain during spring time) - parades and "battles" remembering the fights of medieval ages
Skiing in the northen region of Spain

Scuba Diving

For a treat, try Costa Brava and the world renowned Canary Islands.

Buy

Money

.Euro: Spain is part of the European Union and the Eurozone; as such it replaced Spanish Pesetas with the Euro (symbol: €) in 2002. A few people may still use the old national currency (166,386 pts = 1 €, 1.000 pts = 6 €) and convert into Euros later.^ The immense majority of the people are professed adherents of the Roman Catholic faith, so that, so far as numbers go, Spain is still the most Catholic country in the world, as it has long been styled.

^ When France and other European nations abandoned free trade for protection towards 1890, a strong movement set in in Spain in favor of protection.

^ In the case of the currency the old Spanish name of peseta was retained for the unit (the franc , 91/2d.

This is much due to the huge presence of peseta, and "her" many nicknames in colloquial Spanish.
Cash euro: €500 banknotes are not accepted in many stores--always have alternative banknotes.
Other currencies: Do not expect anybody to accept other types of currency, or to be willing to exchange currency. Exceptions are shops and restaurants at airports. These will generally accept at least US Dollars at a slightly worse exchange rate.
If you wish to exchange money, you can do so at any bank (some may require that you have an account there before they will exchange your money), where you can also cash in your traveller's cheques. Currency exchanges, once a common sight, have all but disappeared since the introduction of the Euro. .Again, international airports are an exception to this rule; other exception is tourist districts in the large cities (Barcelona, Madrid).^ The same rule applies to their schools, which are, however, numerously attended, in Madrid, Seville, Barcelona and other towns, by children of Protestant families and of many Roman Catholics also.

^ The number of endemic species is exceptionally large, the number of monotypic genera in the Peninsula greater than in any other part of the Mediterranean domain.

Credit cards: Credit cards are well accepted: even in a stall at La Boqueria market in Barcelona, on an average highway gas station in the middle of the country, or in small towns like Alquezar. .It's more difficult to find a place where credit card is not accepted in Spain.^ The work of political unification was essentially more difficult than the christianization of Spain.

^ It was not difficult to bribe Godoy, who was conscious that his position could not be maintained after the death of Charles IV. In October 1807 Spain accepted the treaty of Fontainebleau .

Most ATMs will allow you to withdraw money with your credit card, but you'll need to know your card's PIN for that. Most Spanish stores will ask for ID before accepting your credit card. Some stores may not accept a foreign driving license or ID card and you will need to show your passport. This measure is designed to help avoid credit card fraud.

Business hours

Most businesses (including most shops, but not restaurants) close in the afternoons around 13:30/14:00 and reopen for the evening around 16:30/17:00. Exceptions are large malls or major chain stores.
For most Spaniards, lunch is the main meal of the day and you will find bars and restaurants open during this time. On Saturdays, businesses often do not reopen in the evening and almost everywhere is closed on Sundays. Also, many public offices and banks do not reopen in the evenings even on weekdays, so if you have any important business to take care of, be sure to check hours of operation.
If you plan to spend whole day shopping in small shops, the following rule of thumb can work. A closed shop should remind it's also time for your own lunch. And when you finish your lunch, some shops will be likely open again.

Сlothes and shoes

Designer brands

.Besides well-known mass brands which are known around the world (Zara, Mango, Bershka, Camper), Spain has many designer brands which are more hard to find outside Spain--and may be worth looking for if you sho