Spanish general election, 2008: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2004 Spain Next
Spanish general election, 2008
All 350 seats of the Congress of Deputies and 208 of 264 seats in the Senate
March 9, 2008
First party Second party
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero - Royal & Zapatero's meeting in Toulouse for the 2007 French presidential election 0205 2007-04-19b.jpg Rajoy Jornadas Para Mejorar tu Vida b.jpg
Leader José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero Mariano Rajoy Brey
Party PSOE PP
Last election 164 seats, 43.3% 148 seats, 38.3%
Seats won 169 154
Seat change +5 +6
Popular vote 11,288,698 10,277,809
Percentage 43.87% 39.94%
Swing +1.28% +2.22%
Spanish general election, 2008 - constituency winners.svg
Province-level units won by PSOE (red) and PP (blue)

Legislative elections for the Spanish Cortes Generales were held on March 9, 2008.[1] The elections were for 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies, and the 208 directly elected seats in the upper house, the Senate, determining the Prime Minister of Spain. The elections are commonly referred to as 9-M in the Spanish media. The governing PSOE led by current Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero declared victory on March 9, and the opposition People's Party conceded defeat.[2]

Contents

Candidates and coalitions

By tradition, the first candidate on each Madrid party list for the Congress of Deputies is the Prime Ministerial candidate for that party. Nationalist parties who did not expect to win enough seats to be contenders for the office of Prime Minister typically designated one of their list leaders as their main candidate. Those candidates were generally featured more prominently in the Spanish national media than other list leaders or candidates. Regional, provincial and local media nearly always covers the activities of the Prime Ministerial candidates, together with the leading candidates in their area.

Advertisements

Spanish Socialist Workers' Party

On 9 March 2008, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero won the general elections.

As in 2004, the governing Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) was led by Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero. Mr Zapatero was the only PSOE candidate who sought the nomination and he was therefore proclaimed candidate on November 25, 2007 at a rally in Fuenlabrada, Madrid. The PSOE ran in all Spanish constituencies. In Catalonia, the Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC) operated as part of the PSOE's ticket.

The current Deputy Prime Minister María Teresa Fernández de la Vega led the party's list in the province of Valencia. After the election, she continued as Deputy Prime Minister.

José Bono Martínez, former Minister of Defence and President of Castile-La Mancha for 21 years, led the list in Toledo. After the election, he was elected President (i.e., Speaker) of the Congress of Deputies.

After some discussion due to the need for ensuring the future support of the Prime Minister for his economic policy and his intentions to retire, the current Second Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Economy and Finance, Pedro Solbes, was second on the Madrid list.[3] He continued as Minister of Economy after the election.

Other prominent politicians who led provincial lists for the Socialist Party included the current Minister of Culture, César Antonio Molina, in A Coruña, the current Home Minister, Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba, in Cádiz, the Minister of Public Works, Magdalena Álvarez, in Málaga, the former Minister of Housing (and now Minister of Defence) Carme Chacón, in Barcelona and the former Home Minister and current Socialist Parliamentary Group spokesman, José Antonio Alonso, in León.

There were relatively few disputes about the composition of the election lists, except for minor problems on the Balearic Island of Formentera and in the capital. In Madrid the selection of the remaining candidates on the list after the socialist leadership (Prime Minister Zapatero, Second Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Economy and Finance Solbes, and the electoral coordinator Jesús Caldera) was unclear, since the regional socialist federation had recently changed their leadership. Besides this, UGT, an old federated socialist union, suggested presenting joint lists. The final decision by the PSOE leadership to include a deputy linked to UGT, Manuel de la Rocha, ended the discussion.

People's Party

PP President Mariano Rajoy (right) and Secretary-General Ángel Acebes addressed supporters outside the party headquarters on 13, Genova St. (Madrid) after the election.

The People's Party (PP) was led by Mariano Rajoy, former Deputy Prime Minister and successor to the former Prime Minister José María Aznar. He was nominated as candidate by the National Board of Directors of the party on September 10, 2007.[4] PP ran in all the constituencies with its sister party the Navarrese People's Union (UPN) acting as part of the PP ticket in Navarre.

Rajoy chose Manuel Pizarro as his candidate for Second Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Economy and Finance.[5] Pizarro is the former chairman of Endesa, where he was noted for his criticism of the economic policies of Zapatero's Government.

The People's Party suggested reducing taxes and raising the minimum threshold for Income Tax.

Some controversy took place when the Mayor of Madrid, Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón, sought a place on the Madrid list for the Congress, something which increased his rivalry with fellow Madrid PP rank Esperanza Aguirre (president of the Community of Madrid and leader of the party in this Autonomous Community). The subsequent People's Party leadership's refusal was considered by the press as a victory for Aguirre, preventing him from taking advantage in the succession of Rajoy in the eventuality of an electoral defeat.[6] Several left leaning media and political parties referred to this as a victory of the most radical, reactionary, sectors close to Aguirre over the so-called moderate way represented by Gallardón.[7] Sources close to the People's Party denied such interpretations. Some newspapers even speculated about the possibiliy of internal conflicts between the supporters of each politician.[8] However, the appearance of both politicians at electoral events together stopped or at least reduced criticism.[9]

With the People's Party defeat, there was some speculation over Rajoy's eventual resigning for future electoral contests. Then, at a meeting of his party's Executive Committee on 11 March, Rajoy dispelled doubts about his future by stating that he would stand again as party leader at a party congress in June. [10]

United Left

United Left (IU) is a coalition of several leftist movements. During the last legislature, there was internal fighting between the main component of the coalition, the Communist Party (PCE) and the faction headed by Llamazares. This led to a primary election between October and November 2007. This internal election was contested by Gaspar Llamazares, the then General Coordinator of United Left and Margarita Sanz, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Valencian Country - the Valencian federation of the Communist Party of Spain (PCE).[11] On November 14, Llamazares was declared the winner beating his contender by a wide margin. After that, three members of the Communist Party, who were most critical, including the former leader of it, Felipe Alcaraz, were expelled from the Directive Committee.

IU ran in all constituencies; in many of them, they ran in coalition with other parties. In Catalonia, IU ran with Iniciativa per Catalunya Verds. Felipe Alcaraz, executive chairman of PCE, announced his intention not to seek nomination for Seville, another of the traditional PCE/IU seats and district where he had been deputy from 1993 to 2004, in the Andalusian Parliament of IU, after losing the provincial assembly, he was substituted by the former mayor of Carmona Sebastián Martín Recio who failed to gain a seat.[12]

The Assembly of EUPV (IU's branch in the Valencian Community) elected Antonio Montalbán as its leading candidate for Valencia, one of the traditional districts where IU or PCE have obtained deputies, against incumbent Isaura Navarro after heated debate on ideology matters and different stances regarding the convenience of keeping a coalition with another party, the Valencian Nationalist Bloc (BNV). The coalition with the BNV was finally discarded by the party Executive. This led to a schism within EUPV which saw incumbent EUPV MP Isaura Navarro, among others, defecting to a newly created party made up of critics with the direction of EUPV. The new party was named Iniciativa pel País Valencià (IpV) and run in these elections in coalition with the BNV, the party which had been discarded by EUPV. Ultimately EUPV failed to hold their seat in Valencia (IpV-BLOC did not win any seat in this constituency either).

The outcome of these elections proved a hard blow for IU, which got its worst ever result, obtaining two seats, down from five at the Spanish Parliament, subsequently Llamazares resigned in the immediate aftermath of the elections.

Convergence and Union

In November 2007, Convergence and Union (CiU) designated their leader in Congress and leader of the Democratic Union of Catalonia Josep Antoni Duran i Lleida as main candidate. CiU only contested the four Catalan provinces.

Republican Left of Catalonia

In August 2007, Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC in its Catalan acronym) designated their spokesman in the Catalan Parliament Joan Ridao i Martín as their leader for the elections. ERC ran in Catalonia and in the Valencian Community through its local branch ERPV. It also participated in an electoral coalition with other nationalist parties in the Balearic Islands constituency called Unitat per les Illes.

ERC was the party with the biggest loss in these elections, obtaining three MPs, down from their previous eight seats. These bad results opened an ongoing internal dispute over ideology and strategies.

Basque Nationalist Party

The Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ-PNV) ran only in the three Basque provinces. Josu Erkoreka headed the ticket in Vizcaya, the most populous on the three provinces. In Navarre they were part of the Nafarroa Bai coalition.

Minor parties in Congress

Reallocation of seats

Spain

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Spain



Other countries · Atlas
Politics portal

Four districts - Córdoba, A Coruña, Soria and Vizcaya - lost a seat in the Congress of Deputies due to net population loss in these constituencies. Then, another four - Alicante, Almería, Murcia and Toledo, all with population increases, gained a seat each.

If the 2004 general election had been fought under the new distribution of seats, the ruling Socialist Party (PSOE) would have lost one seat in both La Coruña and Vizcaya, while the opposition People's Party (PP) would have had one seat fewer in Córdoba as well as in Soria. However, PSOE would have captured the additional seats in Alicante, Murcia and Toledo, whereas PP would have only won the newly-added seat in Almería. In all, PSOE would have made a net gain of one seat, for a total of 165, while PP would have come down by one, to 147 seats. [13]

Campaigns

Although the official electoral campaign period in Spain only lasts for the 15 days before the election, (with the exception of the day just before the election), many parties, especially the PP and PSOE, start their "pre-campaigns" months in advance, often before having finalised their electoral lists.

PSOE

The first phase campaign was done under the slogan "Con Z de Zapatero" (With Z of Zapatero), a joke based on the Prime Minister and socialist candidate's habit of tending to pronounce words ending with D as if they ended with Z. The campaign was linked to terms like equality (Igualdad-Igualdaz) or solidarity (Solidaridad-Solidaridaz), emphasizing the policies carried out by the current government. The second phase was done under the slogan "La Mirada Positiva" (The Positive outlook), emphasising the future government platform, and "Vota con todas tus fuerzas" (Vote with all of your strength), aiming to mobilize the undecisive or potentially abstaining voters.

PP

For the pre-campaign the PP used the slogan "Con Rajoy es Posible" (With Rajoy it's Possible). Usually emphasizing PP's campaign proposals, such as "Llegar a fin de mes, Con Rajoy es Posible"(Making it to the end of the month, With Rajoy it's Possible". IU accused PP of copying its slogan from the last municipal elections[14]

IU

IU chose the pre-campaign slogan "LlamazarES + Más Izquierda" (LlamazarES (is) More Left), calling attention to their position as the third national party.

Campaign issues

The economy

The economy became a major campaign issue due to a number of factors:

  • A slowing down in the housing market, with prices even beginning to fall in some areas.
  • Sharp increases in prices of some basic commodities.
  • Global instability as a result of market uncertainty.
  • A rise in unemployment.

The sudden emergence of the economy as a political issue came after several years of steady economic growth, and led some observers to suggest that maybe the government would have benefitted from calling an earlier election. [15] In addition to those factors both the PP and the PSOE made competing proposals on taxation.

Polls

Polls of the CIS

PSOE PP IU CiU ERC PNV Others Blank
April 2004 45.8% 35.4% 4.9% 2.7% 2.3% 1.3% 6.5% 1.1%
July 2004 44.0% 36.8% 5.0% 2.8% 2.6% 1.5% 6.0% 1.3%
October 2004 42.1% 36.1% 5.5% 3.3% 2.0% 1.7% 7.6% 1.7%
January 2005 42.4% 35.7% 5.4% 2.9% 2.3% 1.5% 7.6% 2.2%
April 2005 41.2% 36.6% 5.2% 3.1% 2.1% 1.6% 8.0% 2.2%
July 2005 41.9% 36.4% 5.1% 3.2% 2.3% 1.8% 6.8% 2.5%
October 2005 39.7% 37.7% 4.8% 3.4% 2.4% 1.5% 7.7% 2.8%
January 2006 39.6% 38.0% 4.9% 3.6% 2.4% 1.5% 7.5% 2.5%
April 2006 40.3% 38.2% 5.4% 2.9% 2.0% 1.4% 7.5% 2.3%
July 2006 40.6% 36.9% 5.0% 3.2% 2.1% 1.4% 8.0% 2.8%
October 2006 39.3% 37.9% 5.1% 3.1% 2.8% 1.7% 6.8% 3.4%
January 2007 38.8% 37.6% 6.5% 3.2% 2.0% 1.4% 7.6% 2.9%
April 2007 39.6% 36.6% 5.6% 3.0% 2.4% 1.6% 7.6% 3.6%
July 2007 40.5% 37.0% 6.1% 2.9% 1.9% 1.5% 7.7% 2.4%
October 2007 39.7% 37.4% 5.5% 3.1% 2.1% 1.5% 8.3% 2.4%
February 2008 40.2% 38.7% 5.8% 3.0% 2.1% 1.7% 5.8% 2.7%

Polls of the mass media

PSOE PP IU CiU ERC PNV UPyD Others Blank
ABC October 2007[16] 41.2% 39.3% 4.5% 2.5% 2.1% 1.1% 6.1% 1.1%
La Vanguardia October 2007[17] 42.3% 39.6% 5.7% 2.5% 1.6% 1.1% 6.0% 1.1%
Antena 3 TNS Demoscopia October 2007[18] 40.6% 39.5% 5.2% 3.2% 2.3% 1.4% 0.9% 6.0% 1.1%
El Mundo Sigma 2 November 2007 [19] 42.2% 39.1% 4.8% 3.0% 2.2% 1.3% 7.4% 1.1%
CadenaSer Institute Opina November 2007 [20] 44.5% 38.0% 4.0% 3.0% 1.9% 1.4% 7.2%
Antena 3 TNS Demoscopia November 2007[21] 41.4% 39.0% 5.5% 2.7% 2.3% 1.5% 0.8% 6.0% 1.1%
CadenaSer Institute Opina November 2007 (2nd week) [22] 45.0% 38.0% 4.0% 3.2% 1.7% 1.9% 6.2%
Periódico Publico November 2007 [23] 42.5% 37.4% 5.2% 2.8% 2.0% 1.5% 8.6%
Revista Temas[24] 40.7% 38.4% 5.3% 3.3% 2.0% 1.7% 8.5% -
Antena 3 TNS Demoscopia December 2007[21] 42.0% 38.2% 5.5% 3.2% 1.9% 1.4% 1.0% 6.0% 1.1%
Ipsos Expansion December 2007[25] 41.3% 38.0% 5.3% 3.2% 2.1% 1.5% 1.3% 6.0% 1.1%

Polls of the mass media showing a seat prediction after January 2008

PSOE PP IU CiU ERC PNV CC UPyD Others Blank Unknown/Undecided
El Mundo, Sigma, January 2008[26] 41.9% 39.4% 5.0% 3.4% 2.2% 1.5% 0.9% - 5,6% 1,1% -
Predicted Seats 153 - 164 151 - 162 5 10 - 11 7 7 3 - 2 - 3 -
La Vanguardia, INSTITUTO NOXA, January 2008[27] 42.5% 39.7% 5.3% 2.8% 1.7% 1.9% - - 6.1% 1.1% -
Predicted Seats 158 - 162 152 - 156 5 - 6 10 5 - 8 7 - 9 - - 6 - 8 -
Público, OBRADOIRO DE SOCIOLOXIA, January 2008 [28] 43.0% 38.5% 5.6% 2.7% 1.6% 1.6% - 0.9% - -
Predicted Seats 167 151 6 9 5 7 2 0 3 -
Antena 3, TNS Demoscopia, January 2008[29][30] 41.9% 40.1% 4.8% 3.3% 1.8% 1.6% - - - -
Predicted Seats 160-164 151-155 4-5 10-11 5-6 7-8 - - - -
La Vanguardia, Instituto Noxa, January 2008[31] 42.3% 39.8% 5.1% 2.5% 1.8% 1.5% - - - -
Predicted Seats 162-164 154-156 5 8 6 7 2 - 2 - -
El País, Sondeo-flash de Metroscopia, 17/01/2008[32] 34.6% 26.8% 3.9% - - - - - 6.9% 3.0% 16.6%
Predicted Seats - - - - - - - - - - -
La Vanguardia, NOXA [31] 42% 40% 5% 2.5% 1.5% - - - - - -
Predicted Seats 160 155 5 8-10 5-6 - - - - - -
Antena 3, TNS Demoscopia, 21/01/2008[33] [34] 41.6% 39.5% 5.1% 3.1% 2.0% 1.5% 0.8% 2.0% - - -
Predicted Seats 160-164 149-153 4-5 10-11 6-7 7-8 3 1 - - -
Público, Obradoiro de sociología, 21/01/2008[35] 42.8% 39.2% 5.0% 2.6% 1.7% 1.6% - - - - -
Predicted Seats - - - - - - - - - - -
Público, Obradoiro de sociología, 28/01/2008[36] 44.5% 38.7% 4.6% 2.8% 1.5% 1.6% - - - -
Predicted Seats - - - - - - - - - - -
Cadena SER, Instituto Opina, 28/01/2008[37] 44.0% 38.0% 3.5% 3.0% 1.9% 1.6% - - 8.0% - -
Predicted Seats - - - - - - - - - - -
Antena 3[38] TNS Demoscopia (28/01/2008) 42.3% 39.6% 4.5% 3.0% 1.6% 1.5% - - - - -
Predicted Seats 162-166 151-155 4 9-10 6 7-8 - 4 0 - -

Polls of the mass media showing a seat prediction after February 2008

Poll PSOE PP IU CiU ERC PNV CC BNG UPyD CHA Others blank Unknown/Undecided
ABC.[39] Instituto DYM (03/02/2008) 42.4% 38.6% 4.2% - - - - - - - 14.8% - -
Predicted Seats - - - - - - - - - - - - -
El País[40] Metroscopia (03/02/2008) 34.6% 24.9% 2.9% 1.8% 0.7% 0.7% - - - 2.7% - - -
Predicted Seats - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Público.[41] Obradoiro de Socioloxia - (01/02/2008) 44.6% 38.2% 5.0% 3.0% 1.3% 1.6% - - - - - -
Predicted Seats - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Antena 3[42] TNS Demoscopia (04/02/2008) 42.5% 39.3% - - - - - - - - - - -
Predicted Seats 164-166 154-156 3 9 6 6-7 2 2 0 0 3 - -
CIS[43] 21-01-2008 to 04-02-2008 40.2% 38.7% 5.8% 3.0% 2.1% 1.7% 0.6% 0.9% - - - 2.7% 16.9%
Predicted Seats 158-163 153-157 5-6 10 6 7 1-2 2 0-1 0 4 - -
Público.[44] Obradoiro de Sociología - (12/02/2008) 42.6% 40.1% 4.9% 2.6% 1.3% 1.3% - - - - - - -
Predicted Seats 158-169 154-163 4 8 4 6 2 2 - - 4 - -
Antena 3[45] TNS Demoscopia (18/02/2008) 41.8% 40.2% 5.4% 2.9% 1.9% 1.6% - - - - - - -
Predicted Seats 162-164 155-157 4 8-9 6-7 7-8 - - - - - - -
Telecinco[46] Demométrica (20/02/2008) 44.2% 38.6% - - - - - - - - - - -
Predicted Seats 170-177 148-153 5-7 10 4 6 - - - - - - -
Antena 3[45] TNS Demoscopia (25/02/2008) 42.0% 39.7% 5.4% 2.7% 2.2% 1.5% - - - - - - -
Predicted Seats 161-164 154-157 4-5 8-9 7 7 - - - - - - -
El Mundo[47] Sigma Dos (01/03/2008) 43.4% 39.3% 4.4% 3.2% 1.9% 1.5% - - - - 13.3% - -
Predicted Seats 155-171 148-161 4 9-11 5-6 7 - - 0-1 - 2-7 - -
Público.[48] Obradoiro de Sociología - (01/03/2008) 43.9% 39.5% 4.8% 2.7% - - - - - - - - -
Predicted Seats 165-171 153-158 4 7-8 4 7 1 0-1 - - - - -

Results

Evolution of popular vote in the Spanish General Elections from the democratic transition until 2008. Voter turnout is usually high.

Congress

Composition of the Congress of Deputies before the election. The PSOE (red, 164) has ruled in a minority government with support from IU (dark green, 5) and ERC (yellow, 8) for a total majority of 4 over the opposition.
Composition of the Congress of Deputies after the election. IU (2) and ERC (3) lost half of their seats and fell under caucus threshold

This election saw a strong swing towards bipartidism, with every single constituency being won by one of the two major parties (until now, the Basque provinces had been the stronghold of the PNV). Both main parties gained seats, capturing between them nearly 84% of the popular vote and 92% of the representation. Despite this, the relatively small distance separating the two major parties and the failure of either to win a majority means that smaller parties hold the balance of power.

The PSOE has gained 5 seats, mainly keeping its votes from 2004 (winning about 250,000 more) and capitalizing on the decline of its former allies, IU and ERC, both of which lost half of their parliamentary representation and their right to form a parliamentary group within Congress. The People's Party, main opposition party during the last term, improved their support by about 500,000 votes (+1.6%) and 6 seats, thus slightly closing the gap with the governing party. However, the seat redistribution prior to this election meant that in many provinces an even number of seats led to both parties cancelling each other out. Nevertheless, there were some cases where such reshuffling made the seat total even, but the strong popular vote of the winner meant that it maintained or even increased its majority. This was the case in Córdoba (PSOE 4-2 PP), Murcia (PP 7–3 PSOE) and Alicante (PP 7–5 PSOE).

Regional variations

Some regions were of particular significance: on the one hand, Catalonia and the Basque Country were instrumental to the PSOE victory, as most of its new seats came from them. The abstention of nationalist voters was cited as being of particular importance, but the gains of the governing party in traditionally nationalist areas cannot be entirely attributed to this factor. PSOE's biggest increases in vote share came in the three Basque provinces, where the election had been overshadowed by the killing of a local PSOE councillor by ETA. Galicia also continued its long term shift to the left. Orense was the only district where the PSOE gained a seat directly from the PP, while in Lugo the PSOE vote continued its long term increase. PSOE also polled well in Melilla where they came close to winning the seat.

On the other hand, in Madrid, where the two candidates for the office of President of the Government headed their respective lists, the PSOE suffered a significant setback: while in the last election they had come extremely close to winning (finishing less than one point behind) and had managed to deprive the PP of its majority, the main opposition party has now scored 49.34% with a 10-point lead over the PSOE and recovered the majority of seats in the region, whilst both the PSOE and IU lost one seat each. UPyD, the new party under the leadership of Rosa Díez, captured the remaining seat, entering Parliament for the first time. Many traditional PSOE strongholds either fell to the PP, like Móstoles, or saw PSOE support fall sharply, like Parla where a previous record 36-point margin was reduced to a 15% lead. The PP's best results came on the Mediterranean coast south of Catalonia. Their highest vote share in a single constituency came in Murcia, with more than 60% of the popular vote. Murcia also registered the worst result in vote share terms for the PSOE, resulting in a large gap between the two main parties. The main opposition party also did well in the Valencian Community and in Almería. As in previous elections, the party struggled in regions where Nationalist parties have historically been strong. However they regained their representation in Lleida, leaving Girona as the only electoral district without PP representation.

One seat in Barcelona was close between the PP and CiU, the PP won it by a margin of about 250 votes after the scrutiny of overseas votes.

Party vote share by electoral district
Electoral District PSOE-2004 PP-2004 PSOE-2008 PP-2008 PSOE-Change PP-Change
A Coruña 38.9 44.6 39.9 43.3 1.0 -1.3
Álava 30.8 26.9 40.8 26.5 10.0 -0.4
Albacete 46.3 46.9 45.5 47.6 -0.8 0.7
Alicante 42.1 48.9 41.1 52.4 -1.0 3.5
Almería 47.7 44.3 41.2 50.7 -6.5 6.4
Asturias 43.4 43.8 46.3 42.1 2.9 -1.7
Ávila 34.0 59.5 34.5 59.2 0.5 -0.3
Badajoz 51.7 41.7 52.2 41.9 0.5 0.2
Barcelona 41.7 16.0 46.7 16.8 5.0 0.8
Burgos 38.9 52.0 40.3 50.7 1.4 -1.3
Caceres 50.5 43.5 52.0 42.1 1.5 -1.4
Cadiz 50.7 33.6 51.0 38.3 0.3 4.7
Cantabria 40.9 51.9 43.4 50.2 2.5 -1.7
Castellon 44.6 45.6 44.1 49.1 -0.5 3.5
Ceuta 35.8 59.2 40.2 55.5 4.4 -3.7
Ciudad Real 48.1 46.6 46.6 47.9 -1.5 1.3
Cordoba 49.9 33.7 50.7 37.7 0.8 4.0
Cuenca 45.4 49.7 45.1 50.0 -0.3 0.3
Girona 31.6 11.5 39.5 12.2 7.9 0.7
Granada 51.5 37.0 49.6 41.5 -1.9 4.5
Guadalajara 44.1 47.6 41.0 50.8 -3.1 3.2
Guipúzcoa 26.3 15.3 38.9 14.5 12.6 -0.8
Huelva 56.2 30.6 55.6 35.1 -0.6 4.5
Huesca 45.7 37.5 47.4 37.8 1.7 0.3
Islas Baleares 39.5 45.9 44.1 44.0 4.6 -1.9
Jaen 54.4 34.1 55.4 36.6 1.0 2.5
La Rioja 44.0 49.9 43.6 49.6 -0.4 -0.3
Las Palmas 33.9 42.2 42.5 39.9 8.6 -2.3
Leon 46.8 45.0 49.5 43.9 2.7 -1.1
Lleida 29.6 14.6 37.0 15.1 7.4 0.5
Lugo 37.2 49.7 40.0 45.6 2.8 -4.1
Madrid 44.1 45.0 39.5 49.3 -4.6 4.3
Malaga 49.8 36.4 46.7 43.2 -3.1 6.8
Melilla 41.4 54.6 48.0 49.2 6.6 -5.4
Murcia 35.0 57.4 32.6 61.4 -2.4 4.0
Navarra 33.6 37.6 34.6 39.3 1.0 1.7
Ourense 31.1 55.3 37.6 48.1 6.5 -7.2
Palencia 43.1 50.2 43.4 49.9 0.3 -0.3
Pontevedra 37.5 46.0 39.5 44.2 2.0 -1.8
Salamanca 39.8 54.3 39.1 54.6 -0.7 0.3
Santa Cruz de Tenerife 35.0 28.3 36.6 30.9 1.6 2.6
Segovia 39.9 52.4 39.0 53.5 -0.9 1.1
Sevilla 58.3 27.9 58.1 31.5 -0.2 3.6
Soria 38.8 50.8 42.2 50.2 3.4 -0.6
Tarragona 35.5 17.0 44.9 17.8 9.4 0.8
Teruel 41.1 40.8 44.1 39.9 3.0 -0.9
Toledo 46.5 47.5 42.9 51.4 -3.6 3.9
Valencia 42.2 45.7 40.1 51.7 -2.1 6.0
Valladolid 44.6 46.8 42.5 49.4 -2.1 2.6
Vizcaya 26.8 18.7 37.0 18.4 10.2 -0.3
Zamora 39.9 53.3 42.0 52.2 2.1 -1.1
Zaragoza 40.3 35.5 46.3 36.5 6.0 1.0
SPAIN TOTALS 42.6 37.7 43.9 39.9 1.3 2.2

On April 11 Zapatero was re-elected Prime Minister by 169 to 158 with 23 abstentions. The nationalist parties and United Left abstained, and are continuing negotiations with the government. The 154 PP deputies were joined by four others. One was Rosa María Díez González, the former socialist Euro MP who formed a new party based in the Basque country in opposition to Zapatero's willingness to cooperate with Basque nationalists. She complained of "the discrimination suffered by tens of thousands of families who are unable to educate their children in the Spanish language" because Basques learn in Basque at school, and she was booed in the congress for this. The three Catalan Republican Left also voted No. They said that, while not shutting any doors, they wanted to show their disappointment that Zapatero seemed reluctant to decentralize further, and seemed to be too co-operative with the conservatives and the centre-right Catalan CiU, although they remained convinced that they could agree on the social democratic agenda.

e • d  Summary of the 9 March 2008 Congress of Deputies election results
Parties and alliances Contested Provinces (out of 50) Votes % Change Seats Change
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (Partido Socialista Obrero Español) 50 11,288,698 43.87 +1.28 169 +5
People's Party (Partido Popular) 50 10,277,809 39.94 +2.22 154 +6
United Left (Izquierda Unida) 42 969,871 3.77 -1.19 2 -3
Convergence and Union (Convergència i Unió) 4 779,425 3.03 –0.20 10 ±0
Basque Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista Vasco/Euzko Alderdi Jeltzalea) 3 306,128 1.19 –0.44 6 –1
Union, Progress and Democracy (Unión, Progreso y Democracia) 48 306,078 1.19 1 +1
Republican Left of Catalonia (Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya) 4 298,139 1.16 –1.36 3 –5
Galician Nationalist Bloc (Bloque Nacionalista Galego)
  • Union of the Galician People (Unión do Povo Galego)
  • Nationalist Left (Esquerda Nacionalista)
  • Galician Unity (Unidade Galega)
  • Socialist Collective (Colectivo Socialista)
  • Inzar
  • Galician Nationalist Party–Galeguista Party (Partido Nacionalista GalegoPartido Galeguista)
3 212,543 0.83 +0.02 2 ±0
Canarian Coalition (Coalición Canaria) 2 174,629 0.68 –0.23 2 –1
Navarre Yes (Nafarroa Bai) 4 62,398 0.24 ±0.0 1 ±0
Basque Solidarity (Eusko Alkartasuna) 2 50,371 0.20 –0.12 0 –1
Aragonese Union (Chunta Aragonesista) 3 38,202 0.15 –0.22 0
Communist Party of the Peoples of Spain (Partido Comunista de los Pueblos de

España)

16 20,030 0.08 +0.03 0 +0
Ciudadanos en Blanco 29 14,193 0.06 -0.10 0 +0
Falange Española de las JONS 10 14,023 0.06 +0.01 0 +0
Democracia Nacional 15 12,836 0.05 -0.01 0 +0
Els Verds-L'Alternativa Ecologista 31 12,561 0.05 -0.07 0 +0
Family and Life (Familia y Vida) 7 9,882 0.04 -0.03 0 +0
Humanist Party (Partido Humanista) 24 9,056 0.04 -0.05 0 +0
Partido de Almeria 1 8,451 0.03 - 0 +0
Els Verdes-Los Verdes 38 7,824 0.03 - 0 +0
Representacion Cannabica Navarra 1 7,769 0.03 - 0 +0
Partido Obrero Socialista Internacionalista 8 7,386 0.03 -0.00 0 +0
Alternativa Española 20 7,300 0.03 - 0 +0
España 2000 11 6,906 0.03 +0.01 0 +0
Partit Republica Catala 3 6,746 0.03 - 0 +0
Coalicio Valenciana 3 5,424 0.02 - 0 +0
Escons Insubmisos-Alternativa dels Democrates Descontents 10 5,035 0.02 - 0 +0
Tierra Comunera 5 4,796 0.02 - 0 +0
Authentic Falange (Falange Auténtica) 8 4,607 0.02 +0.00 0 +0
Leonese People's Union (Unión del Pueblo Leonés) 3 4,509 0.02 -0.04 0 +0
Solidaridad y Autogestión Internacionalista 14 3,885 0.02 - 0 +0
Alternativa Motor y Deportes 17 3,829 0.01 - 0 +0
Partido de los Pensionistas en Acción 9 3,050 0.01 - 0 +0
Izquierda Republicana (Republican Left) 4 2,899 0.01 -0.06 0 +0
Partido Riojano 1 2,837 0.01 - 0 +0
Alianza Nacional 7 2,737 0.01 - 0 +0
Alternativa en Blanco 12 2,460 0.01 - 0 +0
Extremadura Unida 2 2,346 0.01 -0.01 0 +0
Els Verds-Alternativa Verda 22 2,028 0.01 +0.00 0 +0
Partido Carlista 4 1,956 0.01 +0.00 0 +0
Partit per Catalunya 4 1,919 0.01 - 0 +0
Partido de los No-Fumadores 7 1,616 0.01 - 0 +0
Union por Leganes 1 1,566 0.01 - 0 +0
Frente Español 6 1,539 0.01 - 0 +0
Centro Democratico Liberal 21 1,503 0.01 - 0 +0
Opcio Nacionalista Valenciana 3 1,490 0.01 - 0 +0
Centro Democratico Social 17 1,362 0.01 - 0 +0
Andecha Astur 1 1,299 0.01 -0.0 0 +0
Partido Regionalista del País Leonés 1 1,278 0.0 - 0 +0
Centro Democratico Español 4 1,047 0.0 - 0 +0
Alternativa Nacionalista Canaria 2 1,017 0.0 - 0 +0
Partido de las Libertades Civiles 2 888 0.0 - 0 +0
Unida 1 848 0.0 - 0 +0
Partido Liberal del Empleo y la Vivienda Estatal 7 786 0.0 - 0 +0
Lucha Internacionalista 10 722 0.0 +0.0 0 +0
Unidad del Pueblo 3 699 0.0 - 0 +0
Per la Republica Valenciana 3 645 0.0 - 0 +0
Partido Centristas 1 509 0.0 - 0 +0
Movimiento por la Unidad del Pueblo Canario 2 497 0.0 - 0 +0
Partido Ciudadanos Unidos de Aragon 3 475 0.0 - 0 +0
Union Ciudadana Progresistas Independientes de Can 2 464 0.0 - 0 +0
Identitat Regne de Valencia 3 449 0.0 - 0 +0
Unidad Regionalista de Castilla y Leon 9 423 0.0 - 0 +0
Partido Unionista Estado de España 6 414 0.0 - 0 +0
Gentes de El Bierzo 1 385 0.0 - 0 +0
Partit Illenc de Ses Illes Balears 1 360 0.0 - 0 +0
Partido Positivista Cristiano 8 300 0.0 -0.0 0 +0
Comunion Tradicionalista Carlista 1 218 0.0 - 0 +0
Convergencia Democratica Asturiana 1 216 0.0 - 0 +0
Iniciativa Merindades de Castilla 14 202 0.0 - 0 +0
Unidad Castellana 15 198 0.0 -0.0 0 +0
Partido de Alianza Iberoamericana Europea 3 174 0.0 - 0 +0
Coalicio Treballadors per la Democracia 2 159 0.0 -0.0 0 +0
Partido Regionalista de Guadalajara 1 152 0.0 -0.0 0 +0
Aliança Balear 1 145 0.0 - 0 +0
Asamblea de Votacion Electronica 4 144 0.0 - 0 +0
Union Centrista Liberal 7 124 0.0 -0.0 0 +0
Alianza por Burgos 1 123 0.0 - 0 +0
Iniciativa Ciudadana Burgalesa 1 109 0.0 - 0 +0
Nosaltres Som 6 105 0.0 - 0 +0
Independentes por Cuenca 1 100 0.0 - 0 +0
Agrupacion Ciudadana 2 79 0.0 - 0 +0
Movimiento Falangista de España 1 69 0.0 - 0 +0
Total (turnout 64.6%)   350 0[49]
Source: Spanish Interior Ministry election results database

Proportionality issues

If the election had been fought using a national list system, or at least larger constituencies, instead of the current provincial constituencies mandated by the Constitution, both major parties would have lost representation: the PSOE would have fallen to some 160 instead of their current 169, while PP would have obtained 147 instead of 154. Smaller parties running in all Spanish constituencies would have seen much better results under a simple representative criteria, thus IU would have obtained 14 MPs instead of 2 while UPyD would have obtained 4 MPs instead of 1[50]. Unsurprisingly, those two parties are the most vocal in advocating a reform of the electoral law to use an alternative seats allocating system while the major parties give little importance to the issue.

Senate

Composition of the Senate before the election. Only 208 seats are up for election, as the other 51 (in a darker shade) are appointed by the regional legislatures[51]. After the 2004 election, the PP (blue) held a plurality of 126 seats, which later declined to 124 after the 2007 regional elections.
Composition of the Senate after the election. The new 5 regional Senators, which have not been officially appointed, show here as if the involved regional legislatures keep proportionality in the apportionment. No group holds the absolute majority of 133 seats: the biggest party is the PP (blue) with 125. Both the PNV (4) and CC (2) have fell under the caucus threshold of 6 Senators, thus being incorporated into the "others" group (black)

The system for the Senate elections is majoritarian, based on partial block voting. Most constituencies share the same representation of 4 senators, and each elector can freely distribute up to 3 votes among all the running candidates. This usually produces a 3/1 seat split between the winner and the runner-up. Thus, a large swing in votes can amount to nothing if the constituency winner is not altered, but a much smaller swing can invert the province's representation. Senatorial elections are the only case in Spanish democracy where electors can choose candidates from different parties at the same ballot.

Only 208 seats are up for election, since the rest of them (51 until now, going up to 56 due to demographic changes) are appointed by the regional legislatures. The People's Party, even gaining some popular vote and capturing Almería from the PSOE, lost one seat, though it retains the status of first party in the Senate. The PSOE, on the other hand, made large gains from the Basque provinces (reducing the PNV to 2 seats from 6) and the Canary Islands (where Canarian Coalition was nearly wiped out by the main parties, keeping one elected Senator). It also captured Asturias and Teruel from the PP and, by a razon-thin margin, managed to avoid the complete takeover of Ciudad Real by the opposition party, producing an infrequent 2-2 result.

In order to know the final composition of the Senate for the first half of the 9th term, one has to wait for the remaining appointments from regional legislatures, which go as follows: all 9 from Andalusia, which held its regional elections concurrently with the national polls, and one from each of the Balearic Islands, the Canary Islands, Catalonia and Madrid, all of which get one additional Senator due to their population growth. The graphic shown at the right assumes that the involved regional parliament keep their Senate representation roughly proportional to their own composition, which has always been the case until now. Thus, the five new seats would distribute as follows: 3 PP (Andalusia, Balearic Islands, Canary Islands), 1 PSOE (Madrid), 1 CiU (Catalonia).

e • d  Summary of the 9 March 2008 Senate of Spain election results
Parties and alliances Seats Change
People's Party (Partido Popular) 101 –1
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (Partido Socialista Obrero Español) 88 +7
Entesa Catalana de Progrés 12 ±0
Basque Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista Vasco/Euzko Alderdi Jeltzalea) 2 –4
Convergence and Union (Convergència i Unió) 4 ±0
Canarian Coalition (Coalición Canaria) 1 –2
Members appointed by the regional legislatures 56 +5[52]
Total (turnout  %) 264 +5
Source: Spanish Interior Ministry election results database

References

  1. ^ Announcement of Election Date
  2. ^ Bloomberg.com: Worldwide
  3. ^ El Periodico de Cataluña- 26/11/2007- Solbes confirma su permanencia en el Gobierno si el PSOE gana las elecciones legislativas
  4. ^ Agence France Press
  5. ^ AFP Manuel Pizarro podría ser ministro de Economía de Rajoy
  6. ^ Gallardón: He sido derrotado
  7. ^ Post in the blog of Pepe Blanco, member of the direction of the Socialist Party
  8. ^ El PP de Vizcaya alerta de que la crisis de Gallardón puede "costar el Gobierno"
  9. ^ http://www.elpais.com/articulo/espana/Rajoy/Aguirre/Gallardon/asisten/acto/clausura/conferencia/educacion/PP/elpepuesp/20080120elpepunac_2/Tes http://www.elmundo.es/elmundo/2008/01/20/espana/1200824766.html
  10. ^ El País, 12 March 2008
  11. ^ Izquierda Unida Official Page
  12. ^ (Spanish)Diario de Cordoba 4-12-2007 Felie Alcaraz renuncia a encabezar la lista de IU en Sevilla
  13. ^ redistribution of seats for 2008
  14. ^ El PP copia el Lema de IU en su Ultima Campaña, Público, 23/11/2007
  15. ^ The Economist: Zapatero's bear fight
  16. ^ ABC.es l Página no encontrada
  17. ^ El PP se acerca al PSOE - Lavanguardia.es - Noticias, actualidad, última hora en Cataluña y España
  18. ^ [1]
  19. ^ Gráficos | elmundo.es
  20. ^ Proyecto As
  21. ^ a b http://www.antena3.com/a3noticias/
  22. ^ Proyecto As
  23. ^ (Spanish) El PSOE se despega y supera ya la ventaja de 2004 - Público.es
  24. ^ Estrella Digital 05/12/2007 - ESPAÑA: El PSOE obtendría una victoria ajustada si se celebraran ahora las elecciones, según la revista ‘Temas’
  25. ^ PSOE y PP, separados por tres puntos al final de la legislatura - Expansión.com
  26. ^ Gráficos | elmundo.es
  27. ^ El PSOE sólo aventaja en tres puntos al PP y se genera un empate técnico- Lavanguardia.es - Noticias, actualidad, última hora en Cataluña y España
  28. ^ (Spanish) El PSOE gobernará en minoría con 167 escaños - Público.es
  29. ^ [2]
  30. ^ [3]
  31. ^ a b El PP sigue recortando distancias y se pone a sólo dos puntos del PSOE- Lavanguardia.es - Noticias, actualidad, última hora en Cataluña y España
  32. ^ El PSOE saca casi ocho puntos al PP · ELPAÍS.com
  33. ^ [4]
  34. ^ [5]
  35. ^ (Spanish) El PP se acerca al PSOE, que no moviliza a los suyos - Público.es
  36. ^ (Spanish) El PP empieza a pagar la exclusión de Gallardón - Público.es
  37. ^ Proyecto As
  38. ^ Antena 3 television
  39. ^ ABC.es Hemeroteca: los socialistas parten con una ventaja de 38 puntos sobre el pp a un mes del 9 m
  40. ^ El PSOE aventaja en 3,4 puntos al PP · ELPAÍS.com
  41. ^ (Spanish) El PSOE eleva su ventaja sobre el PP a 6,4 puntos - Público.es
  42. ^ Barómetro Electoral de TNS Demoscopia para Antena 3 y Onda Cero - TNS Demoscopia - Sondeos y encuestas de opinión - Sectores - TNS España
  43. ^ Estudio no 2.750 Enero-Febrero 2008 Avance de resultados
  44. ^ (Spanish) Rajoy tiene motivos para creer en el cambio - Público.es
  45. ^ a b Barómetro Electoral de TNS Demoscopia para Antena 3 y Onda Cero
  46. ^ Una encuesta da mayoría absoluta al PSOE
  47. ^ La ventaja del PSOE sube a 4 puntos al subir la participación
  48. ^ (Spanish) El PSOE gobernará con una mayoría más amplia - Público.es
  49. ^ Even though the total number of seats is fixed at 350 by the Spanish electoral law (LOREG), demographic changes since 2004 mean that eight provinces have gained or lost a seat. See Spanish Congress of Deputies.
  50. ^ Projection of a single-constituency parliament by EL PAÍS
  51. ^ Eight of those seats, though, will be renewed shortly after the election, as the Andalusia regional election is held concurrently with the national poll
  52. ^ Each Autonomous Community appoints one Senator per million inhabitants in its territory. For the 9th term, the population growth in Andalusia, the Balearic Islands, the Canary Islands, Catalonia and Madrid has granted each of them a new seat.

Resources


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message