Spanish language: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  
  

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Spanish, Castilian
Español, Castellano
Pronunciation /espaˈɲol/, /kast̪eˈʎano/
Spoken in (see below)
Total speakers First language 329 [1] to 400 [2] million.
As first or second language 450 [3] to 500 [4]
million.
Ranking 2 (native speakers)[5], 3 (total speakers)[6]
Language family Indo-European
Writing system Latin (Spanish variant)
Official status
Official language in .21 countries, United Nations, European Union, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States, Union of South American Nations, North American Free Trade Agreement, Andean Community of Nations, Mercosur, Caricom, Inter-American Development Bank, Latin Union, Antarctic Treaty.^ Countries Flags Maps Sustainable development World population & Statistics Country megasites Africa Asia Australia and the Pacific Central America & Caribbean Europe Middle East North & South Poles North America South America Country megasites .
  • Countries & flags - Homework Center - Multnomah County Library 17 September 2009 21:23 UTC www.multcolib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flags of the Native Peoples of the United States http://www.tmealf.com/DH/ 130 flags representing 102 Native nations and Associations.
  • Countries & flags - Homework Center - Multnomah County Library 17 September 2009 21:23 UTC www.multcolib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LANIC: Latin American Information Network http://lanic.utexas.edu/ The Latin America megasite with information organized by country and by subject.
  • Countries & flags - Homework Center - Multnomah County Library 17 September 2009 21:23 UTC www.multcolib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Regulated by Association of Spanish Language Academies (Real Academia Española and 21 other national Spanish language academies)
Language codes
ISO 639-1 es
ISO 639-2 spa
ISO 639-3 spa
Map-Hispanophone World.png
     Countries where Spanish has official status.      States of the U.S. where Spanish has no official status but is spoken by 25% or more of the population.      States of the U.S. where Spanish has no official status but is spoken by 10-20% of the population.      States of the U.S. where Spanish has no official status but is spoken by 5-9.9% of the population.
.Spanish or Castilian (español or castellano) is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several dialects and languages in the northern fringes of the Iberian Peninsula during the 10th century and gradually spread through the Kingdom of Castile, becoming the foremost language for government and trade in the Spanish Empire.^ Additional links to Spanish language schools in several areas of Argentina.
  • Spanish Language Schools On Line 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An ecologically oriented Spanish language school in northern Guatemala, it offers students a unique educational experience through its combination of intensive language instruction and hands-on environmental education.
  • Spanish Language Schools On Line 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American-owned Spanish language school, specializing in teaching the Spanish language and culture through a total immersion intensive program.
  • Spanish Language Schools On Line 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Latin, the basic foundation of the Spanish language, was introduced to the Iberian Peninsula by Romans during the Second Punic War around 210 BC. During the 5th century, Hispania was invaded by Germanic Vandals, Suevi, Alans, and Visigoths, resulting in numerous dialects of Vulgar Latin.^ Featuring over 8,000 phrases it can voice in German and Spanish, this unmatched phrasebook is a must-have for international travelers, helping them to navigate foreign language terrain and communicate efficiently.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ Full text newspaper archive of 35 newspapers in English, Spanish and Portuguese printed throughout Latin America and the Caribbean in the 19th and 20th centuries.

^ Try the following sources to find Spanish language material from Spanish and Latin American countries.

After the Moorish Conquest in the 8th century, Arabic became an influence in the evolution of Iberian languages including Castilian.
.Modern Spanish developed with the Readjustment of the Consonants (es: Reajuste de las sibilantes del castellano) that began in 15th century.^ Learn Spanish in San Cristobal De Las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico.
  • Spanish Language Schools On Line 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The language continues to adopt foreign words from a variety of other languages, as well as developing new words.^ By speaking a word in a foreign language into the device until the machine recognizes it lets you practice using natural native-speaker models.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

.Castilian was taken most notably to the Americas as well as to Africa and Asia Pacific with the expansion of the Spanish Empire between the fifteenth and nineteenth centuries.^ Spanish School Jabel Tinamit provides intensive one-to-one Spanish language tuition in Panajachel, Guatemala, on the spectacular Lake Atitlan, the most beautiful in Central America.
  • Spanish Language Schools On Line 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Geographia http://www.geographia.com/ Information about numerous countries in Africa, Asia, Caribbean, Europe and Latin America.
  • Countries & flags - Homework Center - Multnomah County Library 17 September 2009 21:23 UTC www.multcolib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Countries Flags Maps Sustainable development World population & Statistics Country megasites Africa Asia Australia and the Pacific Central America & Caribbean Europe Middle East North & South Poles North America South America Country megasites .
  • Countries & flags - Homework Center - Multnomah County Library 17 September 2009 21:23 UTC www.multcolib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As of 2010, 329 to 358 million people speak Spanish as a native language and a total of 417 million people [7] speak it worldwide.^ The people around you will be speaking Spanish.
  • Articles about Spanish Immersion and Spanish Language Immersion Programs 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC veracruzspanish.com [Source type: General]

^ From back in our school days we remember how few people actually manage to learn to speak a second language.
  • Articles about Spanish Immersion and Spanish Language Immersion Programs 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC veracruzspanish.com [Source type: General]

^ The question to ask yourself is, “Do you want to gain knowledge about the Spanish language, or do you want to learn to speak Spanish, to carry on conversations in Spanish?” .
  • Articles about Spanish Immersion and Spanish Language Immersion Programs 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC veracruzspanish.com [Source type: General]

.It is the second most natively-spoken language in the world, after Mandarin Chinese.^ This amazingly compact multilingual translator contains all the information you need to communicate quickly and accurately in the world's most popular languages.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

[8] Mexico contains the largest population of Spanish speakers. .Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations.^ Spanish School Jabel Tinamit provides intensive one-to-one Spanish language tuition in Panajachel, Guatemala, on the spectacular Lake Atitlan, the most beautiful in Central America.
  • Spanish Language Schools On Line 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The notion is that by functioning only in Spanish one learns more naturally (as a child learning his or her first language).
  • Articles about Spanish Immersion and Spanish Language Immersion Programs 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC veracruzspanish.com [Source type: General]

^ ICA offers a one-on-one Spanish language school experience.
  • Spanish Language Schools On Line 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

History

A page of Cantar de Mio Cid, in medieval Castilian.
.Spanish evolved from Vulgar Latin introduced to the Iberian Peninsula by Romans during the Second Punic War around 210 BC, with some loan words from Arabic during the Andalusian period[9] and other surviving influences from Basque and Celtiberian, as well as Germanic languages via the Visigoths.^ Featuring over 8,000 phrases it can voice in German and Spanish, this unmatched phrasebook is a must-have for international travelers, helping them to navigate foreign language terrain and communicate efficiently.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ It features facts about the country, common words in the Arabic language, the flag and national anthem, sports/games and the lives of children in Lebanon.
  • Countries & flags - Homework Center - Multnomah County Library 17 September 2009 21:23 UTC www.multcolib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Integrated program of instruction in Spanish language and Latin American studies.
  • Spanish Language Schools On Line 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Castilian is thought to have evolved in the northern fringes of the Iberian Peninsula during the 10th century along the remote crossroad strips among the Alava, Cantabria, Burgos, Soria and La Rioja provinces of Northern Spain (see Glosas Emilianenses), as a strongly innovative and differing variant from its nearest cousin, Leonese, with a higher degree of Basque influence in these regions (see Iberian Romance languages).^ Index to Theses Index to Theses provides a comprehensive listing of theses with abstracts accepted for higher degrees by universities in Great Britain and Ireland since 1716.

.Modern Spanish developed in Castile with the Readjustment of the Consonants (es:Reajuste de las sibilantes del castellano) during the 15th century.^ Salas de los Infantes is located in a small city in Castile away from the tourist routes, where standard Spanish is spoken.
  • Spanish Language Schools On Line 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Learn Spanish in San Cristobal De Las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico.
  • Spanish Language Schools On Line 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Typical features of Spanish diachronical phonology include lenition (Latin vita, Spanish vida), palatalization (Latin annum, Spanish año, and Latin anellum, Spanish anillo) and diphthongation (stem-changing) of short e and o from Vulgar Latin (Latin terra, Spanish tierra; Latin novus, Spanish nuevo). .Similar phenomena can be found in other Romance languages as well.^ Similar phenomena can be found in other Romance languages as well.

^ Similar phenomena can be found in most other Romance languages as well.
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Typical features of Spanish diachronical phonology include lenition (Latin vita , Spanish vida ), palatalization (Latin annum , Spanish año ) and diphthongation of breve E/O from vulgar Latin (Latin terra , Spanish tierra ; Latin novus , Spanish nuevo ); similar phenomena can be found in most Romance languages as well.
  • Spanish language - Free Encyclopedia 17 September 2009 2:37 UTC www.wacklepedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This northern dialect from Cantabria was carried south during the Reconquista, and remains a minority language in the northern coastal Morocco.
.The first Latin-to-Spanish grammar (Gramática de la lengua castellana) was written in Salamanca, Spain, in 1492, by Elio Antonio de Nebrija.^ El Centro de Estudios de Español BAHIA DE CADIZ. The center is located in the south of Spain and prepares students for the Diploma de Español como Lengua Extranjera (D.E.L.E.), the only official Spanish diploma with international validity.
  • Spanish Language Schools On Line 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Exclusively geared towards teaching Spanish in Spain, the school offers courses in Barcelona, Granada, Madrid, Málaga, Salamanca and Tenerife.
  • Spanish Language Schools On Line 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Learn Spanish and explore Spain in Madrid, Salamanca, or Barcelona.
  • Spanish Language Schools On Line 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

When it was presented to Isabel de Castilla, she asked, "¿Para qué querría yo un trabajo como éste, si ya conozco la lengua?" ("What would I want a work like this for, if I already know the language?"), to which he replied, "Su alteza, la lengua es el instrumento del Imperio" ("Your highness, the language is the instrument of the Empire.")[10] In his introduction to the first Spanish grammar, dated August 18, 1492, Nebrija wrote that "... language was always the companion of empire."[11]
From the 16th century onwards, the language was taken to the Americas and the Spanish East Indies via Spanish colonisation. .Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra influence on the Spanish language from the 17th century has been so great that Spanish is often called la lengua de Cervantes (The language of Cervantes).^ Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes.

^ Spanish Language Practice / Páginas de ayuda para estudiar español (Enrique Yepes, Bowdoin) .

^ Dual-language schools stay in Spanish a great deal of the time, and a few also have lots of additional practice in Spanish outside of class hours.
  • Articles about Spanish Immersion and Spanish Language Immersion Programs 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC veracruzspanish.com [Source type: General]

[12]
.In the 20th century, Spanish was introduced to Equatorial Guinea and the Western Sahara, and to areas of the United States that had not been part of the Spanish Empire, such as Spanish Harlem in New York City.^ Learn a new Spanish word each time you turn the unit on.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ Full text newspaper archive of 35 newspapers in English, Spanish and Portuguese printed throughout Latin America and the Caribbean in the 19th and 20th centuries.

^ Veracruz the state and city are incredibly safe, and the Home Base is in the safest part of the safe city.
  • Articles about Spanish Immersion and Spanish Language Immersion Programs 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC veracruzspanish.com [Source type: General]

.For details on borrowed words and other external influences upon Spanish, see Influences on the Spanish language.^ Spanish - other languages dictionaries.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ Theres also an explanatory dictionary of the English language and a Spanish-Russian bidirectional dictionary of over 50,000 words.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ This month we’ll see why some language immersion schools get you speaking Spanish {while so many still don’t}.
  • Articles about Spanish Immersion and Spanish Language Immersion Programs 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC veracruzspanish.com [Source type: General]

Geographic Distribution

.Spanish is recognized as one of the official languages of the United Nations, the European Union, the Organization of American States, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the African Union, the Union of South American Nations, the Latin Union, and the Caricom and has legal status in the North American Free Trade Agreement.^ African, Caribbean, and Latin-American writers.

^ African, Caribbean, and Latin-American writers .

^ Flags of the Native Peoples of the United States http://www.tmealf.com/DH/ 130 flags representing 102 Native nations and Associations.
  • Countries & flags - Homework Center - Multnomah County Library 17 September 2009 21:23 UTC www.multcolib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Country Population [13] Number of Spanish speakers (first language)[14] Speakers as a second language (in countries with Spanish official) or as a foreign language[15][16] Spanish speakers as percentage of population[17] Total number of Spanish speakers
Mexico 108,396,211 [18] 99,908,787 6,861,481 98.5% 106,770,268
United States 304,059,724[19] 42,859,894 [20] 7,140,106 15.4% [21] 50,000,000[22] + 7,820,000 students[23]
Spain 46,745,807 [24] 41,603,769 [25] 4,581,088 98.8% 46,184,857
Colombia 45,360,000 [26] 44,920,008 77,112 99.2% 44,937,600
Argentina 40,518,951 [27] 38,866,177 1,037,285 99.4% 40,275,837
Venezuela 28,705,000 [28] 27,694,584 665,956 98.8% 28,360,540
Peru 29,461,933[29] 23,501,784 2,012,250 86.6% 25,514,034
Chile 17,094,270 [30] 15,225,828 1,600,024 99.3% 16,974,610
Ecuador 14,150,000 [31] 13,153,840 727,310 98.1% 13,881,150
Brazil 196,342,587 445,005 [32] 12,000,000 [33] 6.3% 12,445,005
Guatemala 14,027,000 9,075,469 3,043,859 86.4% 12,119,328
Cuba 11,204,000 11,136,776 99.4% 11,136,776
Dominican Republic 10,090,000 9,987,082 62,558 99.6% 10,049,640
Bolivia 10,426,154[34] 4,350,833 4,813,756 87.9% 9,164,589
El Salvador 7,913,743[35] 7,913,743 99.7% 7,890,002
Honduras 7,876,197[36] 7,652,513 144,922 99.0% 7,797,435
Morocco 29,680,069 [37] 20,000 [38] 6,479,935 21.9% [39] 6,499,935
France 64,057,790 440,106 [40] 5,721,380 9.6% 6,161,486
Nicaragua 5,743,000 5,019,382 551,328 97.0% 5,570,710
Costa Rica 4,549,903 4,345,130 87,126 99.2% 4,432,256
Paraguay 6,349,000 3,498,299 914,256 69.5% 4,412,555
Puerto Rico 3,982,000 3,786,882 [41] 147,334 98.8% 3,934,216
United Kingdom 60,943,912 107,654 [42] 3,814,846 6.4% 3,922,500
Uruguay 3,361,000 3,246,726 77,303 98.9 3,324,029
Panama 3,454,000 2,652,672 476,419 93.1% 3,129,091
Philippines 96,061,683 2,658 [43] 3,014,115 3.1% 3,016,773 [44]
Germany 82,369,548 140,000 [45] 2,566,972 3.2% 2,706,972
Italy 58,145,321 89,905 [46] 1,968,320 3.5% 2,058,225
Equatorial Guinea 1,153,915 [47] 158,086[48] 995,829 90.5% [49] 1,044,293
Canada 33,212,696 909,000 [50] 92,853 3% 1,001,853
Portugal 10,676,910 9,744 727,282 6.9% 737,026
Netherlands 16,645,313 19,978 [51] 662,116 4.1% 682,094
Belgium 10,403,951 85,990 [52] 515,939 5.8% 601,929
Romania 22,246,862 544,531 2.4% 544,531
Sweden 9,045,389 101,472 [53] 442,601 6% 544,073
Australia 21,007,310 106,517 [54] 374,571 [55] 2.3% 481,088 [56]
Poland 38,500,696 316,104 0.8% 316,104
Austria 8,205,533 267,177 3.3% 267,177
Ivory Coast 20,179,602 235,806 [57] 1.2% 235,806
Algeria 33,769,669 223,000 [58] 0.7% 223,379
Denmark 5,484,723 219,003 4% 219,003
Israel 7,112,359 130,000 [59] 45,231 2.5% 175,231 [60]
Switzerland 7,581,520 123,000 [61] 14,420 1.7% [62] 137,420
Japan 127,288,419 76,565 [63] 60,000 0.1% 136,565
Bulgaria 7,262,675 133,910 1.8% 133,910
Belize 301,270 106,795 [64] 21,848 42.7% 128,643 [65]
Netherlands Antilles 223,652 10,699 114,835 56.1% 125,534
Ireland 4,156,119 123,591 3% 123,591
Senegal 12,853,259 101,455 0.8% 101,455
Greece 10,722,816 86,742 0.8% 86,742
Finland 5,244,749 85,586 1.6% 85,586
Hungary 9,930,915 85,034 0.9% 85,034
Aruba 100,018 6,800 68,602 75.3% 75,402
Croatia 4,491,543 73,656 1.6% 73,656
Andorra 84,484 29,907 [66] 25,356 68.7% [67] 58,040
Slovakia 5,455,407 43,164 0.8% 43,164
Norway 4,644,457 12,573 23,677 0.8% 36,250
New Zealand 4,173,460 21,645 [68] 0.5% 21,645
Guam 154,805 19,092 12.3% 19,092
Virgin Islands 108,612 16,788 15.5% 16,788
Russia 140,702,094 3,320 13,122 0.01% 16,442
China 1,345,751,000 2,292[69] 12,835 0.001124% 15,127
Lithuania 3,565,205 13,943 0.4% 13,943
Gibraltar 27,967 13,857 49.5% 13,857
Cyprus 792,604 1.4% 11,044
Turkey 71,892,807 380 8,000 [70] 0.01% 8,380
Jamaica 2,804,322 8,000 0.3% 8,000
Luxembourg 486,006 3,000 4,344 1.5% 7,344
Malta 403,532 6,458 1.6% 6,458
Trinidad and Tobago 1,047,366 4,100 0.4% 4,100
Western Sahara 513,000 [71] n.a. [72] n.a. n.a. n.a.
Other immigrants in the E.U. 1,399,531 [73] 1,399,531
Other students of Spanish 2,895,562 [74] 2,895,562
Total native and as a second language speakers where Spanish is official: 425,060,695 29,165,617 96,90% 454,226,312
Total with Spanish speakers as a foreign language: 425,060,695 87,122,146 512,182,841
Active learning of Spanish

Hispanosphere

.It is estimated that the combined total number of Spanish speakers is between 470 and 500 million, making it the third most spoken language by total number of speakers (after Chinese, and English).^ With this model any task in a chinese/spanish/english language will be easy for you.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ Its English-Spanish and Spanish-English dictionaries hold a total of 430,000 words.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ Unlimited voice synthesis in English, Chinese and Spanish makes audible any text you need, not only dictionary entries.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

.Spanish is the second most-widely spoken language in terms of native speakers.^ Using high-definition recordings of native-speakers to pronounce its 14,000 phrasebook translations, the TL-2 is a complete language management solution.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ Every phrase in the extensive databank can be spoken aloud and has been recorded by native speakers in high quality digital format that is easy to comprehend.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ Using high-definition recordings of native-speakers to pronounce its 21,000 phrasebook translations, the TL-2 is a complete language management solution.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

[75][76] .Global internet usage statistics for 2007 show Spanish as the third most commonly used language on the Internet, after English and Chinese.^ With this model any task in a chinese/spanish/english language will be easy for you.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ The ECTACO iTRAVL English <-> Spanish TL-2S is the most revolutionary English and Spanish translation handheld in the world.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ The ECTACO Audio PhraseBook Spanish <-> French and French <-> English PB-EFrSp B-3 is the most revolutionary Spanish, French, English translation handheld in the world.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

[77]

Europe

Spanish spoken in the European Union
In Europe, Spanish is an official language of Spain, the country after which it is named and from which it originated. It is widely spoken in Gibraltar, though English is the official language.[78] It is the most spoken language in Andorra, though Catalan is the official language.[79][80] .It is also spoken by small communities in other European countries, such as the United Kingdom, France, and Germany.^ It is also spoken by small communities in other European countries, such as the United Kingdom , France , and Germany .

^ Among other Asian countries, Spanish may also be spoken by pockets of ex-immigrant communities, such as Mexican-born ethnic Chinese deported to China or third and fourth generation ethnic Japanese Peruvians returning to their ancestral homeland of Japan.

^ Among the countries and territories in Oceania , Spanish is the seventh most spoken language in Australia (100,000 speakers); there are small Argentine, Chilean, Spanish , and Uruguayan communities and growing Colombian and Mexican communities mainly in Sydney .

[81] Spanish is an official language of the European Union. In Switzerland, Spanish is the mother tongue of 1.7% of the population, representing the largest minority after the 4 official languages of the country.[82]

Spain

.In Spain and in some parts of the Spanish speaking world, but not all, it is rare to use the term español (Spanish) to refer to this language, even when contrasting it with languages such as French and English.^ French Language German language Italian Language Japanese Language Norwegian Language Russian language » Spanish Language Learn a language WSG Online Shop .

^ In such situations there is usually no time to wait for a translator to allow you help non-English speaking patients.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ The ECTACO iTRAVL English <-> Spanish TL-2S is the most revolutionary English and Spanish translation handheld in the world.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

Rather, people call it castellano (Castilian), that is, the language of the Castile region, when contrasting it with other languages spoken in Spain such as Galician, Basque, and Catalan. In this manner, the Spanish Constitution of 1978 uses the term castellano to define the official language of the whole Spanish State, as opposed to las demás lenguas españolas (lit. the rest of the Spanish languages). Article III reads as follows:
.El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado.^ El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado.

^ Article III reads as follows: El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado.

^ In this manner, the Spanish Constitution of 1978 uses the term castellano to define the official language of the whole Spanish State , as opposed to las demás lenguas españolas (lit.

(…) Las demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas…
Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State. (…) The rest of the Spanish languages shall also be official in their respective Autonomous Communities…
.However, to some in other linguistic regions, this is considered as demeaning to them and they will therefore use the term castellano exclusively.^ Some of the most sophisticated devices available, they are used by professionals and government agencies around the world.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

.The name castellano (Castilian), which refers directly to the origins of the language and the sociopolitical context in which it was introduced in the Americas, is preferred particularly in the Spanish regions where other languages are spoken (Catalonia, Basque Country, Valencian Community, Balearic Islands and Galicia) as well as in Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela, instead of español, which is more commonly used to refer to the language as a whole in the rest of Latin America and Spain.^ Spanish - other languages dictionaries.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ Featuring over 8,000 phrases it can voice in German and Spanish, this unmatched phrasebook is a must-have for international travelers, helping them to navigate foreign language terrain and communicate efficiently.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ ECTACO iTRAVL Deluxe Corrida NTL-2S English <-> Spanish Talking 2-way Language Communicator and Electronic Dictionary .
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

There is some controversy in Spain about the name of the language, which is a part of a greater controversy about Catalan, Basque and Galician nationalisms.

Africa

In Africa, Spanish is official in Equatorial Guinea (co-official with French and Portuguese), as well as an official language of the African Union. Today, in Western Sahara, an unknown number of Sahrawis are able to read and write in Spanish,and several thousands have received university education in foreign countries as part of aid packages (mainly in Cuba and Spain). .In Equatorial Guinea, Spanish is the predominant language when native and non-native speakers (around 500,000 people) are counted, while Fang is the most spoken language by number of native speakers.^ Using high-definition recordings of native-speakers to pronounce its 14,000 phrasebook translations, the TL-2 is a complete language management solution.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ Featuring over 8,000 phrases it can voice in German and Spanish, this unmatched phrasebook is a must-have for international travelers, helping them to navigate foreign language terrain and communicate efficiently.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ Every phrase in the extensive databank can be spoken aloud and has been recorded by native speakers in high quality digital format that is easy to comprehend.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

[83][84] It is also spoken in the Spanish cities in continental North Africa (Ceuta and Melilla) and in the autonomous community of Canary Islands (143,000 and 1,995,833 people, respectively). .Within Northern Morocco, a former Franco-Spanish protectorate that is also geographically close to Spain, approximately 20,000 people speak Spanish as a second language.^ Featuring over 8,000 phrases it can voice in German and Spanish, this unmatched phrasebook is a must-have for international travelers, helping them to navigate foreign language terrain and communicate efficiently.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ Theres also an explanatory dictionary of the English language and a Spanish-Russian bidirectional dictionary of over 50,000 words.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

[85] It is spoken by some communities of Angola, because of the Cuban influence from the Cold War, and in Nigeria by the descendants of Afro-Cuban ex-slaves.

Asia

.During Spanish control, it was an official language of the Philippines, until the change of Constitution in 1973. During most of the colonial period it was the language of government, trade and education, and spoken mainly by Spaniards and mestizos as a first language and more significantly as a second language by more than half of the indigenous population .^ Its more than 450,000 entries make it an effective study aid as well as one of the most adaptable multipurpose language resources available.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ Able to contain more than 20 languages, complete customization lets you decide which languages your unit needs to be effective so that you have access to the tools you need to do your best.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ Originally developed for the US government, the technology contained in the Tl-2 is the most advanced available and the first choice for professional, accurate and effective language management.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

However, by the mid 19th century a free public school system in Spanish was established throughout the islands, which increased the numbers of Spanish speakers. Following the U.S. occupation and administration of the islands, the strong Spanish influence amongst the Philippine population proved to be a major foe against the imposition of English by the American government, especially after the 1920s. The US authorities' conducted a campaign of solidifying English as the medium of instruction in schools, universities, and public spaces and prohibited the use of Spanish in media and educational institutions which gradually reduced the importance of the language generation after generation. After the country became independent in 1946, Spanish remained an official language along with English and Tagalog-based Filipino. However, the language lost its official status in 1973 during the Ferdinand Marcos administration. .Under the Corazón Aquino administration which took office in 1986, the mandatory teaching of Spanish in colleges and universities was also stopped, and thus, younger generations of Filipinos have little or no knowledge of Spanish.^ Going with you wherever you go, it lets you communicate in Spanish and Slovak with little or no previous experience.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ Going with you wherever you go, it lets you communicate in French and Spanish with little or no previous experience.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ Going with you wherever you go, it lets you communicate in Spanish, English, German with little or no previous experience.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

.The Spanish language retains a large influence in local languages, with many words coming from or being derived from European Spanish and Mexican Spanish, due to the control of the islands by Spain through Mexico City.^ Theres also an explanatory dictionary of the English language and a Spanish-Russian bidirectional dictionary of over 50,000 words.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ Language Localization Allows a device to be used in many different languages, restoring the ease of use that is often lost when navigating in a foreign language.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

[86] .As of the 1990 Philippine census, only 2,660 people were reported to speak Spanish as a first language, with most speakers residing in Manila.^ Originally developed for the US government, the technology contained in the Tl-2 is the most advanced available and the first choice for professional, accurate and effective language management.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ By speaking a word in a foreign language into the device until the machine recognizes it lets you practice using natural native-speaker models.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

[87] Moreover, close to four million people speak Spanish as a second language to date.
Spanish has made significant contributions to various Philippine languages such as Tagalog, Cebuano, and Hiligaynon. One of the 170 languages in the Philippines is a Spanish-based creole called Chavacano, spoken in majority by people (ca. 750 000) from the Zamboanga area. .Though the indigenous grammatical structure of the national language was retained, over 5000 Spanish loanwords have found their way into the vocabulary of Filipino.^ ECTACO iTRAVL Deluxe Corrida NTL-2S English <-> Spanish Talking 2-way Language Communicator and Electronic Dictionary .
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ ECTACO iTRAVL NTL-2S English <-> Spanish Talking 2-way Language Communicator and Electronic Dictionary .
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ Our new English <-> Spanish dictionary translates both ways, from English into Spanish and back.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

Since 2009 Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, a fluent Spanish speaker and current President of the Philippines has ordered the re-establishment of Spanish in the education system plus there is now the daily programme "Filipinas Ahora Mismo" presented by Bon Vivar, produced in Spanish and broadcast on Radio Pilipinas. The Spanish language is to be taught in select public schools in the country starting next school year. Quezon City Science High School is one of the first schools to instruct the language.

Oceania

Among the countries and territories in Oceania, Spanish is also spoken in Easter Island, a territorial possession of Chile. .The U.S. Territories of Guam and Northern Marianas, and the independent states of Palau, Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia all once had Spanish speakers, since the Marianas and the Caroline Islands were Spanish colonial possessions until the late 19th century (see Spanish-American War), but Spanish has since been forgotten.^ Remarkable for its extended voice capabilities, it is able to understand what is said to it, using a state of the art speaker-independent speech recognition system.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ Speech-to-speech translators Employing a state-of-the-art speaker independent speech recognition system, remarkable speech-to-speech translators can understand what is said to them, translate it and then speak the translation back in a real human voice.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

It now only exists as an influence on the local native languages and is spoken by Hispanic American resident populations.

America

Latin America

Most Spanish speakers are in Latin America; of all countries with a majority of Spanish speakers, only Spain and Equatorial Guinea are outside the Americas. Mexico has the most native speakers of any country. Nationally, Spanish is the official language—either de facto or de jure—of Argentina, Bolivia (co-official with Quechua and Aymara), Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico , Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay (co-official with Guaraní[88]), Peru (co-official with Quechua and, in some regions, Aymara), Uruguay, and Venezuela. .Spanish is also the official language (co-official with English) in the U.S. commonwealth of Puerto Rico.^ ECTACO iTRAVL Deluxe Corrida NTL-2S English <-> Spanish Talking 2-way Language Communicator and Electronic Dictionary .
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ With this model any task in a chinese/spanish/english language will be easy for you.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ Theres also an explanatory dictionary of the English language and a Spanish-Russian bidirectional dictionary of over 50,000 words.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

[89]
Spanish has no official recognition in the former British colony of Belize; however, per the 2000 census, it is spoken by 43% of the population.[90][91] Mainly, it is spoken by the descendants of Hispanics who have been in the region since the 17th century; however, English is the official language.[92]
Spain colonized Trinidad and Tobago first in 1498, introducing the Spanish language to the Carib people. Also the Cocoa Panyols, laborers from Venezuela, took their culture and language with them; they are accredited with the music of "Parang" ("Parranda") on the island. Because of Trinidad's location on the South American coast, the country is greatly influenced by its Spanish-speaking neighbors. .A recent census shows that more than 1 500 inhabitants speak Spanish.^ The basic English-Spanish bi-directional dictionary comprises more than 1,000,000 words.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

[93] .In 2004, the government launched the Spanish as a First Foreign Language (SAFFL) initiative in March 2005.[94] Government regulations require Spanish to be taught, beginning in primary school, while thirty percent of public employees are to be linguistically competent within five years.^ Featuring over 8,000 phrases it can voice in German and Spanish, this unmatched phrasebook is a must-have for international travelers, helping them to navigate foreign language terrain and communicate efficiently.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ Usage of our Spanish models will make your working with a foreign language easy and convenient.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ Originally developed for the US government, the technology contained in the Tl-2 is the most advanced available and the first choice for professional, accurate and effective language management.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

[93]
Spanish is important in Brazil because of its proximity to and increased trade with its Spanish-speaking neighbors, and because of its membership in the Mercosur trading bloc.[95] .In 2005, the National Congress of Brazil approved a bill, signed into law by the President, making Spanish language teaching mandatory in both public and private secondary schools in Brazil.^ Usage of our Spanish models will make your working with a foreign language easy and convenient.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

[96] In many border towns and villages (especially in the Uruguayan-Brazilian and Paraguayan-Brazilian border areas), a mixed language known as Portuñol is spoken.[97]

United States

Spanish spoken in the United States
In the 2006 census, 44.3 million people of the U.S. population were Hispanic or Latino by origin;[98] 34 million people, 12.2 percent, of the population more than five years old speak Spanish at home.[99] Spanish has a long history in the United States because many south-western states and Florida were part of Mexico and Spain, and it recently has been revitalized by Hispanic immigrants. .Spanish is the most widely taught language in the country after English.^ The ECTACO iTRAVL English <-> Spanish TL-2S is the most revolutionary English and Spanish translation handheld in the world.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ The ECTACO Audio PhraseBook Spanish <-> French and French <-> English PB-EFrSp B-3 is the most revolutionary Spanish, French, English translation handheld in the world.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ ECTACO iTRAVL Deluxe Corrida NTL-2S English <-> Spanish Talking 2-way Language Communicator and Electronic Dictionary .
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

.Although the United States has no formally designated "official languages," Spanish is formally recognized at the state level in various states besides English; in the U.S. state of New Mexico for instance, 40% of the population speaks the language.^ The ECTACO Audio PhraseBook English <-> Spanish and Spanish <-> Russian PB-SpEnR B-3 has been designed specifically with the international traveler in mind.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ ECTACO iTRAVL Deluxe Corrida NTL-2S English <-> Spanish Talking 2-way Language Communicator and Electronic Dictionary .
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ The ECTACO English <-> Spanish Partner PB-Sp B-3 has been designed specifically with the international traveler in mind.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

It also has strong influence in metropolitan areas such as Los Angeles, Miami, San Antonio, New York City, and in the last decade, the language has rapidly expanded in Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Charlotte, Chicago, Cleveland, Dallas, Detroit, Houston, Phoenix, Richmond, Washington, DC, and other major Sun-Belt cities. Spanish is the dominant spoken language in Puerto Rico, a U.S. territory. With a total of 33,701,181 Spanish (Castilian) speakers, according to US Census Bureau,[100] the U.S. has the world's second-largest Spanish-speaking population.[101] .Spanish ranks second, behind English, as the language spoken most widely at home.^ The ECTACO iTRAVL English <-> Spanish TL-2S is the most revolutionary English and Spanish translation handheld in the world.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ The ECTACO Audio PhraseBook Spanish <-> French and French <-> English PB-EFrSp B-3 is the most revolutionary Spanish, French, English translation handheld in the world.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ ECTACO iTRAVL Deluxe Corrida NTL-2S English <-> Spanish Talking 2-way Language Communicator and Electronic Dictionary .
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

[102]

Dialectal variation

Countries that feature voseo, in blue. The deeper the blue is, the more predominant voseo is. Countries where voseo is a regionalism are in green; countries without voseo are in red.
.While all Spanish dialects use the same written standard, there are important variations spoken among the regions of Spain and throughout Spanish-speaking America.^ Able to recognize spoken English commands, this portable handheld contains all the most frequently used phrases and expressions commonly used by legal professionals in the course of their practice and speaks them aloud in Spanish.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

.One major phonological difference between Castilian, broadly speaking, the dialects spoken in most of Spain, and the dialects of some parts of southern Spain and all the Latin American dialects of Spanish, is the absence of a voiceless dental fricative (/θ/ as in English thing) in the latter.^ In addition, the ES300T is a great reference tool: aside from the English voicing function, it provides English irregular verbs, the most popular American idioms, and a 12-topic English-Spanish phrasebook.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ The legal profession is one of the most literal in the world - where a single word can make all the difference between two very different outcomes.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ Able to recognize spoken English commands, this portable handheld contains all the most frequently used phrases and expressions commonly used by legal professionals in the course of their practice and speaks them aloud in Spanish.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

[103] In Spain, the Castilian dialect is commonly regarded as the standard variety used on radio and television,[104][105][106][107], although attitudes towards southern dialects have changed significantly in the last 50 years. In addition to variations in pronunciation, minor lexical and grammatical differences exist. For example, loísmo is the use of slightly different pronouns and differs from the standard.
The variety with the most speakers is Mexican Spanish. .It is spoken by more than the twenty percent of the Spanish speakers (107 millions of the total 494 millions, according to the table above).^ The basic English-Spanish bi-directional dictionary comprises more than 1,000,000 words.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

One of its main features is the reduction or loss of the unstressed vowels, mainly when they are in contact with the sound /s/.[108][109] It can be the case that the words: pesos, pesas, and peces are pronounced the same ['pesə̥s].

Voseo

Spanish has three second-person singular pronouns: , usted, and vos. The use of the pronoun vos and/or its verb forms is called voseo.

Grammar

Vos is the subject form (vos decís) [you say] and object of a preposition (a vos digo) [to you I say], while "os" is the direct object form (os vi) [I saw you (all)] and indirect object without express preposition (os digo) [I say to you (all)].[110]
Since vose is historically the 2nd-person plural, verbs are conjugated as such despite the fact the word now refers to a single person:
«Han luchado, añadió dirigiéndose a Tarradellas, [...] por mantenerse fieles a las instituciones que vos representáis» (GaCandau Madrid-Barça [Esp. 1996]).
The possessive form is vuestro: Admiro vuestra valentía, señora. Adjectives, when used in conjunction with vos, do not agree with the pronoun but instead with the real referents in gender and number: Vos, don Pedro, sois caritativo; Vos, bellas damas, sois ingeniosas.[110]
Two main types of voseo may be distinguished: reverential and American dialectal. In archaic solemn usage, voseo expressed special reverence and could be used to address both the second person singular and the second person plural. In contrast, the more commonly known American form of voseo is always used to address only one speaker and implies closeness and familiarity.[110] .Unlike the first type, the second one need not involve vos and may instead be expressed simply in the use of the plural form of the verb (even in combination with the pronoun ).^ Search in the dictionaries is made faster by MorphoFinder and the advanced word recognition: one can simply type the initial letters of a word or spell it out, e.g.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

The pronominal voseo employs the use of vos as a pronoun to replace and de ti, which are second-person singular informal.
[110]
  • As a subject vos employs: «Puede que vos tengás razón» (Herrera Casa [Ven. 1985]) instead of «Puede que tú tengas razón»
  • As a vocative: «¿Por qué vos la tenés contra Alvaro Arzú ?» (Prensa [Guat.] 3.4.97) instead of «¿Por qué tú la tienes contra Alvaro Arzú?»
  • As a term of preposition: «Cada vez que sale con vos, se enferma» (Penerini Aventura [Arg. 1999]) instead of «Cada vez que sale contigo, se enferma»
  • And as a term of comparison: «Es por lo menos tan actor como vos» (Cuzzani Cortés [Arg. 1988]) instead of «Es por lo menos tan actor como tú»
    [110]
However, for the pronombre átono (that which uses the pronominal verbs and its complements without preposition) and for the possessive, they employ the forms of tuteo (te, tu, and tuyo), respectively: «Vos te acostaste con el tuerto» (Gené Ulf [Arg. 1988]); «Lugar que odio [...] como te odio a vos» (Rossi María [C. Rica 1985]); «No cerrés tus ojos» (Flores Siguamonta [Guat. 1993]). In other words, in the previous examples the authors conjugate the pronoun subject vos with the pronominal verbs and its complements of .[110]
The verbal voseo consists of the use of the second person plural, more or less modified, for the conjugated forms of the second person singular: vos vivís, vos comés. The verbal paradigm of voseante is characterized by its complexity. On the one hand, it affects, to a distinct extent, each verbal tense. On the other hand, it varies in functions of geographic and social factors and not all the forms are accepted in cultured norms.[110]

Extension in Latin America

Vos is used extensively as the primary spoken form of the second-person singular pronoun, although with wide differences in social consideration. Generally, it can be said that there are zones of exclusive use of tuteo in the following areas: almost all of Mexico, the West Indies, Panama, the majority of Peru and Venezuela, Coastal Ecuador and; the Atlantic coast of Colombia.
They alternate tuteo as a cultured form and voseo as a popular or rural form in: Bolivia, north and south of Peru, Andean Ecuador, small zones of the Venezuelan Andes, a great part of Colombia, and the oriental border of Cuba.
Tuteo exists as an intermediate formality of treatment and voseo as a familiar treatment in: Chile, the Venezuelan state of Zulia, the Pacific coast of Colombia, Central America, and the Mexican states of Tabasco and Chiapas.
Areas of generalized voseo include Argentina, Costa Rica, Bolivia (east), El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay and the Colombian region of Antioquia.
[110]

Ustedes

.Spanish forms also differ regarding second-person plural pronouns.^ Spanish forms also differ regarding second-person plural pronouns.

^ It is remarkable that the use of ustedes for the informal plural "you" in southern Spain does not follow the usual rule for pronoun-verb agreement ; e.g., while the formal form for "you go", ustedes van , uses the third-person plural form of the verb, in Cádiz or Seville the informal form is constructed as ustedes vais , using the second-person plural of the verb.

^ In Spain the Castilian dialect pronunciation is commonly regarded as the national standard, although a use of slightly different pronouns called laísmo of this dialect is deprecated.

"Usted" (Ud.) was initially the written abbreviation of "vuestra merced" (your grace). The Spanish dialects of Latin America have only one form of the second-person plural for daily use, ustedes (formal or familiar, as the case may be, though vosotros non-formal usage can sometimes appear in poetry and rhetorical or literary style). In Spain there are two forms — ustedes (formal) and vosotros (familiar). The pronoun vosotros is the plural form of in most of Spain, but in the Americas (and in certain southern Spanish cities such as Cádiz and in the Canary Islands) it is replaced with ustedes. .It is notable that the use of ustedes for the informal plural "you" in southern Spain does not follow the usual rule for pronoun–verb agreement; e.g., while the formal form for "you go", ustedes van, uses the third-person plural form of the verb, in Cádiz or Seville the informal form is constructed as ustedes vais, using the second-person plural of the verb.^ Acting as your personal interpreter, the B-3 will help you to be successful when visiting a bank, shopping, sightseeing, going to the hairdressers or post office and much, much more.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

In the Canary Islands, though, the usual pronoun–verb agreement is preserved in most cases.

Vocabulary

Some words can be different, even significantly so, in different Hispanophone countries. Most Spanish speakers can recognize other Spanish forms, even in places where they are not commonly used, but Spaniards generally do not recognize specifically American usages. For example, Spanish mantequilla, aguacate and albaricoque (respectively, 'butter', 'avocado', 'apricot') correspond to manteca, palta, and damasco, respectively, in Argentina, Chile (except manteca), Paraguay, Peru (except manteca and damasco), and Uruguay. The everyday Spanish words coger ('to take'), pisar ('to step on') and concha ('seashell') are considered extremely rude in parts of Latin America, where the meaning of coger and pisar is also "to have sex" and concha means "vulva". The Puerto Rican word for "bobby pin" (pinche) is an obscenity in Mexico, but in Nicaragua simply means "stingy", and in Spain refers to a chef's helper. Other examples include taco, which means "swearword" (among other meanings) in Spain and "traffic" in Chile, but is known to the rest of the world as a Mexican dish. Pija in many countries of Latin America and Spain itself is an obscene slang word for "penis", while in Spain the word also signifies "posh girl" or "snobby". Coche, which means "car" in Spain, central Mexico and Argentina, for the vast majority of Spanish-speakers actually means "baby-stroller", while carro means "car" in some Latin American countries and "cart" in others, as well as in Spain. Papaya is the slang term in Cuba for "vagina" therefore in Cuba when referring to the actual fruit Cubans call it fruta bomba instead.[111][112]

Royal Spanish Academy

The Royal Spanish Academy Headquarters in Madrid, Spain
.The Real Academia Española (Royal Spanish Academy), together with the 21 other national ones (see Association of Spanish Language Academies), exercises a standardizing influence through its publication of dictionaries and widely respected grammar and style guides.^ Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ Spanish - other languages dictionaries.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ ECTACO iTRAVL Deluxe Corrida NTL-2S English <-> Spanish Talking 2-way Language Communicator and Electronic Dictionary .
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

.March 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Because of influence and for other sociohistorical reasons, a standardized form of the language (Standard Spanish) is widely acknowledged for use in literature, academic contexts and the media.^ Spanish - other languages dictionaries.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]

Classification and related languages

Spanish is closely related to the other West Iberian Romance languages: Asturian, Galician, Ladino, Leonese and Portuguese. Catalan, an East Iberian language which exhibits many Gallo-Romance traits, is more similar to Occitan to the east than to Spanish or Portuguese.
.Spanish and Portuguese have similar grammars and vocabularies as well as a common history of Arabic influence while a great part of the peninsula was under Islamic rule (both languages expanded over Islamic territories).^ The language pairs available are English-Dutch, English-French, English-German, English-Italian, English-Portuguese, English-Spanish, English-Swedish.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

Their lexical similarity has been estimated as 89%.[113] .See Differences between Spanish and Portuguese for further information.^ Providing the assistance that can make the difference between life and death, emergency workers depend on accurate information that many times can only be had from the patients themselves.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

Judaeo-Spanish

Judaeo-Spanish (also known as Ladino),[114] which is essentially medieval Spanish and closer to modern Spanish than any other language, is spoken by many descendants of the Sephardi Jews who were expelled from Spain in the 15th century.[114] Therefore, it has somewhat the same relationship to Spanish as Yiddish does to German. Ladino speakers are currently almost exclusively Sephardi Jews, with family roots in Turkey, Greece or the Balkans: current speakers mostly live in Israel and Turkey, and the United States, with a few pockets in Latin America.[114] It lacks the Native American vocabulary which was influential during the Spanish colonial period, and it retains many archaic features which have since been lost in standard Spanish. .It contains, however, other vocabulary which is not found in standard Castilian, including vocabulary from Hebrew, French, Greek and Turkish, and other languages spoken where the Sephardim settled.^ In addition to the superior dictionary functionality, the 500 also contains SAT 200 and SAT 5000 vocabulary builders to help you prepare for standardized SAT tests.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

.Judaeo-Spanish is in serious danger of extinction because many native speakers today are elderly as well as elderly olim (immigrants to Israel) who have not transmitted the language to their children or grandchildren.^ Using high-definition recordings of native-speakers to pronounce its 14,000 phrasebook translations, the TL-2 is a complete language management solution.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ Using high-definition recordings of native-speakers to pronounce its 21,000 phrasebook translations, the TL-2 is a complete language management solution.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ By speaking a word in a foreign language into the device until the machine recognizes it lets you practice using natural native-speaker models.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

However, it is experiencing a minor revival among Sephardi communities, especially in music. In the case of the Latin American communities, the danger of extinction is also due to the risk of assimilation by modern Castilian.
A related dialect is Haketia, the Judaeo-Spanish of northern Morocco. This too tended to assimilate with modern Spanish, during the Spanish occupation of the region.

Vocabulary comparison

Spanish and Italian share a similar phonological system. At present, the lexical similarity with Italian is estimated at 82%.[113] The lexical similarity with Portuguese is greater at 89%. .Mutual intelligibility between Spanish and French or Romanian is lower (lexical similarity being respectively 75% and 71%[113]): comprehension of Spanish by French speakers who have not studied the language is low at an estimated 45% – the same as English.^ French Language German language Italian Language Japanese Language Norwegian Language Russian language » Spanish Language Learn a language WSG Online Shop .

^ The ECTACO Audio PhraseBook Spanish <-> French and French <-> English PB-EFrSp B-3 is the most revolutionary Spanish, French, English translation handheld in the world.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ The ECTACO Audio PhraseBook English <-> Spanish and Spanish <-> French PB-SpEnFr has been designed specifically with the international traveler in mind.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

.The common features of the writing systems of the Romance languages allow for a greater amount of interlingual reading comprehension than oral communication would.^ The common features of the writing systems of the Romance languages allow for a greater amount of interlingual reading comprehension than oral communication would.

^ What writing system(s) does this language use?

^ The writing systems of the four languages allow for a greater amount of interlingual reading comprehension than oral communication would.

Latin Spanish Galician Portuguese Astur-Leonese Catalan Italian French Romanian English
nos (alterum) nosotros nós nós (outros)¹ nós, nosotros nosaltres noi (altri)² nous (autres)³ noi we
fratrem germānum (acc.) (lit. "true brother", i.e. not a cousin) hermano irmán irmão hermanu germà fratello frère frate brother
dies Martis (Classical)
feria tertia (Ecclesiastical)
martes martes terça-feira martes dimarts martedì mardi marţi Tuesday
cantiō (nem, acc.), canticum canción canción/cançom4 canção, cântico canción cançó canzone chanson cântec song
magis or plus más
(archaically also plus)
máis mais
(archaically also chus/plus)
más més
(archaically also pus)
più plus mai/plus more
manum sinistram (acc.) mano izquierda
(also mano siniestra)
man esquerda mão esquerda
(also sinistra and archaically also sẽestra)
mano esquierda mà esquerra mano sinistra main gauche mâna stângă left hand
nihil or nullam rem natam (acc.)
(lit. "no thing born")
nada nada/ren nada
(neca and nula rés in some expressions; archaically also rem)
nada res niente/nulla rien/nul nimic/nul nothing
1. also nós outros in early modern Portuguese (e.g. The Lusiads)
2. noi altri in Southern Italian dialects and languages
3. Alternatively nous autres
4. Depending on the written norm used. See Reintegracionismo

Characterization

A defining feature of Spanish was the diphthongization of the Latin short vowels e and o into ie and ue, respectively, when they were stressed. .Similar sound changes are found in other Romance languages, but in Spanish, they were significant.^ Spanish - other languages dictionaries.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

Some examples:
  • Lat. petram > Sp. piedra, It. pietra, Fr. pierre, Rom. piatrǎ, Port./Gal. pedra, Ast. piedra, Cat. pedra "stone".
  • Lat. moritur > Sp. muere, It. muore, Fr. meurt / muert, Rom. moare, Port./Gal. morre, Ast. muerre, Cat. mor "die".
Peculiar to early Spanish (as in the Gascon dialect of Occitan, and possibly due to a Basque substratum) was the mutation of Latin initial f- into h- whenever it was followed by a vowel that did not diphthongate. Compare for instance:
  • Lat. filium > It. figlio, Port. filho, Gal. fillo, Ast. fíu, Fr. fils, Cat. fill, Occitan filh (but Gascon hilh) Sp. hijo (but Ladino fijo);
  • Lat. fabulari > Lad. favlar, Port./Gal. falar, Ast. falar, Sp. hablar;
  • but Lat. focum > It. fuoco, Port./Gal. fogo, Ast. fueu Cat. foc, Sp./Lad. fuego.
Some consonant clusters of Latin also produced characteristically different results in these languages, for example:
  • Lat. clamare, acc. flammam, plenum > Lad. lyamar, flama, pleno; Sp. llamar, llama, lleno. However, in Spanish there are also the forms clamar, flama, pleno; Port. chamar, chama, cheio; Gal. chamar, chama, cheo; Ast. llamar, llama, llenu.
  • Lat. acc. octo, noctem, multum > Lad. ocho, noche, muncho; Sp. ocho, noche, mucho; Port. oito, noite, muito; Gal. oito, noite, moito; Ast. ocho, nueche, munchu.
By the 16th century, the consonant system of Spanish underwent the following important changes that differentiated it from neighboring Romance languages such as Portuguese and Catalan:
  • Initial /f/, when it had evolved into a vacillating /h/, was lost in most words (although this etymological h- is preserved in spelling and in some Andalusian and Caribbean dialects it is still aspirated in some words).
  • The consonant written ‹u› or ‹v› (in Latin, this was [w], at the time of the merger it may have been a bilabial fricative /β/) merged with the consonant written ‹b› (a voiced bilabial plosive, /b/). In contemporary Spanish, there is no difference between the pronunciation of orthographic ‹b› and ‹v›, excepting emphatic pronunciations that cannot be considered standard or natural.
  • The voiced alveolar fricative /z/ which existed as a separate phoneme in medieval Spanish merged with its voiceless counterpart /s/. The phoneme which resulted from this merger is currently spelled s.
  • The voiced postalveolar fricative /ʒ/ merged with its voiceless counterpart /ʃ/, which evolved into the modern velar sound /x/ by the 17th century, now written with j, or g before e, i. Nevertheless, in most parts of Argentina and in Uruguay, y and ll have both evolved to /ʒ/ or /ʃ/.
  • The voiced alveolar affricate /d͡z/ merged with its voiceless counterpart /t͡s/, which then developed into the interdental /θ/, now written z, or c before e, i. But in Andalusia, the Canary Islands and the Americas this sound merged with /s/ as well. See Ceceo, for further information.
The consonant system of Medieval Spanish has been better preserved in Ladino and in Portuguese, neither of which underwent these shifts

Writing system

Spanish language
Don Quixote

Pronunciation · History · Orthography
Varieties · Names for the language
  Grammar
Determiners · Nouns · Pronouns
Adjectives · Prepositions · Adverbs
Verbs (conjugation · irregular verbs)
Spanish is written in the Latin alphabet, with the addition of the character ‹ñ› (eñe, representing the phoneme /ɲ/, a letter distinct from ‹n›, although typographically composed of an ‹n› with a tilde) and the digraphs ‹ch› (che, representing the phoneme /t͡ʃ/) and ‹ll› (elle, representing the phoneme /ʎ/). However, the digraph ‹rr› (erre fuerte, 'strong r", erre doble, 'double r', or simply erre), which also represents a distinct phoneme /r/, is not similarly regarded as a single letter. Since 1994 ‹ch› and ‹ll› have been treated as letter pairs for collation purposes, though they remain a part of the alphabet. Words with ‹ch› are now alphabetically sorted between those with ‹ce› and ‹ci› , instead of following ‹cz› as they used to. The situation is similar for ‹ll›.[115][116]
Thus, the Spanish alphabet has the following 29 letters:
a, b, c, ch, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, ll, m, n, ñ, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z.[117]
The letters "k" and "w" are used only in words and names coming from foreign languages (kilo, folklore, whiskey, William, etc.).
With the exclusion of a very small number of regional terms such as México (see Toponymy of Mexico), pronunciation can be entirely determined from spelling. Under the orthographic conventions, a typical Spanish word is stressed on the syllable before the last if it ends with a vowel (not including ‹y›) or with a vowel followed by ‹n› or ‹s›; it is stressed on the last syllable otherwise. Exceptions to this rule are indicated by placing an acute accent on the stressed vowel.
The acute accent is used, in addition, to distinguish between certain homophones, especially when one of them is a stressed word and the other one is a clitic: compare el ('the', masculine singular definite article) with él ('he' or 'it'), or te ('you', object pronoun), de (preposition 'of'), and se (reflexive pronoun) with ('tea'), ('give' [formal imperative/third-person present subjunctive]) and ('I know' or imperative 'be').
The interrogative pronouns (qué, cuál, dónde, quién, etc.) also receive accents in direct or indirect questions, and some demonstratives (ése, éste, aquél, etc.) can be accented when used as pronouns. The conjunction o ('or') is written with an accent between numerals so as not to be confused with a zero: e.g., 10 ó 20 should be read as diez o veinte rather than diez mil veinte ('10.020'). Accent marks are frequently omitted in capital letters (a widespread practice in the days of typewriters and the early days of computers when only lowercase vowels were available with accents), although the RAE advises against this.
When ‹u› is written between ‹g› and a front vowel (‹e i›), it indicates a "hard g" pronunciation. A diaeresis (‹ü›) indicates that it is not silent as it normally would be (e.g., cigüeña, 'stork', is pronounced [θiˈɣweɲa]; if it were written ‹cigueña›, it would be pronounced [θiˈɣeɲa].
Interrogative and exclamatory clauses are introduced with Inverted question and exclamation marks (‹¿› and ‹¡›, respectively).

Phonology

The phonemic inventory listed in the following table includes phonemes that are preserved only in some dialects, other dialects having merged them (such as yeísmo); these are marked with an asterisk (*). Sounds in parentheses are allophones. Where symbols appear in pairs, the symbol to the right represents a voiced consonant.
Table of Spanish consonants[118]
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ɲ
Stop p   b t̪   d̪ t͡ʃ   ɟ͡ʝ k   ɡ
Fricative     (β̞) f   (v) *θ   (ð̞) s   (z)     (ʝ) x   (ɣ˕)
Trill r
Tap ɾ
Lateral l

Lexical stress

Spanish is a syllable-timed language, so each syllable has the same duration regardless of stress.[119][120] Stress most often occurs on any of the last three syllables of a word, with some rare exceptions at the fourth last or earlier syllables. The tendencies of stress assignment are as follows:[121]
  • In words ending in vowels and /s/, stress most often falls on the penultimate syllable.
  • In words ending in all other consonants, the stress more often falls on the last syllable.
  • Preantepenultimate stress (stress on the syllable that comes three before the last in a word) occurs rarely and only in words like guardándoselos ('saving them for him/her') where clitics follow certain verbal forms.
In addition to the many exceptions to these tendencies, there are numerous minimal pairs which contrast solely on stress such as sábana ('sheet') and sabana ('savannah'), as well as límite ('boundary'), limite ('[that] he/she limits') and limité ('I limited'), or also "líquido", "liquido" and "liquidó".
An amusing example of the significance of intonation in Spanish is the phrase ¿Cómo?; ¿cómo como? ¡Como como como! (What do you mean, how do I eat? I eat the way I eat!).

Grammar

Spanish is a relatively inflected language, with a two-gender system and about fifty conjugated forms per verb, but limited inflection of nouns, adjectives, and determiners. (For a detailed overview of verbs, see Spanish verbs and Spanish irregular verbs.)
It is right-branching, uses prepositions, and usually, though not always, places adjectives after nouns - as most other Romance languages. Its syntax is generally Subject Verb Object, though variations are common. It is a pro-drop language (or null subject language), that is, it allows the deletion of pronouns which are pragmatically unnecessary, and is verb-framed.

See also

Local varieties

African Spanish
Asia

References

  1. ^ Spanish language total. Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 August 2009.
  2. ^ Demografía de la lengua española (page 38), elcastellano.org
  3. ^ actaslengua.org
  4. ^ krysstal.com, 5th International Congress on Spanish Language (la-moncloa.es), uis.edu, Antonio Molina, director of the Instituto Cervantes in 2006 (terranoticias.es, elmundo.es, fundeu.es), Luis María Anson of the Real Academia Española (elcultural.es), Mario Melgar of the México University (lllf.uam.es), Feu Rosa - Spanish in Mercosur (congresosdelalengua.es), eumed.net, babel-linguistics.com.
  5. ^ ethnologue.org, sil.org, cia.gov (see "World" file), eldia.es (according to Ethnology (journal)), Encarta (Chinese 800 million, Spanish 358 million, English 350 million).
  6. ^ krysstal.com/ Ethnologue (Mandarin Chinese: 845 mill. + 145 mill. L2, English: 328 mill. + 167 mill. L2, Spanish 329 mill. + 60 mill. L2, Hindi 182 mill. + 120 mill. L2)/ IV Congreso Internacional de la Lengua Española (Álvaro Marchesi Secretario General of the OEI)/ cervantes.es (Carmen Caffarel president of Instituto Cervantes)/ elcastellano.org.
  7. ^ ethnologue.com (SPANISH: a language of Spain)
  8. ^ ethnologue.org, sil.org, cia.gov (see "World" file), eldia.es (according to Ethnology (journal)), Encarta (Chinese 800 million, Spanish 358 million, English 350 million).
  9. ^ "Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language". Oxford University Press. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O29-SPANISH.html. Retrieved 24 July 2008. 
  10. ^ Crow, John A. (2005). Spain: the root and the flower. University of California Press. p. 151. ISBN 0520244962. http://books.google.com/books?id=g2NKy8QCxw4C&pg=PA151&dq=Nebrija+first+spanish+grammar+Isabel&cd=5#v=onepage&q=&f=false. "...Which was the first grammar of any modern European tongue." 
  11. ^ Thomas, Hugh (2005). Rivers of Gold: the rise of the Spanish empire, from Columbus to Magellan. Random House Inc.. p. 78. ISBN 0812970555. http://books.google.com/books?id=b38f7b1WmOwC&pg=PA78&dq=Nebrija+first+spanish+grammar+Isabel&cd=5#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 
  12. ^ (in Spanish) (PDF) La lengua de Cervantes. Ministerio de la Presidencia de España. http://www.cepc.es/rap/Publicaciones/Revistas/2/REP_031-032_288.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-24. 
  13. ^ UN (2009 estimate)
  14. ^ Britannica encyclopedia es:Anexo:Hablantes de español como lengua materna en el 2003 (según el Britannica Book)
  15. ^ eurobarometer (2006), es:Anexo:Hablantes de español en la U.E. según el Eurobarómetro (2006) for Europe countries
  16. ^ Spanish students for countries out of Europe according to Instituto Cervantes 06-07 (There aren't concrete sources about Spanish speakers as a second language except to Europe and Latin America countries).
  17. ^ Demografía de la lengua española (page 28) to countries with official spanish status.
  18. ^ CONAPO (2010).
  19. ^ Population figure for 2008 from U.S. Population in 1990, 2000, and 2008, U.S. Census Bureau
  20. ^ 34,559,894 legal hispanics older than 5 years old (US Census 2008)+ 8,300,000 illegal immigrants (Pew Hispanic Center 2008, impre.com, ecodiario.eleconomista.es. They aren't new generations of immigrants living in USA as many of the legal immigrants).
  21. ^ Significant figure about the legal Hispanic population (46,943,613 from a total US population of 304,059,724) Census Bureau 2008
  22. ^ I Acta Internacional de la Lengua Española (2007): noticias en latinoamericaexterior.com, Academia Norteamericana de la Lengua Española: elcastellano.org, José Ma. Ansón: noticias elcastellano.org, Jorge Ramos Avalos: univision.com, Vázquez Medel: casamerica.es.
  23. ^ According to the U.S. census (fundacionsiglo.com fundacionsiglo.com): 3,600,000 in primary school, 3,220,000 in secondary school and 1,000,000 in the University
  24. ^ INE, (1/1/2009)
  25. ^ 89.0% speak Spanish as a first language (eurobarometer (2006))
  26. ^ DANE
  27. ^ INDEC (2009)
  28. ^ INE (January, 2010)
  29. ^ INEI (2010)
  30. ^ INE (Chile - 2010)
  31. ^ INEC (January, 2010)
  32. ^ 50% of 733,000 foreigners in Brazil are from Mercosur (Page 32 ucm.es) + 78,505 spanish immigrants (INE (1/1/2009)).
  33. ^ elcastellano.org, oei.org.co. More than 1 million of spanish students in the private school and almost 11 million estimated for 2010 in the public school (Instituto Cervantes).
  34. ^ INE (2010)
  35. ^ Census 2010 estimation (page 32)
  36. ^ INE
  37. ^ According to the Morocco Census of 2004 (hcp.ma)
  38. ^ ethnologue.com
  39. ^ According to a survey made in 2005 by CIDOB (realinstitutoelcano.org, afapredesa.org). Another source says that there are between 4 and 7 million Spanish speakers in Morocco (Ammadi, 2002) educacion.es
  40. ^ 1% of 44,010,619 (population of France older than 15 years in 2005). Source: Eurobarometer 2006. There are 179,678 immigrants from Spain according to INE (1/1/2009)
  41. ^ 95,10% of the population speaks Spanish (U.S. Census Bureau)
  42. ^ 59,017 immigrants from Spain (Spanish census 2001) + 48,637 immigrants from Colombia. Open Channels and Colombian consul (1999)
  43. ^ Ethnologue. There are 2,532 immigrants from Spain accordind to INE (1/1/2009)
  44. ^ 1,816,773 Spanish + 1,200,000 Spanish creole: Antonio Quilis "La lengua española en Filipinas", 1996 pag.234 cervantesvirtual.com, mepsyd.es (page 23), mepsyd.es (page 249), spanish-differences.com, aresprensa.com. The figure 2,900,000 Spanish speakers, we can find in "Pluricentric languages: differing norms in different nations" (page 45 by R.W.Thompson), or in sispain.org./ More than 2 million Spanish speakers and around 3 million with Chavacano speakers according to "Instituto Cervantes de Manila" (elcastellano.org)
  45. ^ Britannica Book of the Year 1998 [1]. There are 103,063 immigrants from Spain according to INE (1/1/2009)
  46. ^ 14,905 Spanish (Census 2001) + 75,000 from Ecuador [2]
  47. ^ Equatorial Guinea census (2009)
  48. ^ 13,7% of the population cvc.cervantes.es
  49. ^ Pages 28 and 23 in Demografía de la lengua española
  50. ^ PMB Statistics factorhispano.net. Although Canada Census told about 345,345 people who speaks Spanish in 2006, Hispanic organizations claim about 520,260 Hispanics in 2001, and more than 700,000 in 2006 (hispanosencanada.ca, dialogos.ca), and currently there are near 1 million: (tlntv.com, broadcastdialogue.com).
  51. ^ Spanish (census 2001)
  52. ^ 1% of 8,598,982 (population of Belgium older than 15 years in 2005). Source: Eurobarometer 2006
  53. ^ Sweden Census SCB (2002)
  54. ^ Page 32 of the "Demogeafía de la lengua española". 104,000 according to Britannica Book of the Year 2003
  55. ^ Page 32 of the "Demografía de la lengua española" + 33,913 students according to Anuario Instituto Cervantes 06-07
  56. ^ Page 32 of "Demogeafía de la lengua española"
  57. ^ students according to Anuario Instituto Cervantes 06-07
  58. ^ Between 150,000 and 200,000 in Tinduf (aprendemas.com) + 48,000 in Wilaya of Oran (page 31 of Demografía de la lengua española)
  59. ^ 50,000 sefardíes (Britannica Book of the Year 1998)[3] + 80,000 from Iberoamerica [4]
  60. ^ Pages 34, 35 of the "Demografía de la lengua española".
  61. ^ Britannica Book of the Year 1998 [5]
  62. ^ all-about-switzerland.info
  63. ^ Immigrants from Spanish speaking countries [6]
  64. ^ Page 32 of Demografía de la lengua española
  65. ^ Page 32 of Demografía de la lengua española
  66. ^ 35.4% speak Spanish as a first language www.iea.ad
  67. ^ www.iea.ad
  68. ^ New Zealand census (2006)
  69. ^ Spanish residents in China (INE, 2009)
  70. ^ Page 37 of the Demografía de la lengua española
  71. ^ U.N., 2009
  72. ^ The Spanish 1970 census claims 16.648 Spanish speakers in Western Sahara ( [7]) but probably most of them were people born in Spain who left after the Moroccan annexation
  73. ^ There are 2,397,380 immigrants from Spain and Latin America according to the page 37 of the "Demografía de la lengua española" (997,849 already counted)
  74. ^ According to the Instituto Cervantes, there are 14 million of spanish students. But there are already counted sudents from U.S. (6,000,000) because it is considered the current 7,820,000 students, E.U (3,385,000) because they are considered in the eurobarometer figures (demografía del español (page 37), Brazil (1 mill.) with 11 million new students in the public schools, Morocco (58.382) and Phillippines (20,492), Canada (92,853), Australia (33,913), Ivory Coast (235,806), Switzerland (14,420), Japan (60,000), Senegal (101.455), Occ. Sáhara (25,800), Norway (23,677), Russia (13,122) and China (12,835).
  75. ^ "Most widely spoken Languages in the World". Nations Online. http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/most_spoken_languages.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-27. 
  76. ^ CIA The World Factbook United States
  77. ^ "Internet World Users by Language". Miniwatts Marketing Group. 2008. http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm. 
  78. ^ CIA World Factbook — Gibraltar
  79. ^ "Andorra — People". Andorra — People. MSN Encarta. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761554662/Andorra.html#s3. Retrieved 2007-08-20. 
  80. ^ "Background Note: Andorra". U.S. Department of State: Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs. January 2007. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3164.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-20. 
  81. ^ BBC Education — Languages, Languages Across Europe — Spanish.
  82. ^ "Switzerland's Four National Languages". all-about-switzerland.info. http://www.all-about-switzerland.info/swiss-population-languages.html. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  83. ^ Ethnologue – Equatorial Guinea (2000)
  84. ^ CIA World Factbook – Equatorial Guinea (Last updated 20 September 2007)
  85. ^ Morocco.com, The Languages of Morocco.
  86. ^ 1973 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, thecorpusjuris.com, http://www.thecorpusjuris.com/laws/constitutions/8-philippineconstitutions/68-1973-constitution.html, retrieved 2008-04-06  (See Article XV, Section 3(3))
  87. ^ "Languages of the Philippines". Ethnologue. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=PH. Retrieved 2009-08-27. 
  88. ^ Ethnologue – Paraguay(2000). Guaraní is also the most-spoken language in Paraguay by its native speakers.
  89. ^ "Puerto Rico Elevates English". the New York Times. 29 January 1993. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CE1D8163AF93AA15752C0A965958260&n=Top%2fReference%2fTimes%20Topics%2fSubjects%2fE%2fEnglish%20Language. Retrieved 2007-10-06. 
  90. ^ "Population Census 2000, Major Findings" (PDF). Central Statistical Office, Ministry of Budget Management, Belize. 2000. Archived from the original on 2007-06-21. http://web.archive.org/web/20070621080522/http://www.cso.gov.bz/publications/MF2000.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-20. 
  91. ^ Belize Population and Housing Census 2000
  92. ^ CIA World Factbook — Belize
  93. ^ a b Williams, Carol J. (2005-08-30). "Trinidad Says It Needs Spanish to Talk Business". Los Angeles Times. p. A3. http://articles.latimes.com/2005/aug/30/world/fg-spanish30. Retrieved 2009-09-10. 
  94. ^ The Secretariat for The Implementation of Spanish, Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
  95. ^ Mercosul, Portal Oficial (Portuguese)
  96. ^ Pimentel, Carolina (2005-08-08). "Brazil Wants to Pay Foreign Debt with Spanish Classes" (PDF). Brazzil magazine. http://www.brazzilmag.com/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=3488. Retrieved 2008-01-10. 
  97. ^ Lipski, John M. (2006) (PDF). Too close for comfort? the genesis of “portuñol/portunhol”. Selected Proceedings of the 8th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium. ed. Timothy L. Face and Carol A. Klee, 1–22. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. http://www.lingref.com/cpp/hls/8/paper1251.pdf. Retrieved 2008-12-29. 
  98. ^ U.S. Census Bureau Hispanic or Latino by specific origin.
  99. ^ U.S. Census Bureau 1. Percent of People 5 Years and Over Who Speak Spanish at Home: 2006, U.S. Census Bureau 2. 34,044,945 People 5 Years and Over Who Speak Spanish at Home: 2006
  100. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (2007). "United States. S1601. Language Spoken at Home". 2005-2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/STTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-qr_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_S1601&-ds_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_. Retrieved September 3, 2009. 
  101. ^ El País (Spanish)
  102. ^ United States Census BureauPDF (1.86 MB), Statistical Abstract of the United States: page 47: Table 47: Languages Spoken at Home by Language: 2003
  103. ^ Harris (1969:538)
  104. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary. Random House Inc.. 2006. 
  105. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (4th ed.). Houghton Mifflin Company. 2006. 
  106. ^ Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary. MICRA, Inc.. 1998. 
  107. ^ "Encarta World English Dictionary". Encarta World English Dictionary. Bloomsbury Publishing Plc.. 2007. http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_1861595345/Castilian.html. Retrieved 2008-08-05. 
  108. ^ Eleanor Greet Cotton, John M. Sharp (1988) Spanish in the Americas, Volumen 2, pp.154-155, URL
  109. ^ Lope Blanch, Juan M. (1972) En torno a las vocales caedizas del español mexicano, pp.53 a 73, Estudios sobre el español de México, editorial Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México URL.
  110. ^ a b c d e f g h Real Academia Española
  111. ^ 3 Guys From Miami: Fruta Bomba
  112. ^ Urban Dictionary: papaya
  113. ^ a b c "Spanish". ethnologue. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=spa. 
  114. ^ a b c Alfassa, Shelomo (December 1999). "Ladinokomunita". Foundation for the Advancement of Sephardic Studies and Culture. http://www.sephardicstudies.org/quickladino.html. Retrieved 4 February 2010. 
  115. ^ Diccionario Panhispánico de Dudas, 1st ed.
  116. ^ Real Academia Española, Explanation at Spanish Pronto (Spanish), (English)
  117. ^ "Abecedario" (in (Spanish)). Diccionario panhispánico de dudas. Real Academia Española. 2005. http://buscon.rae.es/dpdI/SrvltConsulta?lema=abecedario. Retrieved 2008-06-23. 
  118. ^ Martínez-Celdrán et al. (2003:255)
  119. ^ Cressey (1978:152)
  120. ^ Abercrombie (1967:98)
  121. ^ Eddington (2000:96)
  122. ^ A First Spanish Reader, by Erwin W. Roessler and Alfred Remy

Bibliography

External links

Spanish language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Spanish language edition of Wikisource, the free-content library

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
(Redirected to Spanish article)

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Pronunciation

Adjective

Spanish (not comparable)
Positive
Spanish
  1. Of, from, or pertaining to Spain.
  2. Of or pertaining to the Spanish language.

Translations

Proper noun

Singular
Spanish
Plural
-
Spanish
  1. The official language of Spain.
  2. (used as the collective plural, “the Spanish”) The people native to Spain.

Synonyms

Translations

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

See also

External links


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Spanish, Castilian
Español, Castellano 
Pronunciation: /espa'ɲol/, /kaste'ʎano/ or /kaste'ʝano/
Spoken in: .Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Equatorial Guinea, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Spain, Uruguay, Venezuela and significant parts of the population in Andorra, Belize, Gibraltar, and the United States.^ Includes: Spanish in Argentina, Spanish in Ecuador, Spanish in Mexico, Spanish in Nicaragua, and Spanish in Spain.
  • Welcome To The Yamada Language Center 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC babel.uoregon.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spanish is expected to be the first language of 50% of the population of the United States within 40 years.
  • Learn Spanish Oaxaca Mexico | spanish language schools oaxaca mexico | study spanish | spanish courses oaxaca mexico 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.vinigulaza.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Number of Speakers # Argentina (39,248,000) # Bolivia (7,010,000) # Chile (15,795,000) # Colombia (44,531,434) # Costa Rica (4,220,000)# Cuba (11,285,000) # Ecuador (10,946,000) # El Salvador (6,859,000)# Spain (45,061,274)# Guatemala (8,163,000) # Equatorial Guinea (447,000)# Honduras (7,267,000)# Mexico (102,255,000) # Nicaragua (5,503,000) # Panama (3,108,000)# Paraguay (4,737,000)# Peru (23,191,000) # Puerto Rico (4,017,000)# Dominican Republic (8,850,000)# Uruguay (3,442,000)# United States of America (41,285,345)# Venezuela (26,021,000) # Mexico (102,255,000) # Spain (45,061,274)# Colombia (44,531,434) # United States of America (41,285,345)# Argentina (39,248,000) # Venezuela (26,021,000) # Peru (23,191,000) # Chile (15,795,000) # Cuba (11,285,000) # Ecuador (10,946,000) # Dominican Republic (8,850,000)# Guatemala (8,163,000) # Honduras (7,267,000)# Bolivia (7,010,000) # El Salvador (6,859,000)# Nicaragua (5,503,000) # Paraguay (4,737,000)# Costa Rica (4,220,000)# Puerto Rico (4,017,000)# Uruguay (3,442,000)# Panama (3,108,000)# Equatorial Guinea (447,000) .
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Total speakers: .First languagea: 322[1][2]– c.^ Spanish is a Romance language with approximately 417 million speakers, 322 to 358 of whom speak it as a first language while the remainder speak it as a second language.
  • Spanish language, alphabet and pronunciation 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.omniglot.com [Source type: Reference]

400 million[3][4][5]
Totala: 400–500 million[6][7][8]
aAll numbers are approximate. 
Ranking: 2-4 (native)[9][10][11][12]
Total: 3
Language family: Indo-European
 Italic
  Romance
   Italo-Western
    Gallo-Iberian
     Ibero-Romance
      West Iberian
       Spanish, Castilian 
Writing system: Latin (Spanish variant
Official status
Official language in: 21 countries
Regulated by: Asociación de Academias de la Lengua EspañolaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif (Real Academia Española and 21 other national Spanish language academies)
Language codes
ISO 639-1: es
ISO 639-2: spa
ISO 639-3: spa
Template:Infobox Language/IPA notice
.Spanish (español file— play in browser) or Castilian (castellano) is a Romance language originally from the northern area of Spain.^ What is the language Spanish origin?
  • WikiAnswers - When did the Spanish language originate 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Spanish (español) is an Iberian Romance language originally from the northern area of Spain.
  • Learn To Speak Spanish Fast With These Proven Language Audio Courses!-Spanish-For-Travelers.com 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.spanish-for-travelers.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Spanish ( español ) or Castilian ( castellano ) is an Iberian Romance language.

.From there, its use gradually spread inside the Kingdom of Castile, where it evolved and eventually became the principal language of the government and trade.^ From there, its use gradually spread inside the Kingdom of Castile , where it evolved and eventually became the principal language of the government and trade.

^ Spanish (español) or Castilian (castellano) is a Romance language that originated in northern Spain, and gradually spread in the Kingdom of Castile and evolved into the principal language of government and trade.
  • Spanish language - Foreign Languages to Study Next - Hunch 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC hunch.com [Source type: General]

^ From there, its use gradually spread inside the Kingdom of Castile, where it eventually became the principal language of government and trade.

.It was later taken to Africa, the Americas and Asia Pacific in the last five centuries by Spanish explorers and colonists.^ It was later brought to the Americas and other parts of the world in the last five centuries by Spanish explorers and colonists.
  • Spanish Language : Spanish courses in Spain. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.lacunza.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was taken most notably to the Americas, and also to Africa and Asia Pacific with the expansion of the Spanish Empire between the fifteenth and nineteenth centuries.
  • Spanish language - Foreign Languages to Study Next - Hunch 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC hunch.com [Source type: General]

^ It was later taken to the Americas and other parts of the world in the last five centuries by Spanish explorers and colonists.

.Today, it is one of the official languages of Spain, most Latin American countries, and Equatorial Guinea.^ Spanish is the official language of most Central and South American countries as well as one of the official languages of Equatorial Guinea, in Africa.
  • Learn the Spanish Language the Easy Way 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ It is the official language of Spain , most Latin American countries, and the official language of Equatorial Guinea , in Africa .

^ Spanish is the official language of 25 nations and territories, including most Latin American countries.
  • Study & Learn Spanish - Language Study Abroad Programs in Spanish - StudyAbroad.com 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.studyabroad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In total, 21 nations use Spanish as their primary language.^ Spanish as their primary language, and it is one of six official languages of the United Nations.
  • Spanish | Free Language 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC freelanguage.org [Source type: General]

^ Spanish is the official language in 21 countries (4).
  • Facts about Spanish Language - CICU Spanish Language School Homestay and Spanish Lessons 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.cicusite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spanish is the official language in 21 countries.

.Spanish is also one of six official languages of the United Nations.^ Spanish is one of the official languages of the United Nations and the European Union .
  • Learn to Speak Spanish Online - Fast and Easy with Language Learning Courses, Classes and Programs 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.elearningyellowpages.com [Source type: General]

^ Spanish is one of the widely spoken languages.
  • Learn Spanish | Spanish language course | Tailor made Spanish lessons 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.communicaid.com [Source type: General]

^ Spanish is an official language of the European Union .

.The language is spoken by between 322 and 400 million people natively,[13][7] making Spanish the most spoken Romance language and possibly the second most spoken language by number of native speakers.^ Cities with the most people interested in Spanish as Second Language Meetups .

^ Today approximately 400 million people speak Spanish as a native language.
  • Spanish Language - Spanish Language - the MC Library Research Subject Guides at Montgomery College 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC libguides.montgomerycollege.edu [Source type: General]

^ With an estimated combined total of approximately 500 million native and non-native speakers, Spanish is most likely the fourth most spoken language in the world by total number of speakers.
  • Learn the Spanish Language the Easy Way 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[14][15]
.Mexico is the world's largest Spanish-speaking country.^ The largest Spanish-speaking population is in Mexico.

^ Typical Lunch in Spanish-speaking country .
  • Instruction Sheet for Chapter 8 Internet Activity 17 September 2009 21:23 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Christmas in Spanish Speaking countries.

.Spanish is the second most widely spoken language in the United States[16] and by far the most popular studied foreign language in U.S. schools and universities.^ Cities with the most people interested in Spanish as Second Language Meetups .

^ Try INTENSA Spanish language schools.

^ Spanish lessons can be cheaper than most language classes available in the United States.
  • LEARN SPANISH in Nicaragua . VOLUNTEER Nicaragua . ONLINE Spanish courses . SPANISH lessons Nicaragua . SPANISH Language schools Nicaragua . Granada San Juan del Sur Esteli Leon Juigalpa Managua NICARAGUA . From AIRPORT TRANSPORTATION 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.avenicaraguita.com [Source type: General]

[17][18] .Spanish is among the most popular foreign languages for study in the rest of the nations of the Anglosphere in general, where on top of the widespread use of English globally, the large number of additional countries and geographic territory that Spanish allows exploring is an attractive prospect for many people.^ Cities with the most people interested in Spanish as Second Language Meetups .

^ The most-spoken language here after English is Spanish.
  • General Knowledge Quiz : Flags of Spanish - Speaking Countries 17 September 2009 21:23 UTC www.syvum.com [Source type: General]

^ In country Spanish language schools .
  • Learn Spanish Online for Free & Spanish School Guide: Spanish Language Unlimited. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.spanishunlimited.com [Source type: General]

.Due to proximity, linguistic similarities, and trade reasons it is also a very popular second language in Italy, Portugal, and particularly the southern states of Brazil.^ It is the second official language some states of the U.S.A., where there are various tv and radio channels that have their entire emissions in Spanish.
  • Spanish courses in Spain Malaga, Learn Spanish in Malaga with Instituto Picasso, Spanish language school 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.spainspanishcourses.com [Source type: General]

^ Spanish is the second-most-spoken language and the first-most-studied foreign language in the United States, and for good reason: Companies are seeking bilingual employees, particularly those who speak Spanish.
  • Study & Learn Spanish - Language Study Abroad Programs in Spanish - StudyAbroad.com 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.studyabroad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And Canada have made learning Spanish as a second language ever more popular recently.
  • learn spanish language, free online spa - Spanish Language: Learning Strategies 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.ideamarketers.com [Source type: General]

.It is estimated that the combined total of native and non-native Spanish speakers is approximately 500 million, likely making it the fourth most spoken language by total number of speakers.^ With an estimated combined total of approximately 500 million native and non-native speakers, Spanish is most likely the fourth most spoken language in the world by total number of speakers.
  • Learn the Spanish Language the Easy Way 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The Spanish language is the world's third most-spoken mother tongue.

^ But if you are a non-native speaker of Spanish, how do you prove that you speak the language?
  • Certifying Spanish Language Proficiency | Translation Blog 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC transpanish.biz [Source type: General]

[13][7] .Global internet usage statistics for 2007 show Spanish as the third most commonly used language on the internet, after English and Chinese.^ English Spanish Translation by language providers for English Spanish language translations, e.g.
  • English Spanish Translation by language providers for English Spanish language translations, e.g. technical translation 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.english-spanish-translation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Spanish Language statistics .

^ The Spanish language is the world's third most-spoken mother tongue.

[19]
.Spanish is the third most influential language in the world (after English and French).^ English Spanish Translation by language providers for English Spanish language translations, e.g.
  • English Spanish Translation by language providers for English Spanish language translations, e.g. technical translation 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.english-spanish-translation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Spanish Language Meetups around the world .
  • Spanish Language Meetup Groups - Spanish Language Meetups 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.meetup.com [Source type: General]

^ Spanish language programs all over the world.
  • "spanish" Topic Cloud - spanish | Language Translation 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC blog.languagetranslation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]

Contents

Naming and origin

Main article: Names given to the Spanish language
.Spaniards tend to call this language español (Spanish) when contrasting it with languages of other states, such as French and English, but call it castellano (Castilian), that is, the language of the Castile region, when contrasting it with other languages spoken in Spain such as Galician, Basque, and Catalan.^ English Spanish Translation by language providers for English Spanish language translations, e.g.
  • English Spanish Translation by language providers for English Spanish language translations, e.g. technical translation 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.english-spanish-translation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Other destinations to learn Spanish in Spain: .

^ Spanish people tend to call this language español when contrasting it with languages of other states (e.g., in a list with French and English), but call it castellano (Castilian, from the Castile region) when contrasting it with other languages of Spain (such as Galician, Basque, and Catalan).

.This reasoning also holds true for the language's preferred name in some Hispanic American countries.^ This reasoning also holds true for the language's preferred name in some Hispanic American countries.

^ Hispanic American countries have preserved the name "castellano" (Castilian), though this is often used interchangeably with "español" (Spanish), the two being understood as synonymous..
  • Learn Spanish - All About the Spanish Language 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.innovativelanguage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some countries in Hispanophone America, it is preferable to use the word castellano to distinguish their version of the language from that of Spain [citation needed], thus asserting their autonomy and national identity.
  • Spanish Language Translation, Interpreting, Transcription Services 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.alsglobal.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this manner, the Spanish Constitution of 1978 uses the term castellana to define the official language of the whole Spanish State, as opposed to las demás lenguas españolas (lit.^ Spanish - language newspapers in the United States.
  • Spanish language Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Spanish language 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spanish is an official language of the European Union .

^ Las demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas… Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State.

.the other Spanish languages).^ OTHER SPANISH LANGUAGE MEDIA Spanish books .
  • Spanish Language Films on DVD & Video - Spanish Movie Reviews 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.vistawide.com [Source type: General]

^ Many other dialects exist in other geographical areas, namely North and South America History of the Spanish Language & Latin .

^ Due to this influence and for other sociohistorical reasons, a neutral standardized form of the language ( Standard Spanish) is widely acknowledged for use in literature, academic contexts and the media.

Article III reads as follows:
.El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado.^ El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado.

^ Article III reads as follows: El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado.

^ In this manner, the Spanish Constitution of 1978 uses the term castellano to define the official language of the whole Spanish State , as opposed to las demás lenguas españolas (lit.

(…) Las demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas…
Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State. (…) The other Spanish languages shall also be official in their respective Autonomous Communities…
.The name castellano is however widely used for the language as a whole in Latin America.^ Spanish language school in Latin America .
  • Study and learn Spanish abroad!!  Learn and Study Spanish in Latin America or learn and study Spanish in Spain! Directory of Spanish Language Schools. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC studyabroadspanish.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The name castellano is however widely used for the language as a whole in Latin America .

^ Spanish is one of the most generally useful languages today, heir of a big ephemeral colonial empire, spoken in Europe, the Americas, and Africa.
  • List Of Countries That Speak Spanish As First Language | Compare Spanish Programs 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.spanishprogramsreviews.org [Source type: General]

.Some Spanish speakers consider castellano a generic term with no political or ideological links, much as "Spanish" is in English.^ Some Spanish speakers consider "" a generic term with no political or ideological links, much as "Spanish" is in English.
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some Spanish speakers consider castellano a generic term with no political or ideological links, much as "Spanish" is in English.

^ Spanish; some English speakers feel marginalized .
  • In Miami, Spanish becoming primary language - Life- msnbc.com 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

.Often Latin Americans use it to differentiate their own variety of Spanish as opposed to the variety of Spanish spoken in Spain, or vice-versa, to refer to that variety of Spanish which is considered as standard in the region.^ Spanish & Latin American film directors .
  • Spanish Language Films on DVD & Video - Spanish Movie Reviews 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.vistawide.com [Source type: General]

^ Spanish & Latin American actors & actresses .
  • Spanish Language Films on DVD & Video - Spanish Movie Reviews 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.vistawide.com [Source type: General]

^ Latin American Spanish School (tel.

.

██ Countries where Spanish has official status.^ Spanish is the official language in 21 countries (4).

  • Facts about Spanish Language - CICU Spanish Language School Homestay and Spanish Lessons 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.cicusite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The close genetic relationship between the two languages, along with the fact that Spanish is the dominant and official language of almost every country that borders Brazil, adds to the popularity.

^ Spanish is the official language of most Central and South American countries as well as one of the official languages of Equatorial Guinea, in Africa.
  • Learn the Spanish Language the Easy Way 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.
Situation in the United States of America:

██ Countries and regions where the Spanish language is spoken without official recognition and areas with a strong Hispanic influence.^ Spanish is one of the official languages of the United Nations and the European Union .

  • Learn to Speak Spanish Online - Fast and Easy with Language Learning Courses, Classes and Programs 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.elearningyellowpages.com [Source type: General]

^ Spanish is one of the widely spoken languages.
  • Learn Spanish | Spanish language course | Tailor made Spanish lessons 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.communicaid.com [Source type: General]

^ In the United States 13% of the population speak Spanish as their first language (5).
  • Facts about Spanish Language - CICU Spanish Language School Homestay and Spanish Lessons 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.cicusite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


NOTE: For detailed information about the sources taken to make the map, see its description page

Classification and related languages

.Castilian Spanish has closest affinity to the other West Iberian Romance languages: Asturian (asturianu), Galician (galego), Ladino (dzhudezmo/spanyol/kasteyano), and Portuguese (português), as well as to Aragonese (aragonés) and Catalan (català).^ Spanish is from the Ibero-Romance family of languages and is most closely identified with Galician and Catalan.
  • Learn Spanish | Spanish language course | Tailor made Spanish lessons 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.communicaid.com [Source type: General]

^ Spanish ( español ) or Castilian ( castellano ) is an Iberian Romance language.

^ Spanish/Castilian has closest affinity to the other West Iberian Romance languages.

.Catalan, an East Iberian language which exhibits many Gallo-Romance traits, is more similar to the neighbouring Occitan language (occitan) than to Spanish, or indeed than Spanish and Portuguese are to each other.^ Spanish ( español ) or Castilian ( castellano ) is an Iberian Romance language.

^ Spanish has different common features with Catalan , an East-Iberian language which exhibits many Gallo-Romance traits.
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spanish/Castilian has closest affinity to the other West Iberian Romance languages.

In the Middle Ages, it was even known as llemosí (Limousin). .In later centuries it was generally regarded as a dialect of Spanish, and it wasn't until the earliest years of the 20th century that Catalan was recognised as a variant of the Occitan language.^ In fact, it wasn't until the earliest years of the 20th century that Catalan was considered a variant of the Occitan language.

^ Spanish is one of the most generally useful languages today, heir of a big ephemeral colonial empire, spoken in Europe, the Americas, and Africa.
  • List Of Countries That Speak Spanish As First Language | Compare Spanish Programs 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.spanishprogramsreviews.org [Source type: General]

^ Over the centuries, Spanish has developed and evolved into varying forms and strains according to their respective regions.
  • Learn Spanish | Spanish language course | Tailor made Spanish lessons 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.communicaid.com [Source type: General]

.Spanish and Portuguese share similar grammars and a majority of vocabulary as well as a common history of Arabic influence while a great part of the peninsula was under Islamic rule (both languages expanded over Islamic territories).^ Similarly, both Spanish and English share Indo-European roots, so their grammars are similar.

^ Spanish and Portuguese share similar grammars and a majority of vocabulary as well as a common history of Arabic influence while a great part of the peninsula was under Islamic rule (both languages expanded over Islamic territories).

^ Among the more major languages, Spanish bears a close resemblance to Portuguese.
  • Learn Spanish | Spanish language course | Tailor made Spanish lessons 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.communicaid.com [Source type: General]

.Their lexical similarity has been estimated as 89%.^ Their lexical similarity has been estimated as 89%.

^ Speakers of both languages can communicate relatively well: at present, the lexical similarity with Italian is estimated at 82%.
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At present, the lexical similarity with Italian is estimated at 82%.

[1] .See Differences between Spanish and Portuguese, for further information.^ On the whole, however, the difference between the Spanish dialects of Europe and of Latin American with reference to pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar are relatively minor.

^ This is a vast simplification but I will attempt to show you the principal difference between a Spanish and an English sentence from a beginners point of view.
  • Basic Spanish 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.lingolex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If you do not see the program you desire, look under Worldwide for Spanish language schools and programs located in several different regions.

Ladino

.Ladino, which is essentially medieval Castilian and closer to modern Spanish than any other language, is spoken by many descendants of the Spanish Jews who were expelled from Spain in the 15th century.^ Ladino, which is essentially medieval Castilian and closer to modern Spanish than any other language, is spoken by many descendants of the Sephardic Jews who were expelled from Spain in the 15th century.

^ About Spanish Language - Spanish is a widely spoken language.
  • Spanish Translation Software | English to Spanish Translator - Language Translating Services 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.translationsoftware4u.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The consonantal system of Medieval Spanish has been better preserved in Judaeo-Spanish , the language spoken by the descendants of the Jews expelled from Spain in the 15th century.
  • Spanish language - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Spanish language? What is Spanish language? Where is Spanish language? Definition of Spanish language. Meaning of Spanish language. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Spanish language - Free Encyclopedia 17 September 2009 2:37 UTC www.wacklepedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In many ways it is not a separate language but a parallel dialect of Castilian.^ In many ways it is not a separate language but a parallel dialect of Castilian.

^ In practice, the standard way of speaking Spanish in the media is "written Spanish" for formal speech, " Madrid dialect" (one of the transitional variants between Castilian and Andalusian) for informal speech.

^ In many ways, learning a new language is like learning anything new in life...
  • Learn Spanish Online with Rocket Spanish Premium 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.rocketlanguages.com [Source type: General]

.Ladino lacks Native American vocabulary which was influential during the Spanish colonial period, and it retains many archaic features which have since been lost in standard Castilian.^ Ladino lacks Native American vocabulary which was influential during the Spanish colonial period , and it retains many archaic features which have since been lost in standard Castilian.

^ The lack of enough native Spanish colonists didn’t provide the necessary environment for Spanish to have an initial firm hold at a greater scale during the period of the Spanish domination of this country.
  • Issues about the Spanish Language 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC tresculturasspanish.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the whole, however, the difference between the Spanish dialects of Europe and of Latin American with reference to pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar are relatively minor.

.It does, however, contain other vocabulary which is not found in standard Castilian, including vocabulary from Hebrew as well as Turkish and other languages spoken wherever the Sephardim settled.^ Similar phenomena can be found in other Romance languages as well.

^ It does, however, contain other vocabulary which is not found in standard Castilian, including vocabulary from Hebrew as well as Turkish and other languages spoken wherever the Sephardim settled.

^ The Standard Spanish language is spoken in 43 countries, not including Spain.
  • Learn the Spanish Language the Easy Way 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

Vocabulary comparison

.Spanish and Italian share a very similar phonological system and do not differ very much in grammar.^ Spanish and Italian share a very similar phonological system and do not differ very much in grammar.

^ On the whole, however, the difference between the Spanish dialects of Europe and of Latin American with reference to pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar are relatively minor.
  • Learn to Speak Spanish -- Spanish Language Courses & Learning Aids 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.speakalanguage.com [Source type: General]
  • Learn Spanish Fast! 19 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.speakalanguage.com [Source type: General]

^ I finally managed a much more sophisticated use of the subjunctive, while my husband stopped thinking Spanish was Italian with a different accent and also learned to make great tamales with complex salsas!
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Spanish Language Programs in Mexico 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.At present, the lexical similarity with Italian is estimated at 82%.^ Their lexical similarity has been estimated as 89%.

^ At present, the lexical similarity with Italian is estimated at 82%.

[1] .As a result, Spanish and Italian are mutually intelligible to various degrees.^ As a result, Spanish and Italian are mutually intelligible to various degrees.

^ Thus it doesn’t really matter whether some Spanish speakers say lah casah instead of las casas as long as they are mutually intelligible.
  • Issues about the Spanish Language 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC tresculturasspanish.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The lexical similarity with Portuguese is even greater, 89%, but the vagaries of Portuguese pronunciation make it less easily understood by Hispanophones than Italian.^ Their lexical similarity has been estimated as 89%.

^ Their lexical similarity is estimated at 89%.

^ Catalan, an East Iberian language which exhibits many Gallo-Romance traits, is more similar to the neighbouring Occitan language ( occitan ) than Spanish and Portuguese are to each other.

.Mutual intelligibility with French and Romanian is even lower (lexical similarity being respectively 75% and 71%[1]): comprehension of Spanish by French speakers who have not studied the language is as low as an estimated 45% - the same as of English.^ Their lexical similarity has been estimated as 89%.

^ Who is Spanish language?
  • Spanish language - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Spanish language? What is Spanish language? Where is Spanish language? Definition of Spanish language. Meaning of Spanish language. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Site dedicated to the study of the Spanish language.

.The common features of the writing systems of the Romance languages allow for a greater amount of interlingual reading comprehension than oral communication would.^ The common features of the writing systems of the Romance languages allow for a greater amount of interlingual reading comprehension than oral communication would.

^ What writing system(s) does this language use?

^ The writing systems of the four languages allow for a greater amount of interlingual reading comprehension than oral communication would.

Latin Spanish Galician Portuguese Catalan Italian French Romanian English Meaning and notes
nos nosotros nós/nosoutros nós¹ nosaltres noi² nous³ noi we[-others]
frater germānus (lit. "true brother", i.e. not a cousin) hermano irmán irmão germà fratello frère frate brother
dies Martis
(Classical)
tertia feria
(Ecclesiastical)
martes martes terça-feira dimarts martedì mardi marți Tuesday
cantiō(ne, abl.) canción canción canção cançó canzone chanson cântec song
magis or plus más
(archaically also plus)
máis mais
(archaically also chus)
més
(archaically also pus)
più plus mai more
manus sinistra mano izquierda
also (mano siniestra)
man esquerda mão esquerda
(archaically also sẽestra)
mà esquerra mano sinistra main gauche mâna stângă left hand
nihil or nulla res nata
(lit. "no thing born")
nada nada/ren nada
(archaically also rem)
res niente/nulla rien/nul nimic nothing
  1. also nós outros in early modern Portuguese (e.g. The Lusiads)
  2. noi altri in Southern Italian dialects and languages
  3. nous autres in Quebec French

History

Main article: History of the Spanish language
A page of Cantar de Mio Cid, in medieval Castilian.
.The Spanish language developed from Vulgar Latin, with major influences from Arabic during the Al-Andalusian period, and minor surviving influences from Basque and Celtiberian, and to some extent the Germanic languages via the Vandals.^ The Spanish language developed from vulgar Latin , with influence from Celtiberian , Basque and Arabic , in the north of the Iberian Peninsula (see Iberian Romance languages ).
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Spanish language was developed from vulgar Latin , with influence from Basque and Arabic , in the Iberian Peninsula (see Iberian Romance languages ).
  • Spanish language - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Spanish language? What is Spanish language? Where is Spanish language? Definition of Spanish language. Meaning of Spanish language. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Historically, Spanish evolved out of Late Vulgar Latin, with minor Germanic and major ARABIC influence.
  • Spanish language Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Spanish language 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Spanish developed along the remote cross road strips among the Cantabria, Burgos, Soria and La Rioja provinces of Northern Spain, partly as strongly innovative and differing variant from its nearest cousin, Leonese speech, with a higher degree of Basque influence in these regions(see Iberian Romance languages).^ Spanish ( español ) or Castilian ( castellano ) is an Iberian Romance language.

^ The Spanish language developed from vulgar Latin , with influence from Celtiberian , Basque and Arabic , in the north of the Iberian Peninsula (see Iberian Romance languages ).
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Spanish language was developed from vulgar Latin , with influence from Basque and Arabic , in the Iberian Peninsula (see Iberian Romance languages ).
  • Spanish language - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Spanish language? What is Spanish language? Where is Spanish language? Definition of Spanish language. Meaning of Spanish language. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Spanish language - Free Encyclopedia 17 September 2009 2:37 UTC www.wacklepedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Typical features of Spanish diachronical phonology include lenition (Latin vita, Spanish vida), palatalization (Latin annum, Spanish año, and Latin anellum, Spanish anillo) and diphthongation (stem-changing) of short e and o from Vulgar Latin (Latin terra, Spanish tierra; Latin novus, Spanish nuevo).^ Typical features of Spanish diachronical phonology include lenition (Latin vita , Spanish vida ), palatalization (Latin annum , Spanish año ) and diphthongation of breve E/O from vulgar Latin (Latin terra , Spanish tierra ; Latin novus , Spanish nuevo ); similar phenomena can be found in most Romance languages as well.
  • Spanish language - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Spanish language? What is Spanish language? Where is Spanish language? Definition of Spanish language. Meaning of Spanish language. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Typical features of Spanish diachronical phonology include lenition (Latin , Spanish ), palatalization (Latin , Spanish ) and diphthong ation ( stem -changing) of short e and o from Vulgar Latin (Latin , Spanish ; Latin , Spanish ).
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Typical features of Spanish diachronical phonology include lenition (Latin vita , Spanish vida ), palatalization (Latin annum , Spanish año ) and diphthongation ( stem-changing) of short e and o from Vulgar Latin (Latin terra , Spanish tierra ; Latin novus , Spanish nuevo ).

.Similar phenomena can be found in other Romance languages as well.^ Similar phenomena can be found in other Romance languages as well.

^ Similar phenomena can be found in most other Romance languages as well.
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Typical features of Spanish diachronical phonology include lenition (Latin vita , Spanish vida ), palatalization (Latin annum , Spanish año ) and diphthongation of breve E/O from vulgar Latin (Latin terra , Spanish tierra ; Latin novus , Spanish nuevo ); similar phenomena can be found in most Romance languages as well.
  • Spanish language - Free Encyclopedia 17 September 2009 2:37 UTC www.wacklepedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the Reconquista, this northern dialect from Cantabria was carried south, and indeed is still a minority language in the northern coastal regions of Morocco.^ During the Reconquista , this northern dialect from Cantabria was carried south, and indeed is still a minority language in the northern coastal regions of Morocco .

^ During the , this northern dialect was carried south, and indeed is still a minority language in northern Morocco .
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spanish originated as a Latin dialect along a remote crossroads strip among the Cantabria, Burgos and La Rioja provinces of Northern Spain (cf.

.The first Latin to Spanish grammar (Gramática de la Lengua Castellana) was written in Salamanca, Spain, in 1492 by Elio Antonio de Nebrija.^ The first grammar of a modern European language was published, Antonio de Nebrija's Gramática de la lengua castellana (Grammar of the Castilian Language), duly followed by his dictionary and orthography.
  • Spanish language Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Spanish language 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first Latin to Spanish grammar ( Gramática de la Lengua Castellana ) was written in Salamanca, Spain, in 1492 by Elio Antonio de Nebrija.

^ Las demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas… Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State.

When Isabel de Castilla was presented with the book, she asked, "What do I want a work like this for, if I already know the language?", to which he replied, "Your highness, the language is the instrument of the Empire."
.From the 16th century onwards, the language was brought to the Americas and Spanish East Indies by Spanish colonization.^ From the 16th century onwards, the language was brought to the Americas, Federated States of Micronesia , Guam , Marianas, Palau , and the Philippines by Spanish colonization.

^ From the 16th century on, the language was brought to the Americas , Federated States of Micronesia , Guam , Marianas , Palau and the Philippines by Spanish colonization .
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The language was brought to the Americas and Philippines , by the Spanish colonization since 16th century .
  • Spanish language - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Spanish language? What is Spanish language? Where is Spanish language? Definition of Spanish language. Meaning of Spanish language. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also in this epoch, Spanish became the main language of Politics and Art across the major part of Europe.^ Also in this epoch, Spanish became the main language of Politics and Art across the major part of Europe .
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Spanish Lessons and Adventure at INTENSA Spanish language schools 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC intensaspanishlessons.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Spanish name of the language is a political issue.
  • Spanish language - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Spanish language? What is Spanish language? Where is Spanish language? Definition of Spanish language. Meaning of Spanish language. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Spanish language - Free Encyclopedia 17 September 2009 2:37 UTC www.wacklepedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other Spanish languages shall also be official in the respective Autonomous Communities… In some parts of Spain, mainly where people speak Galician, Basque and Catalan, the choice of words reveals the speakers' sense of belonging and their political views.
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the 18th century, French took its place.^ In the 18th century , French took its place.
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Spanish Lessons and Adventure at INTENSA Spanish language schools 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC intensaspanishlessons.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the 20th century, Spanish was introduced in Equatorial Guinea and Western Sahara and parts of the United States, such as Spanish Harlem in New York City, that had not been part of the Spanish Empire.^ Spanish - language newspapers in the United States.
  • Spanish language Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Spanish language 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 20th century , English was declared the official language in Philippines after the Philippine-American War , but Spanish was introduced in Equatorial Guinea and Western Sahara .
  • Spanish language - Free Encyclopedia 17 September 2009 2:37 UTC www.wacklepedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 20th century, Spanish was introduced in Equatorial Guinea and Western Sahara and parts of the United States, such as Spanish Harlem in New York City , that had not been part of the Spanish Empire.
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Spanish Lessons and Adventure at INTENSA Spanish language schools 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC intensaspanishlessons.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For details on borrowed words and other external influences in Spanish, see Influences on the Spanish language.^ See also: Spanish language in the Philippines .

^ The Real Academia Española (Royal Spanish Academy), together with the 21 other national ones (see Association of Spanish Language Academies ), exercises a standardizing influence through its publication of dictionaries and widely respected grammar and style guides.

^ Los Angeles based DJ Eddie Sotelo is heard on KXPK and other Spanish-language radio stations across the country.
  • Learn the Spanish Language the Easy Way 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

Typical sound changes

.One defining characteristic of Spanish was the diphthongization of the Latin short vowels e and o into ie and ue, respectively, when they were stressed.^ One defining characteristic of Spanish was the diphthongization of the Latin short vowels e and o into ie and ue , respectively, when they were stressed.

^ More peculiar to early Spanish (as in the Gascon dialect of Occitan, and possibly due to a Basque substratum ) was the mutation of Latin initial f- into h- whenever it was followed by a vowel which did not diphthongate.

^ Typical features of Spanish diachronical phonology include lenition (Latin vita , Spanish vida ), palatalization (Latin annum , Spanish año , and Latin anellum , Spanish anillo ) and diphthongation ( stem -changing) of short e and o from Vulgar Latin (Latin terra , Spanish tierra ; Latin novus , Spanish nuevo ).

.Similar sound changes can be found in other Romance languages, but in Spanish they were particularly significant.^ Typical features of Spanish diachronical phonology include lenition (Latin vita , Spanish vida ), palatalization (Latin annum , Spanish año ) and diphthongation of breve E/O from vulgar Latin (Latin terra , Spanish tierra ; Latin novus , Spanish nuevo ); similar phenomena can be found in most Romance languages as well.
  • Spanish language - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Spanish language? What is Spanish language? Where is Spanish language? Definition of Spanish language. Meaning of Spanish language. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Spanish language - Free Encyclopedia 17 September 2009 2:37 UTC www.wacklepedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Los Angeles based DJ Eddie Sotelo is heard on KXPK and other Spanish-language radio stations across the country.
  • Learn the Spanish Language the Easy Way 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Site for a firm in Santa Fe dedicated to the preservation and sharing of many aspects of Hispanic culture, particularly through the use of the Spanish language.
  • Web Page and E-mail Directory for Spanish Language Publications and Hispanic Organizations 17 September 2009 2:37 UTC gbgm-umc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some examples:
  • Lat. petra > Sp. piedra, It. pietra, Fr. pierre, Port./Gal. pedra "stone".
  • Lat. moritur > Sp. muere, It. muore, Fr. meurt / muert, Rom. moare, Port./Gal. morre "die".
.More peculiar to early Spanish (as in the Gascon dialect of Occitan, and possibly due to a Basque substratum) was the mutation of Latin initial f- into h- whenever it was followed by a vowel which did not diphthongate.^ Peculiar to early Spanish (as in the Gascon dialect of Occitan, possibly due to a Basque substratum) was the loss of Latin initial f- whenever the following vowel did not diphthongate: compare e.g.

^ More peculiar to early Spanish (as in the Gascon dialect of Occitan, and possibly due to a Basque substratum ) was the mutation of Latin initial f- into h- whenever it was followed by a vowel which did not diphthongate.

^ Spanish originated as a Latin dialect along a remote crossroads strip among the Cantabria, Burgos and La Rioja provinces of Northern Spain (cf.

Compare for instance:
  • Lat. filium > It. figlio, Port. filho, Gal. fillo, Fr. .fils, Occitan filh (but Gascon hilh) Sp.^ Occitan filh (but Gascon hilh ) Sp.

    ^ Occitan filh and Gascon hilh ; also Sp.
    • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Spanish hijo with Ladino fijo , French fils , Italian figlio , Portuguese filho , Occitan filh and Gascon hilh ; also Sp.

    .hijo (but Ladino fijo);
  • late Lat.^ Ladino fijo ); late Lat.

    ^ Spanish hijo with Ladino fijo , French fils , Italian figlio , Portuguese filho , Occitan filh and Gascon hilh ; also Sp.

    *fabulare > Lad. favlar, Port./Gal. falar, Sp. hablar;
  • but Lat. focum > It. fuoco, Port./Gal. fogo, Sp./Lad. fuego.
Some consonant clusters of Latin also produced characteristically different results in these languages, for example:
  • Lat. clamare, acc. flammam, plenum > Lad. lyamar, flama, pleno; Sp. llamar, llama, lleno. .However, in Spanish there are also the forms clamar, flama, pleno; Port.^ However, in Spanish there are also the forms clamar , flama , pleno ; Port.

    ^ For each simple tense of the Spanish verb there is a perfect tense formed by the corresponding simple tense of haber and the past participle of the main verb.
    • Online Spanish-English Dictionary: definitions, translations, and pronunciations - Yahoo! Education 19 September 2009 8:58 UTC education.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    chamar, chama, cheio; Gal. chamar, chama, cheo.
  • Lat. acc. octo, noctem, multum > Lad. ocho, noche, muncho; Sp. ocho, noche, mucho; Port. oito, noite, muito; Gal. oito, noite, moito.

Geographic distribution

Spanish language
File:Eñe on keyboard - blue.jpg
Names for the language
History
Pronunciation
Dialects
Orthography
Grammar:
  • Determiners
  • Nouns
  • Pronouns
  • Adjectives
  • Prepositions
  • Verbs
    • Conjugation
      • Irregular verbs
.Spanish is one of the official languages of the Organization of American States, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations, and the European Union.^ Spanish is one of the official languages of the Organization of American States , the United Nations and the European Union .
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spanish is an official language of the European Union .

^ Spanish is one of the United Nations' six official working languages.
  • Learn the Spanish Language the Easy Way 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

Latin America

.The vast majority of Spanish speakers are located in Latin America.^ Spanish for speakers of Latin Spanish for speakers of Latin .
  • Spanish for speakers of Latin 17 September 2009 2:37 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The vast majority of the world's Spanish speakers are located in the Americas .

^ Web site (available in Spanish and English) for intergovernmental organization with headquarters in Caracas,Venezuela, that presently brings together 28 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean.
  • Web Page and E-mail Directory for Spanish Language Publications and Hispanic Organizations 17 September 2009 2:37 UTC gbgm-umc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of most countries with the largest numbers of Spanish speakers, only Spain is situated outside of the Americas.^ Of those countries with the largest numbers of Spanish speakers, only Spain is situated outside of the Americas .

^ Pija in many countries of Latin America is an obscene slang word for penis, while in Spain the word signifies "posh girl" or "snobby".

^ Most Spanish speakers can recognize other Spanish forms, even in places where they are not commonly used, but Spaniards generally do not recognise specifically American usages.
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Spanish Lessons and Adventure at INTENSA Spanish language schools 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC intensaspanishlessons.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mexico boasts the world's largest number of native speakers.^ Mexico boasts the world's largest number of native speakers.

^ With an estimated combined total of approximately 500 million native and non-native speakers, Spanish is most likely the fourth most spoken language in the world by total number of speakers.
  • Learn the Spanish Language the Easy Way 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ As of 1999, Spanish had approximately the same number of native speakers as English (leading English slightly 332 million people to 322 million people).

.At the national level, Spanish is the official language of Argentina, Bolivia (co-official Quechua and Aymara), Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay (co-official Guaraní[21]), Peru (co-official Quechua and, in some regions, Aymara), Uruguay, and Venezuela.^ The list of countries where Spanish is either the primary language or the largest secondary language covers 28 different places – Andorra, Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, France, Gibraltar, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, USA, Venezuela.

^ Spanish is an official language of the European Union .

^ Spanish is the official language in 22 countries: Argentina , Bolivia (co-official Quechua and Aymara ), Chile , Colombia , Costa Rica , Cuba , Dominican Republic , Ecuador , El Salvador , Equatorial Guinea (co-official French ), Guatemala , Honduras , Mexico , Nicaragua , Panama , Paraguay (co-official Guaraní ), Peru (co-official Quechua and Aymara ), Puerto Rico (co-official English ), Spain (co-official in some regions with Catalan , Galician and Basque ), Uruguay , Venezuela , and Western Sahara (co-official Arabic ).
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Spanish is also the official language (co-official language English) in the U.S. commonwealth of Puerto Rico.^ Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State.

^ Spanish is an official language of the European Union .

^ Spanish is also the official language (co-official language English ) in the U.S. commonwealth of Puerto Rico .

[22]

The non-Spanish speaking Americas

.Spanish holds no official recognition in the former British colony of Belize.^ In Belize , Spanish holds no official recognition.
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spanish holds no official recognition in the former British colony of Belize .

^ Spanish holds co-official status in the the unincorporated U.S. territory of Puerto Rico .
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, according to the 2000 census, 52.1% of the population speaks the language "very well."^ However, according to the 2000 census, 52.1% of the population speaks the language "very well."

^ It does, however, contain other vocabulary which is not found in standard Castilian, including vocabulary from Hebrew as well as Turkish and other languages spoken wherever the Sephardim settled.

^ Additionally, according to the 2000 census, there are over 600,000 native speakers of Chavacano , a Spanish based creole spoken in Cavite and Zamboanga .

[23] .[24] It is mainly spoken by Hispanic descendants who have remained in the region since the 17th century.^ It is mainly spoken by Hispanic descendants who have remained in the region since the 17th century.

^ Ladino, which is essentially medieval Castilian and closer to modern Spanish than any other language, is spoken by many descendants of the Spanish Jews who were expelled from Spain in the 15th century .

.However, English remains the sole official language.^ However, English remains the sole official language.

^ Spanish is also the official language (co-official language English ) in the U.S. commonwealth of Puerto Rico .

^ The introduction of the English language in the Filipino government system put an end to use of Spanish as the official language.

[25]
.Spanish has become increasingly important in Brazil due to proximity and increased trade with its Spanish-speaking neighbours, for example, as a member of the Mercosur trading bloc.^ Speaking Spanish is also becoming more important in business and career matters.
  • Learn the Spanish Language the Easy Way 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ In all exercises the most important aspect is to speak and communicate in Spanish appropriately and correctly.

^ Spanish can make you much more competitive, and even limited speaking is enough to increase sales.
  • Articles about Spanish Immersion and Spanish Language Immersion Programs 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC veracruzspanish.com [Source type: General]

[26] .In 2005, the National Congress of Brazil approved a bill, signed into law by the President, that makes Spanish available as a foreign language in the country's secondary schools.^ Try INTENSA Spanish language schools.

^ Single-language schools do everything in Spanish.
  • Articles about Spanish Immersion and Spanish Language Immersion Programs 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC veracruzspanish.com [Source type: General]

^ In 2005, the National Congress of Brazil approved a bill, signed into law by the President , that makes Spanish available as a foreign language in the country's secondary schools.

[27] .In many border towns and villages (especially along the Uruguayan-Brazilian border) a mixed language commonly known as Portuñol is also spoken.^ In many border towns and villages (especially along the Uruguayan-Brazilian border) a mixed language commonly known as Portuñol is also spoken.

^ With some 400 million speakers, Spanish is the fourth most commonly spoken language in the world.

^ Secondly, overall, Spanish is the fourth most commonly spoken language in the world.

[28]
.In Haiti, French is one of two official languages, but it is spoken by only about 10% of the population.^ Spanish is a relatively inflected language, with a two- gender system and about fifty conjugated forms per verb , but limited inflection of nouns , adjectives , and determiners .

^ Likewise, it is spoken in Andorra though Catalan is the official language.

^ Watsonville is about 80 percent Latino and about half of this population speaks Spanish as its first language.
  • Echo Media - Spanish Language Programs 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.echo-media.com [Source type: General]

.All Haitians speak Creole, the country's other official language.^ The other Spanish languages shall also be official in the respective Autonomous Communities… In some parts of Spain, mainly where people speak Galician, Basque and Catalan, the choice of words reveals the speakers' sense of belonging and their political views.
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Los Angeles based DJ Eddie Sotelo is heard on KXPK and other Spanish-language radio stations across the country.
  • Learn the Spanish Language the Easy Way 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The Télévision Nationale d'Haïti , the country's national television network and the Agence Haïtienne de Presse also have occasional television and radio broadcasts in Spanish, however only French and Haitian Creole are the only two officially recognized languages in that nation.
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The latter, is a creole based primarily on French and African languages, with some English, Taíno, Portuguese and Spanish influences.^ Mutual intelligibility with French and Romanian is lower (lexical similarity is respectively 75% and 71%) and for French "understanding" of Spanish from French speakers (with no knowledge of the language) falls at an estimated 45% - as much as English.

^ Additionally, according to the 2000 census, there are over 600,000 native speakers of Chavacano , a Spanish based creole spoken in Cavite and Zamboanga .

^ Rojas Spanish Language Podcast NO English is spoken here.

.Spanish, though not official, is spoken by a growing amount of the population.^ Likewise, it is spoken in Andorra though Catalan is the official language.

^ The populations are growing in many Spanish-speaking nations around the world, and the Spanish-speaking population within the U.S. is growing as a percentage of the total U.S. population every year.

^ In Switzerland , Spanish is the mother tongue of 1.7% of the population, representing the first minority after the 4 official languages of the country [33] .

.It is spoken more frequently near the border with the Dominican Republic, however Spanish is increasingly being spoken in more westward areas, as Venezuelan, Cuban, and Dominican trade influence Haitian society, and Haiti becomes increasingly involved in Latin American affairs.^ Increasingly, the building trades are employing more and more Spanish speaking workers.

^ Spanish is written using the Latin alphabet , with the addition of the character ñ ( eñe ), which represents the phoneme / ɲ / and is regarded as a letter of its own distinct from n , despite being typographically an n with a tilde .

^ In Haiti , it is spoken by a sizable portion of the population, especially those who live close to the border with the Spanish-speaking Dominican Republic.

.In the United States, 42.7 million people were of Hispanic heritage according to the 2005 census.^ In the United States , 42.7 million people were of Hispanic heritage according to the 2005 census.

^ The U.S. Population Speaking Spanish According to the U.S. Census, the number of Hispanics in the U.S. grew by 57.9% between 1990 and 2000 – from a total of 22.4 million people to a total of 35.3 million people.

^ Flags of the Native Peoples of the United States http://www.tmealf.com/DH/ 130 flags representing 102 Native nations and Associations.
  • Countries & flags - Homework Center - Multnomah County Library 17 September 2009 21:23 UTC www.multcolib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some 32 million people, or 12% of the whole population aged 5 years or older speak Spanish at home.^ The people around you will be speaking Spanish.
  • Articles about Spanish Immersion and Spanish Language Immersion Programs 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC veracruzspanish.com [Source type: General]

^ Some 32 million people, or 12% of the whole population aged 5 years or older speak Spanish at home.

^ The 32 tracks in the Rocket Spanish Premium Interactive Audio Course average 25 minutes in length - that's over 12 hours of audio lessons that you can listen to and practice speaking with as often as you need to feel confident!
  • Learn Spanish Online with Rocket Spanish Premium 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.rocketlanguages.com [Source type: General]

[29] .The Spanish language has a long history in the United States (many states in the South contain land that used to be part of Mexico or other Spanish colonies) and has recently been revitalised by heavy immigration from Spanish-speaking Latin America.^ Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State.

^ The non-Spanish speaking Americas .

^ The Spanish language has a long history in the United States (many states from the south used to be part of Mexico ) and has recently been revitalised by heavy immigration from Spanish-speaking Latin America .

.Spanish, moreover, is the most widely taught foreign language in the United States.^ Specializes in Spanish as a second language for foreigners.
  • Spanish Language Schools On Line 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State.

^ In both the United States and Canada, Spanish is the most popular foreign language to learn.

[30] .Though the United States has no formally designated "official languages", Spanish is formally recognized at the state level, alongside English, in the U.S. state of New Mexico, where it is spoken by almost 30% of the population.^ Rojas Spanish Language Podcast NO English is spoken here.

^ This level is designed for students who have little or no knowledge in Spanish.

^ It is spoken by much of the population of Gibraltar , though English remains the only official language.

.In total, the U.S. contains the world's fifth-largest Spanish speaking population.^ In total, the U.S. contains the world's fifth-largest Spanish speaking population.

^ For the rest of the Spanish-speaking world, speakers of the language in many areas refer to it as español and in only a few castellano is more common.

^ With an estimated combined total of approximately 500 million native and non-native speakers, Spanish is most likely the fourth most spoken language in the world by total number of speakers.
  • Learn the Spanish Language the Easy Way 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[31]

Europe

.Spanish is official in Spain, the country for which it is named and from which it originated.^ Spanish is official in Spain , the country for which it is named and from which it originated.

^ Spanish originated as a Latin dialect along a remote crossroads strip among the Cantabria, Burgos and La Rioja provinces of Northern Spain (cf.

^ Spanish originated as a dialect of Latin along the remote cross road strips among the Cantabria , Burgos , Soria and La Rioja provinces of Northern Spain.

.It is also spoken widely in Gibraltar, although English is used for official purposes.^ It is also spoken widely in Gibraltar , although English is used for official purposes.

^ The introduction of the English language in the Filipino government system put an end to use of Spanish as the official language.

^ In addition, within the United States, Spanish is the second most widely spoken language after English – by a very wide margin.

[32] .Likewise, it is spoken in Andorra though Catalan is the official language.^ Likewise, it is spoken in Andorra though Catalan is the official language.

^ Its future in Equatorial Guinea is uncertain as large numbers of people are switching to French , though it remains as one of the two official languages.

^ It is spoken by much of the population of Gibraltar , though English remains the only official language.

[33][34] .It is also spoken by small communities in other European countries, such as the United Kingdom, France, and Germany.^ It is also spoken by small communities in other European countries, such as the United Kingdom , France , and Germany .

^ Among other Asian countries, Spanish may also be spoken by pockets of ex-immigrant communities, such as Mexican-born ethnic Chinese deported to China or third and fourth generation ethnic Japanese Peruvians returning to their ancestral homeland of Japan.

^ Among the countries and territories in Oceania , Spanish is the seventh most spoken language in Australia (100,000 speakers); there are small Argentine, Chilean, Spanish , and Uruguayan communities and growing Colombian and Mexican communities mainly in Sydney .

[35] .Spanish is an official language of the European Union.^ Spanish is an official language of the European Union .

^ Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State.

^ Las demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas… Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State.

.In Switzerland, Spanish is the mother tongue of 1.7% of the population, representing the first minority after the 4 official languages of the country [36].^ Spanish is an official language of the European Union .

^ In Switzerland , Spanish is the mother tongue of 1.7% of the population, representing the first minority after the 4 official languages of the country [33] .

^ Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State.

Asia

.Although Spanish was an official language in the Philippines, it was never spoken by a majority of the population.^ Spanish is an official language of the European Union .

^ Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State.

^ See also: Spanish language in the Philippines .

.Its importance fell in the first half of the 20th century following the US occupation and administration of the islands.^ Its importance fell in the first half of the 20th century following the US occupation and administration of the islands.

.The introduction of the English language in the Filipino government system put an end to the use of Spanish as the official language.^ Spanish is an official language of the European Union .

^ The definite article is used in Spanish but not in English: .
  • Online Spanish-English Dictionary: definitions, translations, and pronunciations - Yahoo! Education 19 September 2009 8:58 UTC education.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State.

.The language lost its status in 1987, during the Corazon Aquino administration.^ The language lost its status in 1987 , during the Corazon Aquino administration.

.According to the 1990 census, there were 2,658 native speakers of Spanish.^ According to the 1990 census, there were 2,658 native speakers of Spanish.

^ Additionally, according to the 2000 census, there are over 600,000 native speakers of Chavacano , a Spanish based creole spoken in Cavite and Zamboanga .

^ Spanish ceased to be an official language of the Philippines in 1987, and it is now spoken by less than 0.01% of the population, or 2,658 people (1990 Census), though recently there seems to have been a resurgence in interest in the language among educated youth.
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37] .The number of Spanish speakers, however, are not available in the ensuing 1995 and 2000 censuses.^ The number of Spanish speakers, however, are not available in the ensuing 1995 and 2000 censuses.

^ Additionally, according to the 2000 census, there are over 600,000 native speakers of Chavacano , a Spanish based creole spoken in Cavite and Zamboanga .

^ With an estimated combined total of approximately 500 million native and non-native speakers, Spanish is most likely the fourth most spoken language in the world by total number of speakers.
  • Learn the Spanish Language the Easy Way 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.Additionally, according to the 2000 census, there are over 600,000 native speakers of Chavacano, a Spanish based creole spoken in Cavite and Zamboanga.^ According to the 1990 census, there were 2,658 native speakers of Spanish.

^ Additionally, according to the 2000 census, there are over 600,000 native speakers of Chavacano , a Spanish based creole spoken in Cavite and Zamboanga .

^ Spanish ceased to be an official language of the Philippines in 1987, and it is now spoken by less than 0.01% of the population, or 2,658 people (1990 Census), though recently there seems to have been a resurgence in interest in the language among educated youth.
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many Philippine languages have numerous Spanish loanwords.^ See also: Spanish language in the Philippines .

^ Many Philippine languages have numerous Spanish loanwords.

^ There are many reasons they are choosing Spanish as opposed to another foreign language.

.See also: Spanish language in the Philippines.^ See also: Spanish language in the Philippines .

^ You will frequently see Google ads on this site that say you can get a copy of the Rosetta Stone Spanish Language software for free.
  • Learn the Spanish Language the Easy Way 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The Spanish language developed from vulgar Latin , with influence from Celtiberian , Basque and Arabic , in the north of the Iberian Peninsula (see Iberian Romance languages ).
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Africa

.In Africa, Spanish language is official in the UN-recognised but Moroccan-occupied Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (co-official Arabic) and Equatorial Guinea (co-official French and Portuguese).^ It is the official language of Spain , most Latin American countries, and the official language of Equatorial Guinea , in Africa .

^ Spanish is an official language of the European Union .

^ Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State.

.Today, nearly 200,000 refugee Sahrawis are able to read and write in Spanish [38], and several thousands have received university education in foreign countries as part of aid packages (mainly Cuba and Spain).^ The other Spanish languages shall also be official in the respective Autonomous Communities… In some parts of Spain, mainly where people speak Galician, Basque and Catalan, the choice of words reveals the speakers' sense of belonging and their political views.
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2005, the National Congress of Brazil approved a bill, signed into law by the President , that makes Spanish available as a foreign language in the country's secondary schools.

^ Speak, read and write 1,000 words and phrases common in everyday situ...Click HERE for more info.
  • Learn Spanish Language - Video 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.languagequest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Equatorial Guinea, Spanish is the predominant language when counting native and non-native speakers (around 500,000 people), while Fang is the most spoken language by number of native speakers [39], [40].^ With an estimated combined total of approximately 500 million native and non-native speakers, Spanish is most likely the fourth most spoken language in the world by total number of speakers.
  • Learn the Spanish Language the Easy Way 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Spanish is a gender- and number-specific language.
  • Learn the Spanish Language the Easy Way 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Spanish is one of the most spoken languages in the world.
  • Learn the Spanish Language the Easy Way 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.It is also spoken in the Spanish cities in continental North Africa (Ceuta and Melilla) and in the autonomous community of Canary Islands (143,000 and 1,995,833 people, respectively).^ The other Spanish languages shall also be official in their respective Autonomous Communities… .

^ It is also spoken in the territories of Peñón de Alhucemas , Ceuta , the Chafarinas Islands , Melilla , Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera , and in the autonomous community of Canary Islands .

^ The other Spanish languages shall also be official in the respective Autonomous Communities… In some parts of Spain, mainly where people speak Galician, Basque and Catalan, the choice of words reveals the speakers' sense of belonging and their political views.
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Within Northern Morocco, a former Franco-Spanish protectorate that is also geographically close to Spain, approximately 20,000 people speak Spanish.^ The people around you will be speaking Spanish.
  • Articles about Spanish Immersion and Spanish Language Immersion Programs 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC veracruzspanish.com [Source type: General]

^ In Morocco , a former Franco-Spanish protectorate that is also geographically close to Spain , approximately 20,000 people speak Spanish.

^ According to the 2001 census, there are approximately 95,000 speakers of Spanish in Australia , 44,000 of which live in Greater Sydney.

[41]. It is spoken by some communities of Angola, because of the Cuban influence from the Cold War. .In Côte d'Ivoire and Senegal, the Spanish can be learned as a second foreign language in the public educative system.^ Learning a second language stimulates creativity!

^ It's easy: Spanish is one of the easiest foreign languages to learn.

^ Specializes in Spanish as a second language for foreigners.
  • Spanish Language Schools On Line 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42]. In 2008, Cervantes Institutes centers will be opened in Lagos and Johannesburg, the first one in the Sub-Saharan Africa[43]

Oceania

.Among the countries and territories in Oceania, Spanish is also spoken in Easter Island, a territorial possession of Chile.^ Among the countries and territories in Oceania , Spanish is also spoken in Easter Island , a territorial possession of Chile .

^ It is also spoken by the approximately 3,000 inhabitants of Easter Island , a territorial possession of Chile.
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Antarctica , the territorial claims and permanent bases made by Argentina, Chile, Peru, Uruguay and Spain also place Spanish as the official and working language of these enclaves.
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to the 2001 census, there are approximately 95,000 speakers of Spanish in Australia, 44,000 of which live in Greater Sydney.^ According to the 1990 census, there were 2,658 native speakers of Spanish.

^ According to the 2001 census, there are approximately 95,000 speakers of Spanish in Australia , 44,000 of which live in Greater Sydney.

^ Additionally, according to the 2000 census, there are over 600,000 native speakers of Chavacano , a Spanish based creole spoken in Cavite and Zamboanga .

.The island nations of Guam, Palau, Northern Marianas, Marshall Islands and Federated States of Micronesia all once had Spanish speakers, since Marianas and Caroline Islands were Spanish colonial possessions until late 19th century (see Spanish-American War), but Spanish has since been forgotten.^ The island nations of Guam , Palau , Northern Marianas , Marshall Islands and Federated States of Micronesia all once had Spanish speakers, but Spanish has long since been forgotten.
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the 16th century on, the language was brought to the Americas , Federated States of Micronesia , Guam , Marianas , Palau and the Philippines by Spanish colonization .
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Authors Spanish 19th Century Biography .

.It now only exists as an influence on the local native languages.^ It now only exists as an influence on the local native languages.

^ It now only exists as an influence on the local native languages and spoken by its foreign populations.
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Variations

Main article: Spanish dialects and varieties
Dialectal map of Castilian Spanish and Languages of Spain.
.There are important variations among the regions of Spain and throughout Spanish-speaking America.^ There are important variations in dialect among the various regions of Spain and Spanish America.
  • Spanish language - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Spanish language? What is Spanish language? Where is Spanish language? Definition of Spanish language. Meaning of Spanish language. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are important variations among the regions of Spain and throughout Spanish-speaking America .

^ The non-Spanish speaking Americas .

.In countries in Hispanophone America it is preferable to use the word castellano to distinguish their version of the language from that of Spain, thus asserting their autonomy and national identity.^ Pija in many countries of Latin America is an obscene slang word for penis, while in Spain the word signifies "posh girl" or "snobby".

^ In this manner, the Spanish Constitution of 1978 uses the term castellano to define the official language of the whole Spanish State , as opposed to las demás lenguas españolas (lit.

^ On the other hand, in some Latin American countries people prefer the word castellano because español is heard more as a nationality than the name of a language.
  • Spanish language - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Spanish language? What is Spanish language? Where is Spanish language? Definition of Spanish language. Meaning of Spanish language. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Spain the Castilian dialect's pronunciation is commonly regarded as the national standard, although a use of slightly different pronouns called laísmoImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif of this dialect is deprecated.^ In Spain the Castilian dialect pronunciation is commonly taken as the national standard (although the characteristic weak pronouns usage or of this dialect is deprecated).
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Spain the Castilian dialect pronunciation is commonly regarded as the national standard, although a use of slightly different pronouns called laísmo of this dialect is deprecated.

^ Standard pronunciation in northern and central Spain.
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More accurately, for nearly everyone in Spain, "standard Spanish" means "pronouncing everything exactly as it is written", an ideal which does not correspond to any real dialect, though the northern dialects get the closest to it.^ More accurately, for nearly everyone in Spain, "standard Spanish" means "pronouncing everything exactly as it is written", [ citation needed ] an ideal which does not correspond to any real dialect, though the northern dialects get the closest to it.

^ Standard pronunciation in northern and central Spain.
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Middle East and North Africa , small Spanish-speaking communities exist in Israel (both standard Spanish and Ladino ), northern Morocco (both standard Spanish and Ladino), Turkey (Ladino), and the Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla which are part of Spain .
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In practice, the standard way of speaking Spanish in the media is "written Spanish" for formal speech, "Madrid dialect" (one of the transitional variants between Castilian and Andalusian) for informal speech.^ In practice, the standard way of speaking Spanish in the media is "written Spanish" for formal speech, " Madrid dialect" (one of the transitional variants between Castilian and Andalusian) for informal speech.

^ Due to this influence and for other sociohistorical reasons, a neutral standardized form of the language ( Standard Spanish ) is widely acknowledged for use in literature, academic contexts and the media.
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More accurately, for nearly everyone in Spain, "standard Spanish" means "pronouncing everything exactly as it is written", [ citation needed ] an ideal which does not correspond to any real dialect, though the northern dialects get the closest to it.

.Spanish has three second-person singular pronouns: , usted, and in some parts of Latin America, vos (the use of this form is called voseo).^ Spanish forms also differ regarding second-person plural pronouns.
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Spanish Lessons and Adventure at INTENSA Spanish language schools 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC intensaspanishlessons.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the first and second persons it is the same as the object pronoun form.
  • Online Spanish-English Dictionary: definitions, translations, and pronunciations - Yahoo! Education 19 September 2009 8:58 UTC education.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spanish has three second-person singular pronouns : tú , usted , and in some parts of Latin America , vos (the use of this form is called voseo ).

.Generally speaking, and vos are informal and used with friends (though in Spain vos is considered an archaic form for address of exalted personages, its use now mainly confined to the liturgy).^ Generally speaking, and are informal and used with friends (though in Spain is considered an archaic form for address of exalted personages, its use now mainly confined to the liturgy).
  • Spanish language at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Generally speaking, tú and vos are informal and used with friends (though in Spain vos is considered an archaic form for address of exalted personages, its use now mainly confined to the liturgy ).

^ The - ra form is more commonly used in Latin America and northern Spain, while both the - ra and - se forms are used in central and southern Spain.
  • Online Spanish-English Dictionary: definitions, translations, and pronunciations - Yahoo! Education 19 September 2009 8:58 UTC education.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Usted is universally regarded as the formal address (derived from vuestra merced, "your grace"), and is used as a mark of respect, as when addressing one's elders or strangers.^ Usted is universally regarded as the formal address (derived from vuestra merced , "your grace"), and is used as a mark of respect, as when addressing one's elders or strangers.

^ Do not use your email address in postings.
  • Spanish language - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Spanish language? What is Spanish language? Where is Spanish language? Definition of Spanish language. Meaning of Spanish language. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When written, the Spanish language uses both the inverted question mark (¿) and inverted exclamation mark (¡) at the beginning of every interrogative and exclamatory sentence, respectively.
  • Learn the Spanish Language the Easy Way 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

Countries that feature voseo. .In blue, countries that use vos as the primary spoken form.^ Vos is used extensively as the primary spoken form of the second-person singular pronoun in many countries of Latin America , including Argentina , Costa Rica , the central mountain region of Ecuador , El Salvador , Guatemala , Honduras , Nicaragua , Paraguay , Uruguay , the Antioquia and Valle del Cauca states of Colombia and the State of Zulia in Venezuela .

^ In Argentina , Uruguay , and increasingly in Paraguay , it is also the standard form used in the media , but the media in other countries with voseo generally continue to use usted or tú except in advertisements, for instance.

^ Spanish has three second-person singular pronouns : tú , usted , and in some parts of Latin America , vos (the use of this form is called voseo ).

In green countries that feature voseo as a regionalism or non-mainstream practice.
.Vos is used extensively as the primary spoken form of the second-person singular pronoun in many countries of Latin America, including Argentina, Costa Rica, the central mountain region of Ecuador, the State of Chiapas in Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay, the Antioquia and Valle del Cauca states of Colombia and the State of Zulia in Venezuela.^ Vos is used extensively as the primary spoken form of the second-person singular pronoun in many countries of Latin America , including Argentina , Costa Rica , the central mountain region of Ecuador , El Salvador , Guatemala , Honduras , Nicaragua , Paraguay , Uruguay , the Antioquia and Valle del Cauca states of Colombia and the State of Zulia in Venezuela .

^ Spanish forms also differ regarding second-person plural pronouns.

^ Spanish has three second-person singular pronouns : tú , usted , and in some parts of Latin America , vos (the use of this form is called voseo ).

.In Argentina, Uruguay, and increasingly in Paraguay, it is also the standard form used in the media, but the media in other countries with voseo generally continue to use usted or except in advertisements, for instance.^ In Argentina , Uruguay , and increasingly in Paraguay , it is also the standard form used in the media , but the media in other countries with voseo generally continue to use usted or tú except in advertisements, for instance.

^ Vos is used extensively as the primary spoken form of the second-person singular pronoun in many countries of Latin America , including Argentina , Costa Rica , the central mountain region of Ecuador , El Salvador , Guatemala , Honduras , Nicaragua , Paraguay , Uruguay , the Antioquia and Valle del Cauca states of Colombia and the State of Zulia in Venezuela .

^ Most Spanish speakers can recognize other Spanish forms, even in places where they are not commonly used, but Spaniards generally do not recognise specifically American usages.

.Vos may also be used regionally in other countries.^ Vos may also be used regionally in other countries.

^ In Argentina , Uruguay , and increasingly in Paraguay , it is also the standard form used in the media , but the media in other countries with voseo generally continue to use usted or tú except in advertisements, for instance.

^ Depending on country or region, usage may be considered standard or (by better educated speakers) to be unrefined.

.Depending on country or region, usage may be considered standard or (by better educated speakers) to be unrefined.^ Depending on country or region, usage may be considered standard or (by better educated speakers) to be unrefined.

^ Vos may also be used regionally in other countries.

.Interpersonal situations in which the use of vos is acceptable may also differ considerably between regions.^ Interpersonal situations in which the use of vos is acceptable may also differ considerably between regions.

^ Vos may also be used regionally in other countries.

^ Since there is no phonemic difference between [gw], [Gw] and [w] it's arbitrary to considerer /w/ a separate phoneme.
  • Spanish language - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Spanish language? What is Spanish language? Where is Spanish language? Definition of Spanish language. Meaning of Spanish language. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For further information, see Voseo.^ See Ceceo , for further information.

^ See Differences between Spanish and Portuguese , for further information.

.Spanish forms also differ regarding second-person plural pronouns.^ Spanish forms also differ regarding second-person plural pronouns.

^ It is remarkable that the use of ustedes for the informal plural "you" in southern Spain does not follow the usual rule for pronoun-verb agreement ; e.g., while the formal form for "you go", ustedes van , uses the third-person plural form of the verb, in Cádiz or Seville the informal form is constructed as ustedes vais , using the second-person plural of the verb.

^ In Spain the Castilian dialect pronunciation is commonly regarded as the national standard, although a use of slightly different pronouns called laísmo of this dialect is deprecated.

.The Spanish dialects of Latin America have only one form of the second-person plural for daily use, ustedes (formal or familiar, as the case may be, though vosotros non-formal usage can sometimes appear in poetry and rhetorical or literary style).^ Spanish forms also differ regarding second-person plural pronouns.

^ The Spanish dialects of Latin America have only one form of the second-person plural for daily use, ustedes (formal or familiar, as the case may be, though vosotros non-formal usage can sometimes appear in poetry and rhetorical or literary style).

^ In Spain there are two forms — ustedes (formal) and vosotros (familiar).

.In Spain there are two forms — ustedes (formal) and vosotros (familiar).^ In Spain there are two forms — ustedes (formal) and vosotros (familiar).

^ The Spanish dialects of Latin America have only one form of the second-person plural for daily use, ustedes (formal or familiar, as the case may be, though vosotros non-formal usage can sometimes appear in poetry and rhetorical or literary style).

^ The pronoun vosotros is the plural form of tú in most of Spain , but in the Americas (and certain southern Spanish cities such as Cádiz or Seville , and in the Canary Islands ) it is replaced with ustedes .

.The pronoun vosotros is the plural form of in most of Spain, but in the Americas (and certain southern Spanish cities such as Cádiz or Seville, and in the Canary Islands) it is replaced with ustedes.^ Spanish forms also differ regarding second-person plural pronouns.

^ In Spain there are two forms — ustedes (formal) and vosotros (familiar).

^ The pronoun vosotros is the plural form of tú in most of Spain , but in the Americas (and certain southern Spanish cities such as Cádiz or Seville , and in the Canary Islands ) it is replaced with ustedes .

.It is remarkable that the use of ustedes for the informal plural "you" in southern Spain does not follow the usual rule for pronoun-verb agreement; e.g., while the formal form for "you go", ustedes van, uses the third-person plural form of the verb, in Cádiz or Seville the informal form is constructed as ustedes vais, using the second-person plural of the verb.^ Spanish forms also differ regarding second-person plural pronouns.

^ In Spain there are two forms — ustedes (formal) and vosotros (familiar).

^ It is remarkable that the use of ustedes for the informal plural "you" in southern Spain does not follow the usual rule for pronoun-verb agreement ; e.g., while the formal form for "you go", ustedes van , uses the third-person plural form of the verb, in Cádiz or Seville the informal form is constructed as ustedes vais , using the second-person plural of the verb.

.In the Canary Islands, though, the usual pronoun-verb agreement is preserved in most cases.^ In the Canary Islands , though, the usual pronoun-verb agreement is preserved in most cases.

^ The pronoun vosotros is the plural form of tú in most of Spain , but in the Americas (and certain southern Spanish cities such as Cádiz or Seville , and in the Canary Islands ) it is replaced with ustedes .

.Some words can be different, even embarrassingly so, in different Hispanophone countries.^ Some words can be different, even embarrassingly so, in different Hispanophone countries.

^ On the other hand, in some Latin American countries people prefer the word castellano because español is heard more as a nationality than the name of a language.
  • Spanish language - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Spanish language? What is Spanish language? Where is Spanish language? Definition of Spanish language. Meaning of Spanish language. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You can even listen to some words in the Zulu language.
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.Most Spanish speakers can recognize other Spanish forms, even in places where they are not commonly used, but Spaniards generally do not recognise specifically American usages.^ Most Spanish speakers can recognize other Spanish forms, even in places where they are not commonly used, but Spaniards generally do not recognise specifically American usages.

^ Most Spanish speakers go on without ever knowing or realizing the existence of the future subjunctive.
  • Spanish language - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Spanish language? What is Spanish language? Where is Spanish language? Definition of Spanish language. Meaning of Spanish language. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With an estimated combined total of approximately 500 million native and non-native speakers, Spanish is most likely the fourth most spoken language in the world by total number of speakers.
  • Learn the Spanish Language the Easy Way 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.For example, Spanish mantequilla, aguacate and albaricoque (respectively, "butter", "avocado", "apricot") correspond to manteca, palta, and damasco, respectively, in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay.^ For example, Spanish mantequilla , aguacate and albaricoque (respectively, "butter", "avocado", "apricot") correspond to manteca , palta , and damasco , respectively, in Argentina , Chile and Uruguay .

.The everyday Spanish words coger (to catch, get, or pick up), pisar (to step on) and concha (seashell) are considered extremely rude in parts of Latin America, where the meaning of coger and pisar is also "to have sex" and concha means "vulva". The Puerto Rican word for "bobby pin" (pinche) is an obscenity in Mexico, and in Nicaragua simply means "stingy". Other examples include taco, which means "swearword" in Spain but is known to the rest of the world as the Mexican foodstuff.^ The Spanish Immersion Programs Directory includes schools throughout Latin America and Spain.
  • Spanish Language Schools - Immersion Programs - Directory for Spain and Latin America - Spanish Courses 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.123teachme.com [Source type: General]

^ Other examples include taco , which means "swearword" in Spain but is known to the rest of the world as the Mexican foodstuff.

^ The everyday Spanish words coger (to catch, get, or pick up), pisar (to step on) and concha (seashell) are considered extremely rude in parts of Latin America, where the meaning of coger and pisar is also "to have sex" and concha means "vulva".

.Pija in many countries of Latin America is an obscene slang word for "penis", while in Spain the word also signifies "posh girl" or "snobby". Coche, which means "car" in Spain, means "pig" in Guatemala while carro means "car" in some Latin American countries and "cart" in others, as well as in Spain.^ Spain and 19 other countries .
  • Spanish language - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Spanish language? What is Spanish language? Where is Spanish language? Definition of Spanish language. Meaning of Spanish language. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coche , which means car in Spain , means pig in Guatemala [ citation needed ] while carro means "car" in some Latin American countries and "cart" in others as well as in Spain .

^ Pija in many countries of Latin America is an obscene slang word for penis, while in Spain the word signifies "posh girl" or "snobby".

.The Real Academia Española (Royal Spanish Academy), together with the 21 other national ones (see Association of Spanish Language Academies), exercises a standardizing influence through its publication of dictionaries and widely respected grammar and style guides.^ Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ Spanish is one of the United Nations' six official working languages.
  • Learn the Spanish Language the Easy Way 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Spanish is one of the most widely spoken world languages.
  • Spanish Vocabulary - Free Quizzes 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.quiz-tree.com [Source type: News]

.Due to this influence and for other sociohistorical reasons, a standardized form of the language (Standard Spanish) is widely acknowledged for use in literature, academic contexts and the media.^ Spanish - other languages dictionaries.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ Due to this influence and for other sociohistorical reasons, a standardized form of the language ( Standard Spanish ) is widely acknowledged for use in literature, academic contexts and the media.

^ Spanish is a relatively inflected language, with a two- gender system and about fifty conjugated forms per verb , but limited inflection of nouns , adjectives , and determiners .

Writing system

Main article: Writing system of Spanish
.Spanish is written using the Latin alphabet, with the addition of the character ñ (eñe, representing the phoneme /ɲ/, a letter distinct from n, although typographically composed of an n with a tilde) and the digraphs ch (che, representing the phoneme /tʃ/, a letter distinct from c and h) and ll (elle, representing the phoneme /ʎ/, a letter distinct from l).^ The digraphs ch ( che ) and ll ( elle ) are considered single letters, with their own names and places in the alphabet, because each represents a single phoneme ( /t ʃ / and / ʎ / , respectively).

^ Spanish is written using the Latin alphabet , with the addition of the character ñ ( eñe ), which represents the phoneme / ɲ / and is regarded as a letter of its own distinct from n , despite being typographically an n with a tilde .

^ The first Latin to Spanish grammar ( Gramática de la Lengua Castellana ) was written in Salamanca , Spain , in 1492 by Elio Antonio de Nebrija .

.However, the digraph rr (erre fuerte, "strong r", erre doble, "double r", or simply erre), which also represents a single phoneme /r/, is not similarly regarded as a single letter.^ The digraphs ch ( che ) and ll ( elle ) are considered single letters, with their own names and places in the alphabet, because each represents a single phoneme ( /t ʃ / and / ʎ / , respectively).

^ However, the digraph rr ( erre doble , "double r ", or simply erre as opposed to ere ), which also represents a single phoneme /r/ , was not similarly regarded as a single letter.

^ Spanish is written using the Latin alphabet , with the addition of the character ñ ( eñe ), which represents the phoneme / ɲ / and is regarded as a letter of its own distinct from n , despite being typographically an n with a tilde .

Thus, the traditional Spanish alphabet has 28 letters (29 if one counts w, which is only used in foreign names and loanwords):
a, b, c, ch, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, ll, m, n, ñ, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z.
.Since 1994, the digraphs ch and ll are to be treated as letter pairs for collation purposes only.^ Since 1994, the two digraphs are to be treated as letter pairs for collation purposes.

^ The digraphs ch ( che ) and ll ( elle ) are considered single letters, with their own names and places in the alphabet, because each represents a single phoneme ( /t ʃ / and / ʎ / , respectively).

.Words with ch are now alphabetically sorted between those with ce and ci, instead of following cz as they used to, and similarly for ll, although ch and ll remain otherwise distinct letters.^ Words with ch are now alphabetically sorted between those with ce and ci , instead of following cz as they used to, and similarly for ll .

^ Spanish is written using the Latin alphabet , with the addition of the character ñ ( eñe ), which represents the phoneme / ɲ / and is regarded as a letter of its own distinct from n , despite being typographically an n with a tilde .

^ Good schools have highly informative websites, and you’ll be able to understand which size they use and even a lot about how they use it.
  • Articles about Spanish Immersion and Spanish Language Immersion Programs 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC veracruzspanish.com [Source type: General]

[44] .All words that start with the rr sound are written with only one r and collated under this letter.^ Spanish Picture Alphabet Activity For each letter, write a word in Spanish that starts with that letter, and draw a picture of it.
  • Spanish Language Activities at EnchantedLearning.com 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.enchantedlearning.com [Source type: General]

^ Each word has one blank letter for the student to fill in.
  • Spanish Language Activities at EnchantedLearning.com 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.enchantedlearning.com [Source type: General]

^ Thus, the traditional Spanish alphabet had 28 letters (29 if one counted w , which is only used in foreign names and loanwords): .

.There are no words that start with the r sound.^ There's absolutely no translation or memorization to hold you back, so you start making progress immediately.
  • Learn the Spanish Language the Easy Way 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.With the exclusion of a very small number of regional terms such as México (see Mexico: Toponymy), pronunciation can be entirely determined from spelling.^ With the exclusion of a very small number of regional terms such as México (see Mexico: Toponymy ), pronunciation can be entirely determined from spelling.

.A typical Spanish word is stressed on the syllable before the last if it ends with a vowel (not including y) or with a vowel followed by n or s; it is stressed on the last syllable otherwise.^ A typical Spanish word is stressed on the syllable before the last if it ends with a vowel (not including y ) or with a vowel followed by n or s ; it is stressed on the last syllable otherwise.

^ One defining characteristic of Spanish was the diphthongization of the Latin short vowels e and o into ie and ue , respectively, when they were stressed.

^ Spanish has a phonemic stress system — stress is fixed, and different stress patterns of the same word can result in separate meanings for one and the same word.

.Exceptions to this rule are indicated by placing an acute accent on the stressed vowel.^ Exceptions to this rule are indicated by placing an acute accent on the stressed vowel .

.The acute accent is used, in addition, to distinguish between certain homophones, especially when one of them is a stressed word and the other one is a clitic: compare el ("the", masculine singular definite article) with él ("he" or "it"), or te ("you", object pronoun), de (preposition "of" or "from"), and se (reflexive pronoun) with ("tea"), ("give") and ("I know", or imperative "be").^ When they were off camera you couldn’t tell who was talking one way or the other.
  • Interview with the voice actors at Otakon 2004 (a.k.a. In Bed With theVoice Actors) at DVD Vision Japan 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.dvdvisionjapan.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Words with ch are now alphabetically sorted between those with ce and ci , instead of following cz as they used to, and similarly for ll .

^ The legal profession is one of the most literal in the world - where a single word can make all the difference between two very different outcomes.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

The interrogative pronouns (qué, cuál, dónde, quién, etc.) also receive accents in direct or indirect questions, and some demonstratives (ése, éste, aquél, etc.) can be accented when used as pronouns. The conjunction o ("or") is written with an accent between numerals so as not to be confused with a zero: e.g., 10 ó 20 should be read as diez o veinte rather than diez mil veinte ("10,020"). Accent marks are frequently omitted in capital letters (a widespread practice in the early days of computers where only lowercase vowels were available with accents), although the RAE advises against this.
When u is written between g and a front vowel (e or i), if it should be pronounced, it is written with a diaeresis (ü) to indicate that it is not silent as it normally would be (e.g., cigüeña, "stork", is pronounced /θiˈgweɲa/}}; if it were written cigueña, it would be pronounced /θiˈgeɲa/.
.Interrogative and exclamatory clauses are introduced with inverted question ( ¿ ) and exclamation marks ( ¡ ).^ Interrogative and exclamatory clauses are introduced with inverted question ( ¿ ) and exclamation marks ( ¡ ) .

^ When written, the Spanish language uses both the inverted question mark (¿) and inverted exclamation mark (¡) at the beginning of every interrogative and exclamatory sentence, respectively.
  • Learn the Spanish Language the Easy Way 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

Sounds

Main article: Spanish phonology
.The phonemic inventory listed in the following table includes phonemes that are preserved only in some dialects, other dialects have merged them (such as yeísmo); these are marked with an asterisk (*).^ The facts not only support these feelings, they show by what a wide margin Spanish leads other foreign languages in usage within the Western World.

^ Initial /f/ , when it had evolved into a vacillating /h/ , was lost in most words (although this etymological h- is preserved in spelling and in some Andalusian dialects is still aspirated).

Sounds in parentheses are allophones.
Table of Spanish consonants[45]
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ɲ
Stop p   b t   d tʃ   ɟʝ k   g
Fricative  f *θ   (θ̬) s   (z)  x
Approximant (β (ð (ʝ)   (ɣ
Trill r
Tap ɾ
Lateral l

By the 16th century, the consonant system of Spanish underwent the following important changes that differentiated it from neighboring Romance languages such as Portuguese and Catalan:
.
  • Initial /f/, when it had evolved into a vacillating /h/, was lost in most words (although this etymological h- is preserved in spelling and in some Andalusian dialects is still aspirated).
  • The bilabial approximant /β̞/ (which was written u or v) merged with the bilabial oclusive /b/ (written b).^ Initial /f/ , when it had evolved into a vacillating /h/ , was lost in most words (although this etymological h- is preserved in spelling and in some Andalusian dialects is still aspirated).

    ^ In practice, the standard way of speaking Spanish in the media is "written Spanish" for formal speech, " Madrid dialect" (one of the transitional variants between Castilian and Andalusian) for informal speech.

    ^ Although most of the countries outside of Spain that speak Spanish are located in the Western Hemisphere, there are some notable exceptions.

    .There is no difference between the pronunciation of orthographic b and v in contemporary Spanish, excepting specific areas in Spain (particularly the ones influenced by Catalan) and Latin America (notably Peru).
  • The voiced alveolar fricative /z/ which existed as a separate phoneme in medieval Spanish merged with its voiceless counterpart /s/.^ There is no difference between the pronunciation of orthographic b and v in contemporary Spanish, excepting specific areas in Spain (particularly the ones influenced by Catalan) and Latin America .

    ^ The voiced alveolar fricative /z/ which existed as a separate phoneme in medieval Spanish merged with its voiceless counterpart /s/ .

    ^ Pija in many countries of Latin America is an obscene slang word for penis, while in Spain the word signifies "posh girl" or "snobby".

    .The phoneme which resulted from this merger is currently spelled s.
  • The voiced postalveolar fricative /ʒ/ merged with its voiceless counterpart /ʃ/, which evolved into the modern velar sound /x/ by the 17th century, now written with j, or g before e, i.^ The phoneme which resulted from this merger is currently spelled s .

    ^ The voiced postalveolar fricative / ʒ / merged with its voiceless counterpart / ʃ / , which evolved into the modern velar sound /x/ by the 17th century, now written with j , or g before e, i .

    ^ The voiced alveolar affricate /dz/ merged with its voiceless counterpart /ts/ , which then developed into the interdental / θ / , now written z , or c before e, i .

    .Nevertheless, in most parts of Argentina and in Uruguay, y and ll have both evolved to /ʒ/ or /ʃ/.
  • The voiced alveolar affricate /dz/ merged with its voiceless counterpart /ts/, which then developed into the interdental /θ/, now written z, or c before e, i.^ The voiced postalveolar fricative / ʒ / merged with its voiceless counterpart / ʃ / , which evolved into the modern velar sound /x/ by the 17th century, now written with j , or g before e, i .

    ^ The voiced alveolar affricate /dz/ merged with its voiceless counterpart /ts/ , which then developed into the interdental / θ / , now written z , or c before e, i .

    ^ The voiced alveolar fricative /z/ which existed as a separate phoneme in medieval Spanish merged with its voiceless counterpart /s/ .

    .But in Andalusia, the Canary Islands and the Americas this sound merged with /s/ as well.^ But in Andalusia , the Canary Islands and the Americas this sound merged with /s/ as well.

    See Ceceo, for further information.
.The consonant system of Medieval Spanish has been better preserved in Ladino and in Portuguese, neither of which underwent these shifts.^ The consonant system of Medieval Spanish has been better preserved in Ladino and in Portuguese, neither of which underwent these shifts.

^ Try these websites for alternative Spanish and Portuguese news.

^ By the 16th century, the consonant system of Spanish underwent the following important changes that differentiated it from neighboring Romance languages such as Portuguese and Catalan : .

Lexical stress

.Spanish syllables are all pronounced at a more or less constant tempo, so it is sometimes said to be syllable-timed, but in fact it is stress-timed, with different stress patterns resulting in separate meanings for the same spelling, distinguishable by written accents, especially noticeable in verb conjugations.^ Spanish has a phonemic stress system — stress is fixed, and different stress patterns of the same word can result in separate meanings for one and the same word.

^ Spanish makes abundant use of this feature, especially in distinguishing verb conjugation forms.

^ Also, since Spanish syllables are all pronounced at a more or less constant tempo, the language is said to be syllable-timed .

.For example, the word camino (with penultimate stress) means "road" or "I walk" whereas caminó (with final stress) means "you (formal)/he/she/it walked". Another example is the word práctico (first-syllable stress) "practical", which is different from practico (second-syllable stress) "I practice", and practicó (last-syllable stress) "you (formal)/he/she/it practiced."^ That means that you need no longer sound out foreign words or risk being misunderstood because of mistakes or accents.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

^ And if you keep walking another 10 minutes you pass the yacht club, lots more restaurants and little grocery stores.
  • Articles about Spanish Immersion and Spanish Language Immersion Programs 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC veracruzspanish.com [Source type: General]

^ This lets you practice from a personal list of words and phrases to improve your vocabulary.
  • Spanish electronic dictionary and language translators. Spanish - other languages dictionaries. 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC spanish.dictionaries.ectaco.com [Source type: General]

.As mentioned above, stress can always be predicted from the written form of a word.^ As mentioned above, stress can always be predicted from the written form of a word.

.An amusing example of the significance of stress and intonation in Spanish is the riddle cómo cómo como como como como, to be punctuated and accented so that it makes sense.^ An amusing example of the significance of stress and intonation in Spanish is the riddle como como como como como como , to be punctuated and accented so that it makes sense.

.The answer is ¿Cómo "cómo como"? ¡Como como como! ("What do you mean / 'how / do I eat'? / I eat / the way / I eat!"^ "What do you mean / 'how / do I eat'?

^ How can you be sure your text has the same meaning when translated into Spanish?
  • Spanish Translation Services - English to Spanish and Spanish to English 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.appliedlanguage.com [Source type: Original source]

).

Grammar

Main article: Spanish grammar
.Spanish is a relatively inflected language, with a two-gender system and about fifty conjugated forms per verb, but limited inflection of nouns, adjectives, and determiners.^ Spanish is a relatively inflected language, with a two- gender system and about fifty conjugated forms per verb , but limited inflection of nouns , adjectives , and determiners .

^ Each language borrowed words from the local indigenous population, especially nouns for which there was no Spanish alternative such as plants, geographical features and place names.
  • History of the Spanish Language 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.appliedlanguage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The question to ask yourself is, “Do you want to gain knowledge about the Spanish language, or do you want to learn to speak Spanish, to carry on conversations in Spanish?” .
  • Articles about Spanish Immersion and Spanish Language Immersion Programs 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC veracruzspanish.com [Source type: General]

.(For a detailed overview of verbs, see Spanish verbs and Spanish irregular verbs.^ (For a detailed overview of verbs, see Spanish verbs and Spanish irregular verbs .

)
.It is right-branching, uses prepositions, and usually, though not always, places adjectives after nouns.^ It is right-branching , uses prepositions , and usually (though not always) places adjectives after nouns .

^ Keywords are significant words ( usually nouns or noun phrases ) which can be used as search terms in online catalogs or databases.

^ Schools using language in context usually have you going out, often daily, in small groups or individually and always with a native speaker.
  • Articles about Spanish Immersion and Spanish Language Immersion Programs 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC veracruzspanish.com [Source type: General]

.Its syntax is generally Subject Verb Object, though variations are common.^ Its syntax is generally Subject Verb Object , though variations are common.

.It is a pro-drop language (allows the deletion of pronouns when pragmatically unnecessary) and verb-framed.^ It is a pro-drop language (allows the deletion of pronouns when pragmatically unnecessary) and verb-framed .

See also

Local varieties



References

  1. ^ a b c d Spanish. ethnologue.
  2. ^ Encarta-Most Spoken languages
  3. ^ Ciberamerica-Castellano
  4. ^ El Nuevo Diario
  5. ^ Terra Noticias
  6. ^ Universidad de México
  7. ^ a b c Instituto Cervantes ("El Mundo" news)
  8. ^ Yahoo Press Room
  9. ^ Languages of the world by Ethnologue
  10. ^ Most widely spoken languages by Nations Online
  11. ^ Most spoken languages by Ask Men
  12. ^ Encarta Languages Spoken by More Than 10 Million People
  13. ^ a b Universidad de México
  14. ^ Ethnologue, 1999
  15. ^ CIA World Factbook, Field Listing - Languages (World).
  16. ^ CIA The World Factbook United States
  17. ^ United States Census BureauPDFImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif (1.86 {{subst:#ifexist:Mebibyte|MiB|MiB}}) , Statistical Abstract of the United States: page 47: Table 47: Languages Spoken at Home by Language: 2003
  18. ^ Foreign Language Enrollments in United States Institutions of Higher LearningPDFImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif (129 {{subst:#ifexist:Kibibyte|KiB|KiB}}) , MLA Fall 2002.
  19. ^ World Internet Usage Statistics
  20. ^ [1]
  21. ^ Ethnologue - Paraguay(2000). Guaraní is also the most spoken language in Paraguay by number of native speakers.
  22. ^ "Puerto Rico Elevates English", the New York Times, January 29, 1993. Retrieved on 2007-10-06. 
  23. ^ Population Census 2000, Major Findings. Central Statistical Office, Ministry of Budget Management, Belize (2000). Retrieved on 2007-08-23.
  24. ^ Belize Population and Housing Census 2000
  25. ^ CIA World Factbook — Belize
  26. ^ MERCOSUL, Portal Oficial (Portuguese)
  27. ^ BrazilMag.com, August 08, 2005.
  28. ^ Lipski, John M. (2006). "Too close for comfort? the genesis of “portuñol/portunhol”". Selected Proceedings of the 8th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium. ed. Timothy L. Face and Carol A. Klee, 1–22. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
  29. ^ U.S. Census Bureau. Percent of People 5 Years and Over Who Speak Spanish at Home: 2005
  30. ^ Foreign Language Enrollments in United States Institutions of Higher LearningPDFImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif (129 {{subst:#ifexist:Kibibyte|KiB|KiB}}) , MLA Fall 2002.
  31. ^ Facts, Figures, and Statistics About Spanish, American Demographics, 1998.
  32. ^ CIA World Factbook — Gibraltar
  33. ^ Andorra — People. MSN Encarta. Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
  34. ^ Background Note: Andorra. U.S. Department of State: Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs (January 2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
  35. ^ BBC Education — Languages, Languages Across Europe — Spanish.
  36. ^ Switzerland's Four National Languages. all-about-switzerland.info. Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
  37. ^ Ethnologue. Ethnologue Report for the Philippines.
  38. ^ El refuerzo del español llega a los saharauis con una escuela en los campos de Tinduf
  39. ^ Ethnologue -Equatorial Guinea ((2000)
  40. ^ CIA World Factbook - Equatorial Guinea (Last updated 20 September, 2007)
  41. ^ Morocco.com, The Languages of Morocco.
  42. ^ El idioma español en África subsahariana
  43. ^ El Cervantes espera duplicar las matrículas para el 2012 dentro de la 'gran operación de comunicación' del español
  44. ^ "No obstante, en el X Congreso de la Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española, celebrado en 1994, se acordó adoptar para los diccionarios académicos, a petición de varios organismos internacionales, el orden alfabético latino universal, en el que la ch y la ll no se consideran letras independientes. En consecuencia, estas dos letras pasan a alfabetizarse en los lugares que les corresponden dentro de la C (entre -cg- y -ci-) y dentro de la L (entre -lk- y -lm-), respectivamente." Real Academia Española. Explanation at http://www.spanishpronto.com/ (in Spanish and English)
  45. ^ Martínez-Celdrán et al (2003:255)

External links

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.This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia.^ The ICAO cautions schools teaching Aviation English to teach the use of English (as opposed to teaching only a knowledge of the English language).
  • Articles about Spanish Immersion and Spanish Language Immersion Programs 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC veracruzspanish.com [Source type: General]

^ Schools using dual-language say that a great deal of time is saved by explaining in English.
  • Articles about Spanish Immersion and Spanish Language Immersion Programs 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC veracruzspanish.com [Source type: General]

^ Dual-language schools use English to explain grammar, structure and vocabulary, and then immediately return to Spanish to put newly understood material to work.
  • Articles about Spanish Immersion and Spanish Language Immersion Programs 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC veracruzspanish.com [Source type: General]

The original content was at Spanish language. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. .As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.^ Content created and posted by italki users is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License .
  • italki: Find Spanish language partners, practice with a native speaker, language exchange 28 January 2010 1:53 UTC www.italki.com [Source type: Original source]

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This article uses material from the "Spanish language" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 04, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Spanish language, which are similar to those in the above article.







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