Special Warfare Combatant-craft Crewmen: Wikis

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Special Warfare Combatant-craft Crewmen
SWCCpin1.jpg
Active 16 April 1987
Country United States
Branch United States Navy
Type Maritime Special Operations Forces
Role Special Warfare Combatant-craft Crewmen operate and maintain the inventory of state-of-the-art, high-performance boats used to support SEALs and special operations missions.
Size 600+
Part of United States Navy
Naval Special Warfare Command
United States Special Operations Command
Nickname "Boat Guys"
Motto "On Time! On Target! Never Quit!"
Engagements Multinational Force in Lebanon
Operation Earnest Will
Operation Iraqi Freedom

The U.S. Navy's Special Warfare Combatant-craft Crewmen (SWCC, pronounced "swick") are Special Operations Forces who operate and maintain an inventory of state-of-the-art, high-performance boats used to support special operations missions, particularly those of the U.S. Navy SEALs. Individually, SEALs and SWCC go through separate, but similar, specialized training programs that emphasize special operations in the maritime environment. SWCC are trained extensively in craft and weapons tactics, techniques and procedures. Focusing on clandestine infiltration and exfiltration of SEALs and other special operations forces, SWCC provide dedicated, rapid mobility in shallow water areas where large ships cannot operate. Like SEALs, SWCC must be physically fit, highly motivated, combat-focused, and responsive in high stress situations.

Contents

History

Special Boat Teams can trace their history back to World War II. Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron Three rescued General Douglas MacArthur (and later the Filipino President) from the Philippines after the Japanese invasion and then participated in guerrilla actions until American resistance ended with the fall of Corregidor. PT Boats subsequently participated in most of the campaigns in the Southwest Pacific by conducting and supporting joint/combined reconnaissance, blockade, sabotage, and raiding missions as well as attacking Japanese shore facilities, shipping, and combatants. PT Boats were used in the European Theater beginning in April 1944 to support the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) in the insertions of espionage and French Resistance personnel and for amphibious landing deception. While there is no direct line between organizations, NSW embracement is predicated on the similarity in craft and mission.

SWCC in the Special Operations Craft-Riverine

The development of a robust riverine warfare capability during the Vietnam War produced the forerunner of the modern Special Warfare Combatant-craft Crewman. Mobile Support Teams provided combat craft support for SEAL operations, as did Patrol Boat, Riverine (PBR) and Fast Patrol Craft sailors. In February 1964, Boat Support Unit ONE was established under Naval Operations Support Group, Pacific to operate the newly reinstated Patrol Torpedo Fast (PTF) program and to operate high-speed craft in support of NSW forces. In late 1964 the first PTFs arrived in Da Nang, Vietnam. In 1965, Boat Support Squadron ONE began training Patrol Craft Fast crews for Vietnamese coastal patrol and interdiction operations. As the Vietnam mission expanded into the riverine environment, additional craft, tactics, and training evolved for riverine patrol and SEAL support.[1]

SWCC detachments have participated in nearly every major conflict since then, particularly in the Persian Gulf theatre during the 1987-1988 period of conflict and the 1991 Gulf War to the more recent War on Terrorism.

SWCC are now recognized as masters of a special subset of maritime Special Operations, and employ their specialized training, equipment, and tactics conducting missions worldwide, both independently and in support of US and foreign Special Operations Forces (SOF).

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The Special Warfare Boat Operator (SB) Rating

The Global War on Terrorism was the impetus for several important changes in the NSW community. One of these many changes was the creation of a new SB rating system for SWCCs, allowing them to focus on their unique skill sets, avoid limitations imposed by the old regime of "source ratings", reach consensus and unity within their knowledge base, and enjoy advancement opportunities on par with the rest of the Navy.

The Special Warfare Combatant-craft Crewman (SWCC) Warfare Specialty

Another important development was the recognition of the knowledge, skills, and training of SWCC crewmen as a warfare specialty, represented by the NEC 5352 and later denoted by the award of a military device or service badge.

For a brief period qualified sailors were awarded no device; Boat Captain-qualified sailors wore the Small Craft Insignia originally created for and worn by Riverine Sections during the Vietnam War. Still earlier than this, the Small Craft Pin was worn by those with the 9533 NEC. Many other units within the Navy awarded the small craft badge, and there was controversy regarding the original intent associated with its creation. The matter has been somewhat settled as the small craft badge has recently been awarded only to Conventional Riverine units under the NECC and SWCC Boat Captains, who wear it in addition to the SWCC device. [2]

Training

To become a Special Warfare Combatant-craft Crewman, a service member must apply and be accepted to special programs, pass SWCC Basic Crewman Training school, and pass other schools such as SERE. Following this, they undergo Crewman Qualification Training (CQT) concurrently with a probationary period.

Pipeline

U.S. Navy special warfare combatant-craft crewmen (SWCC) from Special Boat Team 22 drive a special operations craft-riverine at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Mississippi Aug. 16, 2009

Entering training for Navy SWCC is voluntary. In order to volunteer for and enter SWCC training, candidates must meet certain minimum criteria:

  • be a male on active duty in the United States Navy
  • be between the age of 17 and 30
  • have uncorrected vision no worse than 20/200 in both eyes correctable to 20/20 through contacts or glasses
  • Candidate can not be colorblind or color deficient
  • be a U.S. citizen
  • obtain a AR+WK=104, MC=50 or higher on the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB)

Initial SWCC training consists of the following:

Screening

Assignment to BCT is conditional on passing the Physical Screening Test (PST), which requires the following minimal:

  • 500-yard (457 m) swim using breast or side stroke in under 13:00
  • At least 42 push-ups in 2 minutes
  • At least 50 sit-ups in 2 minutes
  • At least 6 pull-ups from a dead hang (no time limit)
  • Run 1.5 miles (2.4 km) in running shoes in under 12:30

The above are the minimum requirements necessary to qualify for entrance in BCT. Prospective trainees are expected to far exceed these minimums. Competitive scores are as follows:

  • 500-yard swim using breast or combat side stroke in 10:00 minutes or less
  • 79 push-ups in 2 minutes
  • 79 sit-ups in 2 minutes
  • 11 pull-ups from a dead hang (no time limit)
  • Run 1.5 miles in boots and trousers in under 10:20

SWCC Basic Crewman Training (BCT)

Instructors of the SWCC Basic Crewman Training course train, develop, and assess SWCC candidates in physical conditioning, water competency, teamwork, and mental tenacity. This course starts with a two-week indoctrination. The SWCC Basic Crewman Training is five weeks long. Physical conditioning with running, swimming, and calisthenics grows harder as the weeks progress. Students abilities, mental fortitude and teamwork skills are tested during an arduous 72 hour long evolution involving little sleep, constant exposure to the elements, underway boat and swimming events, and a test of navigational skills and boat tactics. SWCC students participate in weekly timed runs, timed obstacle course evolutions, pool, bay and ocean swims, and learn small boat seamanship. Upon the completion of SWCC BCT, students advance to Crewman Qualification Training.

Crewman Qualification Training (CQT)

Instructors of Crewman Qualification Training (CQT) train, develop, and qualify SWCC candidates in basic weapons, seamanship, first aid, and small unit tactics. This phase of training is fourteen weeks in length. Physical training here is geared to prepare the student to meet the requirements of the operational Special Boat Teams. CQT concentrates on teaching Maritime Navigation, communications, waterborne patrolling techniques, marksmanship and engineering. The student also receives an introduction to the NSW Mission Planning Cycle, enabling him to participate in the planning, briefing, execution, and debriefing of an NSW mission from their tasking, to launch point, and on to their combat objective, where students apply all the techniques they have acquired during training.[3]

Due to the training and prerequisites (such as graduation from the SWCC and SERE schools) involved in qualification, the SWCC is recognized by those within the broader realm of "small boat" outfits of the armed forces as a comparatively difficult qualification to obtain.

Due in part to SWCC's extremely difficult training and operating environment, which are somewhat similar to those of their SEAL colleagues, they are qualified to operate jointly with other armed forces (particularly those within USSOCOM such as SEALs, Special Forces, MARSOC and AFSOC) operate in inclement weather and sea state, evade and fight on land as a contingency, and perform maritime special operations missions such as direct action, recon, ship boarding or Visit, Board, Search, and Seizure (VBSS), and sea-to-land support using a broad array of vessels and armaments.

Further training

Special Boat Team 22 in SOC-R boats

SWCCs invariably receive broad individual and detachment in-house training and attend schools as needed. SWCCs may attend schools related to radio communications, weapons, maritime and land navigation, outboard, diesel, and waterjet engines, desert survival, jungle survival, air assault, special operations combat medic training, and many other DOD schools according to the needs of their respective Team. SWCCs also receive extensive in-house training in these and other areas on an ongoing basis in order to keep skills fresh and synergies alive.

Combat medic training

BLS & Medic Assistant Training:

Combat First Aid and Lifesaving, Emergency Response, Emergency Life Support, evaluation, water search and rescue, stabilizing, package, transport, and medevac skills are of vital importance to all forces within the Special Operations Community, since they operate far from medical assets and rely on their independent capabilities. SWCC platforms provide a unique opportunity to provide a "next layer" of prehospital medical stabilization and MEDEVAC capability between the field and helicopter transport. Inbound SEAL casualties are a likely scenario, and the nature of their missions places them at a high risk of casualty as well.

Because of this, all SWCCs receive ongoing and repeated in-house training in combat first aid, basic life support, airway management and oxygen administration, trauma care, limited emergency medication administration, and I.V. therapy- a set of skills roughly analogous to civilian BLS, BTLS, and EMT-B qualification, and thus quite arguably conferring on every SWCC the unofficial distinction of being a combat medic by the general definition. However, the SWCC community generally recognizes these members as "medic assistants" in order to clarify this role from that of the lead [para]medic, whose primary and consistent function as a paramedic is continually reinforced by years of training and experience. Every SWCC receives this basic medic assistant training.

Some, but not all NSW medics came originally from the Hospital Corpsman rating. Thus, while not all Hospital Corpsmen are combat medics, and not all combat medics are Hospital Corpsmen, all SWCCs are by the general definition combat medics— particularly after repeated workup cycles and ongoing training have refined their skills to a level of proficiency congruent with combat medics and civilian EMTs and paramedics at large.

Some SWCCs have attended (and continue to attend) civilian EMT and paramedic courses (either funded or completed through their own ambition); and several of these men have enjoyed an ad-hoc, de facto status as "docs" serving in their detachments as medics.

A more recent development is that SWCCs are now trained alongside SEALs and MARSOC counterparts as NSW combat medics, attending the same Naval Special Warfare Combat Medic and Tactical Combat Casualty Control (TCCC)-based course.

NSW Combat Medics/Lead Medics

Within the NSW community, the title of SWCC detachment or SEAL platoon "medic" is applied to SB (SWCC) and SO (SEAL) members who have completed NSW combat medic course, training equivalent to civilian EMT-P certification, a civilian qualification which they are indeed eligible to test for immediately after training.

These men are among the rare exceptions to the general rule that "all Navy combat medics are Hospital Corpsmen (HMs)". Because of changes leading to the establishment of the SB and SO ratings, non-corpsmen SEALs and SWCCs attend the course,[4] become qualified NSW combat medics, and serve primarily as medics for the rest of their careers within Naval Special Warfare, in addition to performing their various other roles as a SWCC crewman.

Special Warfare Combat Medics are the primary or lead combat medics in a SWCC detachment. In the past, SEAL Corpsmen served as the lead medics in larger SWCC detachments and managed shoreside clinics at Special Boat Teams (SBTs). These SEALs contributed greatly to the Special Boat Teams and the professional development of their SWCC combat medic counterparts. Smaller SWCC detachments have pooled the skills of SWCC crewmembers to execute medevacs and handle emergencies, and thus did not usually have SEAL medics onboard. While readiness is still achieved by pooling of crew skills through medic assistant quals, SWCCs are now taking on lead medic roles within their community and working collaboratively with their SEAL and MARSOC counterparts and capitalizing on the benefit of a stable maritime platform, additional medical equipment, and the ability to provide longer-term stabilization of casualties (leaning toward the ATLS model vs. the TCCC model as appropriate) onboard their craft.

Maritime Craft Aerial Deployment System (MCADS)

U.S. Army Airborne School and U.S. Navy Free-fall School

SWCC personnel are now more frequently trained as parajumpers with the development of the Maritime Craft Aerial Deployment System (MCADS).

Serving as a true force multiplier, the MCADS capability enables Naval Special Warfare Sailors to rapidly deploy anywhere in the world in a maritime environment. The system deploys an 11-meter RIB (rigid inflatable boat) rigged with four large parachutes from the back of a C-130 or C-17 at approximately 3,500 feet. Approximately four SWCCs immediately follow the boat out of the plane and parachute to the immediate proximity of where the boat lands. Within 20 minutes the SWCCs have the boat unpacked and rigged to get underway to deliver an element of SOF (special operation force) operators to any potential target of interest, or to conduct their own mission.

Maritime External Air Transportation System (MEATS)

SWCC personnel also attend the U.S. Army Air Assault School. A common operation the SWCC train for involving helicopters is called MEATS or Maritime External Air Transportation System.

Special Boat Teams (SBT) perform an insertion/extraction delivery system called MEATS. MEATS allows an Army CH-47D helicopter to hover over a craft used by SWCC to be rigged to the underbelly of the helo with slings. The Combatant-Craft Crewman will then ascend a ladder dropped down from the helo into the craft and the CH47D will extract the craft out of the water once the SWCC are onboard the helo. A SWCC craft can also be inserted into a Maritime environment giving the SWCC a longer range on land or at sea.

A variant of the MEATS insertion method was seen in the movie Apocalypse Now, where a Huey airlifted a (movie prop) PBR from one river and deposited it into a different river.

SWCC teams and structure

Naval Special Warfare currently has three Special Boat Teams in which SWCC personnel are assigned to. They are Special Boat Team Twelve (SBT-12), Twenty (SBT-20), and Twenty-Two (SBT-22). Each Team operates in its own location, primary designated operational areas, numbers and type of craft. All Special Boat Teams are under the overall command of Naval Special Warfare Group Four, which is based at Naval Amphibious Base Little Creek, Virginia. Each Special Boat Team is commanded by a Navy SEAL commander (O-5). Special Boat Team 12 operates the Mark V Special Operations Craft and the 11-meter Rigid Hull Inflatable Boats and is split into several detachments that deploys with Naval Special Warfare Unit One (NSWU-1) in Guam, and Naval Special Warfare Unit Three (NSWU-3) in Bahrain. Special Boat Team 20 also operates the Mark V Special Operations Craft and the 11-meter Rigid Hull Inflatable Boats and is split into several detachments that deploys with Naval Special Warfare Unit Two (NSWU-2) in Stuttgart, Germany and Naval Special Warfare Unit Ten (NSWU-10) in Rota, Cádiz, Spain. Special Boat Team 22 operates the Special Operations Craft Riverine (SOC-R) and has several detachments that deploy worldwide.

Insignia Team Deployment HQ Notes
Special Boat Team 12.JPG Special Boat Team 12 Worldwide Naval Amphibious Base Coronado, California
Special Boat Team 20.jpg Special Boat Team 20 Worldwide Naval Amphibious Base Little Creek, Virginia
Special Boat Team 22.jpg Special Boat Team 22 Worldwide John C. Stennis Space Center, Mississippi Specializes in riverine warfare

Insignia

Special Warfare Combatant-Craft Crewman insignia
SpecCombatBadge.png
Awarded by United States Navy
Type Warfare Qualification Pin
Awarded for Completing Basic Crewman Training and Crewman Qualification Training

The Special Warfare Combatant-Craft Crewman insignia (SWCC insignia) is a military qualification badge of the United States Navy which was first conceived in 1996, though the design was not approved for wear until 2001.

The insignia is authorized for wear by volunteer members of Special Boat Teams (formerly Special Boat Units) under U.S. Naval Special Warfare Command. Candidates must pass the SWCC course (BCT) of instruction at Coronado, California and then complete Crewman Qualification Training (CQT) for their specific Special Boat Unit or Special Boat Team (SBT).

SWCC as a culture

Individuals serving as SWCC are part of a small and distinct military subculture. As a result of their training, physical fitness, and personal associations with other groups in the military that they have interacted with regularly, many SWCC spend a good deal of off-duty time boating, sailing, sea kayaking, camping, hunting, shooting, and engaging in extreme sports and adventure travel. Many celebrate a shared value system, their extensive international travel experience, and their love of the sea. Many long nights have been spent telling "sea stories" centered on these themes, out on the water, at pubs, or around campfires.

Many SWCCs pursue civilian qualifications such as sailing and USCG licensures, Range Safety Officers (RSO), as well as civilian scuba and skydiving certifications.

Not surprisingly quite a few SWCC veterans have gone to work in the maritime and transportation industries, in emergency services, law enforcement, as beach lifeguards, and in various civil service positions that are often related to their past experience. Many others have taken different tacks into business, healthcare, and other fields.

See also


References

Further reading

External links


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