Species: Wikis

  
  

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Life Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

The hierarchy of biological classification's eight major taxonomic ranks. .A genus contains one or more species.^ However, nonrandom mating may have led to at least one more recent sympatric speciation.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Even the helium atom, which contains just one more electron than hydrogen, defies all attempts at a fully analytic treatment.

^ To which I answer, they are; and so are many more articles; but they are such as are contained in this one, and may be deduced from it, with more or less difficulty.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

Intermediate minor rankings are not shown.
In biology, a species is:
  • a taxonomic rank (the basic rank of biological classification) or
  • a unit at that rank (in which case the plural is "species". This is sometimes abbreviated: "spec." or "sp." singular, or "spp." plural).
.There are many definitions of what kind of unit a species is (or should be).^ There are many kinds of mutations.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is likely that there are many ways speciation can occur.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I judge that there are many definitely promiscuous people and that this laxity arises from factors of personality development as well as from a promiscuous culture ."
  • Racism 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.A common definition is that of a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring of both genders, and separated from other such groups with which interbreeding does not (normally) happen.^ A local group of organisms belonging to the same species and capable of interbreeding.
  • biology dictionary 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The genealogical or evolutionary species concept defines a species as a group of organisms with a unique genetic history – a group which shares common ancestry without divergence.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Once the eggs are fertilized, chromosomes may be so incompatible that mitosis and meiosis cannot proceed normally; if the zygote cannot develop, offspring do not survive.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

.Other definitions may focus on similarity of DNA or morphology.^ Additional Information may be requested for specific Promotions, such as a user's preferences regarding goods or services, choices of music or artists, or other similar survey information.
  • The Amazing Racist | SPIKE 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Jones' definition and others like it, however, may leave the impression that the victims of European or "white" racism can't be "racist."
  • Racism 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Optional information may be requested for specific promotions, such as a user's preferences regarding goods or services, choices of music or artists, or other similar survey information.
  • The Amazing Racist | SPIKE 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

.Some species are further subdivided into subspecies, and here also there is no close agreement on the criteria to be used.^ Is there no sense of judgment here?
  • Beck caps off week of race-baiting by calling Obama a "racist" | Media Matters for America 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are twenty some species in this fascinating saprophytic genus from Southern China, S.E. Asia, Malaysia, Indonesia, New Guinea, Australia and the Philippines.
  • Jay's Internet Orchid Species Photo Encyclopedia Dendroc 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.orchidspecies.com [Source type: General]

^ A final term for such a program as indeed has been pointed out in other posts here is that there be some sort of agreement with the Mexican people to begin to face up to their domestic problems instead of running away from them.
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Biologists' working definition

.A usable definition of the word "species" and reliable methods of identifying particular species is essential for stating and testing biological theories and for measuring biodiversity.^ Ernst Mayr, who developed the biological species concept mentioned above, also identified two essential components of speciation.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Which definition of species – biological, morphological, ecological, or genealogical – do you prefer?
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There are, however, certain states that are associated with a definite value of a particular observable.

.Traditionally, multiple examples of a proposed species must be studied for unifying characters before it can be regarded as a species.^ Aegean Art : A 4 page study of art in the region surrounding Greece before the insurgence of the more traditionally known Greek period of art.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The human nature we are considering is the internal structure and powers of the individual man, a structure and powers which would be his even if he were the only example of his species: we are considering the character of the solitary.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 1: Introduction to Leviathan - Hobbes on Civil Association 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is generally difficult to give precise taxonomic rankings to extinct species known only from fossils.^ Thus, the special case of the Schwarzschild vacuum (α=0) gives the "monopole point source " of general relativity.

^ The only known surviving 'Race' of Hominids is 'Sapien' - Homo Sapiens - or generally 'Humans', what the differentiation is regarding is culture, religion (or did an ancestor convert, complicating matters again ?
  • Toddlers who dislike spicy food racist, say report - Telegraph 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Recommended by: Matt Z , mamamedusa , wonderful world , kyril stamps they only give out to special people.
  • Daily Kos: Rep. Roy Blunt's racist "monkey joke" (Updated) 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some biologists may view species as statistical phenomena, as opposed to the traditional idea, with a species seen as a class of organisms.^ And, just as variation within a species ensures that some individuals will survive environmental change, a great diversity of species increases the chance that at least some organisms will survive major changes in the environment.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some biologists doubt the relative importance of sympatric speciation to evolutionary change, but several examples demonstrate the potential for this mechanism of evolution.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This may be the reason, along with the obvious american media portraiture of black americans, that makes black americans “second class.” Of course, I may be overstating; China views America as fundamentally black and white.

.In that case, a species is defined as a separately evolving lineage that forms a single gene pool.^ These species were not from a single, unbranched lineage.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Define a population’s gene pool.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ At what point do the allele frequency changes of microevolution add up to define a new and separate species?
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

.Although properties such as DNA-sequences and morphology are used to help separate closely-related lineages, this definition has fuzzy boundaries.^ Electrophoresis through a matrix composed of a synthetic polymer, used to separate proteins, small DNA, or RNA molecules of up to 1000 nucleotides.
  • biology dictionary 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A matrix composed of a highly purified form of agar that is used to separate larger DNA and RNA molecules ranging 20,000 nucleotides.
  • biology dictionary 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Gene sequences in closely related species are very similar.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .However, the exact definition of the term "species" is still controversial, particularly in prokaryotes,[2] and this is called the species problem.^ Before we leave the “species problem” and Homo sapiens , it is worth noting that all of the various definitions of species confirm the unity of the human species.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This definition serves the goal of defining members of a species as individuals which are still undergoing evolution – they form a distinct yet potentially common gene pool.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Empty suit raises special philosophical problems for a definition (which we have not given) of synecdoche.
  • SBF Glossary: S/U to S2S 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC www.plexoft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .Biologists have proposed a range of more precise definitions, but the definition used is a pragmatic choice that depends on the particularities of the species concerned.^ Biologists probably use this method more than any other to differentiate species in nature, despite its limitations in confirming the potential for interbreeding.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A widely used definition of species is the biological species concept ( Figure below ), first proposed by evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr in 1942.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A much more practical definition is the morphological species concept , which groups organisms based on structural and biochemical similarities.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

[3]

Common names and species

.The commonly used names for plant and animal taxa sometimes correspond to species: for example, "lion", "walrus", and "Camphor tree" – each refers to a species.^ The study of the fossil record of past geo- logical periods and of the phylogenetic relationships between ancient and contemporary plant and animal species.
  • biology dictionary 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tim Link Native Americans are a great example of how a human can honor an animal and at the same time use them for their needs.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The broad exchange that followed is known as the Columbian Exchange and resulted in a two-way transfer of a number of plant and animal species - as well as virulent pathogens.
  • Racism 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In other cases common names do not: for example, "deer" refers to a family of 34 species, including Eld's Deer, Red Deer and Elk (Wapiti).^ For there is in this case no other common stock, but what is made of their particular adventures.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Leviathan 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And that Swearing unnecessarily by God, is but prophaning of his name: and Swearing by other things, as men do in common discourse, is not Swearing, but an impious Custome, gotten by too much vehemence of talking.

^ But yet a Family is not properly a Common−wealth; unlesse it be of that power by its own number, or by other opportunities, as not to be subdued without the hazard of war.

.The last two species were once considered a single species, illustrating how species boundaries may change with increased scientific knowledge.^ How fundamental an oversight this was we shall see in a moment; but first we may consider the defect in the argument from another standpoint.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 1: Introduction to Leviathan - Hobbes on Civil Association 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, environmental change within a population’s range may lead to two habitats in which genetic divergence may take place.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Two species of plants may hybridize – often forming unusually vigorous hybrid offspring.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

.Because of the difficulties with both defining and tallying the total numbers of different species in the world, it is estimated that there are anywhere between 2 and 100 million different species.^ There is a difference between the two.

^ HOROWITZ: It's a totally different world.
  • Beck caps off week of race-baiting by calling Obama a "racist" | Media Matters for America 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anywhere from 6 to 30 million different species of insects.
  • The Bathroom Wall - The Panda's Thumb 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC pandasthumb.org [Source type: Original source]

[4]

Placement within genera

.Ideally, a species is given a formal, scientific name, although in practice there are very many unnamed species (which have only been described, not named).^ The basiosynonym is the very first name that a species had before it was changed to the current species name.
  • Jay's Internet Orchid Species Photo Encyclopedia Dendroc 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.orchidspecies.com [Source type: General]

^ But here we must take notice that by a name is not always understood, as in grammar, one only word, but sometimes by circumlocution many words together.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ It is likely that there are many ways speciation can occur.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When a species is named, it is placed within a genus.^ It is the sole species within the Arenophryne genus.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the plant genus Tragopogon , two new species have evolved within the past 50-60 years.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sandfly Sandfly biting a human's little finger Sand fly or sandfly is a colloquial name for any species or genus of flying, biting, blood-sucking Dipteran that is encountered in sandy areas.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From a scientific point of view this can be regarded as a hypothesis that the species is more closely related to other species within its genus (if any) than to species of other genera.^ Some are more unique than others .
  • memepool.com: Culture archive 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

^ There are 4 species in this genus related to Bulbophyllum.
  • Jay's Internet Orchid Species Photo Encyclopedia Dendroc 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.orchidspecies.com [Source type: General]

^ A category including closely related species.
  • biology dictionary 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Academic]

.A genus is commonly included in a hierarchy, with as the best-known taxonomic ranks: life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species.^ Least Concern (IUCN) [2] Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Monotremata Family: Ornithorhynchidae Genus: Ornithorhynchus Blumenbach, 1800 Species: O. anatinus Binomial name Ornithorhynchus anatinus (Shaw, 1799) Platypus range (indicated by darker shading) Platypus range (indicated by darker shading)[3] .

^ Revision of the genus Werneria Poche, 1903, including the descriptions of two new species from Cameroon and Gabon (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae).
  • AmphibiaWeb Species Lists 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.amphibiaweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ He is best known for his work in designing television's more iconic title sequences, such as the walking partridges in The Partridge Family, and the brush-stroke l..
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This assignment to a genus is not immutable; later a different (or the same) taxonomist may assign it to a different genus, in which case the name will also change.^ But that when a thing is in motion, it will eternally be in motion, unless somewhat els stay it, though the reason be the same, (namely, that nothing can change it selfe,) is not so easily assented to.

^ And because the same things may enter into account for diverse accidents, their names are (to show that diversity) diversely wrested and diversified.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ In some cases, whites don't want to know anyone of a different race, don't want to ever talk to anyone of a different race, they just want to live in their white world and don't ever want to change that.
  • What is Racism? - Mary Mitchell 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC blogs.suntimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.In biological nomenclature, the name for a species is a two-part name (a binomial name), treated as Latin, although roots from any language can be used as well as names of locales or individuals.^ In fact, there are two saints with the same name, who were merged into a single one, venerated in the same day (November 12th) in Italy as well as in France.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The result of speciation is two groups of individuals, each more closely adapted to local environmental conditions than the larger parent population.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Two parts cliché, one part original, mix well and refrigerate until set.

.The generic name is listed first (with its leading letter capitalized), followed by a second term, the specific name (or specific epithet).^ Generation Monsters are listed first in each case, followed by 2nd Generation Monsters.
  • Rune Factory 2: A Fantasy Harvest MoonCave & Beastiary FAQ/guide - IGNFAQs 11 September 2009 0:39 UTC faqs.ign.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first winners were Bengal, who also lead the all-time winners list with 29 titles till date.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sure, the specific instances she names were offensive, but whether or not someone used a certain term (and in what tone, at what time) is somewhat beside the point.
  • Feministing: Racism Archives 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.feministing.com [Source type: General]

.For example, the species commonly known as the Longleaf Pine is Pinus palustris; gray wolves belong to the species Canis lupus, coyotes to Canis latrans, golden jackals to Canis aureus, etc., and all of those belong to the genus Canis (which also contains many other species).^ There are many programming languages for computers, some arcane and known to only a few, some with a rich library of a multitude of expressions that allow for vastly greater descriptions and actions, some more structured than others, etc.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Seattle Public Schools' Web Site Says Individualism is a Form of "Cultural Racism": 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many cities and rural towns USA have their own special holidays and festivities celebrating various White man`s heritage, from Rodeos to Greek festivals etc.
  • Racist Attacks on Obama Growing More Heated | Hatewatch | Southern Poverty Law Center 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.splcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is clearly demonstrated by Stallo as regards the crucial problems of modern physics (as was done by De Quatrefages and several others in those of anthropology, biology, etc., etc.

.The name of the species is the whole binomial, not just the second term (which may be called the specific name for animals).^ We’re just clashing ideologies, and when that doesn’t work we resort to name-calling.

^ But secondly, the claim to be the authority to settle and interpret the scriptures may be made on behalf of a special spiritual authority, calling itself, for the purpose, a church.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 1: Introduction to Leviathan - Hobbes on Civil Association 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When a white guy's policy choices are criticized -- and he's called vile names -- it's just politics.
  • Carter: Racism behind Obama protests: The Swamp 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

.This binomial naming convention, later formalized in the biological codes of nomenclature, was first used by Leonhart Fuchs and introduced as the standard by Carolus Linnaeus in his 1753, Species Plantarum (followed by his, 1758 Systema Naturae, 10th edition).^ So that the first use of names is to serve for marks or notes of remembrance.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ If you read the Name Art of George Bush very carefully, you will see we shared the healing codes he could have used to bring peace on earth.
  • The Lexigram Name Art of GEORGE WALKER BUSH, aka George Bush, in Star Arts form from Good Works On Earth - Copyright 2009-1999 All Rights ReServed World Wise 25 September 2009 7:55 UTC www.goodworksonearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A widely used definition of species is the biological species concept ( Figure below ), first proposed by evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr in 1942.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

.At that time, the chief biological theory was that species represented independent acts of creation by God and were therefore considered objectively real and immutable, so the hypothesis of common descent did not apply.^ The kingdom therefore of God is a real, not a metaphorical kingdom; and so taken, not only in the Old Testament, but the New.

^ Our Saviour therefore, both in teaching and reigning, representeth, as Moses did, the person God; which God from that time forward, but not before, is called the Father; and, being still one and the same substance, is one person as represented by Moses, and another person as represented by His Son the Christ.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, evolution and common descent are considered fact by the scientific community.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Abbreviated names

Books and articles sometimes intentionally do not identify species fully and use the abbreviation "sp." in the singular or "spp." in the plural in place of the specific epithet: for example, Canis sp. This commonly occurs in the following types of situations:
.
  • The authors are confident that some individuals belong to a particular genus but are not sure to which exact species they belong.^ There are twenty some species in this fascinating saprophytic genus from Southern China, S.E. Asia, Malaysia, Indonesia, New Guinea, Australia and the Philippines.
    • Jay's Internet Orchid Species Photo Encyclopedia Dendroc 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.orchidspecies.com [Source type: General]

    ^ And no we can't say white Australians are all racist, because they aren't, there are some very tolerant buggers out there, but Australian society sure is.
    • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Racism in Australia 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ He was a fan of the TV series as a kid, but as he says, "I just wanted to make sure they weren't trying to make some hokey middle–of–the road comedy.
    • ben barren - rss'ing down under: August 2005 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC benbarren.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

    This is particularly common in paleontology.
  • The authors use "spp." as a short way of saying that something applies to many species within a genus, but do not wish to say that it applies to all species within that genus. If scientists mean that something applies to all species within a genus, they use the genus name without the specific epithet.
.In books and articles, genus and species names are usually printed in italics.^ There are three species in this terrestrial genus segregated from Stenorrhynchos Common Name or Meaning The Two Colored Flower Orchid Type Species = !
  • Jay's Internet Orchid Species Photo Encyclopedia Dendroc 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.orchidspecies.com [Source type: General]

^ There are 5 species in this genus confined to New Guinea Common Name or Meaning The Wood Nymph Orchids [refers fancifully to the mist forest locale of the species] Type Species = !
  • Jay's Internet Orchid Species Photo Encyclopedia Dendroc 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.orchidspecies.com [Source type: General]

^ Sandfish Sandfish is a common name of Gonorhynchus, a genus of fishScincus scincus, a skink This is a [disambiguationdisambiguation] page: a list of articles associated with the same title.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

If using "sp." and "spp.", these should not be italicized.

Difficulty of defining "species" and identifying particular species

The Greenish Warbler demonstrates the concept of a ring species.
.It is surprisingly difficult to define the word "species" in a way that applies to all naturally occurring organisms, and the debate among biologists about how to define "species" and how to identify actual species is called the species problem.^ How about serious national problems?
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ The genealogical or evolutionary species concept defines a species as a group of organisms with a unique genetic history – a group which shares common ancestry without divergence.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The only stable nuclear isomer is Ta-180m, which occurs naturally in tantalum at about 1 part in 8300.

Most textbooks follow Ernst Mayr's definition of a species as "groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations, which are reproductively isolated from other such groups".[5]
Various parts of this definition serve to exclude some unusual or artificial matings:
  • Those which occur only in captivity (when the animal's normal mating partners may not be available) or as a result of deliberate human action.
  • Animals which may be physically and physiologically capable of mating but do not normally do so in the wild, for various reasons.
The typical textbook definition above works well for most multi-celled organisms, but there are several types of situations in which it breaks down:
.
  • By definition it applies only to organisms that reproduce sexually.^ In most sexually reproducing organisms, there are two of each chromosome type in every cell.
    • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Note that both the morphological and ecological definitions “work” for asexually reproducing organisms, and many fossils, as well.
    • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In some cases, organisms will completely forgo reproducing and only help their relatives reproduce.
    • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .So it does not work for asexually reproducing single-celled organisms and for the relatively few parthenogenetic multi-celled organisms.^ Most are lost from the gene pool, the organism carrying them fails to reproduce, or reproduces but does not pass on that particular allele.
    • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Eukaryotes include protists (single celled organisms like amoebas and diatoms and a few multicellular forms such as kelp), fungi (including mushrooms and yeast), plants and animals.
    • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In most sexually reproducing organisms, there are two of each chromosome type in every cell.
    • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The term "phylotype" is often applied to such organisms.
  • Biologists frequently do not know whether two morphologically similar groups of organisms are "potentially" capable of interbreeding.
  • There is considerable variation in the degree to which hybridization may succeed under natural conditions, or even in the degree to which some organisms use sexual reproduction between individuals to breed.
  • In ring species, members of adjacent populations interbreed successfully but members of some non-adjacent populations do not.
  • In a few cases it may be physically impossible for animals that are members of the same species to mate.^ Two species of plants may hybridize – often forming unusually vigorous hybrid offspring.
    • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A biological species is a group of organisms similar enough that they could interbreed and produce fertile offspring under natural conditions .
    • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Some individuals even vary the pitch during an Operation.

    However, these are cases in which human intervention has caused gross morphological changes, and are therefore excluded by the biological species concept.
.Horizontal gene transfer makes it even more difficult to define the word "species". There is strong evidence of horizontal gene transfer between very dissimilar groups of prokaryotes, and at least occasionally between dissimilar groups of eukaryotes; and Williamson[6] argues that there is evidence for it in some crustaceans and echinoderms.^ There's even a special 'Hummer deduction.'
  • The Lexigram Name Art of GEORGE WALKER BUSH, aka George Bush, in Star Arts form from Good Works On Earth - Copyright 2009-1999 All Rights ReServed World Wise 25 September 2009 7:55 UTC www.goodworksonearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Which of course makes me even more angry.
  • Daily Kos: Rep. Roy Blunt's racist "monkey joke" (Updated) 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are twenty some species in this fascinating saprophytic genus from Southern China, S.E. Asia, Malaysia, Indonesia, New Guinea, Australia and the Philippines.
  • Jay's Internet Orchid Species Photo Encyclopedia Dendroc 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.orchidspecies.com [Source type: General]

.All definitions of the word "species" assume that an organism gets all its genes from one or two parents which are very like that organism, but horizontal gene transfer makes that assumption false.^ Ecosystems, species, organisms and their genes all have long histories.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crossing an organism with one of its parent organisms.
  • biology dictionary 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dictionaries will give definitions like: The belief that each race has distinct and intrinsic attributes; The belief that one race is superior to all others; Prejudice or differential treatment based upon race.
  • On Faith Panelists Blog: Harry Potter: Wizards and Racism - Susan Brooks Thistlethwaite 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

Definitions of species

.The question of how best to define "species" is one that has occupied biologists for centuries, and the debate itself has become known as the species problem.^ On November 28,1966, author Truman Capote held his legendary "Black and White Ball," which was to become known as perhaps the best party of the 20th century .
  • memepool.com: Culture archive 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

^ This is one of the most influential models that shape how evolutionary biologists view evolution.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recommended by: Matt Z "No special skill, no standard attitude, no technology, and no organization - no matter how valuable - can safely replace thought itself."
  • Daily Kos: Rep. Roy Blunt's racist "monkey joke" (Updated) 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Darwin wrote in chapter II of On the Origin of Species:
No one definition has satisfied all naturalists; yet every naturalist knows vaguely what he means when he speaks of a species. Generally the term includes the unknown element of a distinct act of creation.[7]
But later, in The Descent of Man, when addressing "The question whether mankind consists of one or several species", Darwin revised his opinion to say:
it is a hopeless endeavour to decide this point on sound grounds, until some definition of the term "species" is generally accepted; and the definition must not include an element which cannot possibly be ascertained, such as an act of creation.[8]
.The modern theory of evolution depends on a fundamental redefinition of "species". Prior to Darwin, naturalists viewed species as ideal or general types, which could be exemplified by an ideal specimen bearing all the traits general to the species.^ It had all the traits common to modern mammals.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Microevolution – evolution within species or populations – can be measured as a generation-to-generation change in allele frequencies.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They could not accumulate as the theory of evolution required.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Darwin's theories shifted attention from uniformity to variation and from the general to the particular.^ In Darwin's theory of natural selection, new variants arise continually within populations.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, his theory depended on the ideas that traits could vary, and that variations were heritable – and even Darwin was puzzled as to how this might work.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

According to intellectual historian Louis Menand,
Once our attention is redirected to the individual, we need another way of making generalizations. We are no longer interested in the conformity of an individual to an ideal type; we are now interested in the relation of an individual to the other individuals with which it interacts. To generalize about groups of interacting individuals, we need to drop the language of types and essences, which is prescriptive (telling us what finches should be), and adopt the language of statistics and probability, which is predictive .(telling us what the average finch, under specified conditions, is likely to do).^ People like you are the reason that the rest of us have to keep our children under lock and key in plain daylight.

^ Must mean something like the growth of seeds for liqueur under desert conditions.
  • SBF Glossary: S/U to S2S 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC www.plexoft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I want to talk about what comments like these tell us about how we understand race, especially in the context of this election.
  • Feministing: Racism Archives 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.feministing.com [Source type: General]

.Relations will be more important than categories; functions, which are variable, will be more important than purposes; transitions will be more important than boundaries; sequences will be more important than hierarchies.^ We are fully familiar with the history of this society which was more important than all the others because of the scope of its activities and its influence.

^ If two organisms share a similar anatomy, one would then predict that their gene sequences would be more similar than a morphologically distinct organism.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the subject is truly pertinent to an article, I PROMISE I will relate more about this very trying phase of Age Change Transition.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

This shift results in a new approach to "species"; Darwin
concluded that species are what they appear to be: ideas, which are provisionally useful for naming groups of interacting individuals. "I look at the term species", he wrote, "as one arbitrarily given for the sake of convenience to a set of individuals closely resembling each other ... It does not essentially differ from the word variety, which is given to less distinct and more fluctuating forms. The term variety, again, in comparison with mere individual differences, is also applied arbitrarily, and for convenience sake." [9]
.Practically, biologists define species as populations of organisms that have a high level of genetic similarity.^ Define genetic equilibrium for a population.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The agricultural practice of cultivating crops consisting of genetically similar organisms.
  • biology dictionary 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The genealogical or evolutionary species concept defines a species as a group of organisms with a unique genetic history – a group which shares common ancestry without divergence.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

.This may reflect an adaptation to the same niche, and the transfer of genetic material from one individual to others, through a variety of possible means.^ It is certainly possible to be one, and not the other.

^ For when wee say, one Power is subject to another Power, the meaning either is, that he which hath the one, is subject to him that hath the other; or that the one Power is to the other, as the means to the end.

^ Others claim that individuals from different groups share far too much of their genetic material for group membership to have any medical implications.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The exact level of similarity used in such a definition is arbitrary, but this is the most common definition used for organisms that reproduce asexually (asexual reproduction), such as some plants and microorganisms.^ Most are lost from the gene pool, the organism carrying them fails to reproduce, or reproduces but does not pass on that particular allele.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later, evolutionary developments such as a waxy cuticle allowed some plants to exploit more inland environments.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These toilets (and other similar toilets) are a common sight in several major cities of the world, but they are perhaps most closely ass..
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This lack of any clear species concept in microbiology has led to some authors arguing that the term "species" is not useful when studying bacterial evolution.^ Some argue this is a significant setback for efforts to diversify public schools, others say race should not be used in school assignments.

^ However, phylogenetic studies conflict as to whether there is a clear association between speciation and morphological change.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When you use a superior Hammer in the Caves, you may find better items, but this brings its own difficulties in terms of lack of space in your Rucksack.
  • Rune Factory 2: A Fantasy Harvest MoonCave & Beastiary FAQ/guide - IGNFAQs 11 September 2009 0:39 UTC faqs.ign.com [Source type: Original source]

.Instead they see genes as moving freely between even distantly-related bacteria, with the entire bacterial domain being a single gene pool.^ Distinguish between a population’s gene pool and a gene pool for a single gene.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is believed that all of these put aside any differences they might have had in their Earthly careers, and unite instead to advance the spiritual well-being of humanity.

^ When alive, they are covered with a suit of moveable spines that encompass the entire shell.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nevertheless, a kind of rule of thumb has been established, saying that species of Bacteria or Archaea with 16S rRNA gene sequences more similar than 97% to each other need to be checked by DNA-DNA Hybridization if they belong to the same species or not.^ You need to do more than fact check.
  • Limbaugh's "colorblind" history of racially charged comments | Media Matters for America 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gene sequences in closely related species are very similar.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Closely related species (as determined by morphologists) have similar gene sequences.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] This concept has been updated recently, saying that the border of 97% was too low and can be raised to 98.7%.[11]
.In the study of sexually reproducing organisms, where genetic material is shared through the process of reproduction, the ability of two organisms to interbreed and produce fertile offspring of both genders is generally accepted as a simple indicator that the organisms share enough genes to be considered members of the same species.^ A biological species is a group of organisms similar enough that they could interbreed and produce fertile offspring under natural conditions .
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As you may know, wolves and dogs can interbreed to produce viable hybrids with fertile offspring; surely, wolves and dogs are not members of the same species?
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Are we all members of the same species?
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

.Thus a "species" is a group of interbreeding organisms.^ The genealogical or evolutionary species concept defines a species as a group of organisms with a unique genetic history – a group which shares common ancestry without divergence.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In practice, species are not classified according to the BSC but according to typology by the use of a holotype , due to the difficulty of determining whether all members of a group of organisms do or can in practice potentially interbreed.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A biological species is a group of organisms similar enough that they could interbreed and produce fertile offspring under natural conditions .
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

.This definition can be extended to say that a species is a group of organisms that could potentially interbreed – fish could still be classed as the same species even if they live in different lakes, as long as they could still interbreed were they ever to come into contact with each other.^ A local group of organisms belonging to the same species and capable of interbreeding.
  • biology dictionary 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In other words, they have speciated.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A group of organisms of a single species living within a certain area.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

.On the other hand, there are many examples of series of three or more distinct populations, where individuals of the population in the middle can interbreed with the populations to either side, but individuals of the populations on either side cannot interbreed.^ Or it should be, there are none others of that seriousness.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ There are many more.
  • The Mormon Curtain - MORMON RACISM 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.mormoncurtain.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other side, there's SprawlWatch .
  • SBF Glossary: S/U to S2S 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC www.plexoft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, one could argue that these populations constitute a single species, or two distinct species.^ These species were not from a single, unbranched lineage.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The two subpopulations could diverge and speciate.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wide, rapid and frequent variation of the population size or area of distribution in a number of species , with a variation greater than one order of magnitude.
  • The CITES glossary 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.cites.org [Source type: Academic]

.This is not a paradox; it is evidence that species are defined by gene frequencies, and thus have fuzzy boundaries.^ At what point do the allele frequency changes of microevolution add up to define a new and separate species?
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Evolution within a species or population, also defined as a generation-to-generation change in allele frequencies for a population.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This definition serves the goal of defining members of a species as individuals which are still undergoing evolution – they form a distinct yet potentially common gene pool.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

.Consequently, any single, universal definition of "species" is necessarily arbitrary.^ By any definition, humans form a single species, increasingly united by mobility, common genes, and common resources.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Several definitions of a species today serve different purposes; eventually, they should merge into a single clear picture of this basic unit of evolution.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

.Instead, biologists have proposed a range of definitions; which definition a biologists uses is a pragmatic choice, depending on the particularities of that biologist's research.^ A widely used definition of species is the biological species concept ( Figure below ), first proposed by evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr in 1942.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

Typological species 
A group of organisms in which individuals are members of the species if they sufficiently conform to certain fixed properties. The clusters of variations or phenotypes within specimens (i.e. longer and shorter tails) would differentiate the species. This method was used as a "classical" method of determining species, such as with Linnaeus early in evolutionary theory. However, we now know that different phenotypes do not always constitute different species (e.g.: a 4-winged Drosophila born to a 2-winged mother is not a different species). Species named in this manner are called morphospecies[12]
Morphological species 
A population or group of populations that differs morphologically from other populations. For example, we can distinguish between a chicken and a .duck because they have different shaped bills and the duck has webbed feet.^ It is not limited to the color of your skin because white people are discriminated also because they have an accent or have a different sense of humor.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Racism in Australia 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But you can also get, not to put too fine a point [on] it, empty suits that take on a normal shape only because they're so puffed up with ego.
  • SBF Glossary: S/U to S2S 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC www.plexoft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When you treat someone differently because they are a different colour, size, age, ability, sex, etc.., you are showing prejudice towards them.

.Species have been defined in this way since well before the beginning of recorded history.^ The genealogical or evolutionary species concept defines a species as a group of organisms with a unique genetic history – a group which shares common ancestry without divergence.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ You don't have a lot of say in the way the story goes, since you can only either win, or fail to fulfill your history, but the story isn't bad.

^ The broad exchange that followed is known as the Columbian Exchange and resulted in a two-way transfer of a number of plant and animal species - as well as virulent pathogens.
  • Racism 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This species concept is much criticised because more recent genetic data reveal that genetically distinct populations may look very similar and, contrarily, large morphological differences sometimes exist between very closely-related populations.^ Gene sequences in closely related species are very similar.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Offspring of cross-breeding between two different but closely related species.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What's the difference between a large pizza and a nigger?
  • The Insurgent - WAR - Racist Jokes 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.resist.com [Source type: Original source]

Nonetheless, most species known have been described solely from morphology.
Biological / Isolation species 
A set of actually or potentially interbreeding populations. This is generally a useful formulation for scientists working with living examples of the higher taxa like mammals, fish, and birds, but more problematic for organisms that do not reproduce sexually. .The results of breeding experiments done in artificial conditions may or may not reflect what would happen if the same organisms encountered each other in the wild, making it difficult to gauge whether or not the results of such experiments are meaningful in reference to natural populations.^ Here's the relevant passage: Whether born from experience or inherent physiological or cultural differences, a possibility I abhor less or discount less than my colleague Judge Cedarbaum, our gender and national origins may and will make a difference in our judging.
  • On Supreme Court nominee Sonia Sotomayor 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC newt.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He has also worked on several other mod teams and plays a huge amount of mods, making his feedback invaluable for what can be improved and ideas from other mods that may work for Fall .

^ So although this has nothing to do, Jesus' perfection and birth, or whether or not Jesus was perfect at birth has nothing to do with this message, I would just like to make a brief comment on it.
  • Sheila R. Vitale: Leviathan - Part 8 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC livingepistles.org [Source type: Original source]

Biological / reproductive species 
Two organisms that are able to reproduce naturally to produce fertile offspring of both genders. Organisms that can reproduce but almost always make infertile hybrids of at least one gender, such as a mule, .hinny or F1 male cattalo are not considered to be the same species.^ Analyze the reasons why biologists consider all humans to be members of the same species.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A mating between a horse and a donkey produces a mule, but the mule is sterile, so the horse and donkey are not considered members of the same species.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sessions questioned why she didn't vote the same way as her Puerto Rican colluege, but never thought to consider why white male judges don't always vote the same way as their white male collueges.
  • On Faith Panelists Blog: Harry Potter: Wizards and Racism - Susan Brooks Thistlethwaite 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

Recognition species
based on shared reproductive systems, including mating behavior. The Recognition concept of species has been introduced by Hugh E. H. Paterson.
Mate-recognition species 
A group of organisms that are known to recognize one another as potential mates. Like the isolation species concept above, it applies only to organisms that reproduce sexually. Unlike the isolation species concept, it focuses specifically on pre-mating reproductive isolation.
Evolutionary / Darwinian species 
A group of organisms that shares an ancestor; a lineage that maintains its integrity with respect to other lineages through both time and space. At some point in the progress of such a group, some members may diverge from the main population and evolve into a subspecies, a process that eventually will lead to the formation of a new full species if isolation (geographical or ecological) is maintained.
Phylogenetic (Cladistic
A group of organisms that shares an ancestor; a lineage that maintains its integrity with respect to other lineages through both time and space. At some point in the progress of such a group, members may diverge from one another: when such a divergence becomes sufficiently clear, the two populations are regarded as separate species. This differs from evolutionary species in that the parent species goes extinct taxonomically when a new species evolve, the mother and daughter populations now forming two new species. .Subspecies as such are not recognized under this approach; either a population is a phylogenetic species or it is not taxonomically distinguishable.^ Generally taxonomists prefer to use phylogenetic analysis to determine whether a population can be considered a subspecies.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ BSC species are routinely classified on a subspecific level, though this classification is conducted differently for different taxons, for mammals the normal taxonomic unit below the species level is usually the subspecies.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Any species, subspecies, or geographically separate population thereof.
  • The CITES glossary 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.cites.org [Source type: Academic]

Ecological species
A set of organisms adapted to a particular set of resources, called a niche, in the environment. According to this concept, populations form the discrete phenetic clusters that we recognize as species because the ecological and evolutionary processes controlling how resources are divided up tend to produce those clusters.
Genetic species 
based on similarity of DNA of individuals or populations. Techniques to compare similarity of DNA include DNA-DNA hybridization, and genetic fingerprinting (or DNA barcoding).
Phenetic species
based on phenotypes.
Microspecies 
Species that reproduce without meiosis or fertilization so that each generation is genetically identical to the previous generation. See also apomixis.
Cohesion species 
Most inclusive population of individuals having the potential for phenotypic cohesion through intrinsic cohesion mechanisms. This is an expansion of the mate-recognition species concept to allow for post-mating isolation mechanisms; no matter whether populations can hybridize successfully, they are still distinct cohesion species if the amount of hybridization is insufficient to completely mix their respective gene pools.
Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) 
An evolutionarily significant unit is a population of organisms that is considered distinct for purposes of conservation. Often referred to as a species or a wildlife species, an .ESU also has several possible definitions, which coincide with definitions of species.^ Several definitions of a species today serve different purposes; eventually, they should merge into a single clear picture of this basic unit of evolution.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

.In practice, these definitions often coincide, and the differences between them are more a matter of emphasis than of outright contradiction.^ Between 1850 and 1880 Congress established the more than three hundred (300) "Indian" reservations (most of which still exist today).
  • Racism 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In theory, there is no difference between theory and practice; but in practice, there always is a difference.
  • Daily Kos: Rep. Roy Blunt's racist "monkey joke" (Updated) 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no eqality between white and non-white racism: one is ideological and the latter, more likely than not, experienced-based.
  • PlanetPapers - Racism In America 28 January 2010 0:43 UTC www.planetpapers.com [Source type: Original source]

.Nevertheless, no species concept yet proposed is entirely objective, or can be applied in all cases without resorting to judgment.^ The genealogical or evolutionary species concept defines a species as a group of organisms with a unique genetic history – a group which shares common ancestry without divergence.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ And yet as absurd as it is, this is it they demand; not knowing that the Lawes are of no power to protect them, without a Sword in the hands of a man, or men, to cause those laws to be put in execution.

^ And in this also we must have recourse to Gods Lieutenant; to whom in all doubtfull cases, wee have submitted our private judgments.

.Given the complexity of life, some have argued that such an objective definition is in all likelihood impossible, and biologists should settle for the most practical definition.^ The phrase is closely associated with New Thought beliefs and practices, from which its most common definition arises, but it also has a long standing (and more complex development) in other esoteric fields such as Hermeticism and Theosophy .

^ Some argue this is a significant setback for efforts to diversify public schools, others say race should not be used in school assignments.

^ It seems impossible, but I think I should just level up some more.
  • The Official Final Fantasy XII Thread [Archive] - Page 2 - The Superhero Hype! Boards 18 September 2009 16:37 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: General]

For most vertebrates, this is the biological species concept (BSC), and to a lesser extent (or for different purposes) the phylogenetic species concept (PSC). .Many BSC subspecies are considered species under the PSC; the difference between the BSC and the PSC can be summed up insofar as that the BSC defines a species as a consequence of manifest evolutionary history, while the PSC defines a species as a consequence of manifest evolutionary potential.^ The genealogical or evolutionary species concept defines a species as a group of organisms with a unique genetic history – a group which shares common ancestry without divergence.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ At what point do the allele frequency changes of microevolution add up to define a new and separate species?
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The most classic example that I can give you is what defines equal protection under the law between men and women.
  • On Supreme Court nominee Sonia Sotomayor 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC newt.org [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, a PSC species is "made" as soon as an evolutionary lineage has started to separate, while a BSC species starts to exist only when the lineage separation is complete.^ Some would argue that certain evolutionary phenomena apply only at speciation and macroevolutionary change cannot occur without speciation.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It may only be sold again to a gentile after it has been completely made over.

.Accordingly, there can be considerable conflict between alternative classifications based upon the PSC versus BSC, as they differ completely in their treatment of taxa that would be considered subspecies under the latter model (e.g., the numerous subspecies of honey bees).^ There is a difference between the two.

^ Dictionaries will give definitions like: The belief that each race has distinct and intrinsic attributes; The belief that one race is superior to all others; Prejudice or differential treatment based upon race.
  • On Faith Panelists Blog: Harry Potter: Wizards and Racism - Susan Brooks Thistlethwaite 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ There is no difference between this and a gov't agency run by some successor to Heinrich Himmler charged with spotting early signs of racial impurity.
  • Toddlers who dislike spicy food racist, say report - Telegraph 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Life Support Species: Many species display distinct adaptations to environmental extreme, as they are able to grow and reproduce under such conditions as drought, desertification, flood, soil toxicity, soil sailinity among them a number already provide source of food, materials and energy to humans, livestock and other animals, are of considerable potential benefit to man.^ In other words, they have speciated.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the animals come with the purpose of nurturing others, either humans or other animals.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Human beings cannot incarnate as animals or plants again having attained awareness of Self, or really awareness of themselves as distinct from the lower kingdoms for whom such awareness does not exist, for form follows functional mind.

and these are known as Life support species. .As such they mutually include keystone species since these hold the key to the integrity of landscapes which include both the diversity of living biota and the human communities.^ They have lived human lives (sometimes several lives).

^ On the mainland, many of the special characters used by the larger dialects, such as Cantonese, have fallen out of use because they were essentially not allowed to be printed.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Seattle Public Schools' Web Site Says Individualism is a Form of "Cultural Racism": 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the sovereign is already agreed on for judged by them both, and is therefore either to hear the cause, and determine it himself, or appoint for judge such as they shall both agree on.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

Both ecological and socio-economic species are Life support species.

Numbers of species

Undiscovered and discovered species
.Bearing in mind the aforementioned problems with categorising species, the following numbers are only a soft guide.^ The broad exchange that followed is known as the Columbian Exchange and resulted in a two-way transfer of a number of plant and animal species - as well as virulent pathogens.
  • Racism 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, in polygynous species, a number of males survive to reproductive age, but only a few ever mate.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 2007, they broke down as follows:[13]
Total number of species (estimated): 7–100 millions (identified and unidentified), including:
Of the identified eukaryote species we have[13]:
.At present, organisations such as the Global Taxonomy Initiative, the European Distributed Institute of Taxonomy and the Census of Marine Life[16] (the latter only for marine organisms) are trying to improve taxonomy and implement previously undiscovered species to the taxonomy system.^ And therefore when a fact hurteth, not only in the present, but also by example in the future, it is a greater crime than if it hurt only in the present: for the former is a fertile crime, and multiplies to the hurt of many; the latter is barren.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is distributed across most of Europe (except the Iberian peninsula, west and south-east France, most of Britain, Italy where it is present only in isolated colonies, European Turkey, most of Greece); and eastwards to Mongolia.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, the pursuit of this project is only a special arrangement of the whole intellectual life of our civilization; it is the whole intellectual history organized and exhibited from a particular angle of vision.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 1: Introduction to Leviathan - Hobbes on Civil Association 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Due to the fact that we know but a portion of the organisms in the biosphere, we do not have a complete understanding of the workings of our environment.^ Other organisms, like animals, have special ways to avoid cellular damage due to this element (and in fact require it to live.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But by the captivity of our understanding is not meant a submission of the intellectual faculty to the opinion of any other man, but of the will to obedience where obedience is due.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, it is even experienced more clearly at times: our senses seem sharper and the environment somehow more real.

.To make matters worse, despite the discovery of new species, according to professor James Mallet, we are wiping out these species at an unprecedented rate.^ Despite these loans, according to Forbes, Jackson was still making as much as $75 million a year from his publishing partnership with Sony alone.
  • Sprinko Encyclopedia - Michael Jackson 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encyclopedia.sprinko.com [Source type: General]
  • Detailed Artist Information for Michael Jackson, free music videos, and concert tickets 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC www.sonicswap.com [Source type: General]
  • Chleuh Portal 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC joomla.anezi.net [Source type: General]

^ These people are the ones who would actually need help, but a sick and crepuscular society makes them our saviours, or, worse, the wardens of our children.
  • Toddlers who dislike spicy food racist, say report - Telegraph 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ But, despite the fact that most of the people involved in carrying out these policies are nominally Christian, I don't think asking > > Is Christianity simply a religion of lawless racists?
  • What is 'racism'? 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.greenspun.com [Source type: Original source]

[17] .This means that even before a new species has had the chance of being studied and classified, it may already be extinct.^ He may be killed even before he confesses.

^ When dealing with classified information, sanitization attempts to reduce the document's classification level, or even to produce a document that may be releas..
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In that part which treateth of a Christian Commonwealth, there are some new doctrines which, it may be, in a state where the contrary were already fully determined, were a fault for a subject without leave to divulge, as being a usurpation of the place of a teacher.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

Importance in biological classification

.The idea of species has a long history.^ Ecosystems, species, organisms and their genes all have long histories.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is one of the most important levels of classification, for several reasons:
  • It often corresponds to what lay people treat as the different basic kinds of organism – dogs are one species, cats another.
  • It is the standard binomial nomenclature (or trinomial nomenclature) by which scientists typically refer to organisms.
  • It is the highest taxonomic level which mostly cannot be made more or less inclusionary.
.After years of use, the concept remains central to biology and a host of related fields, and yet also remains at times ill-defined.^ That was just a little over a week ago 20 years ago today; yet, the truth eternal long preceded him and will long outlive his time among us on this earth.
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

Implications of assignment of species status

.The naming of a particular species should be regarded as a hypothesis about the evolutionary relationships and distinguishability of that group of organisms.^ The genealogical or evolutionary species concept defines a species as a group of organisms with a unique genetic history – a group which shares common ancestry without divergence.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A group of organisms which share a unique set of adaptations to a particular set of environmental conditions.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In practice, species are not classified according to the BSC but according to typology by the use of a holotype , due to the difficulty of determining whether all members of a group of organisms do or can in practice potentially interbreed.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.As further information comes to hand, the hypothesis may be confirmed or refuted.^ Depending on the promotion, we may also collect an Internet email address or other information and, depending on the information collected, the user may also be required to confirm his or her agreement to this Agreement and, including without limitation, the Privacy Policy .
  • The Amazing Racist | SPIKE 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Depending on the Promotion, we may also collect an Internet email address or other Information and, depending on the Information collected, the user may also be required to confirm his or her agreement to this Privacy Policy and the Terms of Use Agreement.
  • The Amazing Racist | SPIKE 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

.Sometimes, especially in the past when communication was more difficult, taxonomists working in isolation have given two distinct names to individual organisms later identified as the same species.^ In fact, there are two saints with the same name, who were merged into a single one, venerated in the same day (November 12th) in Italy as well as in France.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ San Remigio San Remigio is the name of two places in the Philippines: San Remigio, AntiqueSan Remigio, Cebu This is a [disambiguationdisambiguation] page: a list of articles associated with the same title.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am much more effective in all that I do, including my animal communication work, by adopting a diet that is healthier for my own particular body.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

.When two named species are discovered to be of the same species, the older species name is usually retained, and the newer species name dropped, a process called synonymization, or colloquially, as lumping.^ In fact, there are two saints with the same name, who were merged into a single one, venerated in the same day (November 12th) in Italy as well as in France.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ San Remigio San Remigio is the name of two places in the Philippines: San Remigio, AntiqueSan Remigio, Cebu This is a [disambiguationdisambiguation] page: a list of articles associated with the same title.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Common Name or Meaning refers to it's being epiphytic Synonyms Polyrrhiza Pfitzer 1888 Type Species = !
  • Jay's Internet Orchid Species Photo Encyclopedia Dendroc 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.orchidspecies.com [Source type: General]

.Dividing a taxon into multiple, often new, taxons is called splitting.^ The lip is clearly divided into a cleft hypochile and a more or less rounded, concave epichile often coursed by lammellate radiating "veins".
  • Jay's Internet Orchid Species Photo Encyclopedia Dendroc 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.orchidspecies.com [Source type: General]

^ Later, the two homologous chromosomes are split into two separate cells that divide and become gametes.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In essence, the 78 cards of theTarot deck are divided into 22 Major Arcana (also called Trumps orKeys) and 56 lesser cards of the Minor Arcana (the "suit" cards.

.Taxonomists are often referred to as "lumpers" or "splitters" by their colleagues, depending on their personal approach to recognizing differences or commonalities between organisms (see lumpers and splitters).^ Basically, race in Brazil was "biologized," but in a way that recognized the difference between ancestry (which determines genotype ) and phenotypic differences.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It is up to parents and teachers to explain the differences between people, but seeing those differences is not racist.
  • Toddlers who dislike spicy food racist, say report - Telegraph 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ I am convinced startups will solve this problem, not the Googles and Yahoos of this world, and look forward to seeing (and perhaps funding) the different approaches that emerge."
  • ben barren - rss'ing down under: August 2005 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC benbarren.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.Traditionally, researchers relied on observations of anatomical differences, and on observations of whether different populations were able to interbreed successfully, to distinguish species; both anatomy and breeding behavior are still important to assigning species status.^ In practice, species are not classified according to the BSC but according to typology by the use of a holotype , due to the difficulty of determining whether all members of a group of organisms do or can in practice potentially interbreed.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Offspring of cross-breeding between two different but closely related species.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Wright's F statistics are not used to determine whether a group can be described as a subspecies or not, though the statistic is used to measure the degree of differentiation between populations, the degree of genetic differentiation is not a marker of subspecies status.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.As a result of the revolutionary (and still ongoing) advance in microbiological research techniques, including DNA analysis, in the last few decades, a great deal of additional knowledge about the differences and similarities between species has become available.^ Spruce up your bathroom with a great looking toilet paper holder these toilet tissue holders will make a subtle but great addition free shipping is included!.
  • Блоги@Mail.Ru: SEX , love , SEX 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogs.mail.ru [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore between Counsell and Command, one great difference is, that Command is directed to a mans own benefit; and Counsell to the benefit of another man.

^ You are caught up in an ongoing struggle to control and research the psychokinetic power of a few young girls.

.Many populations which were formerly regarded as separate species are now considered to be a single taxon, and many formerly grouped populations have been split.^ There will be as many “laws” called Christian as there are men who call themselves Christian; and what men did formerly by natural right, they will do now on a pretended obligation to God.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 1: Introduction to Leviathan - Hobbes on Civil Association 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Elevated to species (formerly considered a subspecies of Eleutherodactylus zugi), by Hedges et al.
  • AmphibiaWeb Species Lists 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.amphibiaweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The result of speciation is two groups of individuals, each more closely adapted to local environmental conditions than the larger parent population.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

.Any taxonomic level (species, genus, family, etc.^ BSC species are routinely classified on a subspecific level, though this classification is conducted differently for different taxons, for mammals the normal taxonomic unit below the species level is usually the subspecies.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Sansevieria Sansevieria is a genus of about 70 species of flowering plants in the family Ruscaceae, native to tropical and subtropical regions of the Old World.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the sole living representative of its family (Ornithorhynchidae) and genus (Ornithorhynchus), though a number of related species have been found in the fossil record.

) can be synonymized or split, and at higher taxonomic levels, these revisions have been still more profound.
.From a taxonomical point of view, groups within a species can be defined as being of a taxon hierarchically lower than a species.^ The genealogical or evolutionary species concept defines a species as a group of organisms with a unique genetic history – a group which shares common ancestry without divergence.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ At what point do the allele frequency changes of microevolution add up to define a new and separate species?
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ He first discussed its most effective detonation point and then moved on to defining the three waves within the pulse that would effectively fry personal electronics and power grids.
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

In zoology only the subspecies is used, while in botany the variety, subvariety, and form are used as well. .In conservation biology, the concept of evolutionary significant units (ESU) is used, which may be define either species or smaller distinct population segments.^ Cubic centimetres (cm 3 ) a measure of volume one million times smaller than a cubic meter, are sometimes also used, to give units of cm 3 mol -1 .

^ For the significations of almost all are either in themselves, or in the metaphorical use of them, ambiguous; and may be drawn in argument to make many senses; but there is only one sense of the law.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You may have noticed that every Cave has its own special items to yield when a Tame Monster explores using Inquisitive Waltz.
  • Rune Factory 2: A Fantasy Harvest MoonCave & Beastiary FAQ/guide - IGNFAQs 11 September 2009 0:39 UTC faqs.ign.com [Source type: Original source]

The isolation species concept in more detail

A mule is the infertile offspring of a male donkey and a female horse.
.In general, for large, complex organisms that reproduce sexually (such as mammals and birds), one of several variations on the isolation or biological species concept is employed.^ Contrary to classical mechanics, one can never make simultaneous predictions of conjugate variables , such as position and momentum, with arbitrary accuracy.

^ Protect the border -- it kills several birds with one stone."
  • Beck caps off week of race-baiting by calling Obama a "racist" | Media Matters for America 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, there was an increase in the proportion of large beaked birds in the population the next generation.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Often, the distinction between different species, even quite closely related ones, is simple.^ Offspring of cross-breeding between two different but closely related species.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There is big difference between those ones.
  • Racist Attacks on Obama Growing More Heated | Hatewatch | Southern Poverty Law Center 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.splcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore between Counsell and Command, one great difference is, that Command is directed to a mans own benefit; and Counsell to the benefit of another man.

.Horses (Equus caballus) and donkeys (Equus asinus) are easily told apart even without study or training, and yet are so closely related that they can interbreed after a fashion.^ And yet as absurd as it is, this is it they demand; not knowing that the Lawes are of no power to protect them, without a Sword in the hands of a man, or men, to cause those laws to be put in execution.

^ Yet now we are told we cannot question those attitudes and political positions because they are so intertwined with black identity.
  • How the Left Hijacked the Magic Words 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Yet in some cases contradictory voyces equall in number, may determine a question; as in condemning, or absolving, equality of votes, even in that they condemne not, do absolve; but not on the contrary condemne, in that they absolve not.

.Because the result, a mule or hinny, is not fertile, they are clearly separate species.^ On the mainland, many of the special characters used by the larger dialects, such as Cantonese, have fallen out of use because they were essentially not allowed to be printed.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Seattle Public Schools' Web Site Says Individualism is a Form of "Cultural Racism": 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In some closely related species, fertile hybrids can result from interspecific matings.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If these events were not the result of negligence, they certainly came about because of carelessness and blatant disregard for common sense where it comes to handling horses and mustangs.
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

.But many cases are more difficult to decide.^ In many cases, their response rate is one and a half times the average, and overall black women reply about a quarter more often.
  • Feministing: Racism Archives 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.feministing.com [Source type: General]

^ Perhaps it will be difficult for speakers of a more common dialect to understand you -- but this is true of many dialects.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Seattle Public Schools' Web Site Says Individualism is a Form of "Cultural Racism": 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

.This is where the isolation species concept diverges from the evolutionary species concept.^ The genealogical or evolutionary species concept defines a species as a group of organisms with a unique genetic history – a group which shares common ancestry without divergence.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Isolation and genetic divergence are both prerequisites for speciation, but they are so closely related that sometimes it is difficult to distinguish one from the other.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The last concept we will consider has the potential to clarify the path of speciation, or evolutionary history – that primary goal of classification.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

.Both agree that a species is a lineage that maintains its integrity over time, that is diagnosably different from other lineages (else we could not recognise it), is reproductively isolated (else the lineage would merge into others, given the chance to do so), and has a working intra-species recognition system (without which it could not continue).^ It is reproductively isolated, the definition of a species.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Actually, I’m not sure I would have been able to solve the others given any amount of time.

^ Carranza was followed by others who would fight for political control, and who would eventually continue with the reforms, both in education and land distribution.
  • Racism 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In practice, both also agree that a species must have its own independent evolutionary history—otherwise the characteristics just mentioned would not apply.^ The genealogical or evolutionary species concept defines a species as a group of organisms with a unique genetic history – a group which shares common ancestry without divergence.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Characteristic of animal specimens , as defined in Article I, paragraph (b) , of the Convention, born or otherwise produced in a controlled environment , and applied only if: .
  • The CITES glossary 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.cites.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Still, I agree with atlasien that it would be both foolish and instantly, noticeably corny and false to create aliens who were just really swell.
  • District 9 is racist [Alternate Perspective] | Racialicious - the intersection of race and pop culture 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.racialicious.com [Source type: General]

.The species concepts differ in that the evolutionary species concept does not make predictions about the future of the population: it simply records that which is already known.^ If the former are correct, what difference does it make?
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Characteristic of a species for which exhaustive surveys in known or suspected habitat, and at appropriate times (diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual.
  • The CITES glossary 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.cites.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The genealogical or evolutionary species concept defines a species as a group of organisms with a unique genetic history – a group which shares common ancestry without divergence.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

.In contrast, the isolation species concept refuses to assign the rank of species to populations that, in the best judgement of the researcher, would recombine with other populations if given the chance to do so.^ The value or worth of a man is, as of all other things, his price; that is to say, so much as would be given for the use of his power, and therefore is not absolute, but a thing dependent on the need and judgement of another.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Isolation increases the chance that two populations will take separate microevolutionary pathways.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ So, the amount of adaptive evolution produced by species selection (if it did occur) would have to be orders of magnitude less than adaptive evolution within populations by natural selection.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The isolation question

.There are, essentially, two questions to resolve.^ Howard, One wonders what discussive potential there is in using a question as a headline, on a weblog which (until now) has hardly any two-way communication.
  • What is 'racism'? 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.greenspun.com [Source type: Original source]

.First, is the proposed species consistently and reliably distinguishable from other species?^ Isolation and genetic divergence are both prerequisites for speciation, but they are so closely related that sometimes it is difficult to distinguish one from the other.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A widely used definition of species is the biological species concept ( Figure below ), first proposed by evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr in 1942.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A proposal to include a species in Appendix I or II, delete it from the Appendices or transfer it from one Appendix to the other.
  • The CITES glossary 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.cites.org [Source type: Academic]

Second, is it likely to remain so in the future? .To take the second question first, there are several broad geographic possibilities.^ Edit Bob: My original question was: “In the broad scheme of things, if there is no God, what IS the meaning of life?” You responded: “Your question, first of all, presupposes that there IS - or perhaps MUST BE - some over-arching meaning to life, which is at best a conjecture.
  • The Bathroom Wall - The Panda's Thumb 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC pandasthumb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ My first year there I had bronchitis several times and was almost hospitalized for pneumonia.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore when a station employee takes it in the time that there is not, we consist of doors of the first car rear.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
  • The proposed species are sympatric—they occupy the same habitat.^ They’re an alien species in a work of science fiction, and science fiction is not the same as allegory.
    • District 9 is racist [Alternate Perspective] | Racialicious - the intersection of race and pop culture 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.racialicious.com [Source type: General]

    ^ As for the question, I would respond that, given those assertions, they share the same "special" responsibility that you or I share for the School of the Americas.
    • What is 'racism'? 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.greenspun.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Observation of many species over the years has failed to establish even a single instance of two diagnostically different populations that exist in sympatry and have then merged to form one united population.^ Racism and prejudice exists in many forms.
    • On Faith Panelists Blog: Harry Potter: Wizards and Racism - Susan Brooks Thistlethwaite 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

    ^ We and the millions of species with whom we share the Earth today all arose from a single common ancestor billions of years ago – through deep time and myriad instances of allopatric and sympatric speciation.
    • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Recall that Mendel showed that humans and rabbits have two copies of each gene, or "heritable unit" – one from each of our parents.
    • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Without reproductive isolation, population differences cannot develop, and given reproductive isolation, gene flow between the populations cannot merge the differences.^ Gene flow can accelerate the spread of successful alleles or reduce differences between populations.
    • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Gene flow can accelerate the spread of alleles or reduce the differences between populations.
    • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The exchange of genes between different but (usually) related populations.
    • biology dictionary 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Academic]

    .This is not to say that cross breeding does not take place at all, simply that it has become negligible.^ Any and all statistics can be and are made to say what ever the out come you want it to be… in statistics and polls, who is taking them, who is being asked to take them.

    ^ All you have to do is expose the backroom scheming that is taking place in editorial meetings all over this country every day.
    • How the Left Hijacked the Magic Words 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

    ^ LEARN TO TAKE A JOKE. what he says does not represent the opinions of any white people except for himself.
    • American Racist - Video 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.metacafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Generally, the hybrid individuals are less capable of successful breeding than pure-bred individuals of either species.
  • The proposed species are allopatric—they occupy different geographical areas.^ The guilt and judgment we feel over others who have a different view than ours about what they eat can separate us from each other.
    • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They may want people of a different race than themselves silenced in the media, but those who are not racists are not threatened by those of a different race expressing their views.
    • Beck caps off week of race-baiting by calling Obama a "racist" | Media Matters for America 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Several definitions of a species today serve different purposes; eventually, they should merge into a single clear picture of this basic unit of evolution.
    • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Obviously, it is not possible to observe reproductive isolation in allopatric groups directly.^ Experiments with fruit flies support the possibility that geographic isolation can lead to reproductive isolation.
    • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Often it is not possible to achieve certainty by experimental means either: even if the two proposed species interbreed in captivity, this does not demonstrate that they would freely interbreed in the wild, nor does it always provide much information about the evolutionary fitness of hybrid individuals.^ If any one does I would be keen to have that information.
    • Lyr Req: The Last Leviathan 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.mudcat.org [Source type: General]

    ^ What would "grammatically inferior" even mean?
    • The Volokh Conspiracy - Seattle Public Schools' Web Site Says Individualism is a Form of "Cultural Racism": 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Does that mean much when it comes to individuals?
    • Patterico's Pontifications » That Quote Most of You Called “Racist” Was Written by Robert Stacy McCain 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC patterico.com [Source type: Original source]

    .A certain amount can be inferred from other experimental methods: for example, do the members of population A respond appropriately to playback of the recorded mating calls of population B? Sometimes, experiments can provide firm answers.^ The members of the Brotherhood are sometimes called the Ascended Masters .

    ^ In our rabbit populations, for example, selection for white rabbits might be accompanied by mate selection based on white coat color.
    • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Thus the experimenter must provide the plant with a certain amount of certain elements if he wants to observe a large amount of transmuted material.

    .For example, there are seven pairs of apparently almost identical marine snapping shrimp (Alpheus) populations on either side of the Isthmus of Panama, which did not exist until about 3 million years ago.^ Until 40 years ago, there existed the white australia policy.
    • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Racism in Australia 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It happened about 250 million years ago.
    • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Julia Butterfly Hill climbed into a redwood almost two years ago, in protest and to protect the forest .
    • memepool.com: Culture archive 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

    .Until then, it is assumed, they were members of the same seven species.^ Are we all members of the same species?
    • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Analyze the reasons why biologists consider all humans to be members of the same species.
    • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ All humans are members of the same biological species, because all races and cultures can and do intermarry, and our DNA is 99.9% identical.
    • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

    .But when males and females from opposite sides of the isthmus are placed together, they fight instead of mating.^ The females then mate with the males that most interest them, usually the ones with the most outlandish displays.
    • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ When Armies fight, there is on one side, or both, a running away; yet when they do it not out of trechery, but fear, they are not esteemed to do it unjustly, but dishonourably.

    ^ One is a large, long-lived, mate-protecting male; the other is a smaller, shorter-lived male who sneaks matings from females guarded by large males.
    • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Even if the isthmus were to sink under the waves again, the populations would remain genetically isolated: therefore they are now different species.^ For populations to become separate species, they must experience isolation and genetic divergence.
    • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Although the two rabbit populations might be isolated by environmental differences, they would not become separate species unless enough genetic differences accumulate to prevent successful interbreeding.
    • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Even if recovery occurs, genetic diversity remains low.
    • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

    .In many cases, however, neither observation nor experiment can produce certain answers, and the determination of species rank must be made on a 'best guess' basis from a general knowledge of other related organisms.
  • The proposed species are parapatric—they have breeding ranges that abut but do not overlap.^ He is making a general observation based on his experience.
    • Carter Cites 'Racism Inclination' in Animosity Toward Obama | 44 | washingtonpost.com 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In other words, they have speciated.
    • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The actual vampire unit comes in the midgame for this civilization, and vampires have a few special powers: they can consume population to become stronger (gain experience), they can feast on weak Calabim Bloodpet units to heal themselves and regain the ability to attack, and they can gift other units in their stack with vampirism if they are above a certain level.

    This is fairly rare, particularly in temperate regions. .The dividing line is often a sudden change in habitat (an ecotone) like the edge of a forest or the snow line on a mountain, but can sometimes be remarkably trivial.^ Act like Kenyans aren't dividing along tribal lines.
    • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Racism in Australia 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The parapatry itself indicates that the two populations occupy such similar ecological roles that they cannot coexist in the same area.^ Two freeones of britney spears in particular what they can bemy the term with qualities lately a real favorite with me freeones of britney spears freeones of britney spears such as strength courage children to be physically on.
    • Блоги@Mail.Ru: SEX , love , SEX 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogs.mail.ru [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They simply cannot continue to get overworked and frothy-mouthed over such pee-ant things.
    • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Nature itself cannot err: and as men abound in copiousness of language; so they become more wise, or more mad, than ordinary.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
    • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    .Because they do not crossbreed, it is safe to assume that there is a mechanism, often behavioral, that is preventing gene flow between the populations, and that therefore they should be classified as separate species.
  • There is a hybrid zone where the two populations mix.^ There is a difference between the two.

    ^ These hybrids can vector genes from species to species.
    • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For two populations to evolve into separate species, they must experience: .
    • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Typically, the hybrid zone will include representatives of one or both of the 'pure' populations, plus first-generation and back-crossing hybrids.^ In the larger population (below), only one pair of alleles shows fixation/extinction – and that occurs only after 45 generations.
    • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ And when the Endeavour is fromward something, it is generally called AVERSION. These words Appetite, and Aversion we have from the Latines; and they both of them signifie the motions, one of approaching, the other of retiring.

    ^ We all knew from the get-go when McCain first announced Palin as V.P. One would look at their records and we all seen that both of them were quite contradictory towards one another.
    • Racist Attacks on Obama Growing More Heated | Hatewatch | Southern Poverty Law Center 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.splcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The strength of the barrier to genetic transmission between the two pure groups can be assessed by the width of the hybrid zone relative to the typical dispersal distance of the organisms in question.^ This statistic is used to compare differences between any two given populations and can be used to measure genetic differences between populations for individual genes, or for many genes simultaneously.
    • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Wright's F statistics are not used to determine whether a group can be described as a subspecies or not, though the statistic is used to measure the degree of differentiation between populations, the degree of genetic differentiation is not a marker of subspecies status.
    • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Parallel evolution can lead to the existence of the appearance of similarities between groups of organisms that are not part of the same species.
    • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    The dispersal distance of oaks, for example, is the distance that a bird or squirrel can be expected to carry an acorn; the dispersal distance of Numbats is about 15 kilometres, as this is as far as young Numbats will normally travel in search of vacant territory to occupy after leaving the nest. .The narrower the hybrid zone relative to the dispersal distance, the less gene flow there is between the population groups, and the more likely it is that they will continue on separate evolutionary paths.^ There is a more personal rivalry between them.
    • The Official Final Fantasy XII Thread [Archive] - Page 2 - The Superhero Hype! Boards 18 September 2009 16:37 UTC forums.superherohype.com [Source type: General]

    ^ They do not render some populations more prone to violence, more likely to suffer psychiatric disorders, or for that matter, incapable of being fully integrated - because of their lower evolutionary development - into a European cultural world.
    • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Non-White Hispanics , Blacks, or other minorities was nearly non-existent at the RNC. Even if there was, then they were dishuned and relatively few(like 2% in attendance).
    • Racist Attacks on Obama Growing More Heated | Hatewatch | Southern Poverty Law Center 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.splcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Nevertheless, it can be very difficult to predict the future course of a hybrid zone; the decision to define the two hybridizing populations as either the same species or as separate species is difficult and potentially controversial.
  • The variation in the population is clinal; at either extreme of the population's geographic distribution, typical individuals are clearly different, but the transition between them is seamless and gradual.^ There is a difference between the two.

    ^ If two populations had recently separated, few differences would have built up between them.
    • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The differences between the two are time and scale.
    • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

    .For example, the Koalas of northern Australia are clearly smaller and lighter in colour than those of the south, but there is no particular dividing line: the further south an individual Koala is found, the larger and darker it is likely to be; Koalas in intermediate regions are intermediate in weight and colour.^ There's no fool like an old fool.
    • Carter Cites 'Racism Inclination' in Animosity Toward Obama | 44 | washingtonpost.com 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There’s no place in the world like it.
    • ben barren - rss'ing down under: August 2005 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC benbarren.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It’s a salient question since there would most likely be no one left to run their party, as we can see from this video (3.4 minutes)… .
    • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

    .In contrast, over the same geographic range, black-backed (northern) and white-backed (southern) Australian Magpies do not blend from one type to another: northern populations have black backs, southern populations white backs, and there is an extensive hybrid zone where both 'pure' types are common, as are crossbreeds.^ There were blacks who mixed with whites.
    • Racist Attacks on Obama Growing More Heated | Hatewatch | Southern Poverty Law Center 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.splcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The white student population remained the same.
    • Carter Cites 'Racism Inclination' in Animosity Toward Obama | 44 | washingtonpost.com 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Denise Schultz There are so many ways to look at this, and most of them are complex and not black and white.
    • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

    .The variation in Koalas is clinal (a smooth transition from north to south, with populations in any given small area having a uniform appearance), but the variation in magpies is not clinal.^ If you happen to own a small business in an area that has a growing population from one of the far flung corners of the world you should get out while you have the chance.
    • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Racism in Australia 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ At the time of the Columbian Exchange the estimated population of North and South America was at least 40 million.
    • Racism 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Because the sphere is so small, you can go east four times and end up in the same spot you started at, or go north to the pole and every direction is "south."

    .In both cases, there is some uncertainty regarding correct classification, but the consensus view is that species rank is not justified in either.^ There are twenty some species in this fascinating saprophytic genus from Southern China, S.E. Asia, Malaysia, Indonesia, New Guinea, Australia and the Philippines.
    • Jay's Internet Orchid Species Photo Encyclopedia Dendroc 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.orchidspecies.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Besides, in both cases there's going to be racism from both sides.
    • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Racism in Australia 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There may be a case to be made that they aren't men, but they both appear to be Caucasians.
    • Limbaugh's "colorblind" history of racially charged comments | Media Matters for America 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The gene flow between northern and southern magpie populations is judged to be sufficiently restricted to justify terming them subspecies (not full species); but the seamless way that local Koala populations blend one into another shows that there is substantial gene flow between north and south.^ We all do it one way or another.
    • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Racism in Australia 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The movement of genes from one population to another (gene flow) can change allele frequencies.
    • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The inclusion of one or more subspecies or populations of a species in one Appendix while other subspecies or populations are included in another Appendix or are not included.
    • The CITES glossary 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.cites.org [Source type: Academic]

    As a result, experts tend to reject even subspecies rank in this case.

The difference question

.Obviously when defining a species, the geographic circumstances become meaningful only if the population groups in question are clearly different: if they are not consistently and reliably distinguishable from one another, then we have no grounds for believing that they might be different species.^ The only difference is that they are scaled differently.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They all hold special and meaningful places and in different ways.
  • Feministing: Racism Archives 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.feministing.com [Source type: General]

^ NO ONE is equal to another.
  • The Amazing Racist | SPIKE 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

.The key question in this context, is "how different is different?"^ Any poll may have a different result if taking twice, or more times (all about how you feel about that question at that time.

and the answer is usually "it all depends".
.In theory, it would be possible to recognise even the tiniest of differences as sufficient to delineate a separate species, provided only that the difference is clear and consistent (and that other criteria are met).^ Anything based on blood rather than socioeconomic standing would be considered racism (albeit, those are not the only ways a society can be separated).
  • On Faith Panelists Blog: Harry Potter: Wizards and Racism - Susan Brooks Thistlethwaite 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ And even if he admits that he only intended to do harm to somebody, and if the harm which he intended is not very great, it is sufficient to have him condemned to death.

^ Physical separation by a barrier limits migration and prevents interbreeding, but differing environmental conditions may also provide a form of isolation.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

.There is no universal rule to state the smallest allowable difference between two species, but in general, very trivial differences are ignored on the twin grounds of simple practicality, and genetic similarity: if two population groups are so close that the distinction between them rests on an obscure and microscopic difference in morphology, or a single base substitution in a DNA sequence, then a demonstration of restricted gene flow between the populations will probably be difficult in any case.^ In theory, there is no difference between theory and practice; but in practice, there always is a difference.
  • Daily Kos: Rep. Roy Blunt's racist "monkey joke" (Updated) 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At that point in the case, there was no DNA evidence.
  • Feministing: Racism Archives 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.feministing.com [Source type: General]

^ There is a difference between the two.

More typically, one or other of the following requirements must be met:
.
  • It is possible to reliably measure a quantitative difference between the two groups that does not overlap.^ There is a difference between the two.

    ^ The differences between the two are time and scale.
    • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Linkage disequilibrium is a measure of association between alleles of two different genes.
    • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .A population has, for example, thicker fur, rougher bark, longer ears, or larger seeds than another population, and although this characteristic may vary within each population, the two do not grade into one another, and given a reasonably large sample size, there is a definite discontinuity between them.^ This means that there is greater variation within 'racial' groups than between them."
    • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ There is a difference between the two.

    ^ For example, wind or animals can carry pollen or seeds from one plant population to another.
    • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Note that this applies to populations, not individual organisms, and that a small number of exceptional individuals within a population may 'break the rule' without invalidating it.^ A case where most individuals within a taxon are found in small and relatively isolated sub-populations, which increases the probability that these small sub-populations will become extinct and the opportunities for re-establishment are limited.
    • The CITES glossary 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.cites.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ For example, environmental change within a population’s range may lead to two habitats in which genetic divergence may take place.
    • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Within a population, the sum of all the alleles of all the genes of all the individuals.
    • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

    .The less a quantitative difference varies within a population and the more it varies between populations, the better the case for making a distinction.^ Silent sites are expected to be more polymorphic within a population and show more differences between populations.
    • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This means that there is greater variation within 'racial' groups than between them."
    • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ So, the amount of adaptive evolution produced by species selection (if it did occur) would have to be orders of magnitude less than adaptive evolution within populations by natural selection.
    • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Nevertheless, borderline situations can only be resolved by making a 'best-guess' judgement.
  • It is possible to distinguish a qualitative difference between the populations; a feature that does not vary continuously but is either entirely present or entirely absent.^ How does each author present the conflict between different people?

    ^ Considerable variation is present in natural populations.
    • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The judgement does but suggest what circumstances make an action laudable or culpable.
    • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
    • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan. 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

    This might be a distinctively shaped seed pod, an extra primary feather, a particular courting behaviour, or a clearly differentDNA sequence.
.Sometimes it is not possible to isolate a single difference between species, and several factors must be taken in combination.^ Offspring of cross-breeding between two different but closely related species.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Historically, syphilis was taken to be caused by Treponema pallidum, and the other diseases by a different but physically indistinguishable species (T. pertenue and friends).
  • SBF Glossary: S/U to S2S 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC www.plexoft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Isolation and genetic divergence are both prerequisites for speciation, but they are so closely related that sometimes it is difficult to distinguish one from the other.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

This is often the case with plants in particular. .In eucalypts, for example, Corymbia ficifolia cannot be reliably distinguished from its close relative Corymbia calophylla by any single measure (and sometimes individual trees cannot be definitely assigned to either species), but populations of Corymbia can be clearly told apart by comparing the colour of flowers, bark, and buds, number of flowers for a given size of tree, and the shape of the leaves and fruit.^ When he found that individuals within each race varied widely he set out to compare averages by measuring many skulls.
  • Racism 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But I suppose this only depends on the relative size of a given flashpoint.
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The ground is russet-brown, the leaves of the trees are olive-green, there are black shadows from the trees in a number of places, and the light is citrine (light yellow-green.

.When using a combination of characteristics to distinguish between populations, it is necessary to use a reasonably small number of factors (if more than a handful are needed, the genetic difference between the populations is likely to be insignificant and is unlikely to endure into the future), and to choose factors that are functionally independent (height and weight, for example, should usually be considered as one factor, not two).^ There is a difference between the two.

^ He likes money more than girls.
  • The Insurgent - WAR - Racist Jokes 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.resist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ May be used in more than one subject area .

Historical development of the species concept

Linnaeus believed in the fixity of species.
.In the earliest works of science, a species was simply an individual organism that represented a group of similar or nearly identical organisms.^ The genealogical or evolutionary species concept defines a species as a group of organisms with a unique genetic history – a group which shares common ancestry without divergence.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Technically species cease to exist as do all hierarchical taxa , a LITU is effectively defined as any monophyletic taxon, phylogenetics is strongly influenced by cladistics which classifies organisms based on evolution rather than similarities between groups of organisms.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The result of speciation is two groups of individuals, each more closely adapted to local environmental conditions than the larger parent population.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

.No other relationships beyond that group were implied.^ Did no research and merely presented other group members’ work .

^ The multiculturally aware and conscious individual has no need to justify his/her behavior towards members of other cultural groups because that behavior is generally accepting, supportive and affirming.
  • Racism 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ No, it wasn’t….but it was certainly beyond your ken, along with other 20th century composers, ie Webern, Bartok, Stravinsky, Varese.

.Aristotle used the words genus and species to mean generic and specific categories.^ In other words, generalizing about races, not referring to specific people.
  • Limbaugh's "colorblind" history of racially charged comments | Media Matters for America 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The word racist is a weapon used to attack identity and all this is to keep that word alive with it's artificial meaning.
  • Toddlers who dislike spicy food racist, say report - Telegraph 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ IIRC, George Allen claimed he didn't mean anything by using the word.
  • Daily Kos: Rep. Roy Blunt's racist "monkey joke" (Updated) 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.Aristotle and other pre-Darwinian scientists took the species to be distinct and unchanging, with an "essence", like the chemical elements.^ Other organisms, like animals, have special ways to avoid cellular damage due to this element (and in fact require it to live.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When early observers began to develop systems of organization for living things, they began to place formerly isolated species into a context.^ But because we’re quick to develop and deploy new things, and because we have a talkative bunch of users and a lot of places for them to talk to us, we can quickly assimilate suggestions from the community.
  • ben barren - rss'ing down under: August 2005 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC benbarren.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Not so good for whites, they have to live with politicians who use magic to get things done.
  • small dead animals: If you're not "aware" of AIDS by now, is it safe to say you're pretty much retarded? 25 September 2009 7:55 UTC www.smalldeadanimals.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Belonging to an organization with certain values is not the same thing as being born into a certain race.
  • Racism? 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC cafehayek.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many of these early delineation schemes would now be considered whimsical and these included consanguinity based on color (all plants with yellow flowers) or behavior (snakes, scorpions and certain biting ants).^ Now would that be considered racist if I were to tell people these facts?
  • Toddlers who dislike spicy food racist, say report - Telegraph 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ But all of many colors.
  • Daily Kos: Rep. Roy Blunt's racist "monkey joke" (Updated) 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To include someone based on the color of their skin e.g., “this (fill in the blank) would be improved by bringing in a person with black skin” is racist.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » That Quote Most of You Called “Racist” Was Written by Robert Stacy McCain 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC patterico.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the 18th century swedish scientist Carolus Linnaeus classified organisms according to differences in the form of reproductive apparatus.^ Neoteny is a process which leads to an organism reaching reproductive capacity in its juvenile form.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One way alleles can change in frequency is to be housed in organisms with different reproductive rates.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although his system of classification sorts organisms according to degrees of similarity, it made no claims about the relationship between similar species.^ Technically species cease to exist as do all hierarchical taxa , a LITU is effectively defined as any monophyletic taxon, phylogenetics is strongly influenced by cladistics which classifies organisms based on evolution rather than similarities between groups of organisms.
  • Boston University School of Theology 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ But secondly, the claim to be the authority to settle and interpret the scriptures may be made on behalf of a special spiritual authority, calling itself, for the purpose, a church.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 1: Introduction to Leviathan - Hobbes on Civil Association 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the movies the relationship is similar, although Judi Dench's M is initially distrustful of Bond.

.At that time, it was still widely believed that there was no organic connection between species, no matter how similar they appeared.^ No matter how much we deny it .
  • American Racist - Video 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.metacafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, he literally believes there is no time.

^ It didnt matter how dark they were or how light there skin was.
  • Obama and Filipino racism - Sidetrip with Howie Severino 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC blogs.gmanews.tv [Source type: Original source]

.This approach also suggested a type of idealism: the notion that each species existed as an "ideal form". Although there are always differences (although sometimes minute) between individual organisms, Linnaeus considered such variation problematic.^ In theory, there is no difference between theory and practice; but in practice, there always is a difference.
  • Daily Kos: Rep. Roy Blunt's racist "monkey joke" (Updated) 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is a difference between the two.

^ He knows that there are differences between asians.
  • American Racist - Video 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.metacafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He strove to identify individual organisms that were exemplary of the species, and considered other non-exemplary organisms to be deviant and imperfect.^ Other species never forget who they are as spiritual beings and as organisms fulfilling their function in the whole.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And, just as variation within a species ensures that some individuals will survive environmental change, a great diversity of species increases the chance that at least some organisms will survive major changes in the environment.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other organisms, like animals, have special ways to avoid cellular damage due to this element (and in fact require it to live.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the 19th century most naturalists understood that species could change form over time, and that the history of the planet provided enough time for major changes.^ Ayers was and is one of the most vile and worthless men on the planet, and he picked O special to help usher in “change” – the first business to cross liberty off the list of values held dear, and fought for dearly,by Americans.
  • How the Left Hijacked the Magic Words 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

^ The majority, however, believe that if the environment stays fairly constant, a well adapted species could continue to survive indefinitely.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Notice of material changes will be posted on the Site's homepage and/or will be provided by e-mailing you or notifying you upon login about these changes; the form of such notice is at our discretion.
  • The Amazing Racist | SPIKE 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

.Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, in his 1809 Zoological Philosophy, offered one of the first logical arguments against creationism.^ As we gear up for a full-fledged battle in the courts and on the Sunday talk shows, I think first there’s one argument that needs to happen: .
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Your nuclear winter isssue is another Red Herring argument to change the subject of this article and the one I offered.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Malmström also offers strong arguments against both of the former explanations.

.The new emphasis was on determining how a species could change over time.^ At what point do the allele frequency changes of microevolution add up to define a new and separate species?
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In contrast, macroevolution describes changes in species over geologic time.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Those are her words; I'm not sure how you could preface it to change the context.
  • On Supreme Court nominee Sonia Sotomayor 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC newt.org [Source type: Original source]

.Lamarck suggested that an organism could pass on an acquired trait to its offspring, i.e., the giraffe's long neck was attributed to generations of giraffes stretching to reach the leaves of higher treetops (this well-known and simplistic example, however, does not do justice to the breadth and subtlety of Lamarck's ideas).^ Once you reach the 2nd Generation, you will be able to expand your Monster Barn to collect new Monsters as well, including those who produce Honey.
  • Rune Factory 2: A Fantasy Harvest MoonCave & Beastiary FAQ/guide - IGNFAQs 11 September 2009 0:39 UTC faqs.ign.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As an example to others it leaves much to be desired as does Rudd's recent intemperate attack on people smugglers.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Racism in Australia 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like the Druses, toward whom, however, they entertain a violent hostility, and the Assassins, they have a secret mode of recognition and a secret religion, which does not appear to be well understood by them.

.With the acceptance of the natural selection idea of Charles Darwin in the 1860s, however, Lamarck's view of goal-oriented evolution, also known as a teleological process, was eclipsed.^ But, the idea of evolution wasn't new to Darwin.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, the amount of adaptive evolution produced by species selection (if it did occur) would have to be orders of magnitude less than adaptive evolution within populations by natural selection.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result, the process snowballs until natural selection brings it into check.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Recent interest in inheritance of acquired characteristics centers around epigenetic processes, e.g.^ This proposed mechanism of evolution is called the inheritance of acquired characteristics.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.methylation, that do not affect DNA sequences, but instead alter expression in an inheritable manner.^ In prokaryotes, the natural or induced uptake and expression of a foreign DNA sequence--typically a recombinant plasmid in experimental systems.
  • biology dictionary 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The uptake and expression of a foreign DNA sequence by cultured eukaryotic cells.
  • biology dictionary 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Academic]

.Thus, neo-lamarckism, as it is sometimes termed, is not a challenge to the theory of evolution by natural selection.^ Discuss natural selection and evolution in terms of phenotypes and allele frequencies.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Lamarck published a theory of evolution in 1809.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, the amount of adaptive evolution produced by species selection (if it did occur) would have to be orders of magnitude less than adaptive evolution within populations by natural selection.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace provided what scientists now consider as the most powerful and compelling theory of evolution.^ (According to Wikipedia, "Some scientists consider mirror neurons one of the most important findings of neuroscience in the last decade."

^ Most importantly, scientific creationists do not have a testable, scientific theory to replace evolution with.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Considered the most powerful and highest source of ethereal energy available to humans, the pineal gland has always been important in initiating supernatural powers.

.Darwin argued that it was populations that evolved, not individuals.^ Explain why populations, but not individuals, can evolve.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is the large, central, stable populations which are represented in our fossil record, he argues – not the small, peripheral, evolving ones.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, a population – a group of organisms of a single species in a certain area – evolves when natural selection imposes differential survival on individuals within it.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

.His argument relied on a radical shift in perspective from that of Linnaeus: rather than defining species in ideal terms (and searching for an ideal representative and rejecting deviations), Darwin considered variation among individuals to be natural.^ If you look at our history of public support for various rights movements they are almost always couched in terms of individual rights vs collective wellbeing.

^ Anything based on blood rather than socioeconomic standing would be considered racism (albeit, those are not the only ways a society can be separated).
  • On Faith Panelists Blog: Harry Potter: Wizards and Racism - Susan Brooks Thistlethwaite 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC newsweek.washingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Alternatives to the biological species concept emphasize the characteristics and processes which unite, rather than divide (reproductive barriers), species.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

.He further argued that variation, far from being problematic, actually provides the explanation for the existence of distinct species.^ In such cases, we will provide to you an explanation of why access cannot be provided and contact information for further inquiries.
  • The Amazing Racist | SPIKE 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Quantum mechanics was initially developed to provide a better explanation of the atom, especially the spectra of light emitted by different atomic species .

^ When beings of any species (plant, animal, or mineral) consent to nurture others by providing their bodies as food, this service is to be honored.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

.Darwin's work drew on Thomas Malthus' insight that the rate of growth of a biological population will always outpace the rate of growth of the resources in the environment, such as the food supply.^ According to traffic management experts, it's only going to get worse if our population continues its present growth rate.
  • Feministing: Racism Archives 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.feministing.com [Source type: General]

^ Some are now concerned that such contamination may have found its way into the human food supply.
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

^ This is particularly true for biologically naive populations, such as the original Native Americans, where smallpox usually means death or permanent disability.
  • Racism 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.As a result, Darwin argued, not all the members of a population will be able to survive and reproduce.^ The final condition is that all genotypes must have an equal chance to survive and reproduce.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Their model had several assumptions -- that all alleles reproduced at the same rate, that the population size was very large and that alleles did not change in form.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recall that Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium requires that all individuals in a population are equal in their ability to survive and successfully reproduce.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

.Those that did will, on average, be the ones possessing variations—however slight—that make them slightly better adapted to the environment.^ The majority, however, believe that if the environment stays fairly constant, a well adapted species could continue to survive indefinitely.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Escape The Illusion Solar Paint Could Make Those White Roofs Even Better - We’ll soon be able to use a specialized paint to collect rooftop solar energy, too.

^ However, there are a few sounds which English does not possess, and which have been put into phonetic variations.

.If these variable traits are heritable, then the offspring of the survivors will also possess them.^ By preventing or promoting the expression of certain genes, the environment can cause variation in traits, but note that this influence is not at all goal-directed and does not result in heritable change.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The offspring of these matings have the genes for both the trait and the preference for the trait.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only genes and their alleles can be sources of heritable variations in traits.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

.Thus, over many generations, adaptive variations will accumulate in the population, while counter-adaptive traits will tend to be eliminated.^ Thus, the rate of neutral evolution (in substitutions per generation) is independent of population size.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, there was an increase in the proportion of large beaked birds in the population the next generation.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In small populations random variations in allele frequencies can significantly influence the “survival” of any allele, regardless of its adaptive value; this phenomenon is genetic drift.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

.It should be emphasized that whether a variation is adaptive or non-adaptive depends on the environment: different environments favor different traits.^ By preventing or promoting the expression of certain genes, the environment can cause variation in traits, but note that this influence is not at all goal-directed and does not result in heritable change.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Also, responses to surveys appear to vary depending upon the race of the questioner and whether it is face to face or written and are, in any event a subject where people often do not answer honestly).
  • Patterico's Pontifications » That Quote Most of You Called “Racist” Was Written by Robert Stacy McCain 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC patterico.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Why should we expect the Israeli HardLiner Jews (to exclude the athiest non-violent Jews living in Israel) to be any different????
  • What is 'racism'? 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.greenspun.com [Source type: Original source]

.Since the environment effectively selects which organisms live to reproduce, it is the environment (the "fight for existence") that selects the traits to be passed on.^ Most are lost from the gene pool, the organism carrying them fails to reproduce, or reproduces but does not pass on that particular allele.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lamarck proposed that an organism's acclimation to the environment could be passed on to its offspring.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phenotypic changes, like this, induced solely by changes in environment do not count as evolution because they are not heritable; in other words the change is not passed on to the organism's offspring.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is the theory of evolution by natural selection.^ So, the amount of adaptive evolution produced by species selection (if it did occur) would have to be orders of magnitude less than adaptive evolution within populations by natural selection.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clarify and give an example of the concept of “founder effect.” Compare and contrast genetic drift and natural selection as causes of evolution.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ And frequently, people use the word evolution when they really mean natural selection -- one of the many mechanisms of evolution.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this model, the length of a giraffe's neck would be explained by positing that proto-giraffes with longer necks would have had a significant reproductive advantage to those with shorter necks.^ Figure Natural selection involves (1) heritable variation (here, giraffe neck length); (2) overproduction of offspring (3 giraffes born, not all can survive); (3) differential survival and reproduction (not enough food for all giraffes; those with shorter necks starve); and (4) gradual change in traits in the population (long-necked giraffes survive and reproduce, so their genes for long necks increase in frequency in the next generation).
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ So would it be their material advantage, or their race, that accounts for those traits?
  • New GOP "Racist" Headache - Page 1 - The Daily Beast 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.thedailybeast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, he thought proto-giraffes stretched their necks to reach higher twigs.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Over many generations, the entire population would be a species of long-necked animals.^ I suspect that the Rabbis would feel a special privilege to claim the Lord's share of the harvest of sacrificed Goy animals, the internal organs, the blood, the fat.

^ So, the amount of adaptive evolution produced by species selection (if it did occur) would have to be orders of magnitude less than adaptive evolution within populations by natural selection.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Microevolution – evolution within species or populations – can be measured as a generation-to-generation change in allele frequencies.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

.In 1859, when Darwin published his theory of natural selection, the mechanism behind the inheritance of individual traits was unknown.^ Natural selection depends not on chance, but on differential survival determined by an individual’s traits.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ And frequently, people use the word evolution when they really mean natural selection -- one of the many mechanisms of evolution.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Figure The source of variation required for natural selection is not traits or characters, as Darwin predicted, but the underlying genes, which were not discovered until Mendel’s work became known.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

.Although Darwin made some speculations on how traits are inherited (pangenesis), his theory relies only on the fact that inheritable traits exist, and are variable (which makes his accomplishment even more remarkable.^ And, even more so, what are the facts that made his arrest necessary.
  • Beck caps off week of race-baiting by calling Obama a "racist" | Media Matters for America 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact even I think this video is funny not because they make fun of chinese people but because people get offended to easy.
  • American Racist - Video 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.metacafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I looked at various websites for how the BBFC was funded, even their official one but couldnt find anything conclusive.
  • PEGI vs. BBFC: Fight! | GamePolitics 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

) .Although Gregor Mendel's paper on genetics was published in 1866, its significance was not recognized.^ The two populations, although sympatric, have developed significant genetic differences, and at least in the wild, no longer tend to interbreed.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

.It was not until 1900 that his work was rediscovered by Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns and Erich von Tschermak, who realised that the "inheritable traits" in Darwin's theory are genes.^ But Frank Zappa was a genius, a family man and a great thinker, who died of a horrible disease, but worked on his music until he could work no more.

.The theory of the evolution of species through natural selection has two important implications for discussions of species—consequences that fundamentally challenge the assumptions behind Linnaeus' taxonomy.^ He therefore that is partial in judgement, doth what in him lies to deter men from the use of judges and arbitrators, and consequently, against the fundamental law of nature, is the cause of war.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Carranza S, Amat F 2005 Taxonomy, biogeography and evolution of Euproctus (Amphibia: Salamandridae), with resurrection of the genus Calotriton and descrption of a new endemic species from the Iberian peninsula.
  • AmphibiaWeb Species Lists 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.amphibiaweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There are a small group of birthers who, for their own reasons, want to deligitimize Obama's win through their theory that he is not a natural citizen.
  • Beck caps off week of race-baiting by calling Obama a "racist" | Media Matters for America 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.First, it suggests that species are not just similar, they may actually be related.^ They may not have direct control of actual enforcement, but they have control of what games get rated and which ones don't.
  • PEGI vs. BBFC: Fight! | GamePolitics 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ "They may not have direct control of actual enforcement, but they have control of what games get rated and which ones don’t."
  • PEGI vs. BBFC: Fight! | GamePolitics 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ There are three criteria by which a suggested cause may be judged, and proof that the cause actually operated is not among them.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 1: Introduction to Leviathan - Hobbes on Civil Association 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some students of Darwin argue that all species are descended from a common ancestor.^ We and the millions of species with whom we share the Earth today all arose from a single common ancestor billions of years ago – through deep time and myriad instances of allopatric and sympatric speciation.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Closely related species descended from relatively recent common ancestors, and distantly related species descended from more distant common ancestors.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ No matter a person's personal political leanings, it should be clear to all that common sense in specialized animal handling is not an optional component.
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

.Second, it supposes that "species" are not homogeneous, fixed, permanent things; members of a species are all different, and over time species change.^ Then all things changed.
  • Carter Cites 'Racism Inclination' in Animosity Toward Obama | 44 | washingtonpost.com 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We all do are part in things and we all have different drives.
  • Racist Attacks on Obama Growing More Heated | Hatewatch | Southern Poverty Law Center 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.splcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Are we all members of the same species?
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

.This suggests that species do not have any clear boundaries but are rather momentary statistical effects of constantly changing gene-frequencies.^ Research suggests this has been a gradual adaptation to harsh environmental conditions on the part of the small number of surviving monotreme species rather than a historical characteristic of monotremes.

^ However, phylogenetic studies conflict as to whether there is a clear association between speciation and morphological change.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, the change in frequency of dark colored moths represented a change in the gene pool.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One may still use Linnaeus' taxonomy to identify individual plants and animals, but one can no longer think of species as independent and immutable.^ Still no one jumps.
  • The Insurgent - WAR - Racist Jokes 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.resist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of her coworkers, "veteran political reporter" Bill Simmons, responded to Mitchell that editors may have used the n-word, but weren't "proud" of it.
  • Feministing: Racism Archives 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.feministing.com [Source type: General]

^ It is no longer used as a lighthouse and was replaced by a metal skeleton lighthouse..
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rise of a new species from a parental line is called speciation.^ Larger changes, such as when a new species is formed, are called macroevolution.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is no clear line demarcating the ancestral species from the descendant species.^ It is clear that racism in China is strongest toward black people, however to believe that this is the only form of racism in China is almost as silly as believing that there is no racism at all.

^ Oh, I should mention that there are some formatting problems with the error messages, mostly inserting a new line where there's no need.

^ However, phylogenetic studies conflict as to whether there is a clear association between speciation and morphological change.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although the current scientific understanding of species suggests that there is no rigorous and comprehensive way to distinguish between different species in all cases, biologists continue to seek concrete ways to operationalize the idea.^ In theory, there is no difference between theory and practice; but in practice, there always is a difference.
  • Daily Kos: Rep. Roy Blunt's racist "monkey joke" (Updated) 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is a difference between the two.

^ They all hold special and meaningful places and in different ways.
  • Feministing: Racism Archives 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.feministing.com [Source type: General]

.One of the most popular biological definitions of species is in terms of reproductive isolation; if two creatures cannot reproduce to produce fertile offspring of both genders, then they are in different species.^ He is one of the most popular politicians in Arizona.
  • Feministing: Racism Archives 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.feministing.com [Source type: General]

^ They were most popular in the 1990s.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Armies fight, there is on one side, or both, a running away; yet when they do it not out of trechery, but fear, they are not esteemed to do it unjustly, but dishonourably.

This definition captures a number of intuitive species boundaries, but it remains imperfect. .It has nothing to say about species that reproduce asexually, for example, and it is very difficult to apply to extinct species.^ Science has nothing to say about what is permissible.
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of us have something to say about Intelligent Design being taught alongside evolution in science classes, as it is not testable, refutable, reproduceable, and is fundamentally not science .
  • memepool.com: Culture archive 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

^ But first, let me say that I don’t even read 99% of the post on here because most of it is just an endless rantings of know nothings about Obama.
  • Racist Attacks on Obama Growing More Heated | Hatewatch | Southern Poverty Law Center 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.splcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

.Moreover, boundaries between species are often fuzzy: there are examples where members of one population can produce fertile offspring of both genders with a second population, and members of the second population can produce fertile offspring of both genders with members of a third population, but members of the first and third population cannot produce fertile offspring, or can only produce fertile offspring of the homozygous gender.^ There is only one soul.
  • Sheila R. Vitale: Leviathan - Part 6 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.livingepistles.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is only one sanjubango known, and it was between Honinbo Shusaku and Ota Yuzo in 1853.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There’s a problem getting them to host a nuclear family as often as the general population of Americans.
  • Patterico's Pontifications » That Quote Most of You Called “Racist” Was Written by Robert Stacy McCain 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC patterico.com [Source type: Original source]

Consequently, some people reject this definition of a species.
.Richard Dawkins defines two organisms as conspecific if and only if they have the same number of chromosomes and, for each chromosome, both organisms have the same number of nucleotides (The Blind Watchmaker, p. 118).^ But this conjecture has the same uncertainty almost with the conjecture of the future, both being grounded only upon experience.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For if they were the absolute Representative of the people, then were it the Soveraign Assembly; and so there would be two Soveraign Assemblies, or two Soveraigns, over the same people; which cannot consist with their Peace.

^ When employers limit the number and length of bathroom breaks, not only are they threatening workers' health and safety, they are breaking the law.
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

.However, most if not all taxonomists would strongly disagree[citation needed].^ I'm not gonna go through all the reasons that this is bull because it would take too long but I hope that at least most of you can see how silly this is right?
  • Toddlers who dislike spicy food racist, say report - Telegraph 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ I would say the most racist thing is to assume that a culture is so fragile and vulnerable that it needs cotton wool regulation and 'guidelines' to 'deal with it' is the most racist thing of all.
  • Toddlers who dislike spicy food racist, say report - Telegraph 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ He was clearly agitated, possibly unable to believe that the American people would dare disagree with HIM. Who disagrees with a messiah, after all?
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

.For example, in many amphibians, most notably in New Zealand's Leiopelma frogs, the genome consists of "core" chromosomes which are mostly invariable and accessory chromosomes, of which exist a number of possible combinations.^ Tight packers herded as many Africans aboard as possible, arguing that net receipts from sales of slaves would off-set the number that died.
  • Obama and Filipino racism - Sidetrip with Howie Severino 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC blogs.gmanews.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ We have built bridges -- most notably the Continuous News Desk -- and we have admired each other's work, but we have not been full collaborators.
  • ben barren - rss'ing down under: August 2005 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC benbarren.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Login or register to post comments report this comment itsaNaziWorldOrder May 11th, 2008 5:20 pm "There's a number — a new number — that makes this point most powerfully.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

.Even though the chromosome numbers are highly variable between populations, these can interbreed successfully and form a single evolutionary unit.^ Note the method of securing to the foot by a thong between the toes In some parts of the United States, these type of..
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our analysis of the rabbit populations ( Table above ) showed that the relative numbers of various alleles are the best measure of variability in a gene pool (or a population).
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Variant forms of a particular gene that occur simultaneously in a population.
  • biology dictionary 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Academic]

.In plants, polyploidy is extremely commonplace with few restrictions on interbreeding; as individuals with an odd number of chromosome sets are usually sterile, depending on the actual number of chromosome sets present, this results in the odd situation where some individuals of the same evolutionary unit can interbreed with certain others and some cannot, with all populations being eventually linked as to form a common gene pool.^ All beings come in service to others.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Strings of codons form genes and strings of genes form chromosomes.
  • biology dictionary 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The gene pool is the set of all genes in a species or population.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The classification of species has been profoundly affected by technological advances that have allowed researchers to determine relatedness based on molecular markers, starting with the comparatively crude blood plasma precipitation assays in the mid-20th century to Charles Sibley's ground-breaking DNA-DNA hybridization studies in the 1970s leading to DNA sequencing techniques.^ Among the mid 20th century authors who used the term were Sri K. Parvathi Kumar (1942) [18] and Alice Bailey (1942).

^ "These men have defied the odds," said White, whose book breaks new ground in the empirical study of black feminist men.
  • Feministing: Racism Archives 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.feministing.com [Source type: General]

^ National curriculum standards met by this lesson (based on Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning standards and benchmarks, www.mcrel.org ) or IBO program standards .

.The results of these techniques caused revolutionary changes in the higher taxonomic categories (such as phyla and classes), resulting in the reordering of many branches of the phylogenetic tree (see also: molecular phylogeny).^ In the physical realm, conglomerations of these particles result in varying densities of matter, from liquid to solid, such as rocks or metals.

^ Many things can be manifested in our world, such as thoughts that result in actions.

^ Let’s see if the Republicans lose the nerve required to expose these relationships or will they fold under the pressure caused by the MSM who are in the bag for the Democrats.
  • How the Left Hijacked the Magic Words 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

.For taxonomic categories below genera, the results have been mixed so far; the pace of evolutionary change on the molecular level is rather slow, yielding clear differences only after considerable periods of reproductive separation.^ To prove that the change in bill size in Geospiza fortis was an evolutionary change, Grant had to show that differences in bill size were at least partially genetically based.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some evolutionary biologists consider the rate of evolution to be slow and constant, with small changes accumulating to form big changes – the idea of gradualism .
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If genetic divergence results in reproductive incompatibility, the two populations have become two separate species.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

DNA-DNA hybridization results have led to misleading conclusions, the Pomarine SkuaGreat Skua phenomenon being a famous example. .Turtles have been determined to evolve with just one-eighth of the speed of other reptiles on the molecular level, and the rate of molecular evolution in albatrosses is half of what is found in the rather closely related storm-petrels.^ As an "Anglo", who has left Australia and lived in other cultures (not just gone there for a holiday), I would like to say just one thing.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Racism in Australia 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People of all social classes need to LEARN how to think clearly and express their thoughts in ways (plural -- nobody can get by with just one) that communicate to other people.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Seattle Public Schools' Web Site Says Individualism is a Form of "Cultural Racism": 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sanjay Rath There are very few or no other articles that link to this one.Please help [[help:link|introduce links]] in articles on [related topics].
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The hybridization technique is now obsolete and is replaced by more reliable computational approaches for sequence comparison.^ The Longer Now This awakening represents the creation of a new, more complete worldview, which replaces a five-hundred-year-old preoccupation with secular survival and comfort.

.Molecular taxonomy is not directly based on the evolutionary processes, but rather on the overall change brought upon by these processes.^ Notice of material changes will be posted on the Site's homepage and/or will be provided by e-mailing you or notifying you upon login about these changes; the form of such notice is at our discretion.
  • The Amazing Racist | SPIKE 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ To prove that the change in bill size in Geospiza fortis was an evolutionary change, Grant had to show that differences in bill size were at least partially genetically based.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, how can we help ourselves out to make these changes and inevitable learning processes a little easier?

.The processes that lead to the generation and maintenance of variation such as mutation, crossover and selection are not uniform (see also molecular clock).^ Over time, mutations accumulate, providing the variation needed for natural selection.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The use of gene pools allows population geneticists to see variation and the influence of natural selection in detail.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If selection can only tinker with the available genetic variation, we should expect to see examples of jury-rigged design in living species.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.DNA is only extremely rarely a direct target of natural selection rather than changes in the DNA sequence enduring over generations being a result of the latter; for example, silent transition-transversion combinations would alter the melting point of the DNA sequence, but not the sequence of the encoded proteins and thus are a possible example where, for example in microorganisms, a mutation confers a change in fitness all by itself.^ Thus it would be possible, for example, to trace and prosecute the assassination threats.
  • Racist Attacks on Obama Growing More Heated | Hatewatch | Southern Poverty Law Center 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.splcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Fourier believed that all important jobs should be open to women on the basis of skill and aptitude rather than closed on account of gender.

^ And therefore when a fact hurteth, not only in the present, but also by example in the future, it is a greater crime than if it hurt only in the present: for the former is a fertile crime, and multiplies to the hurt of many; the latter is barren.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ De Queiroz K (December 2007). "Species concepts and species delimitation". Syst. Biol. 56 (6): 879–86. doi:10.1080/10635150701701083. PMID 18027281. 
  2. ^ Fraser C, Alm EJ, Polz MF, Spratt BG, Hanage WP (February 2009). "The bacterial species challenge: making sense of genetic and ecological diversity". Science (journal) 323 (5915): 741–6. doi:10.1126/science.1159388. PMID 19197054. 
  3. ^ a b de Queiroz K (May 2005). "Ernst Mayr and the modern concept of species". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 Suppl 1: 6600–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.0502030102. PMID 15851674. PMC 1131873. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15851674. 
  4. ^ Just How Many Species Are There, Anyway?, 2003-05-26, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2003/05/030526103731.htm, retrieved 2008-01-15 
  5. ^ de Queiroz K (2005). "Ernst Mayr and the modern concept of species". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 Suppl 1: 6600–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.0502030102. PMID 15851674. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15851674. 
  6. ^ David I. Williamson (2003). The Origins of Larvae. Kluwer. ISBN 1-4020-1514-3. 
  7. ^ Darwin 1859, p. [http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=side&itemID=F373&pageseq=59
  8. ^ Darwin 1871, p. [http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?viewtype=text&itemID=F937.1&keywords=definition+species+of&pageseq=241
  9. ^ Louis Menand (2001) The Metaphysical Club New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux 123–124
  10. ^ Stackebrandt E, Goebel BM (1994). "Taxonomic note: a place for DNA-DNA reassociation and 16S rRNA sequence analysis in the present species definition in bacteriology". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 44: 846–9. 
  11. ^ Stackebrandt E, Ebers J (2006). "Taxonomic parameters revisited: tarnished gold standards". Microbiol. Today 33: 152–5. 
  12. ^ Michael Ruse (August 1969). "Definitions of Species in Biology". The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 20 (2): 97–119. http://www.jstor.org/stable/686173. 
  13. ^ a b Current Results: Number of Species on Earth
  14. ^ Sogin ML, Morrison HG, Huber JA, et al. (August 2006). "Microbial diversity in the deep sea and the underexplored "rare biosphere"". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103 (32): 12115–20. doi:10.1073/pnas.0605127103. PMID 16880384. PMC 1524930. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16880384.  Cheung L (Monday, 31 July 200). "Thousands of microbes in one gulp". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/5232928.stm. 
  15. ^ David L. Hawksworth (2001). "The magnitude of fungal diversity: the 1•5 million species estimate revisited". Mycological Research 105: 1422–1432. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=95069. 
  16. ^ Census of marine life
  17. ^ Discovery of new species and extermination at high rate

External links

.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.SPECIES, a term, in its general and once familiar significance, applied indiscriminately to animate and inanimate objects and to abstract conceptions or ideas, as denoting a particular phase, or sort, in which anything might appear.^ Therefore there is no Idea, or conception of anything we call Infinite.

^ So when an aberration like Mixon appears - a once in a generation kind of event -- the implications are cosmic.
  • Feministing: Racism Archives 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.feministing.com [Source type: General]

^ Having peculiar forms of initiation, they came to be regarded as a kind of Freemasons, a term specially applied to them by Steinschneider."

In logic it came to be used as the translation of the Gr. .Ft50s, and meant a number of individuals having common characters peculiar to them, and so forming a group which with other groups were included in a higher group.^ A number of other Christian groups—including the Southern Baptist Convention, the nation's largest Protestant denomination—are packing their bags and heading to Iraq (if they're not already there), equipped with food, shelter, and Bibles.

^ The term "racism" is usually applied to the dominant group in a society, because it is that group which has the means to oppress others, but readily applies to any individual or group(s), regardless of social status or dominance.
  • What is Racism? - Mary Mitchell 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC blogs.suntimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The group was formed in 1984 and other members include: Hubert Kemmler (singer and song writer), Markus Löhr, Klaus Hirschburge..
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The application of the term was purely relative, for the higher group itself might be one of the "species," or modes of a still higher group.^ One common mistake is believing that species can be arranged on an evolutionary ladder from bacteria through "lower" animals, to "higher" animals and, finally, up to man.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As to the prompt itself, my reading of it is that it did sort of express a perspective that one might legitimately conclude that Judaism is "simply a religion of lawless racists."
  • What is 'racism'? 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.greenspun.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The founder effect could set the stage for relatively rapid speciation, a genetic revolution in Ernst Mayr's terms.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In medicine it was used for the constituents of a prescription. In algebra it denoted the characters which represented quantities in an equation.
.Early writers on natural history used the term in its vague logical sense without limiting it to a special category in the hierarchy of classification.^ Malware -- short for MALicious softWARE -- is a term used to broadly classify a form of software which is installed in a computer system with malicious intentions, usually without the owner's knowledge or permission.
  • The Amazing Racist | SPIKE 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ The genealogical or evolutionary species concept defines a species as a group of organisms with a unique genetic history – a group which shares common ancestry without divergence.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the term was used prior to Bailey; a weekly Journal of Christian liberalism and Socialism called The New Age was published as early as 1894.

.To John Ray, the famous English naturalist, the credit is generally given of first making species a definite term in zoology and botany, but Ray owed much of his classification to Kaspar or Gaspard Bauhin (1550-1624), profressor of Greek and of Anatomy and Botany at Basel, and much of his clear definition of terms to an unpublished MS. of Joachim Jung of Hamburg (1587-1657).^ To which I answer, first, that examples prove nothing; secondly, that the examples he allegeth make not so much as a probability of right.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sanpaku redirect [[Template:Importance]]Sanpaku is a Japanese term that literally means “three areas empty” and is generally referred to in English as "Sanpaku eyes".
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The interesting question is: "How much credit?"What we do for PubSub LinkRanks is count the number of links from a single source and then decay the value of all InLinks after the first one."
  • ben barren - rss'ing down under: August 2005 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC benbarren.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

Sir W. T. Thisleton Dyer (Edinburgh Review, 1902, p. .370) thinks that Ray's use of the word may be traced to the last-mentioned authors.^ The words a person uses are a reflection of their thinking.
  • Limbaugh's "colorblind" history of racially charged comments | Media Matters for America 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There may be some who think 'evilness' is too strong a word to describe such ideology but in my opinion this is pure evil.
  • Toddlers who dislike spicy food racist, say report - Telegraph 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ It is true, that if he be my Soveraign, he may oblige me to obedience, so, as not by act or word to declare I beleeve him not; but not to think any otherwise then my reason perswades me.

.It is clear, however, that through Ray's work in the 17th century the common biological application of species became fixed much in its modern form, as denoting a group of animals or plants capable of interbreeding, and although not necessarily quite identical, with marked common characters.^ A local group of organisms belonging to the same species and capable of interbreeding.
  • biology dictionary 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Polyploidy is a common form of speciation in plants in nature, as well as in agriculture.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The study of the fossil record of past geo- logical periods and of the phylogenetic relationships between ancient and contemporary plant and animal species.
  • biology dictionary 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Academic]

Working on these lines, and attaching special importance to common descent, naturalists applied the term with more and more precision, until Linnaeus, in his Philosophia botanica, gave the aphorism, "species tot sunt diversae, quot diversae formae ab initio sunt creatae" - "just so many species are to be reckoned as there were forms created at the beginning." Linnaeus' invention of binomial nomenclature for designating species served systematic biology admirably, but at the same time, by attaching preponderating importance to a particular grade in classification, crystallized the doctrine of fixity. .The lower grades in classification such as sub-species and varieties on the one hand, and the higher grades on the other, such as genera and families, were admitted to be human conceptions imposed on the living world, but species were concrete, objective existences to be discovered and named.^ On the other hand, from our present perspective it is impossible to mistake the role of values and concepts which have since been rejected in the formulation of many aspects of previous Church policy.
  • The Mormon Curtain - MORMON RACISM 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.mormoncurtain.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I can tell you for certain the Republicans rubbed their hands together, hopped from one foot to the other in glee, when it became apparent Obama was defeating Hillary.
  • Racist Attacks on Obama Growing More Heated | Hatewatch | Southern Poverty Law Center 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.splcenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Then one of the seraphs flew to me with a live coal in his hand, which he had taken with tongs from the altar.

.G. L. L. Buffon and J. P. B. Lamarck practically conceded the objective existence of species in arguing that they might be modified by external conditions, and G. L. Cuvier proclaimed their fixity without reserve.^ A biological species is a group of organisms similar enough that they could interbreed and produce fertile offspring under natural conditions .
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Lamarck also believed species never went extinct, although they may change into newer forms.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Previous species might have been the dominant life form but they lived and died as other species if they didn't hunt and gather correctly.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

.Charles Darwin found the conception of species so definite and fixed that he chose for the title of his great book (1859) the words On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, although his exposition of evolution applied equally to every grade in classification.^ The word evolution has a variety of meanings.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The plant, a highly endangered species, has a very restricted distribution, being found notably in Australia's Thylogale Nature Refuge.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some rare cases, natural selection can actually cause a decline in the mean relative fitness of a population.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.E. B. Poulton, in an admirable discussion of contemporary views regarding species (presidential address to the Entomological Society of London 1904), has shown that Darwin did not believe in the objective existence of species, not only because he was led to discard the hypothesis of special creation as the explanation of the polymorphism of life, but because in practice as a working systematist he could neither find for himself nor ascertain from other systematists any settled criteria by which a group of specimens could be elevated into a genus, accepted as a species, or regarded as a variety.^ Canute’s life and work are discussed.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I did have one incident this year, where I was called racist, because I am a teacher, and a white student of mine was failing because this student did not do any work whatsoever and did not study.
  • What is Racism? - Mary Mitchell 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC blogs.suntimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What was the reason, when they all beleeved the Scripture, that they did not all beleeve alike; but that some approved, others disapproved the Interpretation of St. Paul that cited them; and every one Interpreted them to himself?

.The vast advance in knowledge of the existing forms of living things that has been acquired and recorded since 1859 has accentuated the difficulty of finding any morphological criteria for species.^ Do you find the evidence for sympatric speciation (the more disputed of the two forms) convincing?
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is the sole living representative of its family (Ornithorhynchidae) and genus (Ornithorhynchus), though a number of related species have been found in the fossil record.

^ And it is also to deny all of what is true about Creation, that there are stars and planets around us, along with trees and rivers and all forms of living things.
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

.A few writers have insisted that they are discontinuous, and that real gaps exist between them.^ Let's see, W.E.B. DuBois argued that racism is the belief that differences between the races exist, be they biological, social, psychological, or in the realm of the soul.
  • What is Racism? - Mary Mitchell 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC blogs.suntimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have several black friends, but they really aren't black, they are AMERICANS! That is the difference between and the ones trying to destroy America.
  • » Maryland ACORN Official: It’s Racism - Big Government 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC biggovernment.com [Source type: General]

^ There has been no real problem until moslems came in large numbers who insist that they do not need to worry about the standards of their adopted country.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Racism in Australia 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Egtfally great gaps, however, may exist between males and females, between climatic phases or summer and winter forms.^ R. A. Fisher proposed that females may have an innate preference for some male trait before it appears in a population.
  • Introduction to Evolutionary Biology 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Examples of the difference between command and counsel we may take from the forms of speech that express them in Holy Scripture.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It may have a range of up to 7 km (4.4 mi) with male’s home ranges overlapping with those of 3 or 4 females.

.The attempt to find a physiological criterion has similarly failed; many forms that have been universally accepted as true species produce fertile hybrids (see Hybridism).^ By chasing other candidates with greater visibility, they failed to see what many of their supporters in the trenches saw clearly: Huckabee was their guy.

^ Discuss the use of hybridization to form new crop species.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The process where two cells (gametes) fuse to form one hybrid, fertilized cell.
  • biology dictionary 25 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Academic]

.In modern practice (see Zoological Nomenclature) systematists no longer regard species as more than as an artificial rank in classification, to be applied chiefly for reasons of convenience, so that the word is reverting to its older logical significance.^ No more info than that.
  • PEGI vs. BBFC: Fight! | GamePolitics 11 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.gamepolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ Since the 1980s, the revisionist narrative continues, experts have determined that powder and crack show more pharmacological “similarities than differences,” in the Times ’s words, and that crack is no more damaging to fetuses than alcohol.
  • Is the Criminal-Justice System Racist? by Heather Mac Donald, City Journal Spring 2008 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have no doubt that Obama is a prog at heart, but I think he seeks power more than he desires to achieve a socialist utopia.
  • How the Left Hijacked the Magic Words 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC proteinwisdom.com [Source type: General]

.The word "species" now signifies a grade or rank in classification assigned by systematists to an assemblage of organic forms which they judge to be more closely interrelated by common descent than they are related to forms judged to be outside the species, and of which the known individuals, if they differ amongst themselves, differ less markedly than they do from those outside the species, or, if differing markedly, are linked by intermediate forms.^ But it’s radically different now than it was at that time.
  • ben barren - rss'ing down under: August 2005 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC benbarren.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ They were no more heathen than the Europeans themselves.
  • Racism 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But they have a lot more to fear than this.
  • Blogbat: Morals & Ethics Archives 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC blogbat.us [Source type: Original source]

.It is to be noted that the individuals may themselves be judged to fall into groups of minor rank, known as sub-species or local varieties, but such subordinate assemblages are elevated to specific rank, if they appear not to intergrade so as to form a linked.^ There may be a case to be made that they aren't men, but they both appear to be Caucasians.
  • Limbaugh's "colorblind" history of racially charged comments | Media Matters for America 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To him that can avoyd these things, it is not easie to fall into any absurdity, unlesse it be by the length of an account; wherein he may perhaps forget what went before.

^ More examples of vain philosophy, brought into religion by the doctors of School divinity, might be produced; but other men may if they please observe them of themselves.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

species, whilst on the other hand assemblages judged to be species are merged, or degraded to sub-species, if they are found to intergrade by discoveries of linking forms. .A species, in short, is a subjective conception, and some writers, as for instance E. Ray Lankester, have urged that the word is so firmly asssociated with historical implications of fixity which are now incongruous with its application, that it ought to be discarded from scientific nomenclature.^ There is no word for the concept 'creole' any more, although perhaps that concept is achieving merely historical interest, and maybe that's a good thing, too.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Seattle Public Schools' Web Site Says Individualism is a Form of "Cultural Racism": 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The remains of some colonists were located a short distance away in a now disused cemetery and a small memorial was located on a nearby golf course.

^ Civil philosophy, the subject of Leviathan, is precisely the application of this conception of philosophy to civil association.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 1: Introduction to Leviathan - Hobbes on Civil Association 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.In technical biology each species is designated by two words, one for the genus, printed with an initial capital, and one for the particular species, printed without an initial capital in Zoology, whilst in Botany the habit once common to both subjects is retained, and the specific name if derived from a proper name is printed with a capital.^ The name is an amalgam of two words: santi..
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Name Gotera is a native word that is derived from two roots.
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I agree with what one said, those two presidential candidates are both evils.
  • Obama and Filipino racism - Sidetrip with Howie Severino 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC blogs.gmanews.tv [Source type: Original source]

.The two words are printed in italics, and may be followed by the name of the author who first described the species.^ The name is an amalgam of two words: santi..
  • Encyclopedia entries starting with SAN - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 12 October 2009 13:013 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Describe two conditions that can lead to speciation.
  • Evolution in Populations - CK12 - Flexbooks 16 October 2009 3:34 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There may be some who think 'evilness' is too strong a word to describe such ideology but in my opinion this is pure evil.
  • Toddlers who dislike spicy food racist, say report - Telegraph 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Thus "Canis vulpes Linnaeus" is the specific designation of the common fox, Canis being the generic term common to dogs, wolves and so forth, and vulpes indicating the particular species, whilst the attached author's name indicates that Linnaeus first named the species in question.^ These two kinds of servants have thus much common to them both, that their labour is appointed them by another: and the word Latris is the general name of both, signifying him that worketh for another, whether as a slave or a voluntary servant.
  • Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]
  • LEVIATHAN 9 January 2010 12:29 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The first author of Speech was GOD himselfe, that instructed Adam how to name such creatures as he presented to his sight; For the Scripture goeth no further in this matter.

^ There is racism in Australia because there is racism everywhere, it is an attribute of human beings in general, not Australians or white people in particular.
  • ABC The Drum Unleashed - Racism in Australia 3 February 2010 17:38 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(P. C. M.)


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
(Redirected to species article)

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Etymology

From Latin speciēs (appearance; quality), from speciō (see) + -iēs suffix signifying abstract noun.

Pronunciation

Noun

Singular
species
Plural
species
species (plural species)
  1. A group of plants or animals having similar appearance.
    This species of animal is unique to the area.
  2. (biology, taxonomy) A rank in the classification of organisms, below genus and above subspecies; a taxon at that rank
    • Darwin, On the Origin of Species:
      Hence, in determining whether a form should be ranked as a species or a variety, the opinion of naturalists having sound judgment and wide experience seems the only guide to follow.
    I cast the species of the Sun onto a sheet of paper through a telescope.
  3. (mineralogy) A mineral with a unique chemical formula whose crystals belong to a unique crystallographic system.
  4. (obsolete) The image of something cast on a surface, or reflected from a surface, or refracted through a lens or telescope; a reflection.
  5. (Roman Catholicism) Either of the two elements of the Eucharist after they have been consecrated, so named because they retain the image of the bread and wine before their transubstantiation into the body and blood of Christ.

Usage notes

  • specie is a separate word that means coin money, not the singular version of species.
  • (biology, taxonomy, rank in the classification of organisms): See species name.

Derived terms

Related terms

See also

Translations

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

References


Latin

Wikipedia-logo.png
Latin Wikipedia has an article on:
Species (taxinomia)
Wikipedia la

Etymology

From speciō (see) + -iēs suffix signifying abstract noun.

Pronunciation

Noun

speciēs (genitive speciēī); f, fifth declension
  1. a seeing, view, look
  2. a spectacle, sight
  3. external appearance; general outline or shape
  4. semblance, pretence, pretext, outward show
  5. show, display
  6. (figuratively) vision, dream, apparition
  7. (figuratively) honor, reputation
  8. (figuratively) a kind, quality, species
  9. (law, later) a special case

Inflection

Number Singular Plural
nominative speciēs speciēs
genitive specieī speciērum
dative specieī speciēbus
accusative speciem speciēs
ablative speciē speciēbus
vocative speciēs speciēs

Descendants


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Superregnum: Superregnum
Regnum: Regnum
Phylum: Phylum
Classis: Classis
Ordo: Ordo
Familia: Familia
Tribus: Tribus
Genus: Genus
Superspecies: Superspecies
Species: Species
Subspecies: Subspecies 1 - Subspecies 2 - Subspecies 3


This template is not a rule, not even a guideline. It is a mere attempt to stimulate a discussion about the navigation in wikispecies. Please discuss this at the Village pump
edit

Simple English

In taxonomy, a species is a kind of animal or plant. All animals or plants that are the same kind belong to the same species. Wolves (Canis lupus (cane-is loo-puss)) are one species. Humans are another species.

Species is a word for a special kind of living thing, like a crow. Crows and ravens are similar but not the same, so they are together in a more general group called a genus. Then there is a family (like the crow family, which includes crows and ravens as well as jays and magpies), and then an order such as the songbirds, (which has many families in it, such as the crow, thrush and swallow families). The next group is the class; all birds are in the same class. After that is the phylum, such as vertebrates, which is all animals with backbones. Last of all is the kingdom, like the animal kingdom. These are ways to classify living things.

There is a mnemonic to help people remember the order of the divisions which are listed again below: "King Phillip Came Over For Great Spaghetti".

Example

Take as an example the bird called a Common Loon or Great Northern Diver:

Other pages

krc:Биология тюрлю



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 04, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Species, which are similar to those in the above article.








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