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Spleen
Illu spleen.jpg
Spleen
Horse spleen laparoscopic.jpg
Laparoscopic view of a horse's spleen (the purple and grey mottled organ)
Latin splen, lien
Gray's subject #278 1282
Artery Splenic artery
Vein Splenic vein
Nerve Splenic plexus
Precursor Mesenchyme of dorsal mesogastrium
MeSH Spleen
Dorlands/Elsevier Spleen
.The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrate animals with important roles in regard to red blood cells and the immune system.^ High is Not Always Better A high white blood count is a sign of infection (or leukemia, not the sign of a healthy immune system).
  • Polite Dissent » Search Results » spleen 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.politedissent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If I understand what House is implying, Sarah’s PDA isn’t open all the time, but just under periods of stress, which causes her systemic blood pressure to rise.
  • Polite Dissent » Search Results » spleen 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.politedissent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The blood smear shows schistocytes (fragmented red blood cells), a sign of TTP, so they decide to begin treatment.
  • Polite Dissent » Search Results » spleen 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.politedissent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .In humans, it is located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen.^ It is located on the left side of the abdomen near the stomach.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.It removes old red blood cells and holds a reserve in case of hemorrhagic shock, especially in animals like horses (not in humans), while recycling iron.^ A monoclonal antibody used to prevent red blood cells from being destroyed in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), a red blood cell disorder.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The clear liquid part of the blood that remains after blood cells and clotting proteins have been removed.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Sickle cell disease is caused by a mutation (change) in one of the genes for hemoglobin (the substance inside red blood cells that binds to oxygen and carries it from the lungs to the tissues).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[2] .It synthesizes antibodies in its white pulp and removes, from blood and lymph node circulation, antibody-coated bacteria along with antibody-coated blood cells.^ There are too many lymphocytes in the blood, the liver or spleen is larger than normal, and the lymph nodes may be larger than normal.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ An indolent (slow-growing) type of lymphoma in which too many immature lymphocytes (white blood cells) are found mostly in the lymph nodes.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A rare disease in which too many mast cells (a type of immune system cell) are found in the skin, bones, joints, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and gastrointestinal tract.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[2][3] .Recently, it has been found to contain, in its reserve, half of the body's monocytes, within the red pulp, that, upon moving to injured tissue (such as the heart), turns into dendritic cells and macrophages while aiding "wound healing", or the healing of lacerations.^ Fibrous tissue that forms when a wound heals.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A type of radiation therapy in which a radioactive substance, such radioactive idoine or a radioactively labeled monoclonal antibody, is swallowed or injected into the body and travels through the blood, locating and killing tumor cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In stage IIC, cancer has spread to the uterus and/or fallopian tubes and/or other tissue within the pelvis and cancer cells are found in fluid from the peritoneal cavity (the body cavity that contains most of the organs in the abdomen).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[4][5][6] .It is one of the centers of activity of the reticuloendothelial system and can be considered analogous to a large lymph node as its absence leads to a predisposition toward certain infections.^ It assists the immune system by acting as a large lymph node.
  • Polite Dissent » Search Results » spleen 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.politedissent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cancer is larger than 4 centimeters (about 2 inches); or the cancer is any size but has spread to only one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The lymph node that contains cancer is no larger than 3 centimeters (just over one inch).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[7]

Contents

Anatomy

The spleen, in healthy adult humans, is approximately 11 centimetres (4.3 in) in length. It usually weighs 150 grams (5.3 oz) and lies beneath the 9th to the 12th thoracic ribs.[8]
Like the thymus, the spleen possesses only efferent lymphatic vessels.
.The spleen is part of the lymphatic system.^ An organ that is part of the lymphatic system.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In stage IIIS+E, cancer is found in lymph node groups on both sides of the diaphragm, in the spleen, and in one area of an organ or tissue that is not part of the lymph system.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

The germinal centers are supplied by arterioles called penicilliary radicles.[9]
The spleen is unique in respect to its development within the gut. While most of the gut viscera are endodermally derived (with the exception of the neural-crest derived suprarenal gland), the spleen is derived from mesenchymal tissue.[10] Specifically, the spleen forms within, and from, the dorsal mesentery. However, it still shares the same blood supply — the celiac trunk — as the foregut organs.

Function

Area Function Composition
red pulp Mechanical filtration of red blood cells. Reserve of monocytes[4]
white pulp Active immune response through humoral and cell-mediated pathways. Composed of nodules, called Malpighian corpuscles. These are composed of:
Other functions of the spleen are less prominent, especially in the healthy adult:
.
  • Creation of red blood cells.^ A substance being studied for its ability to stimulate the production of blood cells during chemotherapy.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ An inherited disease in which the red blood cells have an abnormal crescent shape, block small blood vessels, and do not last as long as normal red blood cells.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A monoclonal antibody used to prevent red blood cells from being destroyed in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), a red blood cell disorder.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    While the bone marrow is the primary site of hematopoeisis in the adult, the spleen has important hematopoietic functions up until the fifth month of gestation. After birth, erythropoietic functions cease, except in some hematologic disorders. .As a major lymphoid organ and a central player in the reticuloendothelial system, the spleen retains the ability to produce lymphocytes and, as such, remains an hematopoietic organ.
  • Storage of red blood cells and other formed elements.^ There are too many lymphocytes in the blood and there are too few red blood cells.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Tumor markers are released into the blood by tumor cells or by other cells in response to tumor cells.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A substance being studied for its ability to stimulate the production of blood cells during chemotherapy.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .In horses roughly 30% of the red blood cells are stored there.^ The blood smear shows schistocytes (fragmented red blood cells), a sign of TTP, so they decide to begin treatment.
    • Polite Dissent » Search Results » spleen 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.politedissent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ITP, by definition, has low platelet numbers — which were never mentioned, just abnormal looking platelets (though her red blood cells should have looked chewed up as well).
    • Polite Dissent » Search Results » spleen 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.politedissent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Parasites that like to hide within red blood cells ( malaria is the main one, but also babesiosis and ehrlichiosis , rare tick-borne infections).
    • Polite Dissent » Search Results » spleen 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.politedissent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The red blood cells can be released when needed.^ Red blood cells, target cells .
    • Spleen removal Medical Information 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]
    • Spleen removal 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.pennmedicine.org [Source type: General]
    • Spleen removal - Vancouver Washington, WA, Portland Oregon, OR 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.swmedicalcenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Spleen removal Information at myOptumHealth 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.myoptumhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Abnormal red blood cells are also removed.

    ^ Old red blood cells are destroyed.

    [11] .In humans, it does not act as a reservoir of blood cells.^ A group of diseases in which the bone marrow does not make enough healthy blood cells.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    [12] .It can also store platelets in case of an emergency.
  • Storage of half the body's monocytes so that upon injury they can migrate to the injured tissue and transform into dendritic cells and macrophages and so assist wound healing.^ Fibrous tissue that forms when a wound heals.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The gene would need to get into the respiratory cells, and then into the cells’ nuclei and incorporated into the chromosomal DNA. Loose strands of DNA floating around are ignored by the body; to be useful they need to be hooked up into the cells’ genetic machinery.
    • Polite Dissent » Search Results » spleen 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.politedissent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ After a patient’s bone marrow is destroyed by treatment with whole body irradiation or chemotherapy, these cells are injected back into the patient to help rebuild bone marrow.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    [4]

Effect of removal

Surgical removal causes:[5]
.A 28-year follow up of 740 veterans of World War II found that those who had been splenectomised showed a significant excess of mortality from pneumonia (6 from an expected 1.3) and a significant excess of mortality from ischaemic heart disease (4.1 from an expected 3) but not from other conditions.^ Her past medical history is significant for heart disease and a recent anemia which required a transfusion to correct.
  • Polite Dissent » Search Results » spleen 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.politedissent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sarah is a 29 year old teacher of special needs children who suddenly begins to cough up blood during class and then collapses .
  • Polite Dissent » Search Results » spleen 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.politedissent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All the causes of osteopetrosis are genetic, and if Maggie had one of these diseases, it would have shown up with other symptoms long before now.
  • Polite Dissent » Search Results » spleen 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.politedissent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]

Disorders

Disorders include splenomegaly, where the spleen is enlarged for various reasons, and asplenia, where the spleen is not present or functions abnormally.

Etymology and cultural views

The word spleen comes from the Greek σπλήν, and is the idiomatic equivalent of the heart in English, i.e. to be good-spleened (εὔσπλαγχνος) means to be good-hearted or compassionate.[14]
In French, "splénétique" refers to a state of pensive sadness or melancholy. It has been popularized by the poet Charles Baudelaire (1821–1867) but was already used before in particular to the Romantic literature (18th century). The word for the organ is "la rate."
The connection between spleen (the organ) and melancholy (the temperament) comes from the humoral medicine of the ancient Greeks. .One of the humours (body fluid) was the black bile, secreted by the spleen organ and associated with melancholy.^ In stage IIIS+E, cancer is found in lymph node groups on both sides of the diaphragm, in the spleen, and in one area of an organ or tissue that is not part of the lymph system.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In medicine, a passage that is made to allow blood or other fluid to move from one part of the body to another.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cancer has spread (1) to organs next to the stomach and to at least one lymph node, or (2) to more than 15 lymph nodes, or (3) to other parts of the body.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

In contrast, the Talmud (tractate Berachoth 61b) refers to the spleen as the organ of laughter while possibly suggesting a link with the humoral view of the organ. In the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century England, women in bad humour were said to be afflicted by the spleen, or the vapours of the spleen. In modern English, "to vent one's spleen" means to vent one's anger, e.g. by shouting, and can be applied to both males and females. .Similarly, the English term "splenetic" is used to describe a person in a foul mood.^ A term that is used to describe either a new primary cancer or cancer that has spread from the place in which it started to other parts of the body.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In Chinese, the spleen ' (pí)' counts as the seat of one's temperament and is thought to influence the individual's willpower.^ Chase thought he removed the spleen, but he removed only one and James still has several more.
  • Polite Dissent » Search Results » spleen 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.politedissent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Analogous to "venting one's spleen," "發脾氣" is used as an expression for getting angry, although in the view of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the view of "脾" does not correspond to the anatomical "spleen." "脾" is a conceptual functional group that mainly has regards to digestion which, in some scholars' opinions, corresponds to the function of the liver.

Variation among vertebrates

.In cartilagenous and ray-finned fish the spleen is normally a somewhat elongated organ, consisting primarily of red pulp, with only a small amount of white pulp.^ All of the cancer was removed by surgery, except for a small amount of cancer that can be seen only with a microscope, or tumor cells that may have spilled into the abdomen during surgery.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ An inherited disease in which the red blood cells have an abnormal crescent shape, block small blood vessels, and do not last as long as normal red blood cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In stage IA, a very small amount of cancer that can only be seen with a microscope is found in the tissues of the cervix.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

In lungfish, the spleen is not a distinct organ as it actually lies inside the serosal lining of the intestine. .In many amphibians, especially frogs, it takes on the more rounded form and there is often a greater quantity of white pulp.^ A substance that helps make more white blood cells, especially granulocytes, macrophages, and cells that become platelets.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[15]
.In reptiles, birds, and mammals, white pulp is always relatively plentiful, and in the latter two groups, the spleen is typically rounded, although it adjusts its shape somewhat to the arrangement of the surrounding organs.^ In stage IIIS+E, cancer is found in lymph node groups on both sides of the diaphragm, in the spleen, and in one area of an organ or tissue that is not part of the lymph system.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In stage IIIE+S, cancer is found in lymph node groups above and below the diaphragm, in a nearby area or organ, and in the spleen.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In the great majority of vertebrates, the spleen continues to produce red blood cells throughout life; it is only in mammals that this function is lost in the adult.^ An inherited disease in which the red blood cells have an abnormal crescent shape, block small blood vessels, and do not last as long as normal red blood cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A monoclonal antibody used to prevent red blood cells from being destroyed in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), a red blood cell disorder.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ There are too many lymphocytes in the blood and there are too few red blood cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Many mammals possess tiny spleen-like structures known as haemal nodes throughout the body, which presumably have the same function as the spleen proper.[15]The spleens of aquatic mammals are in some ways dissimilar to those of fully land dwelling mammals. In general the spleens of aquatic mammals are bluish in colour. .In cetaceans and manatees it tends to be quite small, but in deep diving pinnipeds it can be quite massive, owing to its function of storing red blood cells.^ Sickle cell anemia is caused by a mutation (change) in one of the genes for hemoglobin (the substance inside red blood cells that binds to oxygen and carries it from the lungs to the tissues).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The distance red blood cells travel in one hour in a sample of blood as they settle to the bottom of a test tube.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ There are too many lymphocytes in the blood and there are too few red blood cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

The only vertebrates lacking a spleen are the lampreys and hagfishes. .Even in these animals, there is a diffuse layer of haematopoeitic tissue within the gut wall, which has a similar structure to red pulp, and is presumably homologous with the spleen of higher vertebrates.^ Cancer has spread beyond the innermost layer of tissue to the next layer of tissue in the wall of the esophagus.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In stage IIIA, cancer has spread to (1) the outermost layer of the uterus; and/or (2) tissue just beyond the uterus; and/or (3) the peritoneum (tissue that lines the abdominal wall and organs).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 January 2010 17:33 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[15]

See also

Additional images

Footnotes

  1. ^ Spleen, Internet Encyclopedia of Science
  2. ^ a b Mebius RE, Kraal G. (2005). Structure and function of the spleen. Nat Rev Immunol. 5(8):606-16. PMID 16056254
  3. ^ Loscalzo, Joseph; Fauci, Anthony S.; Braunwald, Eugene; Dennis L. Kasper; Hauser, Stephen L; Longo, Dan L. (2008). Harrison's principles of internal medicine. McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 9780071466339. 
  4. ^ a b c Swirski FK, Nahrendorf M, Etzrodt M, Wildgruber M, Cortez-Retamozo V, Panizzi P, Figueiredo J-L, Kohler RH, Chudnovskiy A, Waterman P, Aikawa E, Mempel TR, Libby P, Weissleder R, Pittet MJ. (2009). Identification of Splenic Reservoir Monocytes and Their Deployment to Inflammatory Sites. Science, 325: 612-616. doi:10.1126/science.1175202
  5. ^ a b Jia T, Pamer EG. (2009). Dispensable But Not Irrelevant. Science, 325:549-550. doi:10.1126/science.1178329
  6. ^ Finally, the Spleen Gets Some Respect By NATALIE ANGIER, New York Times, August 3, 2009
  7. ^ Brender, MD is a beep, Erin; Allison Burke, MA, illustrator, Richard M. Glass, MD, editor (2005-11-23). "Spleen Patient Page" (PDF). Journal of the American Medical Association (American Medical Association) 294 (20): 2660. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/294/20/2660.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-20. 
  8. ^ Spielmann, Audrey L.; David M. DeLong, Mark A. Kliewer (1 January 2005). "Sonographic Evaluation of Spleen Size in Tall Healthy Athletes". American Journal of Roentgenology (American Roentgen Ray Society) 2005 (184): 45–49. PMID 15615949. http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/abstract/184/1/45. Retrieved 2008-09-09. 
  9. ^ thefreedictionary.com - penicilliary radicles
  10. ^ Vellguth, Swantje; Brita von Gaudecker, Hans-Konrad Müller-Hermelink. "The development of the human spleen". Cell and Tissue Research (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) 242 (3): 579–592. http://www.springerlink.com/content/q231303t1455j524/. Retrieved 2009-02-14. 
  11. ^ Carey, Bjorn (May 5, 2006). "Horse science: What makes a Derby winner - Spleen acts as a 'natural blood doper,' scientist says". MSNBC.com (Microsoft). http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/12648465/. Retrieved 2006-05-09. 
  12. ^ Tao Le. First Aid for the Basic Sciences: General Principles. Page 460.
  13. ^ Robinette CD, Fraumeni JF Jr. (1977). Splenectomy and subsequent mortality in veterans of the 1939-45 war. Lancet. Jul 16;2(8029):127-9. PMID 69206 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(77)90132-5
  14. ^ Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament, commentary on 1 Peter 3:8
  15. ^ a b c Romer, Alfred Sherwood; Parsons, Thomas S. (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 410–411. ISBN 0-03-910284-X. 
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External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

SPLEEN (Gr. airArtv), a vascular organ situated on the left side of the abdomen (see DUCTLESS GLANDS). It was supposed in olden times to be the seat of ill-humour and melancholy, whence such phrases as "to have the spleen," to be out of temper, sulky, morose, "splenetic."


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also spleen

German

Noun

Spleen m.
  1. obsession, idée fixe

Simple English

The spleen is a gland that works closely with the circulatory system. The spleen produces, monitors, destroys and stores red blood cells. The spleen also has two other functions, the red and white pulp. The white pulp helps fight infections and the red pulp removes unwanted materials. Until recently, the purpose of the spleen was not known.

The spleen is above the stomach to the left, underneath the rib cage. Spleens in healthy adults are 9 to 13 centimetres (3.5 to 5.1 in) in length.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 24, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Spleen, which are similar to those in the above article.








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