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Sponge
Fossil range: Ediacaran–Recent
SpongeColorCorrect.jpg
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Porifera*
Grant in Todd, 1836
Included groups
.Sponges are animals of the phylum Porifera (pronounced /pɒˈrɪfərə/).^ PHYLUM PORIFERA Sponges 28...one-celled animals 2.
  • Sponge: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 16 January 2010 2:54 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Phylum Porifera includes the sponges .
  • Invertebrates 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC mansfield.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phylum Porifera SPONGES SPONGES are among the most...
  • Porifera: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Their bodies consist of jelly-like mesohyl sandwiched between two thin layers of cells.^ Their bodies consist of jelly-like mesohyl sandwiched between two thin layers of cells .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The body of a sponge is hollow and consists basically of an aggregation of cells between which there is little nervous coordination.
  • Porifera Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Porifera 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The inner layer consists of flagelled cells called collar cells, or choanocytes.
  • Porifera Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Porifera 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.While all animals have unspecialized cells that can transform into specialized cells, sponges are unique in having some specialized cells that can transform into other types, often migrating between the main cell layers and the mesohyl in the process.^ Some cells of the sponge change into eggs or sperm.
  • Sponges (Porifera) on the Shores of Singapore 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.wildsingapore.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While all animals have unspecialized cells that can transform into specialized cells, sponges are unique in having some specialized cells that can transform into other types, often migrating between the main cell layers and the mesohyl in the process.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Sponges are among the least complex of all animals.
  • Invertebrates 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC mansfield.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sponges do not have nervous, digestive or circulatory systems.^ Sponges do not have nervous , digestive or circulatory systems .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The histology and nervous system of the calcareous sponges.

^ Is there a nervous system in sponges?
  • Kinetics and rhythm of body contractions in the sponge Tethya wilhelma (Porifera: Demospongiae) -- Nickel 207 (26): 4515 -- Journal of Experimental Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC jeb.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

.Instead, most rely on maintaining a constant water flow through their bodies to obtain food and oxygen and to remove wastes, and the shapes of their bodies are adapted to maximize the efficiency of the water flow.^ They filter food particles out of the water flowing through them.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead most rely on maintaining a constant water flow through their bodies to obtain food and oxygen and to remove wastes, and the shapes of their bodies are adapted to maximize the efficiency of the water flow.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Asconoid Syconoid Leuconoid Pinacocytes Choanocytes Mesohyl Water flow Porifera body structures [9 ] Most sponges work rather like chimneys : they take in water at the bottom and eject it from the osculum ("little mouth") at the top.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All are sessile aquatic animals and, although there are freshwater species, the great majority are marine (salt water) species, ranging from tidal zones to depths exceeding 8,800 metres (5.5 mi).^ Sponges are primarily marine, though there are numerous freshwater species.
  • PORIFERA AND ARCHAEOCYATHA 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC itc.gsw.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All are sessile aquatic animals and, although there are freshwater species, the great majority are marine (salt water) species, ranging from tidal zones to depths exceeding 8,800 metres (5.5 mi).
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although adult sponges are fundamentally sessile animals, some marine and freshwater species can move across the bottom at speeds of 14 millimetres (0.0390.16 in) per day, as a result of amoeba -like movements of pinacocytes and other cells.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While most of the approximately 5,000-10,000 known species feed on bacteria and other food particles in the water, some host photosynthesizing micro-organisms as endosymbionts and these alliances often produce more food and oxygen than they consume.^ How do these organisms feed?
  • Chapter 12 - Phylum Mesozoa, Monoblastozoa, Porifera (tissue level) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.austincc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They filter food particles out of the water flowing through them.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While most of the approximately 9,000 known species feed on bacteria and other food particles in the water, so me host photosynthesizing micro-organisms as endosymbionts and these alliances often produce more food and oxygen than they consume.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A few species of sponge that live in food-poor environments have become carnivores that prey mainly on small crustaceans.^ A few species of sponge that live in food-poor environments have become carnivores that prey mainly on small crustaceans .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A few species live in waters where the supply of food particles is very poor, prey on crustaceans and other small animals.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When small crustaceans comes in contact with their surface, they get captured by a sticky substance, or in the case of the Mediterranean species by spicules modified into raised hook-shaped spines, and then digested by migrating cells which soon covers the prey.
  • Sponge encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.Sponges are known for regenerating from fragments that are broken off, although this only works if the fragments include the right types of cells.^ Sponges are known for regenerating from fragments that are broken off, although this only works if the fragments include the right types of cells.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Choanocytes (also known as "collar cells") function as the sponge's digestive system , and are remarkably similar to the protistan choanoflagellates .
  • Sponge encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the cells transform into a rcheocytes and then into the types appropriate for their locations in a miniature adult sponge.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A few species reproduce by budding.^ A few species reproduce by budding.
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^ A very few species reproduce by budding.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When conditions deteriorate, for example as temperatures drop, many freshwater species and a few marine ones produce gemmules, "survival pods" of unspecialized cells that remain dormant until conditions improve and then either form completely new sponges or re-colonize the skeletons of their parents.^ Notes on sponges, with descriptions of a new species.

^ When conditions deteriorate, for example as temperatures drop, many freshwater species and a few marine ones produce gemmules , "survival pods" of unspecialized cells that remain dormant until conditions improve and then either form completely new sponges or re-colonize the skeletons of their parents.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Freshwater sponges from Australia and New Zealand.

.However most sponges use sexual reproduction, releasing sperm cells into the water.^ Some cells of the sponge change into eggs or sperm.
  • Sponges (Porifera) on the Shores of Singapore 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.wildsingapore.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sponges, however, do reproduce sexually.
  • Sponges (Porifera) on the Shores of Singapore 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.wildsingapore.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While eggs are generally retained, sperm are released into the water.
  • Sponges (Porifera) on the Shores of Singapore 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.wildsingapore.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In viviparous species the cells that capture most of the adults' food capture the sperm cells but, instead of digesting them, transport them to ova in the parent's mesohyl.^ In viviparous species the cells that capture most of the adults' food capture the sperm cells but, instead of digesting them, transport them to ova in the par ent's mesohyl .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Collar bodies digest food and distribute it wrapped in vesicles that are transported by dynein "motor" molecules along bundles of microtubules that run throughout the syncytium .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In oviparous species both sperm and egg cells are released into the water and fertilisation and development take place outside the parent's bodies.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The fertilized eggs begin development within the parent and the larvae are released to swim off in search of places to settle.^ The eggs develop within the parent sponge.
  • Sponges (Porifera) on the Shores of Singapore 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.wildsingapore.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fertilized eggs begin development within the parent and the larvae are released to swim off in search of places to settle.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The free-swimming larvae leave the parent sponge and settle down to become new sponges.
  • Sponges (Porifera) on the Shores of Singapore 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.wildsingapore.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In oviparous species both sperm and egg cells are released into the water and fertilisation and development take place outside the parent's bodies.^ In oviparous species both sperm and egg cells are released into the water and fertilisation and development take place outside the parent's bodies.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some cells of the sponge change into eggs or sperm.
  • Sponges (Porifera) on the Shores of Singapore 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.wildsingapore.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A few species release fertilized eggs into the water, but most retain the eggs until they hatch.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sponges use various materials to reinforce their mesohyl and in some cases to produce skeletons, and this forms the main basis for classifying sponges.^ These are made from sponges that only produce spongin skeletons and do not have lots of sharp, poky spicules like most other sponges.
  • Sponges (Porifera) on the Shores of Singapore 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.wildsingapore.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The principle kinetics are the same in both cases, though there is variability in extent of contraction, depending on the sponge specimen.
  • Kinetics and rhythm of body contractions in the sponge Tethya wilhelma (Porifera: Demospongiae) -- Nickel 207 (26): 4515 -- Journal of Experimental Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC jeb.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Instead, sperm are produced in and float around in the sponge’s innards (called the mesohyl).
  • Sponge | Deep Sea News 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC deepseanews.com [Source type: General]

.Calcareous sponges produce spicules made of calcium carbonate.^ Sponges in this class are typified by skeletal spicules composed of calcium carbonate.
  • Porifera: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Calcareous sponges produce spicules made of calcium carbonate .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Calcareous sponges have calcium carbonate spicules and collagen fibers but no spongin.
  • Porifera 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC webs.lander.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Demosponges reinforce the mesohyl with fibers of a special form of collagen called spongin, most also produce spicules of silica, and a few secrete massive external frameworks of calcium carbonate.^ However a few also have massive external skeletons made of aragonite , another form of calcium carbonate.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Calcareous sponges produce spicules made of calcium carbonate .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Demosponges reinforce the mesohyl with fibers of a special form of collagen called spongin , most also produce spicules of silica , and a few secrete massive external frameworks of calcium carbonate.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although glass sponges also produce spicules made of silica, their bodies mainly consist of syncytia that in some ways behave like many cells sharing a single external membrane, and in others like individual cells with multiple nuclei.^ The main components of their bodies are syncytia in which large numbers of cell share a single external membrane .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Calcareous sponges produce spicules made of calcium carbonate .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This tissue is a syncytium that in some ways behaves like many cells that share a single external membrane , and in others like a single cell with multiple nuclei .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Probably because of their variety of construction methods, demosponges constitute about 90% of all known species, including all freshwater ones, and have the widest range of habitats.^ Probably becaus e of their variety of construction methods, demosponges constitute about 90% of all known species, including all freshwater ones, and have the widest range of habitats.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So far scientific publications have identified about 9,000 poriferan species, [11 ] of which: about 400 are glass sponges; a bout 500 are calcareous species; and the rest are demosponges.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All are sessile aquatic animals and, although there are freshwater species, the great majority are marine (salt water) species, ranging from tidal zones to depths exceeding 8,800 metres (5.5 mi).
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Calcareous sponges are restricted to relatively shallow marine waters where production of calcium carbonate is easiest.^ Shallow water sponges of Jamaica.
  • The Sponge Guide: References 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.spongeguide.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Shallow-water Sponges of the Western Bahamas .

^ Shallow-water sponges of the western Bahamas.
  • The Sponge Guide: References 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.spongeguide.org [Source type: Academic]

.The fragile glass sponges are restricted to polar regions and the ocean depths where predators are rare, and their feeding systems very efficiently harvest what little food is available.^ The fragile glass sponges are restricted to polar regions and the ocean depths where predators are rare, and their feeding systems very efficiently harvest what little food is available.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The distribution of sponges may also be limited by other biological factors, in particular predation ( e.g., Wulff, 1995 ); but in the observations of sponge assemblages at Lough Hyne, predation of sponges was rarely observed.
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A sponge constantly remoulds and finetunes its structure to ensure efficient filter feeding.
  • Sponges (Porifera) on the Shores of Singapore 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.wildsingapore.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fossils of all of these types have been found in rocks dated from 580 to 523 million years ago.^ Ma, million years ago.
  • Phylogeny and Evolution of Glass Sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida) -- Dohrmann et al. 57 (3): 388 -- Systematic Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC sysbio.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fossils of all of these types have been found in rocks dated from .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The trilobites did not survive the Permian extinction ( 250 million years ago ) .
  • Invertebrates 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC mansfield.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition Archaeocyathids, whose fossils are common in rocks from 530 million years ago but not after 490 million years ago, are now regarded as a type of sponge.^ In addition Archaeocyathids , whose fossils are common in rocks from 530 million years ago but not after 490 million years ago, are now regarded as a type of sponge.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Archaeocyathids , which some classify as a type of coralline sponge, are common in the Cambrian period from about 530 million years ago, but apparently died out by the end of the Cambrian 490 million years ago.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Archaeocyathids are very common fossils in rocks from the Early Cambrian about 530 to 520 million years ago but are not found after the Late Cambrian.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is generally thought that sponges' closest single-celled relatives are choanoflagellates, which strongly resemble the cells that sponges use to drive their water flow systems and capture most of their food.^ It is generally thought that sponges' closest single-celled relatives are choanoflagellates , which strongly resemble the cells that sponges use to drive their water flow systems and capture most of their food.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most known carnivorous sponges have completely lost the water flow system and choanocytes .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Asconoid Syconoid Leuconoid Pinacocytes Choanocytes Mesohyl Water flow Porifera body structures [9 ] Most sponges work rather like chimneys : they take in water at the bottom and eject it from the osculum ("little mouth") at the top.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is also generally agreed that sponges do not form a monophyletic group, in other words do not include all and only the descendants of a common ancestor, because it is thought that Eumetazoa (more complex animals) are descendants of a sub-group of sponges.^ Such conclusions imply that sponges are not monophyletic, because the last common ancestor of all sponges would also be a direct ancestor of the Eumetazoa, which are not sponges.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A choanoflagellat e In the 1990s sponges were widely regarded as a monophyletic group, in other words all of them descended from a common ancestor that was itself a sponge, and as the "sister-group" to all other metazoans (multi-celled animals), which themselves form a monophyletic group.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sponges do not have the complex immune systems of most other animals.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However it is uncertain which group of sponges is closest to Eumetazoa, as both calcareous sponges and a sub-group of demosponges called Homoscleromorpha have been nominated by different researchers.^ However it is uncertain which group of sponges is closest to Eumetazoa, as both calcareous sponges and a sub-group of demosponges called Homoscleromorpha have been nominated by different researchers.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other anatomical and biochemical evidence links the Eumetazoa with Homoscleromorpha , a sub-group of demosponges.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So far scientific publications have identified about 9,000 poriferan species, [11 ] of which: about 400 are glass sponges; a bout 500 are calcareous species; and the rest are demosponges.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In addition a study in 2008 suggested that the earliest animals may have been similar to modern comb jellies. .Since comb jellies are considerably more complex than sponges, this would imply that sponges had mobile ancestors and greatly simplified their bodies as they adapted to a sessile filter feeding lifestyle.^ Since comb jellies are considerably more complex than sponges, this would imply that sponges had mobile ancestors and greatly simplified their bodies as they adapted to a sessile filter feeding lifestyle.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adults are sessile (do not move)  Immature sponges (larvae) are motile  Filter feeding  Detrivores: eat dead and decaying organic material  .
  • Phylum Porifera 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: General]

^ If this is correct, either modern comb jellies developed their complex structures independently of other Metazoa, or sponges' ancestors were more complex and all known sponges are drastically simplified forms.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Chancelloriids, sessile, bag-like organisms whose fossils are found only in rocks from the Cambrian period, increase the uncertainty as it has been suggested that they were sponges but also that their external spines resemble the "chain mail" of the slug-like Halkieriids.^ Archeocyatha are known only as fossils from the Cambrian period.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chancelloriids , sessile, bag-like organisms whose fossils are found only in rocks from the Cambrian period, increase the uncertainty as it has been s uggested that they were sponges but also that their external spines resemble the "chain mail" of the slug-like Halkieriids .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2008 a detailed analysis of chancelloriids' sclerites concluded that they were very similar to those of halkieriids , mobile bilaterian animals that looked like slugs in chain mail and whose fossils are found in rocks from the very Early Cambrian to the Mid Cambrian.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The few species of demosponge that have entirely soft fibrous skeletons with no hard elements have been used by humans over thousands of years for several purposes, including as padding and as cleaning tools.^ The few species of demosponge that have entirely soft fibrous skeletons with no hard elements have been used by humans over thousands of years for several purposes, including as padding and as cleaning tools.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The luffa "sponge", also spelled loofah , which is commonly sold for use in the kitchen or the shower, is not derived from an animal but from the fibrous "skeleton" of a gourd (Cucurbitaceae ).
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early Europeans used soft sponges for many purposes including padding for helmets, portable drinking utensils and municipal water filters.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However by the 1950s these had been over-fished so heavily that the industry almost collapsed, and most sponge-like materials are now synthetic.^ These are made from sponges that only produce spongin skeletons and do not have lots of sharp, poky spicules like most other sponges.
  • Sponges (Porifera) on the Shores of Singapore 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.wildsingapore.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My question is: are these additional natural fish food from the refugium or, like Aiptasia, something to get rid of on an urgent basis?

^ These sponges, if that's what they are, have reached plague proportions in a fish only system.

.Sponges and their microscopic endosymbionts are now being researched as possible sources of medicines for treating a wide range of diseases.^ Sponges and their microscopic endosymbionts are now being researched as possible sources of medicines for treating a wide range of diseases.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to hosting photosynthesizin g endosymbionts, [1 ] sponges are noted for their wide range of collaborations with other organisms.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nowadays, living sponges have become important as potential sources of new medicines.
  • Sponges (Porifera) on the Shores of Singapore 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.wildsingapore.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dolphins have been observed using sponges as tools while foraging.^ Dolphins also apparently use sponges as tools while foraging.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until the invention of synthetic sponges, they were used as cleaning tools, applicators for paints and ceramic glazes and discreet contraceptives .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A dolphin will attach a marine sponge to its rostrum , which is presumably then used to protect it when searching for food in the sandy sea bottom .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Distinguishing features

.Sponges constitute the phylum Porifera, and have been defined as sessile metazoans (multi-celled animals) that have water intake and outlet openings connected by chambers lined with choanocytes, cells with whip-like flagella.^ The wave-like motion of the whip-like flagella drives water through the sponge's body.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PHYLUM PORIFERA Sponges 28...one-celled animals 2.
  • Sponge: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 16 January 2010 2:54 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Back to top ] Further information: Cnidaria and Ctenophore Sponges constitute the phylum Porifera, and have been define d as sessile metazoans (multi-celled animals) that have water intake and outlet openings connected by chambers lined with choanocytes , cells with whip-like flagella.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, a few carnivorous sponges have lost these water flow systems and the choanocytes.^ However a few carnivorous sponges have lost these water flow systems and the choanocytes.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most known carnivorous sponges have completely lost the water flow system and choanocytes .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Asconoid Syconoid Leuconoid Pinacocytes Choanocytes Mesohyl Water flow Porifera body structures [9 ] Most sponges work rather like chimneys : they take in water at the bottom and eject it from the osculum ("little mouth") at the top.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] .All known living sponges can remold their bodies, as most types of their cells can move within their bodies and a few can change from one type to another.^ All known living sponges can remold their bodies, as most types of their cells can move within their bodies and a few can change from one type to another.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The body of a sponge is hollow and consists basically of an aggregation of cells between which there is little nervous coordination.
  • Porifera Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Porifera 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One might expect that the dominant sponge species would occupy most of the primary substratum ( Russ, 1982 ; Maughan and Barnes, 2000b ).
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

[2][3]
.Like cnidarians (jellyfish, etc.^ Like cnidarians (jellyfish, etc.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) and .ctenophores (comb jellies), and unlike all other known metazoans, sponges' bodies consist of a non-living jelly-like mass sandwiched between two main layers of cells.^ The 19th-century discovery of a remarkable similarity between porifera-specific choanocytes and free-living choanoflagellates led to a proposition that sponges are the most primitive metazoans, evolved from choanoflagellate-like protist ancestors (Clark 1866; Clark 1868).
  • Porifera 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The body of a sponge is hollow and consists basically of an aggregation of cells between which there is little nervous coordination.
  • Porifera Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Porifera 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The inner layer consists of flagelled cells called collar cells, or choanocytes.
  • Porifera Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Porifera 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

[4][5] .Cnidarians and ctenophores have simple nervous systems, and their cell layers are bound by internal connections and by being mounted on a basement membrane (thin fibrous mat, also known as "basal lamina").^ Cnidarians and ctenophores have simple nervous systems, and their cell layers are bound by internal connections and by being mounted on a basement membrane (thin fibrous mat, also known as "basal lamina").
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the layers of pinacocytes and choanocytes resemble the epi thelia of more complex animals, they are not bound tightly by cell-to-cell connections or a basal lamina (thin fibrous sheet underneath).
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The planarian nervous system is more complex and centralized than the nerve nets of cnidarians.
  • Invertebrates 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC mansfield.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .Sponges have no nervous systems, their middle jelly-like layers have large and varied populations of cells, and some types of cell in their outer layers may move into the middle layer and change their functions.^ The histology and nervous system of the calcareous sponges.

^ Is there a nervous system in sponges?
  • Kinetics and rhythm of body contractions in the sponge Tethya wilhelma (Porifera: Demospongiae) -- Nickel 207 (26): 4515 -- Journal of Experimental Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC jeb.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The body of a sponge is hollow and consists basically of an aggregation of cells between which there is little nervous coordination.
  • Porifera Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Porifera 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

[3]
  Sponges[3][4] Cnidarians and ctenophores[5]
Nervous system No Yes, simple
Cells in each layer bound together No , except that Homoscleromorpha have basement membranes.[6] Yes: inter-cell connections; basement membranes
Number of cells in middle "jelly" layer Many Few
Cells in outer layers can move inwards and change functions Yes No

Basic structure

Cell types

    Mesohyl
    Pinacocyte
    Choanocyte
    Lophocyte
    Porocyte
    Oocyte
    Archeocyte
    Sclerocyte
    Spicule
    Water flow
Main cell types of Porifera[7]
.A sponge's body is hollow and is held in shape by the mesohyl, a jelly-like substance made mainly of collagen and reinforced by a dense network of fibers also made of collagen.^ Mesohyl Pinacocyte Choanocyte Lophocyte Porocyte Oocyte Archeocyte Sclerocyte Spicule Water flow Main cell types of Porifera [6 ] A sponge's body is hollow and is held in shape by the mesohyl , a jelly-like substance made mainly of collagen and reinforced by a dense network of fibers also made of collagen.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Asconoid Syconoid Leuconoid Pinacocytes Choanocytes Mesohyl Water flow Porifera body structures [9 ] Most sponges work rather like chimneys : they take in water at the bottom and eject it from the osculum ("little mouth") at the top.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Body Plan Hollow tube—open at top and closed at bottom  Made of cells only (no tissue organization)  Each cell has a specialized function  .
  • Phylum Porifera 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: General]

.The inner surface is covered with choanocytes, cells with cylindrical or conical collars surrounding one flagellum per choanocyte.^ The inner surface is covered with choanocytes , cells with cylindrical or conical collars surrounding one flagellum per choanocy te.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conical limpets (2cm, 0.75 in) cover the rock surfaces at East Diamante.
  • NOAA Ocean Explorer: Living Ocean Gallery: Invertebrates 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC oceanexplorer.noaa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The relation of the flagellum to the nucleus in the collar-cells of calcareous sponges.

.The wave-like motion of the whip-like flagella drives water through the sponge's body.^ The wave-like motion of the whip-like flagella drives water through the sponge's body.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However glass sponges rapidly transmit electrical impulses through all parts of the syncytium , and use this to halt the motion of their flagella if the incoming water contains toxins or excessive sediment.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Asconoid Syconoid Leuconoid Pinacocytes Choanocytes Mesohyl Water flow Porifera body structures [9 ] Most sponges work rather like chimneys : they take in water at the bottom and eject it from the osculum ("little mouth") at the top.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All sponges have ostia, channels leading to the interior through the mesohyl, and in most sponges these are controlled by tube-like porocytes that form closable inlet valves.^ All sponges have ostia , channels leading to the interior through the mesohyl, and in most sponges these are controlled by tube-like porocytes that form closable inlet valves.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Asconoid Syconoid Leuconoid Pinacocytes Choanocytes Mesohyl Water flow Porifera body structures [9 ] Most sponges work rather like chimneys : they take in water at the bottom and eject it from the osculum ("little mouth") at the top.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The flow of water inside a sponge is unidirectional: the water is drawn in through tiny pores (ostia) in the pinacoderm and exits through one or more larger openings (osculae).
  • Porifera 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

.Pinacocytes, plate-like cells, form a single-layered skin over all other parts of the mesohyl that are not covered by choanocytes, and the external pinacocytes also digest food particles that are too large to enter the ostia,[3][4] while those at the base of the animal are responsible for anchoring it.^ Pinacocytes, plate-like cells, form a single-layered skin over all other parts of the mesohyl that are not covered by choanocytes, and the external pinacocytes also digest food particles that are too large to enter the ostia, [1 ] [2 ] while those at the base of the animal are responsible for anchoring it.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rhabdiferous cells secrete polysaccharides that also form part of the mesohyl.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These exoskeletons are secreted by the pinacocytes that form the animals' skins.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]
Other types of cell live and move within the mesohyl:[3][4]
.
  • Lophocytes are amoeba-like cells that move slowly through the mesohyl and secrete collagen fibres.
  • Collencytes are another type of collagen-producing cell.
  • Rhabdiferous cells secrete polysaccharides that also form part of the mesohyl.
  • Oocytes and spermatocytes are reproductive cells.
  • Sclerocytes secrete the mineralized spicules ("little spines") that form the skeletons of many sponges and in some species provide some defense against predators.
  • In addition to or instead of sclerocytes, demosponges have spongocytes that secrete a form of collagen that polymerizes into spongin, a thick fibrous material that stiffens the mesohyl.
  • Myocytes ("muscle cells") conduct signals and cause parts of the animal to contract.
  • "Grey cells" act as sponges' equivalent of an immune system.
  • Archaeocytes (or amoebocytes) are amoeba-like cells that are totipotent, in other words each is capable of transformation into any other type of cell.^ Is there a conduction system in sponges?
    • Kinetics and rhythm of body contractions in the sponge Tethya wilhelma (Porifera: Demospongiae) -- Nickel 207 (26): 4515 -- Journal of Experimental Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC jeb.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Sponges have an amazingly complex immune system , which acts against invading microbes or parasites.
    • The Origin of Metazoan Complexity: Porifera as Integrated Animals -- Müller 43 (1): 3 -- Integrative and Comparative Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC icb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ On three species of sponge containing some new forms of organisation.

    They also have important roles in feeding and in clearing debris that block the ostia.

Glass sponges' syncytia

    Spicules
    Main syncitium
    Choanosyncitium
    and collar bodies
    showing interior
    Water flow
The glass sponge Euplectella[8]
.Glass sponges present a distinctive variation on this basic plan.^ Spicules Main syncitium Choanosyncitium and collar bodies showing interior Water flow The glass sponge Euplectella [7 ] Glass sponges present a distinctive variation on this basic plan.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phylogeny of Hexactinellida This paper presents the first reconstruction of glass sponge phylogeny from molecular data, as well as the first computerized cladistic analysis of hexactinellid morphology.
  • Phylogeny and Evolution of Glass Sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida) -- Dohrmann et al. 57 (3): 388 -- Systematic Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC sysbio.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Their spicules, which are made of silica, form a scaffolding-like framework between whose rods the living tissue is suspended like a cobweb that contains most of the cell types.^ Their spicules, which are made of silica , form a scaffolding -like framework between whose rods the living tissue is suspended like a cobweb that contains most of the cell types.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 19th-century discovery of a remarkable similarity between porifera-specific choanocytes and free-living choanoflagellates led to a proposition that sponges are the most primitive metazoans, evolved from choanoflagellate-like protist ancestors (Clark 1866; Clark 1868).
  • Porifera 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This indicates that glycine most likely acts upon cells which are involved in the regulation of endogenous contractions, not upon the contractile cells directly.
  • Frontiers in Zoology | Full text | Neuroactive substances specifically modulate rhythmic body contractions in the nerveless metazoon Tethya wilhelma(Demospongiae, Porifera) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.frontiersinzoology.com [Source type: Academic]

[3] .This tissue is a syncytium that in some ways behaves like many cells that share a single external membrane, and in others like a single cell with multiple nuclei.^ It is also often mentioned that sponges lack many characteristics associated with other animals, including a mouth, sensory organs, organized tissues and neurons and muscle cells, which are otherwise ubiquitous in Metazoa.
  • Porifera 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Many examples possess "gobs" of sophisticated appendages (e.g., 19 pairs for lobsters and crayfish including multiple examples of antennae, mouthparts, legs, and swimming appendages, on a single animal!
  • Invertebrates 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC mansfield.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of these are archeocytes (undifferentiated cells) but some are lophocytes (collagen secreting cells), sclerocytes (spicule-secreting cells), spongocytes (spongin-secreting cells) and other amoeboid cells.
  • Porifera 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC webs.lander.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The mesohyl is absent or minimal.^ The mesohyl is absent or minimal.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The syncytium's cytoplasm, the soupy fluid that fills the interiors of cells, is organised into "rivers" that transport nuclei, organelles ("organs" within cells) and other substances.^ The syncytium's cytoplasm , the soupy fluid that fills the interiors of cells, is organised into "rivers" that transport nuclei, organelles ("organs" within cells) and other substances.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Others, especially in the family Clionidae , use corrosive substances secreted by their archeocytes to tunnel into rocks, corals and the shells of dead molluscs .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other cells, including archaeocytes, are instrumental in transporting these respiratory and dietary products throughout the sponge body, in addition to other functions.

[9] .Instead of choanocytes they have further syncytia, known as choanosyncytia, which form bell-shaped chambers which water enters via perforations.^ Instead of choanocytes they have further syncytia, known as choanosyncytia, which form bell-shaped chambers which water enters via perforations.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leuconid sponges grow to over 1 metre (3.3 ft) in diameter, and the fact that growth in any direction increases the number of choanocyte chambers enables them to take a wider range of forms, for exampl e "encrusting" sponges whose shapes follow those of the surfaces to which they attach.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead most rely on maintaining a constant water flow through their bodies to obtain food and oxygen and to remove wastes, and the shapes of their bodies are adapted to maximize the efficiency of the water flow.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The insides of these chambers are lined with "collar bodies", each consisting of a collar and flagellum but without a nucleus of its own.^ The pinacoderm lines the internal canals and is eventually replaced by the choanoderm, a layer of characteristic flagellated collar cells (choanocytes) grouped in chambers.
  • Porifera 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The relation of the flagellum to the nucleus in the collar-cells of calcareous sponges.

.The motion of the flagella sucks water through passages in the "cobweb" and expels it via the open ends of the bell-shaped chambers.^ The motion of the flagella sucks water through passages in the "cobweb" and expels it via the open ends of the bell-shaped chambers.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However glass sponges rapidly transmit electrical impulses through all parts of the syncytium , and use this to halt the motion of their flagella if the incoming water contains toxins or excessive sediment.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The flow of water inside a sponge is unidirectional: the water is drawn in through tiny pores (ostia) in the pinacoderm and exits through one or more larger openings (osculae).
  • Porifera 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

[3]
.Some types of cells have a single nucleus and membrane each, but are connected to other single-nucleus cells and to the main syncytium by "bridges" made of cytoplasm.^ All the cells have a single nucleus and membrane.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some types of cells have a single nucleus and membrane each, but are connected to other single-nucleus cells and to the main syncytium by "bridges" made of cytoplasm .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The syncytium's cytoplasm , the soupy fluid that fills the interiors of cells, is organised into "rivers" that transport nuclei, organelles ("organs" within cells) and other substances.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The sclerocytes that build spicules have multiple nuclei, and in glass sponge larvae they are connected to other tissues by cytoplasm bridges; such connections between sclerocytes have not so far been found in adults, but this may simply reflect the difficulty of investigating such small-scale features.^ The sclerocytes that build spicules have multiple nuclei, and in glass sponge larvae they are connected to other tissues by cytoplasm bridges; such connections between sclerocytes have not so far been found in adults, but this may simply reflect the difficulty of investigating such small-scale features.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adult sponges lack neurons or any other kind of nervous tissue .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So far scientific publications have identified about 9,000 poriferan species, [11 ] of which: about 400 are glass sponges; a bout 500 are calcareous species; and the rest are demosponges.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The bridges are controlled by "plugged junctions" that apparently permit some substances to pass while blocking others.^ The bridges are controlled by "plugged junctions" that apparently permit some substances to pass while blocking others.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9]

Water flow and body structures

Asconoid
Syconoid
Leuconoid
    Pinacocytes
    Mesohyl
    Water flow
Porifera body structures[10]
.Most sponges work rather like chimneys: they take in water at the bottom and eject it from the osculum ("little mouth") at the top.^ Asconoid Syconoid Leuconoid Pinacocytes Choanocytes Mesohyl Water flow Porifera body structures [9 ] Most sponges work rather like chimneys : they take in water at the bottom and eject it from the osculum ("little mouth") at the top.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, most of the fish do not float to the top of the water, but rather sink to the bottom, where they are not used, and therefore decay.
  • Cobwebs and Seaslugs | Coral Reefs 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC cobwebsandseaslugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However most sponges use sexual reproduction , releasing sperm cells into the water.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since ambient currents are faster at the top, the suction effect that they produce does some of the work for free.^ Since ambient currents are faster at the top, the suction effect that they produce does some of the work for free.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I did not want to risk my tank since you mentioned they produce more toxins than other organisms.

^ To build a high-temperature electrolyzer, they have purchased commercial fuels cells and modified them to work in reverse, so they produce hydrogen and oxygen from electricity.
  • research posts - Green Tech - CNET News 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: News]

.Sponges can control the water flow by various combinations of wholly or partially closing the osculum and ostia (the intake pores) and varying the beat of the flagella, and may shut it down if there is a lot of sand or silt in the water.^ From our results, the abundance of sponges on rocks, but not the composition of the assemblage, seemed to be manifestly affected by rate of water flow.
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Watch as the pigment appears (quickly) in the canals just below the surface of the sponge and then watch closely for its appearance at the osculum.
  • Porifera 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC webs.lander.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, sponges with smooth surfaces may be suited to areas of high current flow since they experience reduced drag.
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

[3]
.Although the layers of pinacocytes and choanocytes resemble the epithelia of more complex animals, they are not bound tightly by cell-to-cell connections or a basal lamina (thin fibrous sheet underneath).^ Water currents are unidirectional, maintained by an active beating of a single layer of flagellated cells (choanocytes) usually contained within chambers.

^ They represent a level of cellular organisation unique in the animal kingdom, with a layer of collar cells (choanocytes) forming chambers within an internal water-filled system of canals.

^ They are carnivores , i.e., they eat other, living animals, employing cells called cnidocyotes to sting and grasp their prey .
  • Invertebrates 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC mansfield.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The flexibility of these layers and re-modeling of the mesohyl by lophocytes allow the animals to adjust their shapes throughout their lives to take maximum advantage of local water currents.^ The volume of the mesohyle is not necessarily reduced during contraction in this model, only the shape of the mesohyle, which is possible due to the loose organization of the cells and the extracellular matrix.
  • Kinetics and rhythm of body contractions in the sponge Tethya wilhelma (Porifera: Demospongiae) -- Nickel 207 (26): 4515 -- Journal of Experimental Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC jeb.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "The flat shape of the body (of the flatworm) places all cells close to the surrounding water, and fine branching of the gastrovascular cavity (i.e., serving as both digestive cavity and circulatory system) distributes food throughout the animal."
  • Invertebrates 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC mansfield.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These animals are not only immune to the toxins, they can re-use them in their own defense.
  • Cobwebs and Seaslugs | Coral Reefs 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC cobwebsandseaslugs.com [Source type: Original source]

[3]
.The simplest body structure in sponges is a tube or vase shape known as "asconoid", but this severely limits the size of the animal.^ The simplest body structure in sponges is a tube or vase shape known as "asconoid ", but this severely limits the size of the animal.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Horn-shaped vase sponges .
  • NOAA Ocean Explorer: Living Ocean Gallery: Invertebrates 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC oceanexplorer.noaa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Asconoid Syconoid Leuconoid Pinacocytes Choanocytes Mesohyl Water flow Porifera body structures [9 ] Most sponges work rather like chimneys : they take in water at the bottom and eject it from the osculum ("little mouth") at the top.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If it is simply scaled up, the ratio of its volume to surface area increases, because surface increases as the square of length or width while volume increases proportionally to the cube.^ If it is simply scaled up, the ratio of its volume to surface area increases, because surface increases as the square of length or width while volume increases proportionally to the cube.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The linear increase in the number of sponges with increasing surface area of rock may appear unusual.
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Because sampling areas differed between habitat types, the area of each habitat and the abundance of each species were scaled up or down to standardize sampling areas between sites, depths, and habitats (sponges m -2 ).
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

.The amount of tissue that needs food and oxygen is determined by the volume, but the pumping capacity that supplies food and oxygen depends on the area covered by choanocytes.^ The amount of tissue that needs food and oxygen is determined by the volume, but the pumping capacity that supplies food and oxygen depends on the area covered by choanocytes.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the smallest particles are by far the most common, choanocytes typically capture 80% of a sponge's food supply.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Food particles and oxygen are removed from the water by various cells, including the choanocytes.

.Asconoid sponges seldom exceed 1 millimetre (0.039 in) in diameter.^ Asconoid sponges seldom exceed 1 millimetre (0.039 in) in diameter.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
.Some sponges overcome this limitation by adopting the "syconoid" structure, in which the body wall is pleated.^ Some sponges overcome this limitation by adopting the "syconoid" structure, in which the body wall is pleated .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Asconoid Syconoid Leuconoid Pinacocytes Choanocytes Mesohyl Water flow Porifera body structures [9 ] Most sponges work rather like chimneys : they take in water at the bottom and eject it from the osculum ("little mouth") at the top.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The simplest body structure in sponges is a tube or vase shape known as "asconoid ", but this severely limits the size of the animal.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The inner pockets of the pleats are lined with choanocytes, which connect to the outer pockets of the pleats by ostia.^ The inner pockets of the pleats are lined with choanocytes, which connect to the outer pockets of the pleats by ostia.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Particles from 0.5 to 50 micrometres (2.0 10 -5 to 0.00197 in) are trapped in the ostia, which taper from the outer to inner ends.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sessile metazoans possessing inhalant and exhalant pores connected by chambers lined by choanocytes.

.This increase in the number of choanocytes and hence in pumping capacity enables syconoid sponges to grow up to a few centimeters in diameter.^ This increase in the number of choanocytes and hence in pumping capacity enables syconoid sponges to grow up to up to a few centimeters in diameter.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leuconid sponges grow to over 1 metre (3.3 ft) in diameter, and the fact that growth in any direction increases the number of choanocyte chambers enables them to take a wider range of forms, for exampl e "encrusting" sponges whose shapes follow those of the surfaces to which they attach.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The amount of tissue that needs food and oxygen is determined by the volume, but the pumping capacity that supplies food and oxygen depends on the area covered by choanocytes.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The "leuconid" pattern boosts pumping capacity further by filling the interior almost completely with mesohyl that contains a network of chambers lined with choanocytes and connected to each other and to the water intakes and outlet by tubes.^ The "leuconid" pattern boosts pumping capacity further by filling the interior almost completely with mesohyl that contains a network of chambers lined with choanocytes and connected to each other and to the water intakes and outlet by tubes.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The syncytium's cytoplasm , the soupy fluid that fills the interiors of cells, is organised into "rivers" that transport nuclei, organelles ("organs" within cells) and other substances.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Back to top ] Further information: Cnidaria and Ctenophore Sponges constitute the phylum Porifera, and have been define d as sessile metazoans (multi-celled animals) that have water intake and outlet openings connected by chambers lined with choanocytes , cells with whip-like flagella.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Leuconid sponges grow to over 1 metre (3.3 ft) in diameter, and the fact that growth in any direction increases the number of choanocyte chambers enables them to take a wider range of forms, for example "encrusting" sponges whose shapes follow those of the surfaces to which they attach.^ Leuconid sponges grow to over 1 metre (3.3 ft) in diameter, and the fact that growth in any direction increases the number of choanocyte chambers enables them to take a wider range of forms, for exampl e "encrusting" sponges whose shapes follow those of the surfaces to which they attach.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This increase in the number of choanocytes and hence in pumping capacity enables syconoid sponges to grow up to up to a few centimeters in diameter.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Asconoid Syconoid Leuconoid Pinacocytes Choanocytes Mesohyl Water flow Porifera body structures [9 ] Most sponges work rather like chimneys : they take in water at the bottom and eject it from the osculum ("little mouth") at the top.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All freshwater and most shallow-water marine sponges have leuconid bodies.^ The marine and fresh water sponges of California.

^ All freshwater and most shallow-water marine sponges have leuconid bodies.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shallow-water Sponges of the Western Bahamas .

.The networks of water passages in glass sponges are similar to the leuconid structure.^ The networks of water passages in glass sponges are similar to the leuconid structure.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It used to be claimed that glass sponges could live on nutrients dissolved in sea water and were very averse to silt.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We found base compositional and structural differences in SSU rRNA among Demospongiae, Hexactinellida (glass sponges) and Calcarea (calcareous sponges).
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Molecular evolution of rDNA in early diverging Metazoa: First comparative analysis and phylogenetic application of complete SSU rRNA secondary structures in Porifera 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

[3] .In all three types of structure the cross-section area of the choanocyte-lined regions is much greater than that of the intake and outlet channels.^ In all three types of structure the cross-section area of the choanocyte-lined regions is much greater than that of the intake and outlet channels.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any unit increase in surface area resulted in a greater increase in sponge density at West Cliff than at Whirlpool Cliff.
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This is the first phylogenetic study of poriferan SSU rRNA data to date that includes detailed comparative secondary structure information for all three sponge classes.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Molecular evolution of rDNA in early diverging Metazoa: First comparative analysis and phylogenetic application of complete SSU rRNA secondary structures in Porifera 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

.This makes the flow slower near the choanocytes and thus makes it easier for them to trap food particles.^ This makes the flow slower near the choanocytes and thus makes it easier for them to trap food particles.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Food particles are trapped by collared and flagellated cells (also the choanocytes) and are then phagocytized .
  • Invertebrates 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC mansfield.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They filter food particles out of the water flowing through them.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .For example in Leuconia, a small leuconoid sponge about 10 centimetres (3.9 in) tall and 1 centimetre (0.39 in) in diameter, water enters each of more than 80,000 intake canals at 6 cm per minute.^ Even after accounting for regression, Branyan is still worth about $7M or so a year more than Huff.
  • Giants sign Aubrey Huff - McCovey Chronicles 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.mccoveychronicles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hooper & Lévi (1994) hypothesised that sponges have much more restricted distributions than recognised ( e.g.

^ Introduction to the Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Porifera The sponges, phylum Porifera, are predominantly marine with a relatively small number of incursives to fresh water ecosystems.

.However, because Leuconia has more than 2 million flagellated chambers whose combined diameter is much greater than that of the canals, water flow through chambers slows to 3.6 cm per hour, making it easy for choanocytes to capture food.^ They filter food particles out of the water flowing through them.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, because Leuconia has more than 2 million flagellated chambers whose combined diameter is much greater than that of the canals, water flow through chambers slows to 3.6 cm per hour , making it easy for choanocytes to capture food.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the flow slows, however, don't be tempted to continue with a Super because it's more convenient.

.All the water is expelled through a single osculum at about 8.5 cm per second, fast enough to carry waste products some distance away.^ All the water is expelled through a single osculum at about 8.5 cm per second , fast enough to carry waste products some distance away.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sponges' cells absorb oxygen by diffusion from the water flow system, into which carbon dioxide and other soluble waste products such as ammonia also diffuse.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this case, every contraction cycle is accompanied by an enormous exchange of water whereby nutrient- and oxygendepleted water, which may also be loaded with waste products, is discarded.
  • Kinetics and rhythm of body contractions in the sponge Tethya wilhelma (Porifera: Demospongiae) -- Nickel 207 (26): 4515 -- Journal of Experimental Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC jeb.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

[11]
    Pinacocyte
    Choanocyte
    Archeocytes and other cells in
    mesohyl
    Mesohyl
    Spicules
    Seabed / rock
    Water flow
Sponge with calcium carbonate skeleton[3]

Skeleton

.In zoology a skeleton is any fairly rigid structure of an animal, irrespective of whether it has joints and irrespective of whether it is biomineralized.^ In zoology a skeleton is any fairly rigid structure of an animal, irrespective of whether it has joints and irrespective of whether it is biomineralized .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The mesohyl functions as an endoskeleton in most sponges, and is the only skeleton in soft sponges that encrust hard surfaces such as rocks.^ The mesohyl functions as an endoskeleton in most sponges, and is the only skeleton in soft sponges that encrust hard surfaces such as rocks.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sponge morphology On rocks, encrusting morphologies were the most abundant form (20 of 44 species), followed by massive (15 of 44 species) and repent forms (7 of 44 species) (all pooled rock data).
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sponge assemblages varied considerably between habitat types such that only 26% (25 species) of species reported were common to both rock and cliff habitats.
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

.More commonly the mesohyl is stiffened by mineral spicules, by spongin fibers or both.^ More commonly the mesohyl is stiffened by mineral spicules , by spongin fibers or both.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their "skeletons " are made of spicules consisting of fibers of the protein spongin , the mineral silica , or both.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to or instead of sclerocytes, demosponges have spongocytes that secrete a form of collagen that polymerizes into spongin , a thick fibrous material that stiffens the mesohyl.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Spicules may be made of silica or calcium carbonate, and vary in shape from simple rods to three-dimensional "stars" with up to six rays.^ Calcareous sponges produce spicules made of calcium carbonate .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spicules may be made of silica or calcium carbonate , and vary in shape from simple rods to three-dimensional "stars" with up to six rays.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bubba said he’s a six star general, he said they don’t get a five star, he said Brent is four, Spice is three.
  • Friday, January 15, 2010 | Bubba the Love Sponge® Show 16 January 2010 2:54 UTC www.btls.com [Source type: News]

.Spicules are produced by sclerocyte cells,[3] and may be separate, connected by joints, or fused.^ Spicules are produced by sclerocyte cells, [1 ] and may be separate, connected by joints, or fused.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Calcarea have skeleton s made of calcite , a form of calcium carbonate , which may form separate spicules or large masses.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]
.Some sponges also secrete exoskeletons that lie completely outside their organic components.^ Some sponges also secrete exoskeletons that lie completely outside their organic components.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example sclerosponges ("hard sponges") have massive calcium carbonate exoskeletons over which the organic matter forms a thin layer with choanocyte chambers in pits in the mineral.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sclerocytes secrete the mineralized spicules ("little spines") that form the skeletons of many sponges and in some species provide some defense against predators.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example sclerosponges ("hard sponges") have massive calcium carbonate exoskeletons over which the organic matter forms a thin layer with choanocyte chambers in pits in the mineral.^ For example sclerosponges ("hard sponges") have massive calcium carbonate exoskeletons over which the organic matter forms a thin layer with choanocyte chambers in pits in the mineral.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Calcium carbonate spicules of calcareous sponges have been found in Early Cambrian rocks from about 530 to 523 million years ago in Australia.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leuconid sponges grow to over 1 metre (3.3 ft) in diameter, and the fact that growth in any direction increases the number of choanocyte chambers enables them to take a wider range of forms, for exampl e "encrusting" sponges whose shapes follow those of the surfaces to which they attach.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These exoskeletons are secreted by the pinacocytes that form the animals' skins.^ These exoskeletons are secreted by the pinacocytes that form the animals' skins.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]

Classes

Sponges are divided into classes mainly according to the composition of their skeletons:[4]
  Type of cells[4] Spicules[4] Spongin fibers[4] Massive exoskeleton[12] Body form[4]
Calcarea Single nucleus, single external membrane Calcite
May be individual or large masses
Never Common.
Made of calcite if present.
Asconoid, syconoid or leuconoid
Glass sponges Mostly syncytia in all species Silica
May be individual or fused
Never Never Leuconoid
Demosponges Single nucleus, single external membrane Silica In many species In some species.
Made of aragonite if present.[2][12]
Leuconoid

Vital functions

Spongia officinalis, "the kitchen sponge", is dark grey when alive

Movement

.Although adult sponges are fundamentally sessile animals, some marine and freshwater species can move across the bottom at speeds of 1–4 millimetres (0.039–0.16 in) per day, as a result of amoeba-like movements of pinacocytes and other cells.^ Adult sponges are sessile—although slow movement has been recorded for some species (Fishelson 1981).

^ Some new genera of freshwater sponges.

^ Although adult sponges are fundamentally sessile animals, some marine and freshwater species can move across the bottom at speeds of 14 millimetres (0.0390.16 in) per day, as a result of amoeba -like movements of pinacocytes and other cells.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A few species can contract their whole bodies, and many can close their oscula and ostia.^ A few species can contract their whole bodies, a nd many can close their oscula and ostia .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sponges of the species Tethya wilhelma display rhythmic body contractions, which were analyzed by digital timelapse imaging and semi-automated image analysis.
  • Kinetics and rhythm of body contractions in the sponge Tethya wilhelma (Porifera: Demospongiae) -- Nickel 207 (26): 4515 -- Journal of Experimental Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC jeb.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The whole body is able to contract both rhythmically and upon receipt of external stimuli.
  • Kinetics and rhythm of body contractions in the sponge Tethya wilhelma (Porifera: Demospongiae) -- Nickel 207 (26): 4515 -- Journal of Experimental Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC jeb.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

[3]

Respiration, feeding and excretion

.Sponges do not have distinct circulatory, respiratory, digestive, and excretory systems – instead the water flow system supports all these functions.^ Sponges do not have distinct circulatory , respiratory , digestive , and excretory systems instead the water flow system supports all these functions.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However a few carnivorous sponges have lost these water flow systems and the choanocytes.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sponges do not have nervous , digestive or circulatory systems .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They filter food particles out of the water flowing through them.^ Water is drawn through the pores into a central cavity, then flows out of the sponge through a larger opening Under certain conditions the cells around the pores [and larger opening] contract, closing the openings.
  • Invertebrates 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC mansfield.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nearly all sponges are suspension-feeders (also known as filter feeders), which are animals that collect food particles from water passed through some type of food-trapping equipment.
  • Invertebrates 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC mansfield.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It seems they like the water flow to change, not just be vigorous.

Particles larger than 50 micrometers cannot enter the ostia and pinacocytes consume them by phagocytosis (engulfing and internal digestion). Particles from 0.5 to 50 micrometres (2.0×10−5 to 0.00197 in) are trapped in the ostia, which taper from the outer to inner ends. .These particles are consumed by pinacocytes or by archaeocytes which partially extrude themselves through the walls of the ostia.^ These particles are consumed by pinacocytes or by archaeocytes which partially extrude themselves through the walls of the ostia.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All sponges have ostia , channels leading to the interior through the mesohyl, and in most sponges these are controlled by tube-like porocytes that form closable inlet valves.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bacteria-sized particles, below 0.5 micrometres, pass through the ostia and are caught and consumed by choanocytes .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bacteria-sized particles, below 0.5 micrometers, pass through the ostia and are caught and consumed by choanocytes.^ Bacteria-sized particles, below 0.5 micrometres, pass through the ostia and are caught and consumed by choanocytes .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These particles are consumed by pinacocytes or by archaeocytes which partially extrude themselves through the walls of the ostia.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Particles larger than 50 micrometres cannot enter the ostia and pinacocytes consume them by phagocytosis (engulfing and internal digestion).
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .Since the smallest particles are by far the most common, choanocytes typically capture 80% of a sponge's food supply.^ Since the smallest particles are by far the most common, choanocytes typically capture 80% of a sponge's food supply.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The amount of tissue that needs food and oxygen is determined by the volume, but the pumping capacity that supplies food and oxygen depends on the area covered by choanocytes.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rhythm and kinetics of contraction Tethya wilhelma is one of the behaviourally most active sponges known so far.
  • Kinetics and rhythm of body contractions in the sponge Tethya wilhelma (Porifera: Demospongiae) -- Nickel 207 (26): 4515 -- Journal of Experimental Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC jeb.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

[12] .Archaeocytes transport food packaged in vesicles from cells that directly digest food to those that do not.^ Archaeocytes transport food packaged in vesicles from cells that directly digest food to those that do not.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Collar bodies digest food and distribute it wrapped in vesicles that are transported by dynein "motor" molecules along bundles of microtubules that run throughout the syncytium .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These food particles are transferred to cells with mobile, amoeboid morphology called amoebocytes, which digest food and then make the digestive products available to the rest of the sponge cells .
  • Invertebrates 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC mansfield.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At least one species of sponge has internal fibers that function as tracks for use by nutrient-carrying archaeocytes,[3] and these tracks also move inert objects.^ One might expect that the dominant sponge species would occupy most of the primary substratum ( Russ, 1982 ; Maughan and Barnes, 2000b ).
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Any woman may develop TSS when using tampons as directed by the manufacturer's instructions if she is carrying the particular strain of bacteria that produces toxins and if she has not developed immunity to these toxins.

^ Other cells, including archaeocytes, are instrumental in transporting these respiratory and dietary products throughout the sponge body, in addition to other functions.

[4]
.It used to be claimed that glass sponges could live on nutrients dissolved in sea water and were very averse to silt.^ It used to be claimed that glass sponges could live on nutrients dissolved in sea water and were very averse to silt.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early Europeans used soft sponges for many purposes including padding for helmets, portable drinking utensils and municipal water filters.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However glass sponges rapidly transmit electrical impulses through all parts of the syncytium , and use this to halt the motion of their flagella if the incoming water contains toxins or excessive sediment.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] .However a study in 2007 found no evidence of this and concluded that they extract bacteria and other micro-organisms from water very efficiently (about 79%) and process suspended sediment grains to extract such prey.^ It is amazing that sponges have the capacity to process their own volume of water every 5 seconds in order to extract edible material (Vogel, 1977 ); this fact supports the notion that they are exposed to a huge number of bacteria and also viruses present in the seawater (see Gonzales and Moran, 1997 ).
  • The Origin of Metazoan Complexity: Porifera as Integrated Animals -- Müller 43 (1): 3 -- Integrative and Comparative Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC icb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They popped up in my tank about a month ago and in the past several weeks seem to be multiplying very fast.
  • Sea Squirt? - Reef Central Online Community 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.reefcentral.com [Source type: General]

^ They are very likely to regress, and would be likely to even be below average if he were to play a position other than 3rd.
  • Giants sign Aubrey Huff - McCovey Chronicles 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.mccoveychronicles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .Collar bodies digest food and distribute it wrapped in vesicles that are transported by dynein "motor" molecules along bundles of microtubules that run throughout the syncytium.^ Collar bodies digest food and distribute it wrapped in vesicles that are transported by dynein "motor" molecules along bundles of microtubules that run throughout the syncytium .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The flat shape of the body (of the flatworm) places all cells close to the surrounding water, and fine branching of the gastrovascular cavity (i.e., serving as both digestive cavity and circulatory system) distributes food throughout the animal."
  • Invertebrates 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC mansfield.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "They have a complete digestive tract, and the pseudocoelom with its fluid serves as a blood vascular system that transports nutrients throughout the body."
  • Invertebrates 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC mansfield.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
.Sponges' cells absorb oxygen by diffusion from the water flow system, into which carbon dioxide and other soluble waste products such as ammonia also diffuse.^ Sponges' cells absorb oxygen by diffusion from the water flow system, into which carbon dioxide and other soluble waste products such as ammonia also diffuse.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are able to diffuse oxygen and wastes to their body cells; this is possible because of the short distances within their bodies afforded by their very flat shape and the branching nature of their digestive cavity .
  • Invertebrates 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC mansfield.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The syncytium's cytoplasm , the soupy fluid that fills the interiors of cells, is organised into "rivers" that transport nuclei, organelles ("organs" within cells) and other substances.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Archeocytes remove mineral particles that threaten to block the ostia, transport them through the mesohyl and generally dump them into the outgoing water current, although some species incorporate them into their skeletons.^ Archeocytes remove mineral particles that threaten to block the ostia, transport them through the mesohyl and generally dump them into the outgoing water current, although some species incorporate them into their skeletons.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sponges can generally be removed from the water without too many problems (though some collapse under the weight of air and don't hold the same structure the same as before, IME).
  • Need Blue Sponge support - Reef Central Online Community 16 January 2010 2:54 UTC www.reefcentral.com [Source type: General]

^ Adult sponges are sessile—although slow movement has been recorded for some species (Fishelson 1981).

[3]

Carnivorous sponges

.A few species live in waters where the supply of food particles is very poor, prey on crustaceans and other small animals.^ A few species of sponge that live in food-poor environments have become carnivores that prey mainly on small crustaceans .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A few species live in waters where the supply of food particles is very poor, prey on crustaceans and other small animals.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A very few species reproduce by budding.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most belong to the family Cladorhizidae, but a few members of the Guitarridae and Esperiopsidae are also carnivores.^ Most belong to the family Cladorhizidae, but a few members of the Guitarridae and Esperiopsidae are also carnivores.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] .In most cases little is known about how they actually capture prey, although some species are thought to use either sticky threads or hooked spicules.^ In most cases little is known about how they actually capture prey, although some species are thought to use either sticky threads or hooked spicules .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However the genus Chondrocladia uses a highly modified water flow system to inflate balloon-like structures that are used for capturing prey.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adult sponges are sessile—although slow movement has been recorded for some species (Fishelson 1981).

[15][16] .Most carnivorous sponges live in deep waters, up to 8,840 metres (5.49 mi),[17] and the development of deep-ocean exploration techniques is expected to lead to the discovery of several more.^ It lives in warm ocean waters.

^ One might expect that the dominant sponge species would occupy most of the primary substratum ( Russ, 1982 ; Maughan and Barnes, 2000b ).
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Secobatzellines A and B, two new enzyme inhibitors from a deep water Caribbean sponge of the genus Batzella .
  • Harbor Branch 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.fau.edu [Source type: Academic]

[3][15] .However one species has been found in Mediterranean caves at depths of 17–23 metres (56–75 ft), alongside the more usual filter feeding sponges.^ However one species has been found in Mediterranean caves at depths of 1723 metres (5675 ft), alongside the more usual filter feeding sponges.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Glass sponge, found at a depth of more than 1500 feet.
  • NOAA Ocean Explorer: Living Ocean Gallery: Invertebrates 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC oceanexplorer.noaa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sponges may remove up to 1 metre (3.3 ft) per year from reef s, creating visible notches just below low-tide level.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The cave-dwelling predators capture crustaceans under 1 millimetre (0.039 in) long by entangling them with fine threads, digest them by enveloping them with further threads over the course of a few days, and then return to their normal shape; there is no evidence that they use venom.^ There is no doubt that Hallmann's taxonomy was far better than most of his predecessors, although he had the advantage of specialising mainly on a few groups (Poecilosclerida and Halichondrida).

^ There have been very few corner OF’s with anything near Figgins’s speed over the past few years, and they’ve all posted good to great UZR’s.
  • Giants sign Aubrey Huff - McCovey Chronicles 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.mccoveychronicles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now band aid singing are quite useful, valuable eve, in the right situation, but they’re pretty damning as a long-term strategy.
  • Giants sign Aubrey Huff - McCovey Chronicles 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.mccoveychronicles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17]
.Most known carnivorous sponges have completely lost the water flow system and choanocytes.^ From our results, the abundance of sponges on rocks, but not the composition of the assemblage, seemed to be manifestly affected by rate of water flow.
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Our model system Tethya wilhelma most likely alters the body volume by contraction of the pinacoderm of the complex aquiferous system, in order to exchange the water [ 7 , 54 ].
  • Frontiers in Zoology | Full text | Neuroactive substances specifically modulate rhythmic body contractions in the nerveless metazoon Tethya wilhelma(Demospongiae, Porifera) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.frontiersinzoology.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Printout Label the cross-section of a sponge and the flow of water through it.

.However the genus Chondrocladia uses a highly modified water flow system to inflate balloon-like structures that are used for capturing prey.^ Our model system Tethya wilhelma most likely alters the body volume by contraction of the pinacoderm of the complex aquiferous system, in order to exchange the water [ 7 , 54 ].
  • Frontiers in Zoology | Full text | Neuroactive substances specifically modulate rhythmic body contractions in the nerveless metazoon Tethya wilhelma(Demospongiae, Porifera) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.frontiersinzoology.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the rate of water flow had little effect on the sponge assemblages found on rocks and apparently was not a regulatory factor of such assemblages (in the present study).
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It seems they like the water flow to change, not just be vigorous.

[15][18]

Endosymbionts

.Freshwater sponges often host green algae as endosymbionts within archaeocytes and other cells, and benefit from nutrients produced by the algae.^ Freshwater sponges often host green algae as endosymbionts within archaeocytes and other cells, and benefit from nutrients produced by the algae.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The syncytium's cytoplasm , the soupy fluid that fills the interiors of cells, is organised into "rivers" that transport nuclei, organelles ("organs" within cells) and other substances.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is often said that sponges produce chemical defenses against such predators.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many marine species host other photosynthesizing organisms, most commonly cyanobacteria but in some cases dinoflagellates.^ Many marine species host other photosynthesizing organisms, most commonly cyanobacteria but in some cases dinoflagellates .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While most of the approximately 9,000 known species feed on bacteria and other food particles in the water, so me host photosynthesizing micro-organisms as endosymbionts and these alliances often produce more food and oxygen than they consume.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Given the similarities in assemblage composition, it is not surprising that the five most important discriminating species between rock and other habitats did not differ between sites.
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

.Symbiotic cyanobacteria may form a third of the total mass of living tissue in some sponges, and some sponges gain 48% to 80% of their energy supply from these micro-organisms.^ Symbiotic cyanobacteria may form a third of the total mass of living tissue in some sponges, and some sponges gain 48% to 80% of their energy supply from these micro-organisms.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I've been putting in some live Nanochloropsis, which may or may not be helping the 'sponges'.

^ A recently-discovered carnivorous sponge that lives near hydrothermal vents hosts methane-eating bacteria, and digests some of them.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] In 2008 a University of Stuttgart team reported that spicules made of silica conduct light into the mesohyl, where the photosynthesizing endosymbionts live.[19] .Sponges that host photosynthesizing organisms are commonest in waters with relatively poor supplies of food particles, and often have leafy shapes that maximize the amount of sunlight they collect.^ Very high water quality here> maybe the poor skimming is inadvertently contributing to my success with this sponge?  Thanks,  Larry .

^ Introduction to the Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Porifera The sponges, phylum Porifera, are predominantly marine with a relatively small number of incursives to fresh water ecosystems.

^ Food particles and oxygen are removed from the water by various cells, including the choanocytes.

[4]
.A recently-discovered carnivorous sponge that lives near hydrothermal vents hosts methane-eating bacteria, and digests some of them.^ I've been putting in some live Nanochloropsis, which may or may not be helping the 'sponges'.

^ The first clear case of an endosymbiotic yeast was recently discovered in sponges of the genus Chondrilla [ 36 ].
  • Putative cross-kingdom horizontal gene transfer in sponge (Porifera) mitochondria 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Putative cross-kingdom horizontal gene transfer in sponge (Porifera) mitochondria 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They are carnivores , i.e., they eat other, living animals, employing cells called cnidocyotes to sting and grasp their prey .
  • Invertebrates 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC mansfield.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]

"Immune" system

.Sponges do not have the complex immune systems of most other animals.^ "Sponges are among the least complex of all animals.
  • Invertebrates 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC mansfield.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sponges do not have the complex immune systems of most other animals.
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^ Ho wever another analysis in 2002 concluded that chancelloriids are not sponges and may be intermediate between sponges and more complex animals, among other reasons because their skins were thicker and more tightly-connected than those of sponges.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However they reject grafts from other species but accept them from other members of their own species.^ However they reject grafts from other species but accept them from other members of their own species.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, other members of families Petrosiidae and Phloeodictyidae are not found in a closer relationship to the three species clade.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Molecular evolution of rDNA in early diverging Metazoa: First comparative analysis and phylogenetic application of complete SSU rRNA secondary structures in Porifera 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

.In a few marine species, gray cells play the leading role in rejection of foreign material.^ In a few marine species, gray cells play the leading role in rejection of foreign material.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Buy or culture "green water" (Chlorella or other single celled algae species), and flush the animal with the media a few times a week....

^ A 25 kDa protein is the basic unit of the core from the 2 x 10 4 -kDa aggregation factor responsible for species-specific cell adhesion in the marine sponge Microciona prolifera .
  • The Origin of Metazoan Complexity: Porifera as Integrated Animals -- Müller 43 (1): 3 -- Integrative and Comparative Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC icb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.When invaded, they produce a chemical that stops movement of other cells in the affected area, thus preventing the intruder from using the sponge's internal transport systems.^ These were two of only three calcareous sponges reported during the study, and they appear to be r -strategic, or opportunistic, in the use of newly available space.
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I did not want to risk my tank since you mentioned they produce more toxins than other organisms.

^ Other cells, including archaeocytes, are instrumental in transporting these respiratory and dietary products throughout the sponge body, in addition to other functions.

.If the intrusion persists, the grey cells concentrate in the area and release toxins that kill all cells in the area.^ If the intrusion persists, the grey cells concentrate in the area and release toxins that kill all cells in the area.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The "immune" system can stay in this activated state for up to three weeks.^ The "immune" system can stay in this activated state for up to three weeks.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]

Reproduction

Asexual

The freshwater sponge Spongilla lacustris
.Sponges have three asexual methods of reproduction: after fragmentation; by budding; and by producing gemmules.^ The freshwater sponge Spongilla lacustris Sponges have three asexual methods of reproduction: after fragmentation; by budding ; and by producing gemmules .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sponges with photosynthesizing endosymbionts produce up to three times more oxygen than they consume, as well as more organic matter than they consume.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gemmules are "survival pods" which a few marine sponges and many freshwater species produce by the thousands when dying and which some, mainly freshwater species, regularly produce in autumn.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fragments of sponges may be detached by currents or waves, and perhaps by predators.^ The distribution of sponges may also be limited by other biological factors, in particular predation ( e.g., Wulff, 1995 ); but in the observations of sponge assemblages at Lough Hyne, predation of sponges was rarely observed.
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, sponges with smooth surfaces may be suited to areas of high current flow since they experience reduced drag.
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sponge predators may determine differences in sponge fauna between two sets of mangrove cays, Belize barrier reef.
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

.They use the mobility of their pinacocytes and choanocytes and reshaping of the mesohyl to re-attach themselves to a suitable surface and then rebuild themselves as small but functional sponges over the course of several days.^ They use the mobility of their pinacocytes and choanocytes and reshaping of the mesohyl to re-attach themselves to a suitable surface and then rebuild themselves as small but functional sponges over the course of several days.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Asconoid Syconoid Leuconoid Pinacocytes Choanocytes Mesohyl Water flow Porifera body structures [9 ] Most sponges work rather like chimneys : they take in water at the bottom and eject it from the osculum ("little mouth") at the top.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sponges have medicinal potential due to the presence in sponges themselves or their microbial symbionts of chemicals that may be used to control viruses , bacteria , tumors and fungi.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The same capabilities enable sponges that have been squeezed though a fine cloth to regenerate.[3] .A sponge fragment can only regenerate if it contains both collencytes to produce mesohyl and archeocytes to produce all the other cell types.^ Only recently has this fauna been actively documented in a contemporary manner, with over 800 coral reef sponge species now contained in voucher collections in the Queensland Museum.

^ Other cells, including archaeocytes, are instrumental in transporting these respiratory and dietary products throughout the sponge body, in addition to other functions.

^ Sponge assemblages varied considerably between habitat types such that only 26% (25 species) of species reported were common to both rock and cliff habitats.
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

[12] A very few species reproduce by budding.[3]
.Gemmules are "survival pods" which a few marine sponges and many freshwater species produce by the thousands when dying and which some, mainly freshwater species, regularly produce in autumn.^ A few questions: Is the sponge dying?

^ Gemmules are "survival pods" which a few marine sponges and many freshwater species produce by the thousands when dying and which some, mainly freshwater species, regularly produce in autumn.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ FRESHWATER SPONGE (gemmules hatching) .

Spongocytes make gemmules by wrapping shells of spongin, often reinforced with spicules, round clusters of archeocytes that are full of nutrients.[3] .Freshwater gemmules may also include phytosynthesizing symbionts.^ Freshwater gemmules may also include phytosynthesizing symbionts.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20] The gemmules then become dormant, and in this state can survive cold, drying out, lack of oxygen and extreme variations in salinity.[3] .Freshwater gemmules often do not revive until the temperature drops, stays cold for a few months and then reaches a near-"normal" level.^ Freshwater gemmules often do not revive until the temperature drops, stays cold for a few months and then reaches a near-"normal" level.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When conditions deteriorate, for example as temperatures drop, many freshwater species and a few marine ones produce gemmules , "survival pods" of unspecialized cells that remain dormant until conditions improve and then either form completely new sponges or re-colonize the skeletons of their parents.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gemmules are "survival pods" which a few marine sponges and many freshwater species produce by the thousands when dying and which some, mainly freshwater species, regularly produce in autumn.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20] .When a gemmule germinates, the archeocytes round the outside of the cluster transform into pinacocytes, a membrane over a pore in the shell bursts, the cluster of cells slowly emerges, and most of the remaining archeocytes transform into other cell types needed to make a functioning sponge.^ Most of the cells transform into a rcheocytes and then into the types appropriate for their locations in a miniature adult sponge.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When a gemmule germinates, the archeocytes round the outside of the cluster transform into pinacocytes, a membrane over a pore in the shell bursts, the cluster of cells slowly emerges, and most of the remaining archeocytes transform into other cell types needed to make a functioning sponge.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The syncytium's cytoplasm , the soupy fluid that fills the interiors of cells, is organised into "rivers" that transport nuclei, organelles ("organs" within cells) and other substances.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gemmules from the same species but different individuals can join forces to form one sponge.^ One might expect that the dominant sponge species would occupy most of the primary substratum ( Russ, 1982 ; Maughan and Barnes, 2000b ).
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sponge morphology On rocks, encrusting morphologies were the most abundant form (20 of 44 species), followed by massive (15 of 44 species) and repent forms (7 of 44 species) (all pooled rock data).
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Considering the fact that the different sponge species are not "amorphous, asymmetrical creatures" as suggested (Pechenik, 2000 ), but comprise a defined phenotype, a sponge might be defined as "integrated colony" or an individual, composed of functional units, allowing the formation of a defined body plan.
  • The Origin of Metazoan Complexity: Porifera as Integrated Animals -- Müller 43 (1): 3 -- Integrative and Comparative Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC icb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[3] .Some gemmules are retained within the parent sponge, and in spring it can be difficult to tell whether an old sponge has revived or been "recolonized" by its own gemmules.^ Some data were taken from the literature ( Bell and Barnes, 2000a ) to enable greater comparison between sponge assemblages from different habitats within Lough Hyne.
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

[20]

Sexual

.Most sponges are hermaphrodites (function as both sexes simultaneously), although sponges have no gonads (reproductive organs).^ There is no doubt that Hallmann's taxonomy was far better than most of his predecessors, although he had the advantage of specialising mainly on a few groups (Poecilosclerida and Halichondrida).

^ Although three mitochondrial genomes of sponges have been recently sequenced [ 2 , 3 ], no intron was found in these genomes.
  • Putative cross-kingdom horizontal gene transfer in sponge (Porifera) mitochondria 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Putative cross-kingdom horizontal gene transfer in sponge (Porifera) mitochondria 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

.Sperm are produced by choanocytes or entire choanocyte chambers that sink into the mesohyl and form spermatic cysts while eggs are formed by transformation of archeocytes, or of choanocytes in some species.^ Description of three species of sponge, containing some new forms of organization.

^ On three species of sponge containing some new forms of organisation.

Each egg generally acquires a yolk by consuming "nurse cells". During spawning, sperm burst out of their cysts and are expelled via the osculum. .If they contact another sponge of the same species, the water flow carries them to choanocytes that engulf them but, instead of digesting them, metamorphose to an ameboid form and carry the sperm through the mesohyl to eggs, which in most cases engulf the carrier and its cargo.^ They filter food particles out of the water flowing through them.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most known carnivorous sponges have completely lost the water flow system and choanocytes .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If they contact another sponge of the same species, the water flow carries them to choanocytes that engulf them but, instead of digesting them, metamorphose to an ameboid form and carry the sperm through the mesohyl to eggs, which in most cases engulf the carrier and its cargo.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
.A few species release fertilized eggs into the water, but most retain the eggs until they hatch.^ Buy or culture "green water" (Chlorella or other single celled algae species), and flush the animal with the media a few times a week....

^ Most sediments in deeper waters of the Gulf (›40 m) consist of soft mud and gravel, and few species appear to live in these softer sediments.

.There are four types of larvae, but all are balls of cells with an outer layer of cells whose flagellae or cilia enable the larvae to move.^ I’m just surprised that we all expect these type of moves from Sabean, yet he still manages to surprise us.
  • Giants sign Aubrey Huff - McCovey Chronicles 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.mccoveychronicles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

After swimming for a few days the larvae sink and crawl until they find a place to settle. .Most of the cells transform into archeocytes and then into the types appropriate for their locations in a miniature adult sponge.^ Most of the cells, especially the archaeocytes, have an ability to continually evolve into several other cell types as required by the individual organism (totipotency), which provide the sponge with a plasticity for its organisation.

^ Type Specimens A legacy of the early work and practices in sponge taxonomy is the difficulty of locating types.

[3]
.Glass sponge embryos start by dividing into separate cells, but once 32 cells have formed they rapidly transform into larvae that externally are ovoid with a band of cilia round the middle that they use for movement, but internally have the typical glass sponge structure of spicules with a cobweb-like main syncitium draped around and between them and choanosyncytia with multiple collar bodies in the center.^ The structure and function of sponge cells: new criteria for the taxonomy of poecilosclerid sponges (Demospongiae).

^ Now band aid singing are quite useful, valuable eve, in the right situation, but they’re pretty damning as a long-term strategy.
  • Giants sign Aubrey Huff - McCovey Chronicles 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.mccoveychronicles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to a doctor at New York University Medical Center, almost anything placed on this tissue, including Dioxin, gets absorbed into the body.

.The larvae then leave their parents' bodies.^ The larvae then leave their parents' bodies.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21]

Life cycle

.Sponges in temperate regions live for at most a few years, but some tropical species and perhaps some deep-ocean ones may live for 200 years or more.^ Sponges in temperate regions live for at most a few years, but some tropical species and perhaps some deep-ocean ones may live for 2 00 years or more.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I've been putting in some live Nanochloropsis, which may or may not be helping the 'sponges'.

^ Symbiotic cyanobacteria may form a third of the total mass of living tissue in some sponges, and some sponges gain 48% to 80% of their energy supply from these micro-organisms.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some calcified demosponges grow by only 0.2 millimetres (0.0079 in) per year and, if that rate is constant, specimens 1 metre (3.3 ft) wide must be about 5,000 years old.^ I guess our GM only gives 30 year olds (not 33) monster contract after they have a better than career year while hitting in a hitters park.
  • Giants sign Aubrey Huff - McCovey Chronicles 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.mccoveychronicles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Through active case-finding efforts in an aggregate population of 34 million persons, the rate for menstrual Toxic Shock Syndrome was determined to be 1.0 per 100,000 women 15-44 years of age (7).

^ This rate represented a substantial reduction from rates reported in similar studies in 1980 (6.2 per 100,000 women 12-49 years of age in Wisconsin (8), 9.0 per 100,000 women 12-45 years of age in Minnesota (9), and 12.3 per 100,000 women 12-49 years of age in Utah (10)).

.Some sponges start sexual reproduction when only a few weeks old, while others wait until they are several years old.^ Some sponges start sexual reproduction when only a few weeks old, while others wait until they are several years old.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some calcified demosponges grow by only 0.2 millimetres (0.0079 in) per year and, if that rate is constant, specimens 1 metre (3.3 ft) wide must be about 5,000 years old.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until the invention of synthetic sponges, they were used as cleaning tools, applicators for paints and ceramic glazes and discreet contraceptives .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]

Coordination of activities

.Adult sponges lack neurons or any other kind of nervous tissue.^ Adult sponges lack neurons or any other kind of nervous tissue .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sponges contain genes very similar to those that contain the "recipe" for the post-synaptic density, an important signal-receiving structure in the neurons of all other animals.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cnidarians possess simple nervous systems as well as muscles (though the latter are not considered true muscles since true muscles are derived from mesodermal tissue and Cnidarians lack mesodermal tissue, i.e., they are diploblastic ) .
  • Invertebrates 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC mansfield.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However most species have the ability to perform movements that are co-ordinated all over their bodies, mainly contractions of the pinacocytes, squeezing the water channels and thus expelling excess sediment and other substances that may cause blockages.^ However most species have the ability to perform movements that are co-ordinated all over their bodies, mainly contractions of the pinacocytes, squeezing the water channels and thus expelling excess sediment and other substances that may cause blockages.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, this may well be a convergent specialization.
  • Palaeos Metazoa: Porifera: References 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.palaeos.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Asconoid Syconoid Leuconoid Pinacocytes Choanocytes Mesohyl Water flow Porifera body structures [9 ] Most sponges work rather like chimneys : they take in water at the bottom and eject it from the osculum ("little mouth") at the top.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some species can contract the osculum independently of the rest of the body. .Sponges may also contract in order to reduce the area that is vulnerable to attack by predators.^ The distribution of sponges may also be limited by other biological factors, in particular predation ( e.g., Wulff, 1995 ); but in the observations of sponge assemblages at Lough Hyne, predation of sponges was rarely observed.
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, sponges with smooth surfaces may be suited to areas of high current flow since they experience reduced drag.
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The linear increase in the number of sponges with increasing surface area of rock may appear unusual.
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

.In cases where two sponges are fused, for example if there is a large but still unseparated bud, these contraction waves slowly become co-ordinated in both of the "Siamese twins". The co-ordinating mechanism is unknown, but may involve chemicals similar to neurotransmitters.^ The co-ordinating mechanism is unknown, but may involve chemicals similar to neurotransmitters .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In cases where two sponges are fused, for example if there is a large but still unseparated bud, these contraction waves slowly become co-ordinated in both of the "Siamese twins ".
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two cases of mimicry in sponges.

[22] .However glass sponges rapidly transmit electrical impulses through all parts of the syncytium, and use this to halt the motion of their flagella if the incoming water contains toxins or excessive sediment.^ The wave-like motion of the whip-like flagella drives water through the sponge's body.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Electrical recording from a glass sponge.
  • Kinetics and rhythm of body contractions in the sponge Tethya wilhelma (Porifera: Demospongiae) -- Nickel 207 (26): 4515 -- Journal of Experimental Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC jeb.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However glass sponges rapidly transmit electrical impulses through all parts of the syncytium , and use this to halt the motion of their flagella if the incoming water contains toxins or excessive sediment.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .Myocytes are thought to be responsible for closing the osculum and for transmitting signals between different parts of the body.^ These features enable phylogenetic questions to be addressed between relatively closely related taxa, as well as between different domains of life [ 2 ].
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Molecular evolution of rDNA in early diverging Metazoa: First comparative analysis and phylogenetic application of complete SSU rRNA secondary structures in Porifera 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A major difference between regular full contraction and the subcontractions can be observed in the time-lapse movies: regular contractions involve the whole body contracting more or less at once, whereas during subcontractions only parts of the body contract, or if the whole body contracts then some parts contract more strongly than others.
  • Kinetics and rhythm of body contractions in the sponge Tethya wilhelma (Porifera: Demospongiae) -- Nickel 207 (26): 4515 -- Journal of Experimental Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC jeb.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

[4]
.Sponges contain genes very similar to those that contain the "recipe" for the post-synaptic density, an important signal-receiving structure in the neurons of all other animals.^ "Sponges are among the least complex of all animals.
  • Invertebrates 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC mansfield.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First, parsimony analysis of intron presence and absence favors a scenario of a recent intron introduction in Spirophorida since all other ten sponges for which the cox1 gene was determined lack an intron (Figure ​ (Figure4).
  • Putative cross-kingdom horizontal gene transfer in sponge (Porifera) mitochondria 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Most animal phyla are invertebrates (in fact, all animal phyla but one contain nothing but invertebrates) .
  • Invertebrates 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC mansfield.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However in sponges these genes are only activated in "flask cells" that appear only in larvae and may provide some sensory capability while the larvae are swimming.^ FRESHWATER SPONGE (swimming larvae) .

^ Other cells, including archaeocytes, are instrumental in transporting these respiratory and dietary products throughout the sponge body, in addition to other functions.

^ However, none of these introns are obligatory and some fungi do not include introns in their mitochondrial genome (e.g., Schizophyllum commune , NC_003049 ; Harpochytrium sp.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Putative cross-kingdom horizontal gene transfer in sponge (Porifera) mitochondria 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

.This raises questions about whether flask cells represent the predecessors of true neurons or are evidence that sponges' ancestors had true neurons but lost them as they adapted to a sessile lifestyle.^ It has taken more than 2000 years to accept his view that sponges are true animals (Müller and Müller, 2003 ) but whether they are able to react directly to mechanical stimuli is still a question of debate.
  • Kinetics and rhythm of body contractions in the sponge Tethya wilhelma (Porifera: Demospongiae) -- Nickel 207 (26): 4515 -- Journal of Experimental Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC jeb.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is uncertain, however, whether this common segmentation represents an analogy or instead a homology (i.e., whether the common ancestor to both phyla possessed segmentation) .
  • Invertebrates 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC mansfield.osu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Much more effort is needed on this topic, which is directly linked to basic questions about the evolution of multicellularity, and for which experimental model sponge systems are needed.
  • Kinetics and rhythm of body contractions in the sponge Tethya wilhelma (Porifera: Demospongiae) -- Nickel 207 (26): 4515 -- Journal of Experimental Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC jeb.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

[23]

Ecology

Euplectella aspergillum, a glass sponge known as "Venus' Flower Basket"

Habitats

.Sponges are worldwide in their distribution, from the polar regions to the tropics.^ The distribution of brominated long-chain fatty acids in sponge and symbiont cell types from the tropical marine sponge Amphimedon terpenensis .

^ The sponges of the tropical island region of Oceania : A taxonomic status review :83-120.

^ Sponges are an important component of hard-substratum communities throughout most polar ( e.g., Dayton, 1978 ), temperate ( e.g., Hiscock et al., 1983 ; Bell and Barnes, 2000a ), and tropical regions ( e.g., Alcolado, 1990 ).
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

[12] .Most live in quiet, clear waters, because sediment stirred up by waves or currents would block their pores, making it difficult for them to feed and breathe.^ Ben suggested a block o’ pussy, Bubba hung up on him, Brent thinks Howard would hit him over the head.
  • Friday, January 15, 2010 | Bubba the Love Sponge® Show 16 January 2010 2:54 UTC www.btls.com [Source type: News]

^ Of course, the only reason why Brian would be viewing McC is because his admin assistant brought up the page at Brian’s request.
  • Giants sign Aubrey Huff - McCovey Chronicles 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.mccoveychronicles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The current wave — Neat / Posey / Kiesch / Crawford / Sandoval / MadBum are due up in 2011 .
  • Giants sign Aubrey Huff - McCovey Chronicles 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.mccoveychronicles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] .The greatest numbers of sponges are usually found on firm surfaces such as rocks, but some sponges can attach themselves to soft sediment by means of a root-like base.^ The number of sponges (number of patches) for each species on each rock was recorded.
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sponge assemblages varied considerably between habitat types such that only 26% (25 species) of species reported were common to both rock and cliff habitats.
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We then heard some Kid Rock, Bubba said he likes “Picture”, Spice said he’ll go from instrument to instrument.
  • Friday, January 15, 2010 | Bubba the Love Sponge® Show 16 January 2010 2:54 UTC www.btls.com [Source type: News]

[24]
.Sponges are more abundant but less diverse in temperate waters than in tropical waters, possibly because organisms that prey on sponges are more abundant in tropical waters.^ Sponges are more abundant but less diverse in temperate waters than in tropical waters, possibly because organisms that prey on sponges are more abundant in tropical waters.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Littoral=Intertidal, Shallow= less than 200 m deep, Deep=more than 200 m deep; .
  • Khoyatan Sponge Pages 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.mareco.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I did not want to risk my tank since you mentioned they produce more toxins than other organisms.

[25] .Glass sponges are the most common in polar waters and in the depths of temperate and tropical seas, as their very porous construction enables them to extract food from these resource-poor waters with the minimum of effort.^ Glass sponges are the most common in polar waters and in the depths of temperate and tropical seas, as their very porous construction enables them to extract food from these resource-poor waters with the minimum of effort.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Very high water quality here> maybe the poor skimming is inadvertently contributing to my success with this sponge?  Thanks,  Larry .

^ However a few carnivorous sponges have lost these water flow systems and the choanocytes.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Demosponges and calcareous sponges are abundant and diverse in shallower non-polar waters.^ Shallow-water demosponges of Western Japan.

^ Demosponges and calcareous sponges are abundant and diverse in shallower non-polar waters.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shallow-water Sponges of the Western Bahamas .

[26]
The different classes of sponge live in different ranges of habitat:
  Water type[4] Depth[4] Type of surface[4]
Calcarea Marine less than 100 metres (330 ft) Hard
Glass sponges Marine Deep Soft or firm sediment
Demosponges Marine, brackish; and about 150 freshwater species[3] Inter-tidal to abyssal;[4] a carnivorous demosponge has been found at 8,840 metres (5.49 mi)[17] Any

As primary producers

.Sponges with photosynthesizing endosymbionts produce up to three times more oxygen than they consume, as well as more organic matter than they consume.^ Sponges with photosynthesizing endosymbionts produce up to three times more oxygen than they consume, as well as more organic matter than they consume.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While most of the approximately 9,000 known species feed on bacteria and other food particles in the water, so me host photosynthesizing micro-organisms as endosymbionts and these alliances often produce more food and oxygen than they consume.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I did not want to risk my tank since you mentioned they produce more toxins than other organisms.

.Such contributions to their habits' resources are significant along Australia 's Great Barrier Reef but relatively minor in the Caribbean.^ Such contributions to their habits' resources are significant along Australia 's Great Barrier Reef but relatively minor in the Caribbean.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She dealt mainly with species from southeastern Australia and the Great Barrier Reef ( e.g.

^ Aspects of the reproductive biology of Xestospongia testudinaria (Great Barrier Reef).

[12]

Defenses

Holes made by clionaid sponge (producing the trace Entobia) after the death of a modern bivalve shell of species Mercenaria mercenaria, from North Carolina
.
Close-up of the sponge boring Entobia in a modern oyster valve.
^ Close-up of Branching Tube Sponge (Pseudoceratina crassa) underwater ...
  • Sea sponge Images and Stock Photos. 603 Sea sponge photography and royalty free pictures available to download from over 100 stock photo companies. 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Close-up of Azure Vase Sponge (Callyspongia plicifera) underwater ...
  • Sea sponge Images and Stock Photos. 603 Sea sponge photography and royalty free pictures available to download from over 100 stock photo companies. 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Close-up of Leathery Barrel Sponge (Geodia Neptuni) underwater ...
  • Sea sponge Images and Stock Photos. 603 Sea sponge photography and royalty free pictures available to download from over 100 stock photo companies. 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

Note the chambers which are connected by short tunnels.
.Many sponges shed spicules, forming a dense carpet several meters deep that keeps away echinoderms which would otherwise prey on the sponges.^ Within the three groups of sponges there are many hundreds of spicule geometries, with a complex associated nomenclature.

^ If two individuals of a clone are fused, the individual contraction rhythm of both sponges persists for several days, until a single new individual sponge is formed with a synchronized rhythm.
  • Kinetics and rhythm of body contractions in the sponge Tethya wilhelma (Porifera: Demospongiae) -- Nickel 207 (26): 4515 -- Journal of Experimental Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC jeb.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Descriptions and figures of deep-sea sponges and their spicules, from the Atlantic Ocean, dredged up on board H.M.S. Porcupine , chiefly in 1869 (concluded).

[12] .They also produce toxins that prevent other sessile organisms such as bryozoans or sea squirts from growing on or near them, making sponges very effective competitors for living space.^ They also produce toxins that prevent other sessile organisms such as bryozoans or sea squirts from growing on or near them, making sponges very effective competitors for living space.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Caribbean chicken-liver sponge Chondrilla nucula secretes toxins that kill coral polyps , allowing the sponges to grow over the coral skeletons.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A recently-discovered carnivorous sponge that lives near hydrothermal vents hosts methane-eating bacteria, and digests some of them.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A few species, such as the Caribbean fire sponge Tedania ignis, cause a severe rash in humans who handle them.^ Evidence from developing Tedania ignis , the Caribbean fire sponge (Demospongiae).
  • Kinetics and rhythm of body contractions in the sponge Tethya wilhelma (Porifera: Demospongiae) -- Nickel 207 (26): 4515 -- Journal of Experimental Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC jeb.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Frontiers in Zoology | Full text | Neuroactive substances specifically modulate rhythmic body contractions in the nerveless metazoon Tethya wilhelma(Demospongiae, Porifera) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.frontiersinzoology.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A few species, such as the Caribbean fire sponge Tedania ignis , cause a severe rash in humans who handle them.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sponge systematics by starfish: predators distinguish cryptic sympatric species of Caribbean fire sponges, Tedania ignis and Tedania klausi n.
  • The Sponge Guide: References 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.spongeguide.org [Source type: Academic]

[3] .Turtles and some fish feed mainly on sponges.^ Turtles and some fish feed mainly on sponges.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gemmules are "survival pods" which a few marine sponges and many freshwater species produce by the thousands when dying and which some, mainly freshwater species, regularly produce in autumn.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is often said that sponges produce chemical defenses against such predators.^ Production of bioactive furanosesterterpene tetronic acids as possible internal chemical defense mechanism in the sponge Ircinia felix.

^ Major defense pathways/molecules to prevent adverse effects against microbes/parasites have been identified in sponges.
  • The Origin of Metazoan Complexity: Porifera as Integrated Animals -- Müller 43 (1): 3 -- Integrative and Comparative Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC icb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ To cope with these threats sponges have developed an efficient chemical defense system (Proksch, 1994 ) as well as humoral and cellular defense mechanisms (Müller et al.
  • The Origin of Metazoan Complexity: Porifera as Integrated Animals -- Müller 43 (1): 3 -- Integrative and Comparative Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC icb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[3] .However an experiment showed that there is no relationship between the toxicity of chemicals produced by sponges and how they taste to fish, which would diminish the usefulness of chemical defenses as deterrents.^ Latitudinal variation in spongivorous fishes and the effectiveness of sponge chemical defenses ".
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However an experiment showed that there is no relationship between the toxicity of chemicals produced by sponges and how they tas te to fish, which would diminish the usefulness of chemical defenses as deterrents.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Looking at the various record-covers and experience other produced stuff, he often got into daydreaming about how it would be to let people share his dreams through his own music.
  • Proton Radio / Jacbri with Jacbri.com 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.protonradio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Predation by fish may even help to spread sponges by detaching fragments.^ Fragments of sponges may be detached by currents or waves, and perhaps by predators.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Predation by fish may even help to spread sponges by detaching fragments.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I've been putting in some live Nanochloropsis, which may or may not be helping the 'sponges'.

[4]
.Glass sponges produce no toxic chemicals, and live in very deep water where predators are rare.^ Glass sponges produce no toxic chemicals, and live in very deep water where predators are rare.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Barbados deep-water sponges.

^ Most carnivorous sponges live in deep waters, up to 8,840 metres (5.49 mi), [16 ] and the development of deep-ocean exploration techniques is expected to lead to the discovery of several more.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]

Predation

.Sponge flies, also known as spongilla-flies (Neuroptera, Sisyridae), are specialist predators of freshwater sponges.^ Sponge flies, also known as spongilla-flies (Neuroptera , Sisyridae ), are specialist predators of freshwater sponges.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Freshwater sponges appear to be much younger, as the earliest known fossils date from the Mid-Eocene period about 48 to 40 million years ago.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Description of new freshwater sponges from Calcutta with a record of two known species from the Himalayas, and a list of the Indian forms.

The female lays her eggs on vegetation overhanging water. .The larvae hatch and drop into the water where they seek out sponges to feed on.^ The larvae hatch and drop into the water where they seek out sponges to feed on.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However most sponges use sexual reproduction , releasing sperm cells into the water.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They filter food particles out of the water flowing through them.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They use their elongated mouthparts to pierce the sponge and suck the fluids within.^ They use their elongated mouthparts to pierce the sponge and suck the fluids within.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until the invention of synthetic sponges, they were used as cleaning tools, applicators for paints and ceramic glazes and discreet contraceptives .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These were two of only three calcareous sponges reported during the study, and they appear to be r -strategic, or opportunistic, in the use of newly available space.
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

.The larvae of some species cling to the surface of the sponge while others take refuge in the sponge's internal cavities.^ The larvae of some species cling to the surface of the sponge while others take refuge in the sponge's internal cavities.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many marine species host other photosynthesizing organisms, most commonly cyanobacteria but in some cases dinoflagellates .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adult sponges are sessile—although slow movement has been recorded for some species (Fishelson 1981).

.The fully grown larvae leave the water and spin a cocoon to pupate in.^ The fully grown larvae leave the water and spin a cocoon to pupate in.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27]

Bioerosion

.The Caribbean chicken-liver sponge Chondrilla nucula secretes toxins that kill coral polyps, allowing the sponges to grow over the coral skeletons.^ The Caribbean chicken-liver sponge Chondrilla nucula secretes toxins that kill coral polyps , allowing the sponges to grow over the coral skeletons.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Observations on reef coral undermining by the Caribbean excavating sponge Cliona delitrix (Demospongiae, Hadromerida).

^ Competition for space between encrusting excavating Caribbean sponges and other coral reef organisms.

[3] .Others, especially in the family Clionidae, use corrosive substances secreted by their archeocytes to tunnel into rocks, corals and the shells of dead molluscs.^ Others, especially in the family Clionidae , use corrosive substances secreted by their archeocytes to tunnel into rocks, corals and the shells of dead molluscs .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than fish or even corals, though, I like the other life on the rocks and around the reef the best.

^ Pinacocyte Choanocyte Archeocytes and other cells in mesohyl Mesohyl Spicules Calcium carbonate Seabed / rock Water flow Sponge with calcium carbonate skeleton [1 ] .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .Sponges may remove up to 1 metre (3.3 ft) per year from reefs, creating visible notches just below low-tide level.^ Sponges may remove up to 1 metre (3.3 ft) per year from reef s, creating visible notches just below low-tide level.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some calcified demosponges grow by only 0.2 millimetres (0.0079 in) per year and, if that rate is constant, specimens 1 metre (3.3 ft) wide must be about 5,000 years old.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I mostly agree with what Grant said, I just sort of shrug my shoulders, thank god it’s not LaRoche for 9 mil per year, and walk away .
  • Giants sign Aubrey Huff - McCovey Chronicles 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.mccoveychronicles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]

Diseases

.Caribbean sponges of the genus Aplysina suffer from Aplysina red band syndrome.^ Aplysina red band syndrome: a new threat to Caribbean sponges".
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Caribbean sponges of the genus Aplysina suffer from Aplysina red band syndrome.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sponges, genus Mycale (Poecilosclerida: Demospongiae: Porifera), from a Caribbean mangrove and comments on subgeneric classification.
  • The Sponge Guide: References 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.spongeguide.org [Source type: Academic]

.This causes Aplysina to develop one or more rust-colored bands, sometimes with adjacent bands of necrotic tissue (dead).^ This causes Aplysina to develop one or more rust-colored bands, sometimes with adjacent bands of necrotic tissue (dead).
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The rust-colored bands are caused by a cyanobacterium , but it is unknown whether this organism actually causes the disease.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These lesions may completely encircle branches of the sponge.^ These lesions may completely encircle branches of the sponge.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However in sponges these genes are only activated in "flask cells" that appear only in larvae and may provide some sensory capability while the larvae are swimming.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The disease appears to be contagious (spread by physical contact).^ The disease appears to be contagious (spread by physical contact).
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rust-colored bands are caused by a cyanobacterium, but it is unknown whether this organism actually causes the disease.^ The rust-colored bands are caused by a cyanobacterium , but it is unknown whether this organism actually causes the disease.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This causes Aplysina to develop one or more rust-colored bands, sometimes with adjacent bands of necrotic tissue (dead).
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28]

Collaboration with other organisms

.In addition to hosting photosynthesizing endosymbionts,[3] sponges are noted for their wide range of collaborations with other organisms.^ In addition to hosting photosynthesizin g endosymbionts, [1 ] sponges are noted for their wide range of collaborations with other organisms.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While most of the approximately 9,000 known species feed on bacteria and other food particles in the water, so me host photosynthesizing micro-organisms as endosymbionts and these alliances often produce more food and oxygen than they consume.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The study recommended further analyses using a wider range of sponges and other simple Metazoa such as Placozoa .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The relatively large encrusting sponge Lissodendoryx colombiensis is most common on rocky surfaces, but has extended its range into seagrass meadows by letting itself be surrounded or overgrown by seagrass sponges, which are distasteful to the local starfish and therefore protect Lissodendoryx against them; in return the seagrass sponges get higher positions away from the sea-floor sediment.^ The relatively large encrusting sponge Lissodendoryx colombiensis is most common on rocky surfaces, but has extended its range into seagrass meadows by letting itself be surrounded or overgrown by seagrass sponges, which are distasteful to the local starfish and therefore protect Lissodendoryx against them; in return the seagrass sponges get higher positions away from the sea-floor sediment.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the smallest particles are by far the most common, choanocytes typically capture 80% of a sponge's food supply.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is generally thought that sponges' closest single-celled relatives are choanoflagellates , which strongly resemble the cells that sponges use to drive their water flow systems and capture most of their food.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29]
.Shrimps of the genus Synalpheus form colonies in sponges, and each shrimp species inhabits a different sponge species, making Synalpheus one of the most diverse crustacean genera.^ Posey will make a difference at some point this year and I believe at least one of the Neal/Crawford/Roger K trio will begin to play regularly in 2011.
  • Giants sign Aubrey Huff - McCovey Chronicles 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.mccoveychronicles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On a new genus and species of sponge ( Alemo seychellensis ) with supposed heteromorphic zooids.

^ New genera and species of coralline sponges (Porifera) from Jamaica.
  • The Sponge Guide: References 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.spongeguide.org [Source type: Academic]

[30]

Evolutionary history

Fossil record

 
Fossil sponge Raphidonema faringdonense from Cretaceous rocks in England
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1: Gap  2: Central cavity  3 Internal wall  4: Pore (all walls have pores)  5 Septum  6 Outer wall  7 Holdfast
Archaeocyathid structure
.Traces of the chemical 24-isopropylcholestane have been found in rocks formed 1,800 million years ago.^ Fossil sponge Raphidonema faringdonense from Cretaceous rocks in England 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 : Gap 2 : Central cavity 3 Internal wall 4 : Pore ( all walls have pores) 5 Septum 6 Outer wall 7 Holdfast Archaeocyathid structure Traces of the chemical 24-isopropylcholestane have been found in rocks formed 1,800 million years ago.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In rock habitats, high proportions of encrusting and massive forms were found, with no differences between sites.
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition Archaeocyathids , whose fossils are common in rocks from 530 million years ago but not after 490 million years ago, are now regarded as a type of sponge.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31] This is a stable derivative of 24-isopropylcholesterol, which is thought to be produced by demosponges but not by eumetazoans ("true animals", i.e. cnidarians and bilaterians). .Since choanoflagellates are thought to be animals' closest single-celled relatives, a team of scientists examined the biochemistry and genes of one choanoflagellate species.^ Since choanoflagellates are thought to be animals' closest single-celled relatives, a team of scientists examined the biochemistry and genes of one choanoflagellate species.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is generally thought that sponges' closest single-celled relatives are choanoflagellates , which strongly resemble the cells that sponges use to drive their water flow systems and capture most of their food.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Buy or culture "green water" (Chlorella or other single celled algae species), and flush the animal with the media a few times a week....

.They concluded that this species could not produce 24-isopropylcholesterol but that investigation of a wider range of choanoflagellates would be necessary in order to prove that the fossil 24-isopropylcholestane could only have been produced by demosponges.^ They concluded that this species could not produce 24-isopropylcholesterol but that investigation of a wider range of choanoflagellates would be necessary in order to prove that the fossil 24-isopropylcholestane could only have been produced by demosponges.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Writer's note: Currently there are only a few non-chlorine bleached all cotton tampons available in the US. Ask about them at your local store, if they are not available, ask them to special order!

^ Last year the Giants only produced 34 WAR which projects to 6 fewer wins (82) then the 88 they actually achieved.
  • Giants sign Aubrey Huff - McCovey Chronicles 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.mccoveychronicles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32]
.Silica spicules like those of demosponges have been reported from Nevada in rocks dated around 750 million years ago.^ Silica spicules like those of demosponges have been reported from Nevada in rocks dated around 750 million years ago.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I’m just saying, it’s not like the money issue is exactly the same, since the money going to those guys is going to be off the books in 2 years, while holliday will still be making his in 7.
  • Giants sign Aubrey Huff - McCovey Chronicles 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.mccoveychronicles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition Archaeocyathids , whose fossils are common in rocks from 530 million years ago but not after 490 million years ago, are now regarded as a type of sponge.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33] .Well-preserved fossil sponges from about 580 million years ago in the Ediacaran period have been found in the Doushantuo Formation.^ Ma, million years ago.
  • Phylogeny and Evolution of Glass Sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida) -- Dohrmann et al. 57 (3): 388 -- Systematic Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC sysbio.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The sponge was acquired about 6 months ago and placed in our tank.

^ A guide to the classification of sponges , as well as many new species and higher taxa added to the Australian marine sponge inventory during this period.

.These fossils, which include spicules, pinacocytes, porocytes, archeocytes, sclerocytes and the internal cavity, have been classified as demosponges.^ These fossils, which include spicules , pinacocytes, porocytes , archeocytes , sclerocytes and the internal cavity, have been classified as demospon ges.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mesohyl Pinacocyte Choanocyte Lophocyte Porocyte Oocyte Archeocyte Sclerocyte Spicule Water flow Main cell types of Porifera [6 ] A sponge's body is hollow and is held in shape by the mesohyl , a jelly-like substance made mainly of collagen and reinforced by a dense network of fibers also made of collagen.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pinacocyte Choanocyte Archeocytes and other cells in mesohyl Mesohyl Spicules Calcium carbonate Seabed / rock Water flow Sponge with calcium carbonate skeleton [1 ] .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fossils of glass sponges have been found from around 540 million years ago in rocks in Australia, China and Mongolia.^ Fossils of glass sponges have been found from around 540 million years ago in rocks in Australia, China and Mongolia.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fossil sponge Raphidonema faringdonense from Cretaceous rocks in England 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 : Gap 2 : Central cavity 3 Internal wall 4 : Pore ( all walls have pores) 5 Septum 6 Outer wall 7 Holdfast Archaeocyathid structure Traces of the chemical 24-isopropylcholestane have been found in rocks formed 1,800 million years ago.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Calcium carbonate spicules of calcareous sponges have been found in Early Cambrian rocks from about 530 to 523 million years ago in Australia.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34] .Calcium carbonate spicules of calcareous sponges have been found in Early Cambrian rocks from about 530 to 523 million years ago in Australia.^ Calcium carbonate spicules of calcareous sponges have been found in Early Cambrian rocks from about 530 to 523 million years ago in Australia.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fossils of glass sponges have been found from around 540 million years ago in rocks in Australia, China and Mongolia.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Calcareous sponges produce spicules made of calcium carbonate .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other probable demosponges have been found in the Early Cambrian Chengjiang fauna, from 525 to 520 million years ago.^ Archaeocyathids are very common fossils in rocks from the Early Cambrian about 530 to 520 million years ago but are not found after the Late Cambrian.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ma, million years ago.
  • Phylogeny and Evolution of Glass Sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida) -- Dohrmann et al. 57 (3): 388 -- Systematic Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC sysbio.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other probable demosponges have been found in the Early Cambrian Chengjiang fauna , from 525 to 520 million years ago.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35] .Freshwater sponges appear to be much younger, as the earliest known fossils date from the Mid-Eocene period about 48 to 40 million years ago.^ Well-preserved fossil sponges from about 580 million years ago in the Ediacaran period have been found in the Doushantuo Formation .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Freshwater sponges appear to be much younger, as the earliest known fossils date from the Mid-Eocene period about 48 to 40 million years ago.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ma, million years ago.
  • Phylogeny and Evolution of Glass Sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida) -- Dohrmann et al. 57 (3): 388 -- Systematic Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC sysbio.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[34] .Although about 90% of modern sponges are demosponges, fossilized remains of this type are less common than those of other types because their skeletons are composed of relatively soft spongin that does not fossilize well.^ Although about 90% of modern sponges are demosponges , fossilized remains of this type are less common than those of other types because their skeletons are composed of relatively soft spongin that does not fossilize well.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So far scientific publications have identified about 9,000 poriferan species, [11 ] of which: about 400 are glass sponges; a bout 500 are calcareous species; and the rest are demosponges.
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An analysis in 1996 concluded that they were closely related to sponges on the grounds that the detailed structure of chancellorid sclerites ("armor plates") is similar to that of fibers of spongin , a collagen protein , in modern keratose (horny) demosponges such as Darwinella .
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36]
.Archaeocyathids, which some classify as a type of coralline sponge, are common in the Cambrian period from about 530 million years ago, but apparently died out by the end of the Cambrian 490 million years ago.^ Ma, million years ago.
  • Phylogeny and Evolution of Glass Sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida) -- Dohrmann et al. 57 (3): 388 -- Systematic Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC sysbio.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Conclusion Little is known about sponge-associated fungi, although in the last few years the latter have been frequently isolated from sponges.
  • Putative cross-kingdom horizontal gene transfer in sponge (Porifera) mitochondria 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Especially when those seasons seven years ago are radically out of line with what they’ve done since.
  • Giants sign Aubrey Huff - McCovey Chronicles 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.mccoveychronicles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35]

Family tree

A choanoflagellate
Simplified family tree showing calcareous sponges
as closest to more complex animals[37]
Simplified family tree showing Homoscleromorpha
as closest to more complex animals[38]
.In the 1990s sponges were widely regarded as a monophyletic group, in other words all of them descended from a common ancestor that was itself a sponge, and as the "sister-group" to all other metazoans (multi-celled animals), which themselves form a monophyletic group.^ Phylogenetic exercises with monophyletic groups of sponges.

^ Other cells, including archaeocytes, are instrumental in transporting these respiratory and dietary products throughout the sponge body, in addition to other functions.

^ Early accounts of their structure likened sponges to 'clones' of single-celled animals and their recognition as a distinctive phylum was adopted widely only from the early twentieth century.

.On the other hand some 1990s analyses also revived the idea that animals' nearest evolutionary relatives are choanoflagellates, single-celled organisms very similar to sponges' choanocytes – which would imply that most Metazoa evolved from very sponge-like ancestors and therefore that sponges may not be monophyletic, as the same sponge-like ancestors may have given rise both to modern sponges and to non-sponge members of Metazoa.^ They are very likely to regress, and would be likely to even be below average if he were to play a position other than 3rd.
  • Giants sign Aubrey Huff - McCovey Chronicles 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.mccoveychronicles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One might expect that the dominant sponge species would occupy most of the primary substratum ( Russ, 1982 ; Maughan and Barnes, 2000b ).
  • Effect of Disturbance on Assemblages: an Example Using Porifera -- Bell and Barnes 205 (2): 144 -- The Biological Bulletin 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.biolbull.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Origin of neuronal-like receptors in Metazoa: Cloning of a metabotropic glutamate/GABA-like receptor from the marine sponge Geodia cydonium.
  • Kinetics and rhythm of body contractions in the sponge Tethya wilhelma (Porifera: Demospongiae) -- Nickel 207 (26): 4515 -- Journal of Experimental Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC jeb.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

[37]
.Analyses since 2001 have concluded that Eumetazoa ("true" animals, more complex than sponges) are more closely related to particular groups of sponges than to the rest of the sponges.^ That’s more of a photoshopper than a true nickname.
  • Giants sign Aubrey Huff - McCovey Chronicles 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.mccoveychronicles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Homoscleromorphs are the only sponges known to possess basement membranes and therefore allegedly true epithelia (e.g., Boury-Esnault et al., 2003 ; Ereskovsky and Tokina, 2007 ), leading to the hypothesis that they might be more closely related to Eumetazoa than to other sponges ( Boury-Esnault et al., 2003 ; Sperling et al., 2007 ).
  • Phylogeny and Evolution of Glass Sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida) -- Dohrmann et al. 57 (3): 388 -- Systematic Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC sysbio.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Relationships of the Major Sponge Groups Previous rDNA analyses (e.g., Collins, 1998 ; Medina et al., 2001 ; Manuel et al., 2003 ) found a close relationship of hexactinellids to demosponges, although only one or two hexactinellid sequences were used in these studies.
  • Phylogeny and Evolution of Glass Sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida) -- Dohrmann et al. 57 (3): 388 -- Systematic Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC sysbio.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Such conclusions imply that sponges are not monophyletic, because the last common ancestor of all sponges would also be a direct ancestor of the Eumetazoa, which are not sponges.^ Topsent (1930, 1932, 1933) implied such designations consistently in his revisions of Lamarck's sponges by the statement 'le type'.

^ He would get signed to a gigantic contract we would all bitch about because he played out of his mind and would probably regress to his career norm.
  • Giants sign Aubrey Huff - McCovey Chronicles 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.mccoveychronicles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A study in 2001 based on comparisons of ribosome DNA concluded that the most fundamental division within sponges was between glass sponges and the rest, and that Eumetazoa are more closely related to Calcareous sponges, those with calcium carbonate spicules, than to other types of sponge.^ The tetraxonid sponge spicule: a study in evolution.

^ A. dawsoni is most closely related to A .
  • Phylogeny and Evolution of Glass Sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida) -- Dohrmann et al. 57 (3): 388 -- Systematic Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC sysbio.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Homoscleromorphs are the only sponges known to possess basement membranes and therefore allegedly true epithelia (e.g., Boury-Esnault et al., 2003 ; Ereskovsky and Tokina, 2007 ), leading to the hypothesis that they might be more closely related to Eumetazoa than to other sponges ( Boury-Esnault et al., 2003 ; Sperling et al., 2007 ).
  • Phylogeny and Evolution of Glass Sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida) -- Dohrmann et al. 57 (3): 388 -- Systematic Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC sysbio.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[37] .In 2007 one analysis based on comparisons of RNA and another based mainly on comparison of spicules concluded that demosponges and glass sponges are more closely related to each other than either is to calcareous sponges, which in turn are more closely related to Eumetazoa.^ This assumption is probably incorrect, as suggested by Hooper & Lévi (1994) in their analysis of three families of demosponges in the Australian and New Caledonian regions, but sponge zoogeography is still largely in the realms of speculation rather than science.

^ Why has there been more research done on the possible health effects of chlorine-bleached coffee filters than on chlorine bleached tampons and related products?

^ An analysis of partial 28s ribosomal RNA sequences suggests early radiations of sponges.

[34][39]
Other anatomical and biochemical evidence links the Eumetazoa with Homoscleromorpha, a sub-group of demosponges. .A comparison in 2007 of nuclear DNA, excluding glass sponges and comb jellies, concluded that: Homoscleromorpha are most closely related to Eumetazoa; calcareous sponges are the next closest; the other demosponges are evolutionary "aunts" of these groups; and the chancelloriids, bag-like animals whose fossils are found in Cambrian rocks, may be sponges.^ A. dawsoni is most closely related to A .
  • Phylogeny and Evolution of Glass Sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida) -- Dohrmann et al. 57 (3): 388 -- Systematic Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC sysbio.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ [Abstract/ Free Full Text] Steiner M., Mehl D., Reitner J., Erdtmann B.-D. Oldest entirely preserved sponges and other fossils from the lowermost Cambrian and a new facies reconstruction of the Yangtze platform (China).
  • Phylogeny and Evolution of Glass Sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida) -- Dohrmann et al. 57 (3): 388 -- Systematic Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC sysbio.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Homoscleromorpha to group outside the remaining demosponges, but could not resolve their exact relationship to other metazoan taxa.
  • Phylogeny and Evolution of Glass Sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida) -- Dohrmann et al. 57 (3): 388 -- Systematic Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC sysbio.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[38] .The sperm of Homoscleromorpha share with those of Eumetazoa features that those of other sponges lack.^ An alphabetical list of the genera and species of sponges described by H.J. Carter, Esq., F.R.S., together with a number of his more important references to those of other authors, with an introductory notice.

.In both Homoscleromorpha and Eumetazoa layers of cells are bound together by attachment to a carpet-like basal membrane composed mainly of "type IV" collagen, a form of collagen not found in other sponges – although the spongin fibers that reinforce the mesohyl of all demosponges is similar to "type IV" collagen.^ Firmness of the sponge body is provided by (1) collagen fibrils of the mesohyl, (2) spongin fibres, and (3) an inorganic skeleton consisting of various supporting mineral elements composed of either calcareous (CaCO3) or silica (SiO2) (including discrete spicules, articulated or fused spicules and/or hypercalcified mineralised basal skeleton).

^ Both cell types contain actin filaments and networks (Bagby, 1966 , 1970 ; Matsuno et al., 1988 ; Pavans De Ceccatty, 1981 ) and myosin has also been demonstrated in actinocytes and other sponge cells (Lorenz et al., 1996 ; Nickel, 2001 ).
  • Kinetics and rhythm of body contractions in the sponge Tethya wilhelma (Porifera: Demospongiae) -- Nickel 207 (26): 4515 -- Journal of Experimental Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC jeb.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other cells, including archaeocytes, are instrumental in transporting these respiratory and dietary products throughout the sponge body, in addition to other functions.

[6]
.The analyses described above concluded that sponges are closest to the ancestors of all Metazoa, in other words of all multi-celled animals including both sponges and more complex groups.^ Other cells, including archaeocytes, are instrumental in transporting these respiratory and dietary products throughout the sponge body, in addition to other functions.

^ The classification and phylogeny of the calcareous sponges, with a reference list of all the described species, systematically arranged.

^ Within the three groups of sponges there are many hundreds of spicule geometries, with a complex associated nomenclature.

.However, another comparison in 2008 of 150 genes in each of 21 genera, ranging from fungi to humans but including only two species of sponge, suggested that comb jellies (ctenophora) are the most basal lineage of the Metazoa included in the sample.^ A collection of sponges from the west coast of the Yucatan Penninsula with descriptions of two new species.
  • The Sponge Guide: References 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.spongeguide.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Only recently has this fauna been actively documented in a contemporary manner, with over 800 coral reef sponge species now contained in voucher collections in the Queensland Museum.

^ Studies on Indian sponges - III. Two species of silicious sponges of the family Ophlitaspongiidae de Laubenfels (Class: Demospongiae Sollas, Order: Poecilosclerida Topsent).

.If this is correct, either modern comb jellies developed their complex structures independently of other Metazoa, or sponges' ancestors were more complex and all known sponges are drastically simplified forms.^ Notice of a new sponge from Bermuda and some others forms from the Bahamas.
  • The Sponge Guide: References 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC www.spongeguide.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Innovative new methods for measuring the natural dynamics of some structurally dominant tropical sponges and other sessile fauna.

^ Description of new freshwater sponges from Calcutta with a record of two known species from the Himalayas, and a list of the Indian forms.

.The study recommended further analyses using a wider range of sponges and other simple Metazoa such as Placozoa.^ During your period it is preferable to use other methods such as condoms and/or foam.

^ Women use our Femgyn Health's Inipads during their menstrual periods or for other feminine hygiene reasons, such as vaginal discharge or urinary leakage.

[40] The results of such an analysis, published in 2009, suggest that a return to the previous view may be warranted. .'Family trees' constructed using a combination of all available data - morphological, developmental and molecular - concluded that the sponges are in fact a monophyletic group, and with the cnidarians form the sister group to the bilaterians.^ Phylogenetic exercises with monophyletic groups of sponges.

^ Phylogenetic relationships of the family Axinellidae (Porifera: Demospongiae) using morphological and molecular data.

^ Similarly, external characters such as growth form and colour are sometimes affected by local conditions, producing an apparent morphological plasticity in some groups.

[41]
Archaeocyathids are very common fossils in rocks from the Early Cambrian about 530 to 520 million years ago but are not found after the Late Cambrian. .It has been suggested that they were produced by: sponges; cnidarians; algae; foraminiferans; a completely separate phylum of animals, Archaeocyatha; or even a completely separate kingdom of life, labelled Archaeata or Inferibionta.^ Early accounts of their structure likened sponges to 'clones' of single-celled animals and their recognition as a distinctive phylum was adopted widely only from the early twentieth century.

Since the 1990s archaeocyathids have been regarded as a distinctive group of sponges.[42]
= skin
= flesh
Halkieriid sclerite structure[43]
It is difficult to fit chancelloriids into classifications of sponges or more complex animals. .An analysis in 1996 concluded that they were closely related to sponges on the grounds that the detailed structure of chancellorid sclerites ("armor plates") is similar to that of fibers of spongin, a collagen protein, in modern keratose (horny) demosponges such as Darwinella.^ [On the keratose or horny sponges of commerce].

^ On the keratose or horny sponges of commerce.

[44] .However another analysis in 2002 concluded that chancelloriids are not sponges and may be intermediate between sponges and more complex animals, among other reasons because their skins were thicker and more tightly-connected than those of sponges.^ He’s slightly worse at third base than at first; I just expected more of a difference between the two.
  • Giants sign Aubrey Huff - McCovey Chronicles 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.mccoveychronicles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because he more than doubled his career uzr/150 last year.
  • Giants sign Aubrey Huff - McCovey Chronicles 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.mccoveychronicles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hooper & Lévi (1994) hypothesised that sponges have much more restricted distributions than recognised ( e.g.

[45] .In 2008 a detailed analysis of chancelloriids' sclerites concluded that they were very similar to those of halkieriids, mobile bilaterian animals that looked like slugs in chain mail and whose fossils are found in rocks from the very Early Cambrian to the Mid Cambrian.^ They are very likely to regress, and would be likely to even be below average if he were to play a position other than 3rd.
  • Giants sign Aubrey Huff - McCovey Chronicles 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.mccoveychronicles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And when they do, it looks a lot like Huff's 2009.
  • Giants sign Aubrey Huff - McCovey Chronicles 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.mccoveychronicles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What are the symptoms of TSS? Symptoms can be similar to flu or food poisoning, but they can become serious very quickly.

.If this is correct, it would create a dilemma, as it is extremely unlikely that totally unrelated organisms could have developed such similar sclerites independently, but the huge difference in the structures of their bodies makes it hard to see how they could be closely related.^ After you receive your new Sea Sponge Tampons, you will want to see how they feel inside your vagina before your next period.

^ What makes these toxic residues even more disturbing, is that they come in direct contact with some of the most absorbent tissue in a woman's body.

^ In the current classification (see Hooper and van Soest, 2002 ), the dictyonal taxa are divided into several orders according to structural differences of their frameworks.
  • Phylogeny and Evolution of Glass Sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida) -- Dohrmann et al. 57 (3): 388 -- Systematic Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC sysbio.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[43]

Taxonomy

Levels in the Linnean taxonomy.
.For a long time sponges were assigned to a separate subkingdom, Parazoa ("beside the animals"), separate from the Eumetazoa which formed the rest of the kingdom Animalia.^ Molecular Phylogeny of Hexactinellida and Relationships among Poriferans Hexactinellida is clearly monophyletic and separated by a very long branch from the rest of the tree.
  • Phylogeny and Evolution of Glass Sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida) -- Dohrmann et al. 57 (3): 388 -- Systematic Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC sysbio.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[42] They are now classified as a phylum within Animalia, and divided into classes mainly according to the composition of their skeletons:[2][12]
.
  • Hexactinellida (glass sponges) have silicate spicules, the largest of which have six rays and may be individual or fused.^ On the occurrence of gelatinous spicules, and their mode of origin, in a new genus of siliceous sponges.

    ^ We find high support for a close relationship of glass sponges and Demospongiae sensu stricto , though the latter may be paraphyletic with respect to Hexactinellida.
    • Phylogeny and Evolution of Glass Sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida) -- Dohrmann et al. 57 (3): 388 -- Systematic Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC sysbio.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Phylogeny of Hexactinellida This paper presents the first reconstruction of glass sponge phylogeny from molecular data, as well as the first computerized cladistic analysis of hexactinellid morphology.
    • Phylogeny and Evolution of Glass Sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida) -- Dohrmann et al. 57 (3): 388 -- Systematic Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC sysbio.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    [2] The main components of their bodies are syncytia in which large numbers of cell share a single external membrane.[12]
  • Calcarea have skeletons made of calcite, a form of calcium carbonate, which may form separate spicules or large masses. All the cells have a single nucleus and membrane.[12]
  • Most Demospongiae have silicate spicules or spongin fibers or both within their soft tissues. However a few also have massive external skeletons made of aragonite, another form of calcium carbonate.[2][12] All the cells have a single nucleus and membrane.[12]
  • Archeocyatha are known only as fossils from the Cambrian period.[42]
.In the 1970s sponges with massive calcium carbonate skeletons were assigned to a separate class, Sclerospongiae, otherwise known as "coralline sponges".[46] However in the 1980s it was found that these were all members of either the Calcarea or the Demospongiae.^ The Basil Fawlty Moderating Strategy: "We could run a nice blog here if we didn't have all these members getting in the way."
  • Giants sign Aubrey Huff - McCovey Chronicles 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.mccoveychronicles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47]
.So far scientific publications have identified about 9,000 poriferan species,[12] of which: about 400 are glass sponges; about 500 are calcareous species; and the rest are demosponges.^ The classification and phylogeny of the calcareous sponges, with a reference list of all the described species, systematically arranged.

^ Preliminary account of Synute pulchella , a new genus and species of calcareous sponges.

^ On Teichonia , a new family of calcareous sponges, with descriptions of two species.

[3] .However some types of habitat, such as vertical rock and cave walls and galleries in rock and coral boulders, have been investigated very little, even in shallow seas.^ Reproduction of some demosponges in a temperate Australian shallow water habitat.

^ However, Hallmann's procedure was not quite consistent and in some cases he accepted names and Lendenfeld's type specimens even though he stated in publication that the original description was known to be inaccurate or misleading.

^ In fact, many of these aging veterans did very well, and some even resurrected their careers.
  • Giants sign Aubrey Huff - McCovey Chronicles 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.mccoveychronicles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]

Use

By dolphins

.A report in 1997 described use of sponges as a tool by bottlenose dolphins in Shark Bay.^ In June 1980, a follow-up report described three studies which detected an association between Toxic Shock Syndrome and the use of tampons (3).

.A dolphin will attach a marine sponge to its rostrum, which is presumably then used to protect it when searching for food in the sandy sea bottom.^ A chipper sea sponge and his nautical neighbors make waves in the deep-sea city of Bikini Bottom in … more A chipper sea sponge and his nautical neighbors make waves in the deep-sea city of Bikini Bottom in this clever and playful kiddie cartoon aimed at preschoolers.
  • SpongeBob SquarePants Television show - SpongeBob SquarePants TV Show - Yahoo! TV 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC tv.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • SpongeBob SquarePants Television show - SpongeBob SquarePants TV Show - Yahoo! TV 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC ca.tv.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48] The behaviour, known as sponging, has only been observed in this bay, and is almost exclusively shown by females. .A study in 2005 concluded that mothers teach the behaviour to their daughters, and that all the sponge-users are closely related, suggesting that it is a fairly recent innovation.^ In contrast, most molecular phylogenetic studies found sponges to be paraphyletic, usually with Calcarea being more closely related to Eumetazoa (e.g., Collins, 1998 ; Borchiellini et al., 2001 ; Medina et al., 2001 ; Peterson and Butterfield, 2005 ).
  • Phylogeny and Evolution of Glass Sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida) -- Dohrmann et al. 57 (3): 388 -- Systematic Biology 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC sysbio.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[49]

By humans

Display of natural sponges for sale on Kalymnos in Greece

Skeleton

.The calcium carbonate or silica spicules of most sponge genera make them too rough for most uses, but two genera, Hippospongia and Spongia, have soft, entirely fibrous skeletons.^ Two new genera of hadromerid sponges (Demospongea).

Early Europeans used soft sponges for many purposes, including padding for helmets, portable drinking utensils and municipal water filters. .Until the invention of synthetic sponges, they were used as cleaning tools, applicators for paints and ceramic glazes and discreet contraceptives.^ After the sea sponge reaches harvest-size, they are then harvested and are then cleaned, disinfected, trimmed and re- shaped to "vagina-size."

However by the mid-20th century, over-fishing brought both the animals and the industry close to extinction.[50]
.Many objects with sponge-like textures are now made of substances not derived from poriferans.^ Frank Coffa of the Museum of Victoria is thanked for processing the many photographs of type specimens, now in NMV Sponge Archives.

^ Natural Sea Sponge Tampons Natural Sea Sponge tampons are made from "sea sponges" that naturally grow in the oceans and can be cultivated and harvested like any "land crop."

^ Yet the Australian sponge fauna is still relatively poorly known, with many unpublished taxa now housed in the Australian museum collections (especially QM).

Synthetic sponges include personal and household cleaning tools, breast implants,[51] and contraceptive sponges.[52] Typical materials used are cellulose foam, polyurethane foam, and less frequently, silicone foam.
The luffa "sponge", also spelled loofah, which is commonly sold for use in the kitchen or the shower, is not derived from an animal but from the fibrous "skeleton" of a gourd (Cucurbitaceae).[53]

Antibiotic compounds

.Sponges have medicinal potential due to the presence in sponges themselves or their microbial symbionts of chemicals that may be used to control viruses, bacteria, tumors and fungi.^ Any woman may develop TSS when using tampons as directed by the manufacturer's instructions if she is carrying the particular strain of bacteria that produces toxins and if she has not developed immunity to these toxins.

^ Do not use a birth control sponge or diaphragm during your period.

^ Women may avoid problems by choosing a tampon with the minimum absorbency needed to control menstrual flow and using tampons only during active menstruation.

[54][55]

See also

References

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  2. ^ a b c d e f g Hooper, J.N.A., Van Soest, R.W.M., and Debrenne, F. (2002), "Phylum Porifera Grant, 1836", in Hooper, J.N.A., and Van Soest, R.W.M., Systema Porifera: A Guide to the Classification of Sponges, New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum, pp. 9–14, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=OQoxzqjQXWEC&pg=PA220&dq=sponge+attachment+substrate&lr=#PPA9,M1, retrieved 2008-11-06 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al Ruppert, E.E., Fox, R.S., and Barnes, R.D. (2004). Invertebrate Zoology (7 ed.). Brooks / Cole. pp. 76–97. ISBN 0030259827. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Bergquist, P.R., (1998). "Porifera". in Anderson, D.T.,. Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford University Press. pp. 10–27. ISBN 0195513681. 
  5. ^ a b c Hinde, R.T., (1998). "The Cnidaria and Ctenophora". in Anderson, D.T.,. Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford University Press. pp. 28–57. ISBN 0195513681. 
  6. ^ a b Exposito, J-Y., Cluzel, C., Garrone, R., and Lethias, C. (2002). "Evolution of collagens". The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology = 268: 302–316. doi:10.1002/ar.10162. 
  7. ^ Ruppert, E.E., Fox, R.S., and Barnes, R.D. (2004). Invertebrate Zoology (7 ed.). Brooks / Cole. p. 82. ISBN 0030259827. 
  8. ^ Ruppert, E.E., Fox, R.S., and Barnes, R.D. (2004). Invertebrate Zoology (7 ed.). Brooks / Cole. pp. 83. ISBN 0030259827.  Fig. 5-7
  9. ^ a b Leys, S.P. (2003). "The significance of syncytial tissues for the position of the Hexactinellida in the Metazoa". Integrative and Comparative Biology 43 (1): 19–27. doi:10.1093/icb/43.1.19. 
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  48. ^ Smolker, R.A., et al. (1997). "Sponge-carrying by Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins: Possible tool-use by a delphinid". Ethology 103: 454–465. 
  49. ^ Krutzen M, Mann J, Heithaus MR, Connor RC, Bejder L, Sherwin WB (2005). "Cultural transmission of tool use in bottlenose dolphins". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102 (25): 8939–8943. doi:10.1073/pnas.0500232102. PMID 15947077. . News report at Dolphin Moms Teach Daughters to Use Tools, publisher National Geographic).
  50. ^ McClenachan, L. (2008). "Social conflict, Over-fishing and Disease in the Florida Sponge Fishery, 1849-1939". in Starkey, D.J. Holm, P., and Barnard, M.. Oceans Past: Management Insights from the History of Marine Animal Populations. Earthscan. pp. 25–27. ISBN 1844075273. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=cGEeEfFegvEC&pg=PA26&dq=sponge+fishing&lr=#PPA25,M1. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  51. ^ Jacobson, N. (2000). Cleavage. Rutgers University Press. p. 62. ISBN 0813527155. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=3ZIw_3Px4AEC&pg=PA62&dq=sponge+synthetic&lr=. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  52. ^ "Sponges". Cervical Barrier Advancement Society. 2004. http://www.cervicalbarriers.org/information/sponges.cfm. Retrieved 2006-09-17. 
  53. ^ Porterfield, W.M. (July 1955). "Loofah — The sponge gourd". Economic Botany 9 (3): 211–223. doi:10.1007/BF02859814. 
  54. ^ Imhoff, J.F., and Stöhr, R. (2003). "Sponge-Associated Bacteria". in Müller, W.E.G.. Sponges (Porifera): Porifera. Springer. pp. 43–44. ISBN 354000968X. 
  55. ^ Teeyapant, R., Woerdenbag, H.J., Kreis, P., Hacker, J., Wray, V., Witte, L., and Proksch P. (1993). "Antibiotic and cytotoxic activity of brominated compounds from the marine sponge Verongia aerophoba". Zeitschrift für Naturforschung. C, Journal of biosciences 48: 939–45. 

Further reading

.
  • Bergquist, Patricia R. (1978), Sponges, London: Hutchinson, ISBN 0091318203 .
  • Hickman, C., Jr.; Roberts, L. & Larson, A. (2003), Animal Diversity (3rd ed.^ Patricia R. Bergquist was the first contemporary systematist to work on the Australian sponge fauna.

    ), New York: McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0072349034 .

External links


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

.
occurs only in the narrative of the crucifixion (Mt 27:48; Mk 15:36; Jn 19:29).
^ Mark 15:36; John 19:29).
  • Sponge Definition | Definition of Sponge at Dictionary.com 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, © 1993-2007 Denis Howe Cite This Source Bible Dictionary Sponge occurs only in the narrative of the crucifixion (Matt.
  • Sponge Definition | Definition of Sponge at Dictionary.com 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ By Staci from Henderson, NV On December 29, 2009: my son loved it & he's only 19 months old .
  • SpongeBob SquarePants Bedding SpongeBob Sea Adventure Kids Bedding 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.mykidsbedding.com [Source type: General]

It is ranked as a zoophyte. .It is found attached to rocks at the bottom of the sea.^ It is found attached to rocks at the bottom of the sea.
  • Sponge Definition | Definition of Sponge at Dictionary.com 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A dolphin will attach a marine sponge to its rostrum , which is presumably then used to protect it when searching for food in the sandy sea bottom .
  • Sponge encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 25 January 2010 8:35 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Porifera (Phylum) 3 February 2010 17:55 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, inspect your sponge to make sure the cut-bottom does not contain any remnants of coral rock or sea shell.

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)
Facts about SpongeRDF feed

Simple English

The article about sponges as tools for washing is at Sponge (tool)
Sponges
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Subkingdom: Parazoa
Phylum: Porifera
Classes
  • Caldaria
  • Hexactinellida
  • Demospongiae

A sponge is a member of the phylum Porifera. It is a simple animal with no mouth, no muscles, no heart and no brain. It is sessile: it cannot move from place to place the way most other animals can. A sponge is an animal that grows in one spot like most plants do. Nevertheless, the phylum is quite successful.

There are more than 10,000 different species of sponge. Most sponges live in the ocean. Some live near the edge of the sea. Others live in deep water. A few sponges live in fresh water. All sponges take in water through pores (little holes) in their bodies. The water goes out through a big tube in the center. Most Sponges filter (take out) little bits of food from the water going through their bodies. Animals that get food this way are called filter feeders.

Contents

What makes them different

  Sponges[1] Cnidarians and ctenophores[2]
Nervous system No Yes, simple
Cells in layer bound together No, except that Homoscleromorpha have basement membranes.[3] Yes: inter-cell connections; basement membranes
Cells in middle "jelly" layer Many Few
Cells can move in, change functions Yes No

Sponges are simple animals, but they do have a few things that make them different from other animals.

  • A living sponge can change the shape of its body. Most cells in its body can move around; a few cells can even change from one type of cell to another.[4]
  • Like cnidarians (jellyfish, etc.) and ctenophores (comb jellies), and unlike all other known metazoans, sponges' bodies consist of a non-living jelly-like mass sandwiched between two main layers of cells.[2]
  • Sponges have no nervous system. Their middle jelly-like layers have many different types of cells. Some types of cell in their outer layers may move into the middle layer and change their functions.[1]

Different kinds of sponges

There are 3 different kinds of sponges. The difference between these kinds is in how their skeleton is made.

  • Demosponges is an order that contains most of the sponges. The sponges in this class make their skeleton from spongin. Spongin is a special protein. All the large sponges are in this order.
  • Bony sponges use calcium-carbonate to make the skeleton, their internal hard structure. They are known as Calcarea. They are usually very small, only 3-4 inches in height. Of the about 15.000 sponges known, about 400 are Calcarea.
  • Glass sponges use silicon dioxide to make their skeletons. They are sometimes called Hexactinellida. Most of these live in great depths in the ocean. There are about 500 different kinds of glass sponges, in 17 different families. These sponges make for about 7% of all known sponges.

Life functions

Movement

Sponges are sessile, they live in one place, where they are fixed to the ground. A few sponges are capable of changing their position, they can move at speeds of between 1 mm and 4 mm a day. They do this like amoebae. A few species can contract their whole bodies, and many can close their openings/holes.[1]

Carnivorous sponges

A few species live in waters where there is very little food available. They have therefore changed, and became predators. They prey on small crustaceans and other small animals. Most of these sponges belong to the family Cladorhizidae, but a few members of the Guitarridae and Esperiopsidae are also carnivores.[5] In most cases little is known about how they actually capture prey. Some species are thought to use either sticky threads or hooked spicules.[6][5] Most carnivorous sponges live in deep waters, up to 8,840 metres (5.49 mi),[7] and the development of deep-ocean exploration techniques is expected to lead to the discovery of several more.[1][5] However one species has been found in Mediterranean caves at depths of 17-23m alongside the more usual filter feeding sponges. The cave-dwelling predators capture crustaceans under 1 millimetre (0.039 in) long by entangling them with fine threads, digest them by enveloping them with further threads over the course of a few days, and then return to their normal shape; there is no evidence that they use venom.[7]

Most known carnivorous sponges have completely lost the water flow system and choanocytes. However the genus Chondrocladia uses a highly modified water flow system to inflate balloon-like structures that are used for capturing prey.[5][8]

Reproduction (making new sponges)

Asexual reproduction

Sponges usually reproduce (make more of their kind) when little pieces break off. If such a piece has the right types of cells it can grow to become a new sponge. A few sponges can also use budding. With budding a small sponge grows on the parent; when it is done growing, it simply falls off. When the conditions are bad, some sponges can also grow lumps of unspecialised cells. These will not develop until the conditions improve again. They can then either make a new sponge, or they can use the skeleton of the parent sponge (that died).

Sexual reproduction

Most sponges reproduce sexually. They can make sperm cells that are released into the water. These are either captured by another sponge, and are then transported to the egg cells of the parent. This is known as viviparous. Both cells are joined to form larvae, which can swim off to find a good place to settle.

The other option, known as oviparous is that both sperm cells and egg cells are released into the water. These then combine outside the sponges.

Use as tools

By dolphins

A report in 1997 described how bottlenose dolphins in Shark Bay used sponges as tools: A dolphin will attach a marine sponge to its rostrum (snoutlike projection). It is thought the sponge is used to protect the rostrum when the dolphin is looking for food in the sandy sea bottom but scientists have not confirmed this.[9] The behaviour, known as sponging, has only been observed in this bay, and is almost exclusively shown by females. A study in 2005 concluded that mothers teach the behaviour to their daughters, and that all the sponge-users are closely related. This suggests that it is a fairly recent innovation.[10]

By people

[[File:|right|250px|thumb|Display of natural sponges for sale on Kalymnos in Greece]]

The calcium carbonate or silica spicules of most sponges make them too rough for most uses, but two genera, Hippospongia and Spongia, have soft, entirely fibrous skeletons. Early Europeans used soft sponges for many purposes including padding for helmets, portable drinking utensils and municipal water filters. Until synthetic sponges were invented, they were also used as cleaning tools, for painting, and as contraceptives. In the 20th century overfishing is a problem; this has caused the animals, as well as the industry behind it to be close to extinction.[11]

Many objects with sponge-like textures are now made of substances that do not come from poriferans. Synthetic "sponges" include: personal and household cleaning tools; breast implants;[12] contraceptive sponges.[13]

The luffa "sponge", also spelled loofah, which is commonly sold for use in the kitchen or the shower, is not derived from an animal but from the fibrous "skeleton" of a gourd (Cucurbitaceae).[14]

Gallery

References


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 29, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Sponge, which are similar to those in the above article.








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