|City of Springfield|
|— City —|
An aerial view of downtown Springfield
|Nickname(s): The Queen City of the Ozarks, SGF|
Location in the state of Missouri
|- Mayor||Jim O'Neal|
|- City||73.8 sq mi (191.1 km2)|
|- Land||73.2 sq mi (189.5 km2)|
|- Water||0.6 sq mi (1.7 km2)|
|Elevation||1,299 ft (396 m)|
|- Density||2,116.61/sq mi (800.0/km2)|
|Time zone||CST (UTC-6)|
|- Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|GNIS feature ID||0735864|
Springfield is the third largest city in the U.S. state of Missouri. It is the county seat of Greene County. On July 1, 2008, the estimated population was 156,206. The Springfield Metropolitan Area, population 426,144, and includes the counties of Christian, Dallas, Greene, Polk and Webster. The estimated population inside a 50-mile (80 km) radius of Springfield was 662,587 as of 2009. Springfield is near the population center of the United States, about 80 miles (130 km) to the east.
Springfield's nickname is The Queen City of the Ozarks. It is also known as The Cultural Center of the Ozarks, The Gateway to the Ozarks, and The Birthplace of Route 66.
The territory known as Missouri was included in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. Soon after, the Delaware Native Americans received treaty land where Springfield’s Sequiota Park and the antique stores of its Galloway Village stand today. To the west, 500 Kickapoo Native Americans built wickiups on the prairie that still bears their name.
Missouri became a state on August 10, 1821, and in 1833 the legislature designated most of the southern portion a single county. It was named for Revolutionary War General Nathanael Greene, largely through a campaign by Springfield's founder, John Polk Campbell, to honor a man he admired. A Tennessee homesteader, Campbell announced his claim in 1829.
The origin of the name Springfield remains unclear. In 1883 the historian R. I. Holcombe wrote, "The town took its name from the circumstance of there being a spring under the hill, on the creek, while on top of the hill, where the principal portion of the town lay, there was a field." He went on to note, "This version of the origin of the name is disputed by the editor of the Springfield Express, Mr. J. G. Newbill, who, in the issue of his paper, November 11, 1881, says: 'It has been stated that this city got its name from the fact of a spring and field being near by just west of town. But such is not a correct version. When the authorized persons met and adopted the title of the "Future Great" of the Southwest, several of the earliest settlers had handed in their favorite names, among whom was Kindred Rose, who presented the winning name, "Springfield," in honor of his former home town, Springfield, Robertson county, Tennessee.'" The most common view is that the city was named for Springfield, Massachusetts. One account holds that a James Wilson, who lived in the then-unnamed city, offered free whiskey to everyone who would vote for naming it after his home town of Springfield, Massachusetts.
Springfield was incorporated in 1838. That same year, Cherokee Native Americans were forcibly removed by the U.S. government from their homelands in Tennessee, Alabama, North Carolina and Georgia to the “Indian Territory.” Their route became known as the Trail of Tears due to the thousands of Cherokee deaths on the journey and as a result of the relocation. The Trail of Tears passed through the Springfield area via what is known today as the Old Wire Road. The Trail of Tears National Historic Trail auto tour route is along Interstate 44 westward to U.S. 160 (West By-pass in Springfield) and westward along U.S. 60.
The Old Wire Road, then known as the Military Road, served until the mid-1840s as a connection between Springfield and the garrison at Fort Smith, Arkansas. By 1858, the Butterfield Overland Stage began utilizing the road offering passage to California. Two years later, the region’s first telegraph line was strung along the road, and it was dubbed the Telegraph or Wire Road. The road proved vital during the Civil War, and its most historic connection is to the Battle of Pea Ridge in Arkansas. While portions of the road exist today, the most easily accessible is within Wilson’s Creek National Battlefield.
The Missouri Pacific (then the Pacific Railroad) was the first railroad to cross the Mississippi River and thence into Springfield and other locations. Later on the St. Louis San Francisco Railroad (Frisco Railroad) established its headquarters in Springfield, Missouri. Although some in the area thought of it as large, it was one of the smaller railroads (the Missouri Pacific was in 12 states and the Frisco was in about three to six states). Commercial and industrial diversification came with the railroads and strengthened the City of Springfield and North Springfield when the two towns merged 17 years later in 1887. Today visitors can enjoy the view from the Jefferson Avenue Footbridge, peering below to the locomotive path which is still in use.
With the Civil War imminent and Missouri a border state, Springfield was divided in its sentiments. On August 10, 1861, army units clashed in the Battle of Wilson's Creek, the site of the first major conflict west of the Mississippi River, involving about 5,400 Union troops and 12,000 Confederates. Gen. Nathaniel Lyon was killed, the first Union general to die in combat, and the Confederates were victorious. Union troops fell back to Lebanon, then Rolla, and regrouped. When they returned to Springfield, the Confederates had withdrawn.
The First Battle of Springfield, or Zagonyi's Charge, occurred on October 25, 1861. It was the only Union victory that year in southwestern Missouri. The fighting led to increased military activity in Missouri and set the stage for the Battle of Pea Ridge in March 1862, which essentially cemented Union control of the state.
For the next year, possession of the city seesawed. Then on January 8, 1863, Confederate forces under Gen. John S. Marmaduke advanced toward the town square and the Second Battle of Springfield ensued. As evening approached, the Confederates withdrew. The next morning, Gen. Marmaduke sent a message to Union forces asking for proper burials for Confederate casualties. The city would stay under Union control until the end of the war.
Two years after the war ended, Springfield National Cemetery was created. The dead of both the North and the South were interred there, though separated by a low stone wall (later removed). In 1960, the National Park Service, recognizing the significance of the 1861 battle, designated Wilson's Creek National Battlefield. The 1,750-acre (7.1 km2) battlefield near Republic remains greatly unchanged and stands as one of the most historically pristine battle sites in the country.
On July 21, 1865, Springfield helped give birth to the Wild West era when the town square was the site of the nation’s first recorded shootout, a “quick draw” duel between Wild Bill Hickok and Davis Tutt Jr.
Following a poker game in the Lyon House Hotel on South Street, Tutt claimed Hickok owed him money and took his pocket watch as collateral. Tutt claimed he would wear it in public to show that Hickok didn’t pay his debts. The next day Tutt fired a shot at Hickok from 75 yards (69 m) away, barely missing his head. Hickok fired back and killed Tutt with a bullet through the heart. The event made nationwide news, and the incredible marksmanship exhibited by Hickok made him known worldwide.
Two small brass plaques inlaid into the pavement on Park Central Square mark the locations of both Hickok and Tutt during the famous shootout.
On April 14, 1906, a mob broke into the town jail, then lynched three African-American men: Will Allen; and Horace Duncan and Fred Coker, falsely accused of sexually assaulting Mina Edwards, a white woman. They were hanged and burned by a mob more than 2,000 strong without trial in the town square. The men were hung on the town square from the Gottfried Tower which held a replica of the Statue of Liberty. In the immediate aftermath, two commemorative coins were reportedly issued. The lynching sparked a mass exodus of African-Americans from the area, who still remain a small minority demographic in Springfield. A small plaque on the southeast corner of the square is the city's only reminder.
Springfield is located at  on the Springfield Plateau of the Ozarks. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 73.8 square miles (191 km2), of which, 73.2 square miles (190 km2) of it is land and 0.6 square miles (1.6 km2) of it (0.87%) is water. The city of Springfield is mainly flat with rolling hills and cliffs surrounding the south, east, and north parts of the city. Springfield is located on the Springfield Plateau, which reaches from Northwest Arkansas to Central Missouri. The majority of the plateau is characterized by forest, pastures and shrub-scrub habitats. Many streams and tributaries such as the James River, Galloway Creek and Jordan Creek flow within or near the city. Nearby lakes include Table Rock Lake, Stockton Lake and Pomme de Terre Lake.(37.195098, -93.286213),
Springfield is characterized by four distinct seasons. It experiences an average surface wind velocity comparable to Chicago, Illinois (nicknamed the "The Windy City") according to information compiled at the National Climatic Data Center at NOAA. It is placed within "Power Class 3" in the Wind Energy Resource Atlas published by a branch of the US Department of Energy; having an average wind speed range of 6.4 to 7.0 miles per hour. The city lies at the boundary of clearly being in the humid subtropical region and in the transition area as defined by the Köppen climate classification system. As such it experiences times of exceptional humidity; especially in late summer. The Midwestern Regional Climate Center reports annual precipitation in Springfield is 44.97 inches (1,142 mm), including an average 19.9 inches (510 mm) of snow.
|Monthly Normal and Record High and Low Temperatures|
|Rec High °F||76||81||87||93||93||101||113||106||104||93||81||77|
|Norm High °F||41.6||47.7||57.8||67.7||75.9||84.6||89.9||89.5||81.2||70.6||56.4||45.5|
|Norm Low °F||21.8||26.4||34.9||43.6||53.4||62.2||67.1||65.6||57.4||46.1||35.3||25.9|
|Rec Low °F||-13||-17||-3||18||30||42||44||44||31||18||4||-16|
According to the US Census 2000, 151,580 people, 64,691 households, and 35,709 families resided in the city. The population density was 2,072.0 people per square mile (800.0/km2). There were 69,650 housing units at an average density of 952.1/mi2 (367.6/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 91.69% White, 3.27% African American, 0.75% Native American, 1.36% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 0.88% from other races, and 1.95% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.31% of the population.
There were 64,691 households out of which 24.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.7% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 44.8% were non-families. 35.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.82. In the city 19.9% were under the age of 18, 17.4% from 18 to 24, 28.0% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, and 14.9% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 92.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.0 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $29,563, and the median income for a family was $38,114. Males had a median income of $27,778 versus $20,980 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,711. About 9.9% of families and 15.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.1% of those under age 18 and 7.9% of those age 65 or over.
Springfield’s economy is based on health care, manufacturing, retail, education and tourism.
With a Gross Metropolitan Product of $13.66 billion in 2004, Springfield's economy makes up 6.7% of the Gross State Product of Missouri.
The city’s Gross Metro Product was $14.7 billion in 2005, 127th of 361 U.S. metro areas ranked by the U.S. Conference of Mayors. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics showed employment by sector in 2008 as:
1. Education and Health Services 35,000 (17.4%)
2. Retail Trade 25,700 (12.8%)
3. Government 26,500 (13.2%)
4. Leisure and Hospitality (Tourism) 19,400 (9.7%)
5. Professional and Business Services 19,200 (9.6%)
6. Manufacturing 18,200 (9.1%)
Springfield’s top 10 employers in 2008 were St. John’s Health System (7,717), CoxHealth (6,834), Wal-Mart Stores (3,927), Springfield Public Schools (2,822), Missouri State University (2,772), United States Government (2,540), Bass Pro Shops/Tracker Marine (2,525), State of Missouri (2,283), City of Springfield (1,842) and Citizens Memorial Healthcare (1,600).
Nearly 900 doctors, 170 dentists and 5,300 nurses, 400 pharmacists, 600 therapists, and 500 emergency medical technicians and paramedics work in Springfield.
More than 18,000 people are employed in manufacturing. The city’s largest manufacturers in terms of employment include the Paul Mueller Company, Kraft Foods, Hutchens Industries, SRC Holdings, Loren Cook Company, Positronic Industries, Regal-Beloit, Carlisle Power Transmission, Solo Cup, Northrup Grumman Interconnect Technologies, Reckitt Benckiser and 3M.
Springfield is a regional shopping center serving a large geographic area, including Southwest Missouri and Northwest Arkansas. It is the third-largest market in the state and one of the top 150 U.S. markets. Total retail sales exceed $4.1 billion annually in Springfield and $5.8 billion in the Springfield MSA. Its largest shopping mall is Battlefield Mall. The downtown area is currently going through a resurgence, with major investments in new and refurbished buildings accompanied by an influx of independent retailers.
According to the Springfield Convention & Visitors Bureau, an estimated 3 million overnight visitors and millions of day-trippers visit the city annually. The city has more than 60 lodging facilities and 6,000 hotel rooms. The Convention & Visitors Bureau spends more than $1 million annually marketing the city as a travel destination.
In 2009 plans became public of a new upscale shopping area to be built near the intersection of highway 65 and 60. The area when completed would have more than 500 acres of shopping, restaurants, lodging, and office complexes. If the plans follow through construction would not begin until 2012.
The Springfield Economic Area is a 29-county region with a population of more than 977,728. The Economic Area includes the following counties in Missouri: Barry, Christian, Dade, Dallas, Dent, Douglas, Greene, Hickory, Howell, Laclede, Lawrence, Oregon, Ozark, Phelps, Polk, Pulaski, Shannon, Stone, Taney, Texas, Webster and Wright. Also included are five counties in Arkansas: Baxter, Boone, Carroll, Marion and Newton.
Like many cities across the nation, Springfield has seen a major resurgence in its downtown area. Many of the older buildings have been, and are continuing to be, renovated into mixed-use buildings such as lofts, office space, restaurants, bars, boutiques, and music venues. There are currently more than 400 lofts in downtown Springfield, but the city expects there to be more than 1,200 by 2012. Located within the Downtown Springfield CID (Community Improvement District) are historic theaters that have been restored to their original state, including the Gillioz Theater and the Landers Theatre.
In 2001 the first phase of the Jordan Valley Park opened along with the Mediacom Ice Park. 2001 also saw the opening of The Creamery Arts Center, a city-owned building inside Jordan Valley Park. It is home to the Springfield Regional Arts Council, Springfield Regional Opera, Springfield Ballet, and the Springfield Symphony Orchestra and provides office and meeting space for other arts organizations which serve the community. The center has been recently renovated to include two art galleries with monthly exhibitions, an Arts Library, rehearsal studios, and classrooms offering art workshops and hands-on activities. The facilities also include a one-of-a-kind outdoor classroom.
The Springfield Exposition Center opened in 2003 and development continues in the area.
Recognized by convention as the birthplace of US Route 66, it was in Springfield on April 30, 1926 that officials first proposed the name of the new Chicago-to-Los Angeles highway.
John T. Woodruff of Springfield was elected as the first president of the U.S. Highway 66 Association, organized in Tulsa, Oklahoma in 1927. Its purpose was to get U.S. Highway 66 paved from end to end and to promote tourism on the highway. In 1938, Route 66 became the first completely paved transcontinental highway in America — the “Mother Road” — stretching from the Great Lakes to the Pacific Coast.
A placard in Park Central Square was dedicated to the city by the Route 66 Association of Missouri, and traces of the Mother Road are still visible in downtown Springfield along Kearney Street, Glenstone Avenue, College and St. Louis streets and on Missouri 266 to Halltown. The red booths and gleaming chrome in mom-and-pop diners, the stone cottages of tourist courts and the many service stations along this route saw America fall in love with the automobile.
During the 1950s, Springfield ranked third in the U.S. for originating network television programs behind New York and Hollywood. Four nationally-broadcast television series originated from the city between 1955 and 1961: Ozark Jubilee and its spin-off, Five Star Jubilee; Talent Varieties; and The Eddy Arnold Show. All were carried live by ABC except for Five Star Jubilee on NBC; and were produced by Springfield's Crossroads TV Productions owned by Ralph D. Foster. Many of the biggest names in country music frequently visited or lived in Springfield at the time. City officials estimated the programs meant about 2,000 weekly visitors and "over $1,000,000 in fresh income."
Staged at the Jewell Theatre (demolished in 1961), Ozark Jubilee was the first national country music TV show to feature top stars and attract a significant viewership. Five Star Jubilee, produced from the Landers Theatre, was the first network color television series to originate outside of New York City or Hollywood. Ironically, Springfield's NBC affiliate, KYTV-TV (which helped produce the program), was not equipped to broadcast in color and aired the show in black-and-white.
The Springfield Chamber of Commerce once presented visiting dignitaries with an "Ozark Hillbilly Medallion" and a certificate proclaiming the honoree a "hillbilly of the Ozarks." On June 7, 1953, U.S. President Harry Truman received the medallion after a breakfast speech at the Shrine Mosque for a reunion of the 35th Division. Other recipients included US Army generals Omar Bradley and Matthew Ridgeway, J. C. Penny, Johnny Olson, Ralph Story and disc jockey Nelson King.
There are 92 parks, 3 golf courses, a zoo and other facilities owned or managed by the Springfield-Greene County Park Board. Its programs such as Hearts ‘n Parks encourages people to enjoy a more active lifestyle. The department incorporates a network of linear parks and trails that run near and around geologically unique areas of the Ozarks, such as creek beds and springs. The facilities have been host to state, local and national tournaments in softball, soccer, hockey and tennis.
Springfield plays host to college teams from Missouri State University (NCAA Division I), Drury University (NCAA Division II), and few minor professional teams (see below). Springfield is also home to a number of amateur sporting events. The PGA sponsored Ozarks Open is played at Hiland Springs Country Club on the southeast side of Springfield. The Missouri Sports Hall of Fame is located near the city as well.
|Springfield Cardinals||Texas League, Baseball||Hammons Field||2005||0|
|Springfield Lasers||WTT, team tennis||Cooper Sports Complex||1996||0|
|Springfield Wolfpack||APFL, Arena football||Mediacom Ice Park||2002||1|
|Springfield Demize||PDL, Soccer||Cooper Sports Complex||2006||0|
|Missouri Thrill||UBL, Basketball||Glendale HS Gym||2006||0|
The JQH Arena is the home of the Missouri State University Bears and Lady Bears basketball teams. Concerts and other events are held in the arena as well.
Springfield city government is based on the council-manager system. By charter, the city has eight council members, each elected for a four-year term on a non-partisan basis, and a mayor elected for a two-year term. The mayor is Jim O'Neal (term expires 2011). The city manager, appointed by the council to be the city's chief executive and administrative officer, enforces the laws as required by the city charter. The presiding officer at council meetings is the mayor. Council meetings are held every other Monday night in City Council Chambers. City council elections are held the first Tuesday in April.
The Springfield Public School District is the largest fully accredited school district in the state of Missouri. About 24,000 students attend 50 schools that offer an array of educational opportunities. The district test scores are consistently above the state and national levels.
Public high schools:
Private high schools:
With over 42,000 college students Springfield has a large selection of colleges and universities within the city. Missouri State University (MSU) is the state's second largest university with nearly 23,000 students. For the seventh consecutive year, MSU has been selected for The Princeton Review’s 2010 list of “Best Colleges: Region by Region.” MSU is most known for its College of Business, and Theater and Dance School attended by Kathleen Turner, John Goodman and Tess Harper. Drury University is a private university with nearly 4,000 students and consistently ranks in U.S. News and World Report's Top 10 Universities in the Midwest. Drury University was attended by game show host Bob Barker and Ernest R. Breech, former chairman of Ford Motor Co. and Trans World Airlines. Ozarks Technical Community College is the second largest college in Springfield with approximately 12,000 students. MSU, Drury, and OTC are all located in and around downtown Springfield.
Other colleges in Springfield include Assemblies of God Theological Seminary, Baptist Bible College, Central Bible College, Evangel University (known until 2000 as Evangel College, or EC), Forest Institute of Professional Psychology, St. John's College of Nursing and Health Sciences of Southwest Baptist University, Vatterott College, Everest College, Cox College (nursing school), Webster University, University of Phoenix, and Bryan College.
Springfield is served by Interstate 44 which connects the city with St. Louis, Missouri and Tulsa, Oklahoma. Route 13 (Kansas Expressway) carries traffic north towards Kansas City, Missouri. U.S. Route 60, U.S. Route 65, and U.S. Route 160 pass through the city. Formerly U.S. Route 66 and U.S. Route 166 passed through Springfield, and sections of historic US 66 can still be seen in the city. US 166's eastern terminus was once located in the northeast section of the city, and US 60 originally ended (westbound) in downtown Springfield. US 60 now goes through town on the James River Freeway. Major streets include Glenstone Avenue, Sunshine Street (Missouri Route 413), National Avenue, Division Street, Campbell Avenue, Kansas Expressway, Battlefield Road, Republic Road, West Bypass, Chestnut Expressway and Kearney Street. Springfield has public transportation operated by City Utilities (CU) that serves most areas inside the city limits with its fleet of biodiesel-fueled buses.
Springfield-Branson National Airport (SGF) serves the city with direct flights to 12 cities with 33 daily flights. It is the principal air gateway to Springfield region.
In May 2009, the airport opened its new passenger terminal. Financing included $97 million in revenue bonds issued by the airport and $20 million of discretionary federal aviation funds, with no city taxes used. The new building includes 275,000 square feet (25,500 m2), 10 gates (expandable to 60) and 1,826 parking spaces. Direct connections from Springfield are available to Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Las Vegas, Memphis, Minneapolis, Orlando, Phoenix, St. Louis, Tampa and Los Angeles. Future connections may include Daytona Beach, New York City and destinations in the Caribbean. No international flights currently have regular service into Springfield-Branson, but it does serve international charters.
The Downtown Airport is also a public use airport located near downtown.
Passenger trains have not served Springfield since 1967, but more than 65 freight trains travel to, from, and through the city each day. Springfield was once home to the headquarters and main shops of the St. Louis-San Francisco Railroad (Frisco). The Frisco was absorbed by the Burlington Northern (BN) in 1980, and in 1994 the BN merged with the Santa Fe, creating the current Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) Railway.
BNSF has three switch yards (two small) in Springfield. Mainlines to and from Kansas City, St. Louis, Memphis and Tulsa converge at the railroad's yard facility in the north part of the city. In October 2006, BNSF announced plans to upgrade its Tulsa and Memphis mainlines into Springfield to handle an additional four to six daily intermodal freight trains between the West Coast and the Southeast.
In 2006, the Missouri Department of Transportation and Amtrak studied the possibility of restoring service to the city from St. Louis. The proposed service would have utilized the current BNSF "Cuba Subdivision" mainline between the two cities via Rolla. The plan, however, did not materialize because of projected travel times twice that of driving.
City Utilities of Springfield (CU) is a community-owned utility serving southwest Missouri with electricity, natural gas, water, telecommunications and transit services. CU provides service to over 106,000 customers.
Springfield is a regional medical center with six hospitals and more than 2,200 beds. The city's health care system offers every specialty listed by the American Medical Association. Two of the top 100 hospitals in the U.S. (CoxHealth and St. John’s Health System) are located in Springfield, and both are in the midst of expansion projects. The industry employs 30,000 people throughout the Springfield metro area. The United States Medical Center for Federal Prisoners, one of six federal institutions designed to handle the medical concerns of federal inmates, is located at the corner of W. Sunshine Street and Kansas Expressway.
In 2008, America's Promise Alliance ranked Springfield among its "100 Best Communities for Young People" for the third year in a row, and on June 11, 2009 Next Generation Consulting ranked Springfield 17th on its "Next Cities" list.
In 2007, The Milken Institute ranked Springfield as a "Best Performing City" for creating and sustaining jobs, and Expansion Management magazine listed Springfield among "Top 20 Mid-Sized Metros for Recruitment and Attraction." Also that year, Worldwide ERC named Springfield among "The Best Cities for Relocating Families," and the World Health Organization designated Springfield as a "Safe Community."
The following are neighborhoods and communities actually within the city limits:
SPRINGFIELD, a city and the county-seat of Greene county, Missouri, U.S.A., in the S.W. part of the state, about 238 m. from St Louis. Pop. (1890), 21,850; (1900), 23,267, of whom 2268 were negroes and 1057 foreign-born; (1910, census), 35,201. It is served by the St Louis & San Francisco, the Missouri Pacific, and the Kansas City, Clinton && Springfield railways. The city is pleasantly situated on the Ozark Dome, about 1300 ft. above sea-level, is regularly laid out on an undulating site, and has attractive residential districts. The principal building is that of the Federal government (1894), which is built of Indiana cut stone. Springfield is the seat of Loretto Academy, of a state normal school, and of Drury College (co-educational; founded in 1873 by Congregationalists, but now undenominational), which comprises, besides the college proper, an academy, a conservatory of music and a summer school, and which in1908-1909had 500 students. Near the city is the Academy of the Visitation under the Sisters of St Chantal. The municipal water-supply is drawn from springs 3 m. north of the centre of the city. There are four large private parks (340 acres) on the outskirts, and two municipal cemeteries - a Confederate cemetery, maintained by associations, the only distinctively Confederate burial ground in Missouri; and a National cemetery, maintained by the United States government. Springfield is one of the two chief commercial centres of this region, which has large mining, fruit, grain, lumber and livestock interests. The jobbing trade is important. Springfield ranks fourth among the manufacturing cities of the state; in 1905 the value of its factory products was $5,293,315 (28.2% more than in 1900). Flour and grist mill products constituted in 1905 a third of the total; and carriages and wagons ranked next. The St Louis & San Francisco railway has large shops here.
Springfield was settled in the years following 1829, and was laid out in 1833, though the public lands did not pass from the United States for sale until 1837. In 1838 and again in 1846 Springfield was incorporated as a town, and in 1847 was chartered as a city; though government lapsed during much of the time up to 1865, when prosperous conditions became settled. At the opening of the Civil War, Springfield was one of the most important strategic points west of the Mississippi river. In 1861-62 it was occupied or controlled a half dozen times in succession by the Confederate and the Union forces, the latter retaining control of it after the spring of 1862. In the battle of Wilson's Creek (August 10, 1861), fought about 10 m. south of the city, and one of the bloodiest battles of the war, relatively to numbers engaged, a force of about 5500 Union soldiers under General Nathaniel Lyon was defeated by about 10,000 Confederates under Generals Benjamin McCulloch (1811-1862) and Sterling Price. The other occupations and abandonments were unattended by serious conflicts in the immediate vicinity. In January 1863, after Springfield had been made an important Union supply post, it was attacked without success by a Confederate force of about 2 000 men under General J. S. Marmaduke. The year 1870 was marked by the arrival of the first railway. In the same year North Springfield was laid out, and was incorporated as a town in 1870 and 1871. In 1881 Springfield was chartered as a city of a higher class, and in 1887 it absorbed North Springfield. After 1902 the city's growth in population and in industries was very rapid.
a city and the county-seat of Clark county, Ohio, U.S.A., at the confluence of Mad river and Lagonda Creek, about 45 m. W.S.W. of Columbus. Pop. (1890), 31,895; (1900), 38,253, of whom 3311 were foreign-born (including 1 337 German, 1097 Irish and 308 English) and 4253 were negroes; (1910, census), 46,921. Springfield is served by the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis; the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis; the Erie, and the Detroit, Toledo && Ironton railways, and by an extensive inter-urban electric system. The older portion of the city is in the narrow valley of Lagonda Creek, but from here the city has spread over the higher and more undulating surface farther back until it occupies an area of about 82 sq. m. Among the public buildings are the United States government building, the Clark county court house, the City building (the first floor of which is occupied by the city market), the Warder public library (established 1872), which in 1908 contained 25,000 volumes, the city hospital, and the city prison and workhouse. On hills near the city border are the Ohio state homes for the Masons, the independent Order of Oddfellows, and the Knights of Pythias. The city park contains more than 250 acres, and in 1908 the city adopted plans for an extensive park system. Ferncliff cemetery is a picturesque burial-ground. On a hill on the north side of the city is Wittenberg College (Lutheran; 1845), which in 1909 had 35 instructors and 710 students. Springfield is in a productive farming region, and water power is provided by Lagonda Creek, so that manufactures closely related to agriculture have always been prominent. The value of the factory product in 1905 was $13,654,423, of which $4,051,167 was the value of agricultural implements, $2,914,493 of foundry and machine-shop products, and $1,025,244 of flour and grist-mill products. The municipality owns and operates the waterworks. Natural gas is piped from Fairfield county.
In 1799 Simon Kenton and a small party from Kentucky built a fort and fourteen cabins near Mad river 3 or 4 m. beyond the present western limits of the city. Later in the same year James Demint built a cabin on a hill-side overlooking Lagonda Creek. In 1801 he engaged a surveyor to plat a town here and soon after this the site of the Kenton settlement was abandoned. The new town was near the borderline that had been fixed between the Whites and the Indians,. and the latter threatened trouble until 1807, when in a council held on a large hill in the vicinity, at which Tecumseh was the principal speaker for the Indians, peace was more firmly established. In 1818, when Clark county was erected, Springfield was made the county-seat. It was incorporated as a town in 1827, and in 1850 it was chartered as a city.
See E. S. Todd, A Sociological Study of Clark County, Ohio (Springfield, 1904).