Squamata: Wikis

  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Scaled reptiles
Fossil range: Jurassic-recent
O
S
D
C
P
T
J
K
N
Blotched blue-tongued lizard
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Oppel, 1811
Suborders

see text

black: range of Squamata

Squamata, or the scaled reptiles, is the largest recent order of reptiles, including lizards and snakes. Members of the order are distinguished by their skins, which bear horny scales or shields. They also possess movable quadrate bones, making it possible to move the upper jaw relative to the braincase. This is particularly visible in snakes, which are able to open their mouths very wide to accommodate comparatively large prey. They are the most variably-sized order of reptiles, ranging from the 16 mm (0.63 in.) Jaragua Sphaero (Sphaerodactylus ariasae) to the 8 m (26 ft.) Green Anaconda (Eunectes murinus).

Contents

Classification

Classically, the order is divided into three suborders:

Of these, the lizards form a paraphyletic group. In newer classifications the name Sauria is used for reptiles and birds in general, and the Squamata are divided differently:

The relationships between these suborders is not yet certain, though recent research[1] suggests that several families may form a hypothetical venom clade which encompasses a majority (nearly 60%) of Squamate species. Named Toxicofera, it combines the following groups from traditional classification[1]:

  • Suborder Serpentes (snakes)
  • Suborder Iguania (agamids, chameleons, iguanids, etc.)
  • Infraorder Anguimorpha, consisting of:
    • Family Varanidae (monitor lizards, including the Komodo dragon)
    • Family Anguidae (alligator lizards, glass lizards, etc.)
    • Family Helodermatidae (Gila monster and Mexican beaded lizard)

List of Families

Amphisbaenia
Family Common Names Example Species Example Photo
Amphisbaenidae
Gray, 1865
Tropical worm lizards Darwin's worm lizard (Amphisbaena darwinii) -
Bipedidae
Taylor, 1951
Bipes worm lizards Mexican mole lizard (Bipes biporus) -
Rhineuridae
Vanzolini, 1951
North American worm lizards North American worm lizard (Rhineura floridana) Amphisbaenia 1.jpg
Trogonophidae
Gray, 1865
Palearctic worm lizards Checkerboard worm lizard (Trogonophis wiegmanni) -
Anguoidea or Diploglossa
Family Common Names Example Species Example Photo
Anguidae
Oppel, 1811
Glass lizards Slow worm (Anguis fragilis) Anguidae.jpg
Anniellidae
Gray, 1852
American legless lizards California legless lizard (Anniella pulchra) Anniella pulchra.jpg
Xenosauridae
Cope, 1866
Knob-scaled lizards Chinese crocodile lizard (Shinisaurus crocodilurus) Chin-krokodilschwanzechse-01.jpg
Gekkota
Family Common Names Example Species Example Photo
Dibamidae
Boulenger, 1884
Blind lizards Dibamus nicobaricum -
Gekkonidae
Gray, 1825
Geckos Thick-tailed gecko (Underwoodisaurus milii) Underwoodisaurus milii.jpg
Pygopodidae
Boulenger, 1884
Legless lizards Burton's snake lizard (Lialis burtonis) -
Iguania
Family Common Names Example Species Example Photo
Agamidae
Spix, 1825
Agamas Eastern bearded dragon (Pogona barbata) Bearded dragon04.jpg
Chamaeleonidae
Gray, 1825
Chameleons Veiled chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus) Chamaelio calyptratus.jpg
Corytophanidae
Frost & Etheridge, 1989
Casquehead lizards Plumed basilisk (Basiliscus plumifrons) Plumedbasiliskcele4 edit.jpg
Crotaphytidae
Frost & Etheridge, 1989
Collared and leopard lizards Common collared lizard (Crotaphytus collaris) Collared lizard in Zion National Park.jpg
Hoplocercidae
Frost & Etheridge, 1989
Wood lizards or clubtails Club-tail iguana (Hoplocercus spinosus) -
Iguanidae Iguanas Marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) Marineiguana03.jpg
Leiosauridae
Frost et al., 2001
- Darwin's iguana (Diplolaemus darwinii) -
Opluridae
Frost & Etheridge, 1989
Madagascan iguanas Chalarodon (Chalarodon madagascariensis) -
Phrynosomatidae
Frost & Etheridge, 1989
Earless, spiny, tree, side-blotched and horned lizards Greater earless lizard (Cophosaurus texanus) Reptile tx usa.jpg
Polychrotidae
Frost & Etheridge, 1989
Anoles Carolina anole (Anolis carolinensis) Anolis carolinensis.jpg
Tropiduridae
Frost & Etheridge, 1989
Neotropical ground lizards (Microlophus peruvianus) Mperuvianus.jpg
Platynota
Family Common Names Example Species Example Photo
Helodermatidae Gila monsters Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) Gila.monster.arp.jpg
Lanthanotidae Earless monitor Earless monitor (Lanthanotus borneensis) -
Varanidae Monitor lizards Perentie (Varanus giganteus) Perentie Lizard Perth Zoo SMC Spet 2005.jpg
Scincomorpha
Family Common Names Example Species Example Photo
Cordylidae Spinytail lizards Girdle-tailed lizard (Cordylus warreni) Cordylus breyeri1.jpg
Gerrhosauridae Plated lizards Sudan plated lizard (Gerrhosaurus major) Gerrhosaurus major.jpg
Gymnophthalmidae Spectacled lizards - -
Lacertidae
Oppel, 1811
Wall or true lizards Ocellated lizard (Lacerta lepida) Perleidechse-20.jpg
Scincidae
Oppel, 1811
Skinks Western blue-tongued skink (Tiliqua occipitalis) Tiliqua occipitalis.jpg
Teiidae Tegus or whiptails Blue tegu (Tupinambis teguixin) Goldteju Tupinambis teguixin.jpg
Xantusiidae Night lizards Granite night lizard (Xantusia henshawi) Xantusia henshawi.jpg
Alethinophidia
Family Common Names Example Species Example Photo
Acrochordidae
Bonaparte, 1831[2]
File snakes Marine file snake (Acrochordus granulatus) Wart snake 1.jpg
Aniliidae
Stejneger, 1907[3]
Coral pipe snakes Burrowing false coral (Anilius scytale)
Anomochilidae
Cundall, Wallach and Rossman, 1993.[4]
Dwarf pipe snakes Leonard's pipe snake, (Anomochilus leonardi)
Atractaspididae
Günther, 1858[5]
Mole vipers Bibron's burrowing asp (Atractaspis bibroni)
Boidae
Gray, 1825[2]
Boas Amazon tree boa (Corallus hortulanus) Corallushortulanus.GIF
Bolyeriidae
Hoffstetter, 1946
Round Island boas Round Island burrowing boa (Bolyeria multocarinata)
Colubridae
Oppel, 1811[2]
Colubrids Grass snake (Natrix natrix) Natrix natrix (Marek Szczepanek).jpg
Cylindrophiidae
Fitzinger, 1843
Asian pipe snakes Red-tailed pipe snake (Cylindrophis ruffus) Cylindrophis rufus.jpg
Elapidae
Boie, 1827[2]
Cobras, coral snakes, mambas, kraits, sea snakes, sea kraits, Australian elapids King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) Ophiophagus hannah2.jpg
Loxocemidae
Cope, 1861
Mexican burrowing snakes Mexican burrowing snake (Loxocemus bicolor) Loxocemus bicolor.jpg
Pythonidae
Fitzinger, 1826
Pythons Ball python (Python regius) Ball python lucy.JPG
Tropidophiidae
Brongersma, 1951
Dwarf boas Northern eyelash boa (Trachyboa boulengeri)
Uropeltidae
Müller, 1832
Shield-tailed snakes, short-tailed snakes Cuvier's shieldtail (Uropeltis ceylanica) Silybura shortii.jpg
Viperidae
Oppel, 1811[2]
Vipers, pitvipers, rattlesnakes European asp (Vipera aspis) Vipera-aspis-aspis-1.jpg
Xenopeltidae
Bonaparte, 1845
Sunbeam snakes Sunbeam snake (Xenopeltis unicolor) XenopeltisUnicolorRooij.jpg
Scolecophidia
Family Common Names Example Species Example Photo
Anomalepidae
Taylor, 1939[2]
Dawn blind snakes Dawn blind snake (Liotyphlops beui)
Leptotyphlopidae
Stejneger, 1892[2]
Slender blind snakes Texas blind snake (Leptotyphlops dulcis) Leptotyphlops dulcis.jpg
Typhlopidae
Merrem, 1820[6]
Blind snakes Black blind snake (Typhlops reticulatus)

Evolution

Squamates are a monophyletic group that is a sister group to the tuatara. The squamates and tuatara together are a sister group to crocodiles and birds, the extant archosaurs. Squamate fossils first appear in the early Jurassic, but a mitochondrial phylogeny suggests that they evolved in the late Permian. The evolutionary relationships within the squamates are not yet completely worked out, with the relationship of snakes to other groups being most problematic. From morphological data, Iguanid lizards have been thought to have diverged from other squamates very early, but recent molecular phylogenies, both from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, do not support this early divergence[7]. Because snakes have a faster molecular clock than other squamates,[7] and there are few early snake and snake ancestor fossils,[8] it is difficult to resolve the relationship between snakes and other squamate groups.

Reproduction

The male members of the group Squamata have a hemipenis. Hemipenes are usually held inverted, within the body, and are everted for reproduction via erectile tissue like that in the human penis.[9] Only one is used at a time, and some evidence indicates males alternate use between copulations. The hemipenis itself has a variety of shapes, depending on species. Often the hemipenis bears spines or hooks, to anchor the male within the female. Some species even have forked hemipenes (each hemipenis has two tips). Due to being everted and inverted, hemipenes do not have a completely enclosed channel for the conduction of sperm, but rather a seminal groove which seals as the erectile tissue expands. This is also the only reptile group in which can be found both viviparous and ovoviviparous species, as well as the usual oviparous reptiles. Some species, like the Komodo dragon, can actually reproduce asexually and undergo parthenogenesis.[10]

Venom

Venom is modified saliva, delivered through fangs.[11] The fangs of 'advanced' venomous snakes like viperids and elapids are hollow to inject venom more effectively, while the fangs of rear-fanged snakes such as the Boomslang merely have a groove on the posterior edge to channel venom into the wound. Snake venoms are often prey specific, its role in self-defense is secondary.[11] Venom, like all salivary secretions, is a pre-digestant which initiates the breakdown of food into soluble compounds allowing for proper digestion and even "non-venomous" snake bites (like any animal bite) will cause tissue damage.[12]

Recent research suggests that the evolutionary origin of venom may exist deep in the squamate phylogeny, with 60% of squamates placed in this hypothetical group called Toxicofera. Venom has been known in the families Helodermatidae, Elapidae, Viperidae, and some members of the Colubridae. However, all snakes, some agamid lizards and most monitor lizards are now believed by some to have proteins very closely related to venom.[13][14]

Humans and Squamates

Bites and fatalities

Map showing global distribution of snakebite morbidity.

It is estimated that 125,000 people a year die from venomous snake bites.[15] In the US alone, more than 8,000 venomous snake bites are reported each year.[16] In addition, large pet constrictors, like boas and pythons, have been known to kill humans through strangulation on rare occasions.[17]

Lizard bites, unlike venomous snake bites, are not fatal. The Komodo dragon has been known to kill people due to its size.[18] The two known venomous species of lizard, the Gila monster and Mexican beaded lizard have never caused a human death by envenomation.

Conservation

Even though they survived the worst changes in Earth's history, today many squamate species are endangered due to habitat loss, hunting and poaching, the pet trade, alien species being introduced to their habitat (which puts native creatures at risk through unfair competition & predation), and many other unnecessary reasons. Because of this, some are in fact extinct with Africa having the most extinct species of squamates. However, breeding programs and wildlife parks are trying to save many endangered reptiles from extinction. Many zoos & breeders educate people about the importance of snakes and lizards.

Notes

  1. ^ a b Fry, B. et al. (February 2006). "Early evolution of the venom system in lizards and snakes" (PDF). Nature 439: 584–588. doi:10.1038/nature04328. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v439/n7076/abs/nature04328.html.  
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Cogger(1991), p.23
  3. ^ Aniliidae (TSN 209611). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved on 12 December 2007.
  4. ^ Anomochilidae (TSN 563894). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved on 13 December 2007.
  5. ^ Atractaspididae (TSN 563895). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved on 13 December 2007.
  6. ^ Typhlopidae (TSN 174338). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved on 13 December 2007.
  7. ^ a b Kumazawa, Yoshinori (2007). "Mitochondrial genomes from major lizard families suggest their phylogenetic relationships and ancient radiations". Gene 388: 19–26. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2006.09.026.  
  8. ^ "Lizards & Snakes Alive!". American Museum of Natural History. http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/lizards/snakes/world.php. Retrieved 2007-12-25.  
  9. ^ "Iguana Anatomy". http://www.greenigsociety.org/anatomy.htm.  
  10. ^ Morales, Alex. "Komodo Dragons, World's Largest Lizards, Have Virgin Births". Bloomberg Television. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601082&sid=apLYpeppu8ag&refer=canada. Retrieved 2008-03-28.  
  11. ^ a b Mehrtens (1987), p.243
  12. ^ Mehrtens (1987), p.209
  13. ^ "Venom Hunt Finds 'Harmless' Snakes A Potential Danger". Science Daily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2003/12/031216075937.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-25.  
  14. ^ "Lizards' poisonous [sic] secret is revealed". NewScientist. http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn8331. Retrieved 2007-12-25.  
  15. ^ "Snake-bites: appraisal of the global situation". Who.com. http://www.who.int/bloodproducts/publications/en/bulletin_1998_76(5)_515-524.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-30.  
  16. ^ "First Aid Snake Bites". University of Maryland Medical Center. http://www.umm.edu/non_trauma/snake.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-30.  
  17. ^ "Pet boa constrictor chokes owner". BBC News. 2006-12-18. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6191305.stm. Retrieved 2007-12-30.  
  18. ^ "Komodo dragon kills boy, 8, in Indonesia". msnbc. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/19026658/. Retrieved 2007-12-30.  

References

  • Bebler, John L.; King, F. Wayne (1979). The Audubon Society Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of North America. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 581. ISBN 0394508246.  
  • Capula, Massimo; Behler (1989). Simon & Schuster's Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of the World. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0671690981.  
  • Cogger, Harold; Zweifel, Richard (1992). Reptiles & Amphibians. Sydney, Australia: Weldon Owen. ISBN 0831727861.  
  • Conant, Roger; Collins, Joseph (1991). A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians Eastern/Central North America. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0395583896.  
  • Ditmars, Raymond L (1933). Reptiles of the World: The Crocodilians, Lizards, Snakes, Turtles and Tortoises of the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. New York: Macmillian. pp. 321.  
  • Freiberg, Dr. Marcos; Walls, Jerry (1984). The World of Venomous Animals. New Jersey: TFH Publications. ISBN 0876665679.  
  • Gibbons, J. Whitfield; Gibbons, Whit (1983). Their Blood Runs Cold: Adventures With Reptiles and Amphibians. Alabama: University of Alabama Press. pp. 164. ISBN 978-0817301354.  
  • McDiarmid, RW; Campbell, JA; Touré, T (1999). Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 1. Herpetologists' League. pp. 511. ISBN 1893777006.  
  • Mehrtens, John (1987). Living Snakes of the World in Color. New York: Sterling. ISBN 0806964618.  
  • Rosenfeld, Arthur (1989). Exotic Pets. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 293. ISBN 067147654.  

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

Translingual

Etymology

Latin squama (scale).

Proper noun

Squamata

  1. (taxonomy) A taxonomic order within the superorder Lepidosauria — the scaled reptiles.

Hyponyms

See also


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Microlophus peruvianus.

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Reptilia
Subclassis: Diapsida
Infraclassis: Lepidosauromorpha
Superordo: Lepidosauria
Ordo: Squamata
Subordo: Amphisbaenia - Sauria - Serpentes - Incertae sedis

Name

Squamata Oppel, 1811

Vernacular names

Česky: Šupinatí
Deutsch: Schuppenkriechtiere
English: Scaled Reptiles
Español: Escamosos
Français: Squamates
Հայերեն: Թեփուկավորներ
Magyar: Pikkelyesbőrűek
日本語: 有鱗目
‪Norsk (bokmål)‬: Skjellkrypdyr
Português: Escamados
Русский: Чешуйчатые
Türkçe: Pullular
Українська: Лускаті
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Squamata on Wikimedia Commons.

Simple English

Scaled reptiles
File:Anole and
Brown tree snake and Green anole
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Sauropsida
Order: Squamata
Oppel, 1811
File:World.distribution.sauria.
black: range of Squamata
Suborders

see text

Squamata (meaning "scaled reptiles") is the order of reptiles, including lizards and snakes. This members of the order are distinguished by their skins, which bear horny scales or shield. They also possess movable quadrate bones, making it possible to move the upper jaw relative to the braincase. This is also the only reptile group in which can be found both viviparous and ovoviviparous species, as well as the usual oviparous reptiles.

The Squamata do not include the tuataras from New Zealand reptiles resembling lizards.

Taxonomy

Classically, the order is divided into three suborders:

Of these, the lizards form a paraphyletic group. In newer classifications the name Sauria is used for reptiles and birds in general, and the Squamata are divided differently:

  • Suborder Serpentes (snakes)
  • Suborder Iguania (agamas, chameleons, iguanas, etc.)
    • Infraorder Anguimorpha, consisting of:
      • Family Varanidae (monitor lizards, including the Komodo dragon)
      • Family Anguidae (alligator lizards, glass lizards, etc.)
      • Family Helodermatidae (Gila monster and Mexican beaded lizard)

List of Families

Amphisbaenia
FamilyCommon NamesExample SpeciesExample Photo
Amphisbaenidae
Gray, 1865
Tropical worm lizardsDarwin's worm lizard (Amphisbaena darwinii)
Bipedidae
Taylor, 1951
Bipes worm lizardsMexican Mole Lizard (Bipes biporus)
Rhineuridae
Vanzolini, 1951
North American worm lizardsNorth American worm lizard (Rhineura floridana)File:Amphisbaenia
Trogonophidae
Gray, 1865
Palearctic worm lizardsCheckerboard Worm Lizard (Trogonophis wiegmanni)
Diploglossa
FamilyCommon NamesExample SpeciesExample Photo
Anguidae
Oppel, 1811
Glass lizardsSlow Worm (Anguis fragilis)[[File:|100px]]
Anniellidae
Gray, 1852
American legless lizardsCalifornia Legless Lizard (Anniella pulchra)File:Anniella
Xenosauridae
Cope, 1866
Knob-scaled lizardsChinese Crocodile Lizard (Shinisaurus crocodilurus)[[File:|100px]]
Gekkota
FamilyCommon NamesExample SpeciesExample Photo
Dibamidae
Boulenger, 1884
Blind lizardsDibamus nicobaricum -
Gekkonidae
Gray, 1825
GeckosThick-tailed Gecko (Underwoodisaurus milii)File:Underwoodisaurus
Pygopodidae
Boulenger, 1884
Legless lizardsBurton's Snake Lizard (Lialis burtonis) -
Iguania
FamilyCommon NamesExample SpeciesExample Photo
Agamidae
Spix, 1825
Agamas Eastern Bearded Dragon (Pogona barbata)File:Bearded
Chamaeleonidae
Gray, 1825
ChameleonsVeiled Chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus)File:Chamaelio
Corytophanidae
Frost & Etheridge, 1989
Casquehead lizardsPlumed Basilisk (Basiliscus plumifrons) File:Plumedbasiliskcele4
Crotaphytidae
Frost & Etheridge, 1989
Collared and leopard lizardsCommon Collared Lizard (Crotaphytus collaris)File:Collared lizard in Zion National
Hoplocercidae
Frost & Etheridge, 1989
Wood lizards or clubtailsClub-tail Iguana (Hoplocercus spinosus) -
IguanidaeIguanasMarine Iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus)[[File:|100px|]]
Leiosauridae
Frost et al., 2001
- Darwin's Iguana (Diplolaemus darwinii) -
Opluridae
Frost & Etheridge, 1989
Madagascan iguanas Chalarodon (Chalarodon madagascariensis) -
Phrynosomatidae
Frost & Etheridge, 1989
Earless, spiny, tree, side-blotched and horned lizardsGreater Earless Lizard (Cophosaurus texanus)File:Reptile tx
Polychrotidae
Frost & Etheridge, 1989
AnolesCaronlina Anole (Anolis carolinensis) [[File:|100px|]]
Tropiduridae
Frost & Etheridge, 1989
Neotropical ground lizards(Microlophus peruvianus)[[File:|100px|]]
Platynota
FamilyCommon NamesExample SpeciesExample Photo
HelodermatidaeGila monstersGila Monster (Heloderma suspectum)File:Gila.monster.
LanthanotidaeEarless MonitorEarless Monitor (Lanthanotus borneensis) -
VaranidaeMonitor lizardsPerentie (Varanus giganteus)File:Perentie Lizard Perth Zoo SMC Spet
Scincomorpha
FamilyCommon NamesExample SpeciesExample Photo
CordylidaeSpinytail lizards Girdle-tailed Lizard (Cordylus warreni) N/A
GerrhosauridaePlated lizardsSudan Plated Lizard (Gerrhosaurus major)File:Gerrhosaurus
GymnophthalmidaeSpectacled lizards - -
Lacertidae
Oppel, 1811
Wall or true lizardsEyed Lizard (Lacerta lepida)[[File:|100px|]]
Scincidae
Oppel, 1811
SkinksWestern Blue-tongued Skink (Tiliqua occipitalis) File:Tiliqua
TeiidaeTegus or whiptailsBlue Tegu (Tupinambis teguixin)File:Goldteju Tupinambis
XantusiidaeNight lizardsGranite Night Lizard (Xantusia henshawi)File:Xantusia
Alethinophidia
FamilyCommon NamesExample SpeciesExample Photo
Acrochordidae
Bonaparte, 1831[1]
file snakesMarine File Snake (Acrochordus granulatus)
Aniliidae
Stejneger, 1907[2]
coral pipe snakesBurrowing False Coral (Anilius scytale)
Anomochilidae
Cundall, Wallach and Rossman, 1993.[3]
dwarf pipe snakesLeonard's Pipe Snake, (Anomochilus leonardi)
Atractaspididae
Günther, 1858[4]
mole vipersBibron's burrowing asp (Atractaspis bibroni)
Boidae
Gray, 1825[1]
boasAmazon tree boa (Corallus hortulanus)File:Corallushortulanus.GIF
Bolyeriidae
Hoffstetter, 1946
Round Island boasRound Island Burrowing Boa (Bolyeria multocarinata)
Colubridae
Oppel, 1811[1]
colubridsGrass Snake (Natrix natrix)File:Natrix natrix (Marek Szczepanek).jpg
Cylindrophiidae
Fitzinger, 1843
Asian pipe snakesRed-tailed Pipe Snake (Cylindrophis ruffus)File:Cylindrophis
Elapidae
Boie, 1827[1]
cobras, coral snakes, mambas, kraits, sea snakes, sea kraits, Australian elapidsKing Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah)N/A
Loxocemidae
Cope, 1861
Mexican burrowing snakesMexican burrowing snake (Loxocemus bicolor)File:Loxocemus
Pythonidae
Fitzinger, 1826
pythonsBall python (Python regius)File:Ball python
Tropidophiidae
Brongersma, 1951
dwarf boasNorthern Eyelash Boa (Trachyboa boulengeri)
Uropeltidae
Müller, 1832
shield-tailed snakes, short-tailed snakesCuvier's shieldtail (Uropeltis ceylanica)File:Silybura
Viperidae
Oppel, 1811[1]
vipers, pitvipers, rattlesnakesEuropean asp (Vipera aspis)[[File:|100px]]
Xenopeltidae
Bonaparte, 1845
sunbeam snakesSunbeam snake (Xenopeltis unicolor)[[File:|100px]]
Scolecophidia
FamilyCommon NamesExample SpeciesExample Photo
Anomalepidae
Taylor, 1939[1]
dawn blind snakesDawn Blind Snake (Liotyphlops beui)
Leptotyphlopidae
Stejneger, 1892[1]
slender blind snakesTexas Blind Snake (Leptotyphlops dulcis)File:Leptotyphlops
Typhlopidae
Merrem, 1820[5]
blind snakesBlack Blind Snake (Typhlops reticulatus)

References

Look up Squamata in Wikispecies, a directory of species
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Cogger(1991), p.23
  2. Aniliidae (TSN 209611). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Accessed on 12 December 2007.
  3. Anomochilidae (TSN 563894). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Accessed on 13 December 2007.
  4. Atractaspididae (TSN 563895). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Accessed on 13 December 2007.
  5. Typhlopidae (TSN 174338). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Accessed on 13 December 2007.









Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message