Srebrenica: Wikis

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Srebrenica
Сребреница
Location of Srebrenica within Bosnia and Herzegovina
Country Bosnia and Herzegovina
Settlements 81
Government
 - Mayor Abdurrahman Malkić (SDA) [1]
Area
 - Total 527 km2 (203.5 sq mi)
Population (1991)
 - Total ?
 - Municipality 36,666
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Area code(s) 56
Website www.srebrenica-opstina.org
Panorama of Srebrenica

Srebrenica (Cyrillic: Сребреница, pronounced [ˈsrɛbrɛnitsa]) is a town and municipality in the east of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Srebrenica is a small mountain town, its main industry being salt mining and a nearby spa. During the Bosnian War, it was the site of the Srebrenica massacre. On March 24, 2007, Srebrenica's municipal assembly adopted a resolution demanding independence from the Republika Srpska; the Serb members of the assembly did not vote on the resolution.[2]

Contents

Demographics

In 2005 there were about 4,000 Bosniaks in the municipality, about a third of the population.

Year of census total Muslims Serbs Croats Yugoslavs others
1991 36,666 27,572 (75.19%) 8,315 (22.67%) 38 (0.10%) 380 (1.03%) 361 (0.98%)
1981 36,292 24,930 (68.69%) 10,294 (28.36%) 80 (0.22%) 602 (1.65%) 386 (1.06%)
1971 33,357 20,968 (62.85%) 11,918 (35.72%) 109 (0.32%) 121 (0.36%) 241 (0.72%)
1961 29,283 14,565 (49.74%) 12,540 (42.82%) 71 (0.24%) 1,967 (6.71%)
1953 46,647 23,545 (50.47%) 106 (0.45%) 22,791 (48.86%)
1948 39,954 20,195 (50.55%) 52 (0.13%) 19,671 (49.23%)
1931 35,210 17,332 (49.2%) 17,766 (50.5%) 103 (0.29%)

The borders of the municipality in the 1953 and 1961 census were different. In 1953 Muslim by Nationality was not an option for the census, so the group called themselves Yugoslav. Yugoslav was not an option in 1948, so they were classified as other.

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The town of Srebrenica

Year of census total Bosniaks Serbs Croats Yugoslavs others
1991 5,746 3,673 (63.92%) 1,632 (28.40%) 34 (0.59%) 328 (5.70%) 79 (1.37%)

Economy

Before 1992, there was a metal factory in the town, and lead, zinc, and gold mines nearby. The town's name (Srebrenica) means "silver mine," the same meaning of its old Latin name Argentaria.

Local communities

The municipality (општина or opština) is further subdivided into the following local communities (мјесне заједнице or mjesne zajednice):[3]

  • Brežani
  • Crvica
  • Gostilj
  • Kostolomci
  • Krnići
  • Luka
  • Orahovica
  • Osatica
  • Podravanje
  • Potočari
  • Radoševići
  • Ratkovići
  • Sase
  • Skelani
  • Skenderovići
  • Srebrenica
  • Sućeska
  • Toplica
  • Vijogor

History

The earliest reference to Srebrenica was in 1376, by which time it was already an important centre for trade in the western Balkans, based especially on the silver mines of the region. The existence of ore was already known at the time of the Roman Empire, and the settlement of Domavia was near a mine. By the time of the first reference to Srebrenica, a large number of merchants of the Republic of Ragusa were established there, and they controlled the domestic silver trade and the export by sea, almost entirely via the port of Ragusa (Dubrovnik).[4] During the 14th century, many German miners moved into the area.[5]

In the middle of the 1420s, the army of King Tvrtko II of Bosnia fought to gain control of the town, which was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1440.[6] The Franciscan monastery was converted into a mosque, but the large number of Catholics, Ragusa and Saxon, caused the transformation of the town to Islam to be slower than in most of the other towns in the area.[7]

With the town in the Ottoman Empire and less influenced by the Republic of Ragusa, the economic importance of Srebrenica went into decline, as did the proportion of Catholics in the population.

Srebrenica genocide

During the War in Bosnia (1992–1995), the Srebrenica region saw heavy fighting. Hundreds of victims fell in the first years of the war, also among the civilian population. The town at the centre of the municipality became a Bosnian Muslim/Bosniak enclave surrounded by Serbs. In April 1993, the United Nations declared Srebrenica a UN safe area, guarded by a small unit operating under the mandate of United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR). The town was captured by the Army of Republika Srpska in July 1995, as it remained, along with Žepa and Goražde, the two remaining pockets of Muslim troops in Eastern Bosnia. Following the town's capture, approximately eight thousand (8 372) Bosniak men of fighting age were massacred by Serbian forces. All women, and men below 16 years of age and above 55, were sent by Serbian forces by bus to Tuzla. The remaining men were massacred. The Srebrenica Genocide is considered the worst massacre in post-WWII European history to this day.[8] The Serbian General responsible for the massacre, Ratko Mladić, has never been brought to justice and is currently a fugitive.

The Srebrenica genocide is referred to as a genocide by the judgments of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia [9] and the International Court of Justice. The decision of the ICTY was followed by an admission to and an apology for the massacre by the Republika Srpska government.[10]

In 2007 verbal and physical attacks on returning refugees were repeatedly reported of the genocide region around Srebrenica.[11]

Fate of Bosnian Muslim Villages

In 1992, Bosniak villages around Srebrenica were under constant attacks by Serb forces. According to the Naser Oric trial judgement [12]:

"Between April 1992 and March 1993, Srebrenica town and the villages in the area held by Bosnian Muslims were constantly subjected to Serb military assaults, including artillery attacks, sniper fire, as well as occasional bombing from aircrafts. Each onslaught followed a similar pattern. Serb soldiers and paramilitaries surrounded a Bosnian Muslim village or hamlet, called upon the population to surrender their weapons, and then began with indiscriminate shelling and shooting. In most cases, they then entered the village or hamlet, expelled or killed the population, who offered no significant resistance, and destroyed their homes. During this period, Srebrenica was subjected to indiscriminate shelling from all directions on a daily basis. Potočari in particular was a daily target for Serb artillery and infantry because it was a sensitive point in the defence line around Srebrenica. Other Bosnian Muslim settlements were routinely attacked as well. All this resulted in a great number of refugees and casualties."

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ "Srebrenica pushes for partition". B92. 2007-03-25. http://www.b92.net/eng/news/globe-article.php?yyyy=2007&mm=03&dd=25&nav_category=123&nav_id=40340. Retrieved 2007-03-29.  
  3. ^ [2]
  4. ^ Konstantin Jireček: Die Handelsstrassen und Bergwerke von Serbien und Bosnien während des Mittelalters: historisch-geographische Studien. Prag: Verl. der Kön. Böhmischen Ges. der Wiss., 1879
  5. ^ Mihailo Dinić: Za istoriju rudarstva u srednjevekovnoj Srbiji i Bosni, S. 46
  6. ^ Noel Malcolm: A Short History of Bosnia, Macmillan, London 1994; S. 22
  7. ^ A Short History of Bosnia, S. 53 ff.
  8. ^ "Srebrenica reburies 308 victims of massacre". msnbc.com. 2008-07-11. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/25639691/. Retrieved 2009-07-11.  
  9. ^ "Krstic - Judgement". International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 2004-04-19. http://www.un.org/icty/krstic/Appeal/judgement/index.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-11.  
  10. ^ "Serbs sorry for Srebrenica deaths". BBC. 2004-11-10. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3999985.stm. Retrieved 2009-07-11.  
  11. ^ "7th Session of the UN Human Rights Council". Society for Threatened Peoples. 21 February 2008. pp. 2. http://forum-menschenrechte.de/cms/upload/PDF/ab_05-2008/aides_memoires/Bosnia_Herzegowina-GfbV.pdf.  
  12. ^ Naser Oric Trial Judgement, ICTY

External links

Coordinates: 44°06′N 19°18′E / 44.1°N 19.3°E / 44.1; 19.3


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Srebrenica is a city of 3,000 people in Bosnia and Herzegovina, best known as the site of a mass murder during the Bosnian War.

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