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.This article contains Indic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks or boxes, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Indic text.^ In May 2007 the Editor of the Morning Leader , Sonali Somarasinghe , was questioned by the CID over an investigative article alleging malpractices in the Central Bank.
  • Sri Lanka: Silencing Dissent 16 January 2010 18:13 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
ශ්‍රී ලංකා ප්‍රජාතාන්ත්‍රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජය
இலங்கை ஜனநாயக சமத்துவ குடியரசு
Sri Lanka
ශ්‍රී ලංකා
இலங்கை
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem"Sri Lanka Matha"
About this sound Music , About this sound Singing
Capital Sri Jayawardenapura-Kotte[1][2]
6°54′N 79°54′E / 6.9°N 79.9°E / 6.9; 79.9
Largest city Colombo
Official language(s) Sinhala, Tamil
Ethnic groups (2001) ≈73.9% Sinhalese,[3]
≈12.6% Tamil,[3]
≈7.4% Moors,[3]
≈5.2% Indian Tamil,[3]
≈0.5% Others.[3]
Demonym Sri Lankan
Government Democratic Socialist Republic
 -  President Mahinda Rajapaksa
 -  Prime Minister Ratnasiri Wickremanayake
Establishment
 -  Landing of Vijaya 543 BC 
 -  Kandyan Convention 2–18 March 1815 
 -  Independence from the United Kingdom February 4, 1948 
 -  Republic May 22, 1972 
Area
 -  Total 65,610 km2 (122nd)
25,332 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 4.4
Population
 -  2009 estimate 20,238,000[4] (53rd)
 -  July 2008 census 21,324,791[5] 
 -  Density 308.4/km2 (35th)
798.9/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $92.168 billion[6] 
 -  Per capita $4,589[6] 
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $39.604 billion[6] 
 -  Per capita $1,972[6] 
Gini (1999–00) 33.2 (medium
HDI (2007) 0.759[7] (medium) (102nd)
Currency Sri Lankan Rupee (LKR)
Time zone Sri Lanka Standard Time Zone (UTC+5:30)
Drives on the left
Internet TLD .lk
Calling code 94
.Sri Lanka (English pronunciation: /sriˈlɑːŋkə/, sriˈlæŋkə, or ʃriˈlɑːŋkə;[8][9] local pronunciation: [ˌɕriːˈlaŋkaː]; Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා, Tamil: இலங்கை), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka and known as Ceylon (/sɪˈlɒn/) before 1972, is an island country in South Asia, located about 31 kilometres (19.3 mi) off the southern coast of India.^ Ceylon is the old name of Sri Lanka.
  • Ceylon Sonata Tea 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.adagio.com [Source type: General]

^ Sovereignty was retained by the British Queen from 1948 to 1972 and the root of the problem started after Sinhala dominated legislature unilaterally declared Ceylon as a Republic state with Sinhala only policy.

^ Al Qutb Al-Sheikh ISMAIL Al-YAMANI Al-SAILANI http://www.rootsweb.com/~lkawgw/gen106.html Amongst the early migrants from the Arabian Peninsular to Sri Lanka (then Ceylon), during the rule of the Sinhala Monarchs – that is, long before the South Indian Tamil kings and the Roman Catholic Portuguese colonists invaded Ceylon – was Al Qutb Al-Sheikh Ismail Al-Yamani Al-Sailani, also known affectionately as "Arabi Appa", a tamil phrase, meaning Arab GrandFather.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result of its location in the path of major sea routes, Sri Lanka is a strategic naval link between West Asia and South East Asia.^ Sri Lanka south, east tourist region worst-hit'...

^ Sri Lanka Muslims @ 8:43 PM 0 Comments Links to this post .
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sri Lanka Muslims @ 5:43 PM 0 Comments Links to this post .
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.June 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] It has also been a center of the Buddhist religion and culture from ancient times as well as being a bastion of Hinduism.^ Jayah was an eminent exponent of Islam, being so well versed with the Islamic religion, its culture and its civilisation.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main center of devotion in Sri Lanka today is, of course, the ancient tree at Anuradhapura, which, in addition to its religious significance, has a historical importance as well.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

[10] .The Sinhalese community forms the majority of the population; Tamils, who are concentrated in the north and east of the island, form the largest ethnic minority.^ Just say of course minority is suffering; they have legitimate grievances alien to the majority: it was injustice to constitute language of 75% of the population of the Island as the working language of the state in spite of minority language being the working language of minority areas.

^ Yes, it is truth, but nothing but absolute truth: the minority has been suffering for a long time, It is high noon the majority redress the grievances of the ethnic minority.

^ It has been claimed that the major objective of the US bombing raids on North Vietnam was not to kill its 17 million population but to maim them.

.Other communities include Moors, Burghers, Kaffirs, Malays and the indigenous Vedda people.^ His other notable work in the Colombo Municipal Council was the appointment of female vaccinators who were very useful to our community, specially to the Moor women.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The country's indigenous people, known as Veddas, numbered fewer than 1,000.
  • Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The country is famous for the production and export of tea, coffee, coconuts, rubber and cinnamon - which is native to the country.^ Having made contacts with merchants in Arab countries, Mahmood Hajiar commenced exporting Ceylon produce and mporting Middle Eastern products.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sultan Marikar was said to have transferred, in trust, a tea, rubber, and coconut estate of 250 acres near galle to the late Al Haj Ahamed Ismail.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Having made contacts with merchants in Arab countries, Mahmood Hajiar commenced exporting Ceylon produce and importing Middle Eastern products.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] .The natural beauty of Sri Lanka's tropical forests, beaches and landscape, as well as its rich cultural heritage, make it a world famous tourist destination.^ From Sri Lanka to the intellectual heritage of the world .

^ As President of the All Ceylon Malay Association (now known as Sri Lanka Malay Association) he established cultural and social contacts with Malay leaders of the world.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hundreds of Western tourists were killed at beach resorts in Sri Lanka and Thailand, fishing villages across the region were devastated, power and communications cut and homes destroyed.

.June 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The island also boasts the first female Prime Minister in the world, Sirimavo Bandaranaike.^ In June 1943 Murad Jayah passed the Bsc (Hons) Physics and came first in the Island at the examination.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was appointed Minister of Labour in the first cabinet of Ceylon under the first Prime Minister, the Hon.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The late Haleem Ishak worked closely with late Prime Minister Mrs. Sirimavo Bandaranaike to strengthen the party at times of crisis.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]
.After over two thousand years of rule by local kingdoms, parts of Sri Lanka were colonized by Portugal and the Netherlands beginning in the 16th century, before control of the entire country was ceded to the British Empire in 1815.[citation needed] During World War II, Sri Lanka served as an important base for Allied forces in the fight against the Japanese Empire.^ He returned to Sri Lanka that same year.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From Sri Lanka to the intellectual heritage of the world .

^ During the year the LTTE continued to detain civilians, often requiring individuals to fight government security forces against their will.
  • Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] A nationalist political movement arose in the country in the early 20th century with the aim of obtaining political independence, which was eventually granted by the British after peaceful negotiations in 1948.

Contents

Name

.In ancient times, Sri Lanka was known by a variety of names: ancient Greek geographers called it Taprobane[14] (/təˈprɒbəniː/) and Arabs referred to it as Serendib (the origin of the word "serendipity").^ Ports in ancient Sri Lanka Taprobane: Ancient Sri Lanka as known to the Greeks and Romans.

^ Ceylon is the old name of Sri Lanka.
  • Ceylon Sonata Tea 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.adagio.com [Source type: General]

^ Sri Lanka, then known as Ceylon, was ruled by 3 kingdoms when the Portuguese arrived in 1506.

[15] .Ceilão was the name given to Sri Lanka by the Portuguese when they arrived in 1505,[16] which was transliterated into English as Ceylon.^ Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar said the United States was sending helicopters, and an airborne surgical hospital from Finland arrived in Sri Lanka.

^ On January 10, 1883 fifty five Egyptian exiles led by the famous Colonel Arabi Pasha arrived in Sri Lanka (then Ceylon) and Ismails knowlkdge of Arabic proved extremely useful for interacting with them.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As President of the All Ceylon Malay Association (now known as Sri Lanka Malay Association) he established cultural and social contacts with Malay leaders of the world.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] As a British colony, the island was known as Ceylon, and achieved independence under the name Dominion of Ceylon in 1948.
.In 1972, the official name of the country was changed to "Free, Sovereign and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka" (in Sinhala ශ්‍රී ලංකා śrī laṃkā, IPA: [ˌʃɾiːˈlaŋkaː]; whereas the island itself is referred to as ලංකාව laṃkāva, IPA: [laŋˈkaːʋə], in Tamil இலங்கை ilaṅkai, iˈlaŋɡai).^ Ceylon is the old name of Sri Lanka.
  • Ceylon Sonata Tea 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.adagio.com [Source type: General]

^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Tamil Nadu state, just across the straits from Sri Lanka, 1,567 people were killed, said the state's top elected official, Chief Minister Jayaram Jayalalithaa.

.In 1978 it was changed to "Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka".[18] The current name is derived from the Sanskrit श्री लंका (śrī lankā) with the word lankā, meaning "island",[19] also being the name of the island as described in the ancient Indian epics Mahabharata and the Ramayana.^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sri Lanka High Commissioner in Kenya, accredited to Zambia & Ethiopia, 1978.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our business was started in the late 1700's on the tiny island of Sri Lanka (formerly known as Ceylon at the time of the British occupation).
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The word śrī is a Sanskrit title meaning "venerable".

Geography and climate

A roughly oval island with a mountainous center
Topographical map of Sri Lanka.
.The island of Sri Lanka lies in the Indian Ocean, to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal.^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While ground shaking damaged buildings and roads on Sumatra, the real havoc was caused by large ocean waves in the Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean that were displaced by the quake.

^ Our business was started in the late 1700's on the tiny island of Sri Lanka (formerly known as Ceylon at the time of the British occupation).
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is separated from the Indian subcontinent by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait. According to Hindu mythology, a land bridge to the Indian mainland, known as Rama's Bridge, was constructed during the time of Rama by the vanara architect Nala. .Often referred to as Adam's Bridge, it now amounts to only a chain of limestone shoals remaining above sea level.^ But even that kind of displacement would lift or lower the Sumatran coast by only a few feet or less, they said, and sea levels would not change dramatically.

[20]
.According to colonial British reports, this is a natural causeway which was formerly complete, but was breached by a violent storm in 1480.[21] The island consists mostly of flat-to-rolling coastal plains, with mountains rising only in the south-central part.^ Several districts in the country's south have still not reported casualty figures, and authorities fear the death toll could rise.

^ The force of the tsunami swept the sea to the foot of mountains more than a mile inland, according to a reporter for the Reuters news agency who surveyed the area.

^ And the heaven departed as a scroll when it is rolled together; and every mountain and island were moved out of their places .

Amongst these is the highest point Pidurutalagala, reaching 2,524 metres (8,281 ft) above sea level.
.The climate of Sri Lanka can be described as tropical and warm.^ The year-round tropical climes that made coastal Thailand and Sri Lanka beacons to foreign tourists are now the countries' enemies.

.Its position between 5 and 10 north latitude endows the country with a warm climate moderated by ocean winds and considerable moisture.^ The main problem with this formula was that whereas the US troops would leave the country, the North Vietnamese troops could remain in their positions in the south.

.The mean temperature ranges from about 16 °C (61 °F) in the Central Highlands, where frost may occur for several days in the winter, to a maximum of approximately 33 °C (91 °F) in other low-altitude areas.^ Health officials are concerned about cholera and other infectious agents present in the affected areas.

^ No, that's not her name, Ella meaning waterfall in Sinhala is the name of the Paradise Village of Central Highlands of Sri Lanka RIOLTA LANK HOLIDAYS Central Highlands of Sri Lanka .

^ Changes in the "tilt" of the earth can change the severity of the seasons - more "tilt" means more severe seasons - warmer summers and colder winters; less "tilt" means less severe seasons - cooler summers and milder winters.

The average yearly temperature ranges from 28 °C (82 °F) to nearly 31 °C (88 °F). Day and night temperatures may vary by 4 °C (7 °F) to 7 °C (13 °F). During the coldest days of January, many people wear coats and sweaters in the highlands and elsewhere.
May, the hottest period, precedes the summer monsoon rains. .The rainfall pattern is influenced by monsoon winds from the Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal: as the winds encounter the mountain slopes of the Central Highlands, they unload heavy rains on the slopes and the southwestern areas of the island.^ While ground shaking damaged buildings and roads on Sumatra, the real havoc was caused by large ocean waves in the Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean that were displaced by the quake.

^ But they jangled nerves across the Indian Ocean region hit by the Dec.

^ But officials insisted they could not know the seriousness of the threat because no tsunami warning system exists for the Indian Ocean.

Some of the windward slopes receive up to 2,500 millimetres (98 in) of rain each month, but the leeward slopes in the east and northeast receive little rain. .Periodic squalls occur and sometimes tropical cyclones bring overcast skies and rains to the southwest, northeast, and eastern parts of the island.^ The exiles were ultimately allowed to reside in any part of the island except the northern and eastern provinces.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Between December to March, monsoon winds come from the northeast, bringing moisture from the Bay of Bengal. .Humidity is typically higher in the southwest and mountainous areas and depends on the seasonal patterns of rainfall, and places like Colombo experience daytime humidity above 70% all year round, rising to almost 90% during the monsoon season in June.^ We have been in human all these long years & it is only justifiable they rise to struggle.

^ The "roundness", or eccentricity, of the earth's orbit varies on cycles of 100,000 and 400,000 years, and this affects how important the timing of perihelion is to the strength of the seasons.

^ During this period every year, such religious festivals are held in almost all the religious centers of Sri Lanka where there are abodes dedicated to various Buddhist deities.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

Anuradhapura experiences a daytime low of 60% during the monsoon month of March, but a high of 79% during the November and December rains. In the highlands, Kandy's daytime humidity usually ranges between 70% and 79%.

Flora and fauna

Horton Plains National Park represents Sri Lanka montane rain forests
The mountains and the southwestern part of the country, known as the "wet zone", receive ample rainfall at an average of 2,500 mm (98 in). Most of the east, southeast, and northern parts of the country comprise the "dry zone", which receives between 1,200 mm (47 in) and 1,900 mm (75 in) of rain annually. .Much of the rain in these areas falls from October to January; during the rest of the year there is very little precipitation.^ Two of the transit centers, in Batticaloa and Trincomalee, never opened because of a lack of releases by the LTTE. By mid-year the LTTE no longer controlled these areas.
  • Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus during the last two years, there was a qualitative change in the ground situation marked by the following features: * The total absence of suicidal or suicide terrorism.

^ The nature of his business enabled him to move about these areas very freely and the British officer, Captain Wilson, established contact with him and induced him to spy for the British.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The arid northwest and southeast coasts receive the least amount of rain at 600 mm (24 in) to 1,200 mm (47 in) per year.
Varieties of flowering acacias are well adapted to the arid conditions and flourish on the Jaffna Peninsula. .Among the trees of the dry-land forests, are some valuable species such as satinwood, ebony, ironwood, mahogany and teak.^ King Bhatika Abhaya (1st century A.C.) held a ceremony of watering the sacred tree, which seems to have been one of many such special pujas.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

In the wet zone, the dominant vegetation of the lowlands is a tropical evergreen forest, with tall trees, broad foliage, and a dense undergrowth of vines and creepers. Subtropical evergreen forests resembling those of temperate climates flourish in the higher altitudes. .Forests at one time covered nearly the entire island, but by the late 20th century lands classified as forests and forest reserves covered around ⅓ of the land.^ Our business was started in the late 1700's on the tiny island of Sri Lanka (formerly known as Ceylon at the time of the British occupation).
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He untiringly served the people of the Maligakanda Ward for nearly two decades and was one time Deputy Mayor.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the time Buddhism was introduced to Sri Lanka by the arahant Mahinda, the observance of Vassa — Vas in Sinhala — has been one of the mainstays of monastic life in the island.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

[22]
.The Yala National Park in the southeast protects herds of elephant, deer, and peacocks, and the Wilpattu National Park in the northwest preserves the habitats of many water birds, such as storks, pelicans, ibis, and spoonbills.^ Giant waves washed floodwaters up to 3 km (2 miles) inland at Yala National Park in the ravaged southeast, Sri Lanka's biggest wildlife reserve and home to hundreds of wild elephants and several leopards.

^ King Bhatika Abhaya (1st century A.C.) held a ceremony of watering the sacred tree, which seems to have been one of many such special pujas.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Wasgomuwa National Park, Sri Lanka Kaudulla National park, Sri Lanka Minneriya National Park, Sri Lanka Uda Walawe National Park, Sri Lanka Ruhuna Yala National Park Pinnawela Elephants Orphanage, Sri Lanka RIOLTA LANKA HOLIDAYS .

.During the Mahaweli Ganga Program of the 1970s and 1980s in northern Sri Lanka, the government set aside four areas of land totaling 1,900 km2 (730 sq mi) as national parks.^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Survivors in Indonesia, India and Sri Lanka complained of the slow pace of national and international relief efforts, news agencies reported.

^ Death was so widespread in Sri Lanka that the government waived rules requiring an autopsy before burial.

The island has four biosphere reserves, Bundala, Hurulu Forest Reserve, the Kanneliya-Dediyagala-Nakiyadeniya, and Sinharaja.[23]
.The national flower of Sri Lanka is the Nymphaea stellata (Sinhalese Nil Mahanel),[24] the national tree is the Ironwood (Sinhalese Na),[25] and the national bird is the Sri Lanka Junglefowl, which is endemic to the country.^ As Ananda Coomaraswamy points out, every Buddhist temple and monastery in India once had its Bodhi-tree and flower altar as is now the case in Sri Lanka.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Survivors in Indonesia, India and Sri Lanka complained of the slow pace of national and international relief efforts, news agencies reported.

^ "The toll is going up and I will not be surprised it reaches 20,000 to 25,000," said Nimal Hettiarchchi, director of Sri Lanka's National Disaster Management Center.

[26]

History

Early periods

Sigiriya Rock Fortress.
.Paleolithic human settlements have been discovered at excavations in several cave sites in the Western Plains region and the South-western face of the Central Hills region.^ Their father, Assen Ali, had already settled down in the central hills of Ceylon several years back and was successful trading in household goods and merchandise.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Anthropologists believe that some discovered burial rites and certain decorative artifacts exhibit similarities between the first inhabitants of the island and the early inhabitants of Southern India.^ Some believe that India in recent days have been contacted like America was in the middle of the last century.

.Recent bioanthropological studies have however dismissed these links, and have placed the origin of the people to the northern parts of India[citation needed].^ The government has not permitted other recent IDPs, primarily Tamils, to return home because their places of origins were declared HSZs.
  • Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of the first written references to the island is found in the Indian epic Ramayana, which described the emperor Ravana as monarch of the powerful kingdom of Lanka, which was created by the divine sculptor Vishwakarma for Kubera, the treasurer of the Gods.^ God Saman is recorded as having met the Buddha on the latter's first visit to the island when he visited Mahiyangana to drive away the yakkhas.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Devalayas dedicated to her are found in many parts of the island, the one at Navagamuwa, about fifteen miles from Colombo on the old Avissavella Road, being the most important.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They were ordered by the Ministers of the Delhi Sultanate (Sultan Muizzudin) to leave for Sri Lanka at the invitation of a Sri Lankan Monarch, one Parakrama Bahu.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] .English historian James Emerson Tennent also theorized Galle, a southern city in Sri Lanka, was the ancient seaport of Tarshish from which King Solomon is said to have drawn ivory, peacocks and other valuables.^ In fact it may have made them worse," said Jehan Perera, director of the National Peace Council in Sri Lanka.

^ Another deity, somewhat similar to Saman, is Vibhishana, who is regarded as the brother of the pre-historic King Ravana of Sri Lanka.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This important Buddhist ritual was practiced even in ancient Sri Lanka.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

.The main written accounts of the country's history are the Buddhist chronicles of Mahavansa and Dipavamsa.^ The above brief account of the twelve poya days demonstrates how the poya day has become intimately connected with the life of the Buddha and consequently with the principal events of early Buddhist history.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

An old coin with a offcenter stamped design showing an elephant and geometric designs or writing
Sri Lankan coin, 1st century CE.
.The earliest-known inhabitants of the island now known as Sri Lanka were probably the ancestors of the Wanniyala-Aetto people, also known as Veddahs and numbering roughly 3,000. Linguistic analysis has found a correlation of the Sinhalese language with the languages of the Sindh and Gujarat, although most historians believe that the Sinhala community emerged well after the assimilation of various ethnic groups.^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
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^ As Ananda Coomaraswamy points out, every Buddhist temple and monastery in India once had its Bodhi-tree and flower altar as is now the case in Sri Lanka.
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^ Individuals from the group have expressed that they do not want to go back to Sri Lanka, making this a forced repatriation exercise.

.From the ancient period date some remarkable archaeological sites including the ruins of Sigiriya, the so-called "Fortress in the Sky", and huge public works.^ He descends from some of the distinguished men who adorned the public services of the Island from the timeof the ancient Sinhalese Kings dating from the reign of Sri Sangabo and Sri Parakrama Bahu.
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.Among the latter are large "tanks" or reservoirs, important for conserving water in a climate that alternates rainy seasons with dry times, and elaborate aqueducts, some with a slope as finely calibrated as one inch to the mile.^ The "roundness", or eccentricity, of the earth's orbit varies on cycles of 100,000 and 400,000 years, and this affects how important the timing of perihelion is to the strength of the seasons.

^ The only tsunami reported was a tiny one - 10 inches - at the Cocos Islands, 1,400 miles west of Australia.

.Ancient Sri Lanka was also the first in the world to have established a dedicated hospital in Mihintale in the 4th century BCE. Ancient Sri Lanka was also the world's leading exporter of cinnamon, which was exported to Egypt as early as 1400 BCE.^ From Sri Lanka to the intellectual heritage of the world .

^ First Muslim lawyer of Sri Lanka.
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^ Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar said the United States was sending helicopters, and an airborne surgical hospital from Finland arrived in Sri Lanka.

.Sri Lanka was also the first Asian nation to have a female ruler in Queen Anula (47–42 BC).^ First Muslim lawyer of Sri Lanka.
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^ Sri Lanka Muslims @ 11:47 AM 0 Comments Links to this post .
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^ Survivors in Indonesia, India and Sri Lanka complained of the slow pace of national and international relief efforts, news agencies reported.

Ancient Sri Lanka

Sanghamitta arriving in Sri Lanka with the Holy Bodhi Tree.
.Since ancient times Sri Lanka was ruled by monarchs, most notably of the Sinha royal dynasty that lasted over 2000 years.^ He returned to Sri Lanka that same year.
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^ Sumatra time and was among the 10 most powerful quakes recorded since 1900.

^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
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The island was also infrequently invaded by South Indian kingdoms and parts of the island were ruled intermittently by the Chola dynasty, the Pandya dynasty, the Chera dynasty and the Pallava dynasty. The island was also invaded by the kingdoms of Kalinga (modern Orissa) and those from the Malay Peninsula.
.Buddhism arrived from India in the 3rd century BCE, brought by Bhikkhu Mahinda, who is believed to have been the son of Mauryan emperor Ashoka.^ Some believe that India in recent days have been contacted like America was in the middle of the last century.

Mahinda's mission won over the Sinhalese monarch Devanampiyatissa of Mihintale, who embraced the faith and propagated it throughout the Sinhalese population. .The Buddhist kingdoms of Sri Lanka would maintain a large number of Buddhist schools and monasteries, and support the propagation of Buddhism into Southeast Asia.^ The large number of rituals and ceremonies connected with the goddess Pattini also come under Buddhist practices.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As Ananda Coomaraswamy points out, every Buddhist temple and monastery in India once had its Bodhi-tree and flower altar as is now the case in Sri Lanka.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sri Lanka, then known as Ceylon, was ruled by 3 kingdoms when the Portuguese arrived in 1506.

Colonial era

Shield shape with an elephant center and four palm trees on each side
British colonial Coat of arms of Ceylon
.Sri Lanka had always been an important port and trading post in the ancient world, and was increasingly frequented by merchant ships from the Middle East, Persia, Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and other parts of Southeast Asia.^ From Sri Lanka to the intellectual heritage of the world .

^ This important Buddhist ritual was practiced even in ancient Sri Lanka.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ports in ancient Sri Lanka Taprobane: Ancient Sri Lanka as known to the Greeks and Romans.

.The islands were known to the first European explorers of South Asia and settled by many groups of Arab and Malay merchants.^ European nations have pledged millions in aid to South Asia relief.

^ Yet with many other giving her encouragement she decided to establish a fund to be known as the All Ceylon Malay Association Rupee Fund.
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.A Portuguese colonial mission arrived on the island in 1505 headed by Lourenço de Almeida the son of Francisco de Almeida.^ When ‘Arabi Pasha arrived in the island he had with him one son and one wife, a girl of 17 years.
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^ This god is said to have arrived in the island to fulfill this mission.
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.At that point the island consisted of three kingdoms, namely Kandy in the central hills, Kotte at the Western coast, and Yarlpanam (Anglicised Jaffna) in the north.^ The Island which is known by the name of Lanka, and to the western nations by that of Ceylon, is said to have been called in the time of the three previous Buddhas of the present age Ojadipa, Varadipa, and Mandadipa respectively.

^ At present Nagadipa is taken to refer to a small island about twelve miles off the western coast of Jaffna, where a Buddhist temple is identified as the place the Buddha visited.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

The Dutch arrived in the 17th century. .Although much of the island came under the domain of European powers, the interior, hilly region of the island remained independent, with its capital in Kandy.^ The possibility of the exiles shifting to kandy, the interior capital, Ahmad Arabi Pasha and the Egyptian exiles in Sri Lanka may have been under consideration by the government.31 at the interviews, ‘Arabi pasha acted as spokesman for the others.
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.The British East India Company established control of the island in 1796, declaring it a crown colony in 1802, although the island would not be officially connected with British India.^ On the remote Indian islands of Andaman and Nicobar, off the northern tip of Sumatra, officials still hadn’t established communications.

^ Colonial Ceylon Institute for Oriental Studies, Thane, India Images of The Resplendent Island Important Links set up by An Indian Yogi .

.The fall of the kingdom of Kandy in 1815 unified the island under British rule.^ The story of the capture of Kandy in 1815 has been related by an anonymous eye-witness under the pseudonyme of PHILALETHES[5], and by MARSHALL in his Historical Sketch of the conquest.

20th Century and the World Wars

European colonists established a series of tea, cinnamon, rubber, sugar, coffee and indigo plantations. .The British also brought a large number of indentured workers from Tamil Nadu to work in the plantation economy.^ My husband provided financial assistance to build a Tamil School and a Madarasa in a Kayal Pattanam locality that was populated with a large number of illiterate children.
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.The city of Colombo was established as the administrative centre, and the British established modern schools, colleges, roads and churches that brought Western-style education and culture to the native people.^ His grandfather, Wapiche Marikar, built and nurtured Zahira College and a number of Arabic schools in Colombo.
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^ He established the Muslim Ladies' College to give every educated Muslim boy and educated Muslim bride.
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^ He had his early education at Hameedia School and later moved to Wesley College in Pettah during the Principalship of the Rev Highfiweld.
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.Increasing grievances over the denial of civil rights, mistreatment and abuse of natives by colonial authorities gave rise to a struggle for independence in the 1930s, when the Youth Leagues opposed the "Ministers' Memorandum," which asked the colonial authority to increase the powers of the board of ministers without granting popular representation or civil freedoms.^ The struggle for a Separate State (Eelam) started since the colonial power took over the administration of Kandyan Kingdom in 1815.

^ The 1972 Constitution took the powers of the civil service into the hands of the cabinet ministers.

^ President Yudhoyono has instructed civil and military authorities in Aceh to do everything in their power to rescue survivors and help families of the dead.

.Buddhist scholars and the Teetotalist Movement also played a vital role in this time.^ He also went on to play a major role in the Muslim Society in Ceylon at a time when the community was a badly neglected and hopelessly backward one.
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^ While attending to the welfare of his own family and the immediate relatives, he played a vital role in social service in uplifting the conditions of the village of Neerella and the villagers.
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.During World War II, the island served as an important Allied military base.^ He was a member of the Moors Town Guard, Colombo, during the Great War 1914-1918 and was sectional ARP Warden during World War II 1939-1945.
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^ The Tribunal, and other critics of the war, claimed that the US behaviour in Vietnam was comparable to the atrocities committed by the Nazis in Europe during the Second World War.

^ Successive French Consuls made this their official residence until World War II when the Vichy Government took over power in France in 1941 and recalled its envoys.
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.A large segment of the British and American fleet were deployed on the island, as were tens of thousands of soldiers committed to the war against Japan in Southeast Asia.^ As the war continued, more and more Americans turned against it.

^ Thirdly Buddhist have never displayed a paranoid hatred of United States of America in spite of atriccities commited against Japan , Korea , Vietnam & Cambodia .

^ This day was known as the “Day of Mourning” to avenge the acts of cruelty committed by the Punjabi soldiers brought by the British Colonial Government during the Dark Days of 1915.
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Independence

The formal ceremony marking the start of self rule, with the opening of the first parliament at Independence Square.
Following the war, popular pressure for independence intensified. .The office of Prime Minister of Ceylon was created in advance of independence on 14 October 1947, Don Stephen Senanayake being the first prime minister.^ In 1947, the first election for the first Independent Parliament of Ceylon has been announced.
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^ He had the unique distinction of becoming the first elected Member of Parliament in the first general election held for the Parliament of Independent Ceylon in 1947.
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^ He was appointed Minister of Labour in the first cabinet of Ceylon under the first Prime Minister, the Hon.
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On February 4, 1948 the country won its independence as the Dominion of Ceylon.
.On July 21, 1960 Sirimavo Bandaranaike took office as prime minister, and became the world's first female prime minister and the first female head of government in post-colonial Asia.^ Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh agreed to send $2 million of aid, the government said in a statement issued in New Delhi yesterday.

^ He was appointed Minister of Labour in the first cabinet of Ceylon under the first Prime Minister, the Hon.
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^ History records that thereafter he became the first Muslim Minister in the first Cabinet of the first Parliament of Ceylon as the Minister for Labour and Social Services.
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.In 1972, during Sirimavo Bandaranaike's second term as prime minister, the country became a republic within the Commonwealth, and the name was changed to Sri Lanka.^ Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar said the United States was sending helicopters, and an airborne surgical hospital from Finland arrived in Sri Lanka.

^ Australian Prime Minister John Howard said he would investigate what role his country could play in setting up an Indian Ocean warning system.

^ While I was in Sri Lanka , my second sister was given date in June for the surgical eye operation for Cataract.

The island enjoyed good relations with the United Kingdom and had the British Royal Navy stationed at Trincomalee.

Civil war

One of the aspects of the independence movement was that it was very much a Sinhalese movement. .As a result, the Sinhalese majority attempted to remodel Sri Lanka as a Sinhalese nation-state.^ He worked tirelessly at the national and social levels while he devoted himself for the well-being of the Muslim community in Sri Lanka.
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^ The secretary of state informed the governor of Sri Lanka, Sir James r.
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^ On this day when we remember him, let us strive hard ourselves to bring to fruition the vision he set forth in realising national harmony in Sri Lanka.
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The lion in the national flag is derived from the banner of the last Sinhalese Kingdom, which, to the Sinhalese majority, is a symbol of their fight against British colonialism. .One single strip of orange on the left part of the flag represents the Tamil population, and it is seen by many Tamil as a symbol of their marginalisation.^ He also established many Tamil and Arabic Schools in many parts of the Central Province, some of which he himself managed and financed.
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[1]
.In 1956, the Official Language Act (commonly known as The Sinhala Only Act) was enacted.^ Main languages: Sinhala (official and national language), Tamil (national language), English .
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^ He endorsed the thinking of the late Dr. Colvin R. De Silva that the recognition of both Sinhala and Tamil as official languages will preserve Ceylon as one nation, whereas the adoption of Sinhala only will create two nations.
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^ Bandaranaike came into power on the Sinhala nationalist card and his government was responsible for making Sinhala the country's official language, isolating the Tamil speaking ethnic Tamils and Muslims.
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.The law mandated Sinhala, the language of Sri Lanka's majority Sinhalese community, which is spoken by over 70% of Sri Lanka's population, as the sole official language of Sri Lanka.^ Tamil is the home language of the majority of the Muslims of Sri Lanka.
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^ Sinhala is the language of the vast majority of the population in this country.
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^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
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.Supporters of the law saw it as an attempt by a community that had just gained independence to distance themselves from their colonial masters.^ He used the medium of newspaper articles, books, and speeches to induce the Muslim community to make an attempt to uplift themselves from the backward condition they were in.
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.The immediate (and intended) consequence of this act was to force large numbers of Tamil who worked in the civil service, and who could not meet this language requirement, to resign.^ Within this civil service there were certain traditions and there were also certain rules of work.

^ A highly religious personality he was a great philanthropist who generously helped a large number of Mosques, Schools and other Muslim institutions as well as needy individuals.
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^ The chief reason to select me for this task was due to the large number of Muslims employed in this Firm who were very loyal to the Union.
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An attempt to make Buddhism the national religion, to the exclusion of Hindu and Islam, was also made. .Affirmative action in favour of Sinhalese was also instituted, ostensibly to reverse colonial discrimination against Sinhalese in favour of Tamil.^ Convicted Sinhalese in the prison were unleashed upon them undoubtedly with State complicity only to be just massacred with no action taken against any of them.

.Many Tamil, in response to this deliberate marginalisation, came to believe that they deserved a separate nation-state for themselves.^ Tamilians were not given a single space to take breath and they were pushed to declare the demand for a separate state called Eelam through Vadukoddai Resolutions in 1976.

^ The people do not want to put themselves at serious risk when they are aware that the murderers have the patronage of the state.

^ Marhoom Azeez was widely responsible for nurturing the Tamil Language and published many important titles in Tamil.
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.From 1983 to 2009, there was an on-and-off civil war against the government by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), a separatist militant organization who fought to create an independent state named Tamil Eelam in the North and East of the island.^ That is an act that militates against civilisation.

^ Arabi would not be likely to find enough support there for a revolt against the British government.
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^ Thereafter, Mumtaz Mahal was requisitioned by the British Government for Admiral Layton, chief commander of the South East Asian Forces in Colombo, who lived there until the end of the War.
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.Both the Sri Lankan government and LTTE have been accused of various human rights violations.^ The Sri Lankan government estimates it will need between $1.3 billion and $1.5 billion to rebuild.

^ Their painstaking investigative journalism has the binocular research impact that the corrupt Sri Lankan governments found them hard to stomach.

^ Having done collateral damage to the media, the government is now going on honeymoon with the parasitical journalists like the one operating from Helsinki and the paid media men operating from various Sri Lankan foreign missions, to promote its ruthless dictates.

.On May 19, 2009, the President of Sri Lanka officially claimed an end to the insurgency and the defeat of the LTTE, following the death of Velupillai Prabhakaran and much of the LTTE's other senior leadership.^ As President of the All Ceylon Malay Association (now known as Sri Lanka Malay Association) he established cultural and social contacts with Malay leaders of the world.
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^ Death was so widespread in Sri Lanka that the government waived rules requiring an autopsy before burial.

^ Ajward Cassim (1955-1995) of Belgrade Migrated to Yugoslavia and was appointed as the Honorary Counsel General of Sri Lanka for Yugoslavia and held this post until his death.
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[28]

Post War

.After the civil war is over in Sri Lanka, government of Sri Lanka calls for re-development of the country.^ Death was so widespread in Sri Lanka that the government waived rules requiring an autopsy before burial.

^ It was subsequently taken over by Government of Sri Lanka in 1957 for construction of the new Police station and officers’ quarters.
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^ He was as Dr. W. Dahanayake called him, "the uncrowned king of the Moors of Sri Lanka."
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There are 300,000 Tamils that need to be resettled[29].

Government and politics

The Supreme Court of Sri Lanka, Colombo.
.The Constitution of Sri Lanka establishes a democratic, socialist republic in Sri Lanka, which is also a unitary state.^ The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (formerly known as Ceylon) comprises one large, compact island and several islets, separated from the Indian subcontinent by a strip of sea which at its narrowest point is 40 kilometres and centrally located in the Indian Ocean, lying off the southern tip of India.
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^ Sri Lanka Guardian too came under unimaginable pressures from the state following the death of Lasantha for upholding the just discipline of honest journalism.

^ Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar said the United States was sending helicopters, and an airborne surgical hospital from Finland arrived in Sri Lanka.

The government is a mixture of the presidential system and the parliamentary system. .The President of Sri Lanka is the head of state, the commander in chief of the armed forces, as well as head of government, and is popularly elected for a six-year term.^ He returned to Sri Lanka that same year.
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^ Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar said the United States was sending helicopters, and an airborne surgical hospital from Finland arrived in Sri Lanka.

^ As President of the All Ceylon Malay Association (now known as Sri Lanka Malay Association) he established cultural and social contacts with Malay leaders of the world.
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.In the exercise of duties, the President is responsible to the Parliament of Sri Lanka, which is a unicameral 225-member legislature.^ Individuals from the group have expressed that they do not want to go back to Sri Lanka, making this a forced repatriation exercise.

^ As President of the All Ceylon Malay Association (now known as Sri Lanka Malay Association) he established cultural and social contacts with Malay leaders of the world.
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^ He held one of the highest positions in Sri Lanka as the Speaker of Parliament.
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.The President appoints and heads a cabinet of ministers composed of elected members of parliament.^ After Proctor Haniffa's withdrawal from active civic politics, one of his sons, M.H. Mohamed, won the Maligawatte Ward and retained it without a break from 1947 to 1965 when he successfully entered the Parliament as MP for Borella and was appointed as a Cabinet Minister.
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^ He had the unique distinction of becoming the first elected Member of Parliament in the first general election held for the Parliament of Independent Ceylon in 1947.
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^ He was appointed Minister of Labour in the first cabinet of Ceylon under the first Prime Minister, the Hon.
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.The President's deputy is the Prime Minister, who leads the ruling party in parliament and shares many executive responsibilities, mainly in domestic affairs.^ He was also appointed into the Upper House of Parliament, better known as the Senate, on the recommendation of the Prime Minister late Dudley Senanayake.
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^ In national politics he served as a United National Party representative from the electorate of Kalkudah for many successive tenures of Parliament.
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^ The Sultan of Selangor, the Prime Minister of the Republic of Indonesia, the Governor of Singapore and the Deputy Prime Minister are only some of the Malay dignitaries who were entertained at the Association when he was President.
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[30]
.Members of parliament are elected by universal (adult) suffrage based on a modified proportional representation system by district to a six-year term.^ He had the unique distinction of becoming the first elected Member of Parliament in the first general election held for the Parliament of Independent Ceylon in 1947.
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^ Azeez was also a member of the now abolished Senate, the Upper Chamber of the Parliament, for many years from 1953 and was also a member of the Public Services Commission.
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^ In the meanwhile, the Donoughmore Commissioners had recommended universal adult franchise based on domicile, extending the vote to the Indian immigrant population shutting out representation to the minority communities particularly the Muslims.
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The primary modification is that, the party that receives the largest number of valid votes in each constituency gains a unique "bonus seat." .The president may summon, suspend, or end a legislative session and dissolve Parliament any time after it has served for one year.^ The parliament also could be dissolved at his wish one year after its election.

^ He joined the then Industrial Research Lasboratory established by D.H. Balfour and for a time served as one of the “Balfour boys”.
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^ He served as a vice president of the Moor Islamic Cultural Home until the time of his demise.
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.The parliament reserves the power to make all laws.^ On the other hand by making himself the Executive President he took upon himself all the powers of the cabinet.

.On July 1, 1960 the people of Sri Lanka elected the first-ever female head of government in Prime Minister Sirimavo Bandaranaike.^ First Muslim lawyer of Sri Lanka.
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^ Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar said the United States was sending helicopters, and an airborne surgical hospital from Finland arrived in Sri Lanka.

^ In Tamil Nadu state, just across the straits from Sri Lanka, 1,567 people were killed, said the state's top elected official, Chief Minister Jayaram Jayalalithaa.

.Her daughter Chandrika Kumaratunga served for a short period as the prime minister between August and December 1994 before being elected as president from 1994 to 2005 for 2 consecutive terms.^ The people will remember that presidential candidate Chandrika Kumaranatunga entered into a written agreement with the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (JVP) to abolish the office of Executive President on or before a specified date if elected to office, and based on this written promise, the JVP refrained from fielding their own candidate for the 1994 presidential election.

^ Parliamentary elections held in August 1994 saw the UNP government narrowly defeated by a coalition People's Alliance (PA), led by the SLFP under the leadership of Solomon and Sirimavo Bandaranaike's daughter Chandrika Kumaratunga.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sri Lanka : Sri Lanka Overview 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For three months Chandrika Kumaratunga remained prime minister as Wijetunga held the office of president.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sri Lanka : Sri Lanka Overview 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

.The current president and prime minister, both of whom took office on November 21, 2005, are Mahinda Rajapaksa and Ratnasiri Wickremanayake respectively.^ For three months Chandrika Kumaratunga remained prime minister as Wijetunga held the office of president.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sri Lanka : Sri Lanka Overview 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The UF lost power in the 1977 general election and the UNP administration of Prime Minister J.R. Jayewardene took over.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sri Lanka : Sri Lanka Overview 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In late 1988, Prime Minister Ranasinghe Premadasa was elected executive president, and in 1989 the UNP won a large majority in parliamentary elections.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sri Lanka : Sri Lanka Overview 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

.Sri Lanka has enjoyed democracy with universal suffrage since 1931. Politics in Sri Lanka are controlled by rival coalitions led by the left-wing Sri Lanka Freedom Party, headed by President Rajapaksa, the comparatively right-wing United National Party led by former prime minister Ranil Wickremesinghe and JVP.^ Sri Lanka was never a “model democracy” .

^ However, in view of the political pressure emanating from the Tamil Federal Party, the main minority party, the-then prime minster proposed plans for preferential treatment for Tamils, and the Bandaranaike-Chelvanayakam pact of 1957 also promised ‘recognition of Tamil as the language of a national minority'.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sri Lanka : Sri Lanka Overview 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For three months Chandrika Kumaratunga remained prime minister as Wijetunga held the office of president.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sri Lanka : Sri Lanka Overview 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

.There are also many smaller Buddhist, socialist and Tamil nationalist political parties that oppose the separatism of the LTTE but demand regional autonomy and increased civil rights.^ Sri Lanka's minority communities, especially ethnic Tamils, have been worst affected by the increase human rights violations.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sri Lanka : Sri Lanka Overview 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The current government of Mahinda Rajapakshe is also seen as hard-line Sinhala nationalist and his coalition partners include two major nationalist political parties.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sri Lanka : Sri Lanka Overview 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sri Lankan southern political block has also seen a rise in nationalist elements including a new Buddhist monks' party that managed to secure parliamentary seats.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sri Lanka : Sri Lanka Overview 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

.Since 1948, Sri Lanka has been a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and the United Nations.^ Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar said the United States was sending helicopters, and an airborne surgical hospital from Finland arrived in Sri Lanka.

^ Muhammad Sadiq, the youngest son, a bachelor, decided to seek his pastures in the United Kingdom, spent a considerable portion of his life in England, and has since returned to settle down in Sri Lanka.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Survivors in Indonesia, India and Sri Lanka complained of the slow pace of national and international relief efforts, news agencies reported.

.It is also a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, the Colombo Plan, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation.^ In 1981, he inaugurated the first meeting of Foreign Secretaries of South Asian countries held in Colombo to explore prospects for regional co-operation.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was the Chairman of the Ministerial Conference of the Non-aligned Movement from 1977-1979.
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^ He was also a proponent of greater understanding among South Asian nations for the resolution of common problems and played an active role in the formation of the South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation (SAARC).
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.Through the Cold War-era, Sri Lanka followed a foreign policy of non-alignment but has remained closer to the United States and Western Europe.^ Sri Lanka Guardian too came under unimaginable pressures from the state following the death of Lasantha for upholding the just discipline of honest journalism.

^ Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar said the United States was sending helicopters, and an airborne surgical hospital from Finland arrived in Sri Lanka.

^ He gave the following examples: (a) A Sri Lankan expert stated that there was no recoil or movement of the weapon discharged.

.The military of Sri Lanka comprises the Sri Lankan Army, the Sri Lankan Navy and the Sri Lankan Air Force.^ Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar said the United States was sending helicopters, and an airborne surgical hospital from Finland arrived in Sri Lanka.

^ Individuals from the group have expressed that they do not want to go back to Sri Lanka, making this a forced repatriation exercise.

^ Tens of thousands of people that are caught between the last 1500 fighters of the Tamil Tigers and the 65000 troops of the Sri Lankan army.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sri Lanka : Sri Lanka Overview 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

These are administered by the Ministry of Defence. .During 1971 and 1989 the army assisted the police in government response against the Marxist militants of the JVP and fought the LTTE from 1983 to 2009. Sri Lanka receives considerable military assistance from Pakistan and China.^ Death was so widespread in Sri Lanka that the government waived rules requiring an autopsy before burial.

^ It was subsequently taken over by Government of Sri Lanka in 1957 for construction of the new Police station and officers’ quarters.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Copyright © 2007- 2009 Sri Lanka Guardian : |Designed by Michael Jube|Devoloped by Sri Lanka Guardian IT Sri Lanka Guardian |Email Us slglanka@gmail.com .

[31]

Foreign relations and military

Foreign relations

.Sri Lanka traditionally follows a nonaligned foreign policy but has been seeking closer relations with the United States since December 1977. It participates in multilateral diplomacy, particularly at the United Nations, where it seeks to promote sovereignty, independence, and development in the developing world.^ December 1994 Ratmalana, Sri Lanka .
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sri Lanka Guardian too came under unimaginable pressures from the state following the death of Lasantha for upholding the just discipline of honest journalism.

^ Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar said the United States was sending helicopters, and an airborne surgical hospital from Finland arrived in Sri Lanka.

.Sri Lanka was a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM).^ Tony was a prominent member in Sri Lanka’s construction industry from 1973 to 1991.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tuan Branudeen Jayah, Dr. Tuan Branudeen Jayah, famously known as TB Jayah, was a prominent member of the Malay Muslim community in Sri Lanka.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amidst the heavy workload, Tony surprisingly found time to be a social worker too, and was a Mental Health social worker at the Mental hospital Angoda, and a member of the Sarvodaya movement for a brief period.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It also is a member of the Commonwealth, the SAARC, the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Asian Development Bank, and the Colombo Plan.^ He was a member of the Moors Town Guard, Colombo, during the Great War 1914-1918 and was sectional ARP Warden during World War II 1939-1945.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He started his political career as Member of Colombo Municipal Council and became Mayor of Colombo, Member of Parliament and Deputy Minister of Health and Rural Industrial Development.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sri Lanka continues its active participation in the NAM, while also stressing the importance it places on regionalism by playing a strong role in SAARC.

Military

.The Sri Lanka Armed Forces, comprising the Sri Lanka Army, the Sri Lanka Navy and the Sri Lanka Air Force, comes under the purview of the Ministry of Defence (MoD).^ In Sri Lanka, the Health Ministry dispatched 300 physicians to the disaster zone by helicopter.

^ Warships in Thailand steamed to remote tropical island resorts to search for survivors as air force helicopters in Sri Lanka and India rushed food and medicine to stricken areas.

^ The bonds between the two countries grew to such an extent that Pakistan has since on every occasion when demanded willingly come to the rescue of Sri Lanka.
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.The total strength of the three services is around 230,000 active personnel who have voluntary joined, since military draft have never been imposed in Sri Lanka.^ Sri Lanka was never a “model democracy” .

^ It would take about three days to get food to 700,000 people in Sri Lanka but much longer to reach the one million hungry people in Indonesia, he said.

^ "The toll is going up and I will not be surprised it reaches 20,000 to 25,000," said Nimal Hettiarchchi, director of Sri Lanka's National Disaster Management Center.

.The Sri Lanka Armed Forces are currently in a fully mobilized (including reserves) state due to the ongoing Sri Lankan Civil War against the LTTE which is proscribed as a terrorist organization by 32 countries.^ Sri Lanka Guardian too came under unimaginable pressures from the state following the death of Lasantha for upholding the just discipline of honest journalism.

^ Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar said the United States was sending helicopters, and an airborne surgical hospital from Finland arrived in Sri Lanka.

^ Individuals from the group have expressed that they do not want to go back to Sri Lanka, making this a forced repatriation exercise.

In support of the armed forces there are two paramilitary units functioning under purview of the Ministry of Defence, which are the Special Task Force and the Civil Defence Force. .Sri Lanka did not had a Coast Guard service until Aug 10, 2009 and its Navy carried out such duties.^ He toiled from 8 am until 10 pm on a daily basis in carrying out his business successfully and fruitfully.
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^ Ajward Cassim (1955-1995) of Belgrade Migrated to Yugoslavia and was appointed as the Honorary Counsel General of Sri Lanka for Yugoslavia and held this post until his death.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Copyright © 2007- 2009 Sri Lanka Guardian : |Designed by Michael Jube|Devoloped by Sri Lanka Guardian IT Sri Lanka Guardian |Email Us slglanka@gmail.com .

Discussions were underway with respect to establishing a coast guard service.[32] and on .Aug 10, 2009 director-general of Sri Lanka Department of Coast Guard Daya Dharmapriya officially announced the on behalf of the government the launching of the service.^ Death was so widespread in Sri Lanka that the government waived rules requiring an autopsy before burial.

^ It was subsequently taken over by Government of Sri Lanka in 1957 for construction of the new Police station and officers’ quarters.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ajward Cassim (1955-1995) of Belgrade Migrated to Yugoslavia and was appointed as the Honorary Counsel General of Sri Lanka for Yugoslavia and held this post until his death.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33]
.Since independence from Britain in 1948, the primary focus of the armed forces has been on internal security, due to three major insurgencies, most notably engaged in the 30-year long war with the LTTE and finally claimed victory at 19 May 2009 after the death of LTTE leader Velupillai Prabhakaran which took place at 18 May 2009 by a Sri Lanka army attack.^ He returned to Sri Lanka that same year.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The country is exhausted from 30 years of war.

^ Editorial from Colombo Desk of Sri Lanka Guardian (January 08, Colombo, Sri Lanka Guardian) Lasantha Wickramatunga - the founder and editor of the heroic newspaper Sunday Leader was assassinated by the state’s death squad on 8 January 2009.

Peace keeping

.Even though its armed forces were then engaged in an internal conflict, Sri Lanka contributed with forces in international missions organised by the United Nations, notably the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti and continue to contribute their forces to the United Nations.^ Sri Lanka representative to Habitat International.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar said the United States was sending helicopters, and an airborne surgical hospital from Finland arrived in Sri Lanka.

^ Individuals from the group have expressed that they do not want to go back to Sri Lanka, making this a forced repatriation exercise.

.On the 21 October 2009 another group of two hundred Sri Lankan troops including nine officers from all three branches of the armed forces were added to the current deployment in a passing-out parade.^ Individuals from the group have expressed that they do not want to go back to Sri Lanka, making this a forced repatriation exercise.

^ Sri Lankan officials said another 7,275 people were now known to have died in the Dec.

^ Those anti-Rajapakses including some Tamil forces who have sided with the General have in fact done so believing in the General and not out of any penchant to the constituents of the common opposition, thus adding a further burden on the General to be above the common opposition’s stringent guidelines.

The two hundred troops are scheduled to leave for Haiti on 8 November 2009.[34]

Economy

.In the 19th and 20th Centuries, Sri Lanka became a plantation economy, famous for its production and export of cinnamon, rubber and Ceylon tea, which remains a trademark national export.^ On January 10, 1883 fifty five Egyptian exiles led by the famous Colonel Arabi Pasha arrived in Sri Lanka (then Ceylon) and Ismails knowlkdge of Arabic proved extremely useful for interacting with them.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As President of the All Ceylon Malay Association (now known as Sri Lanka Malay Association) he established cultural and social contacts with Malay leaders of the world.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Survivors in Indonesia, India and Sri Lanka complained of the slow pace of national and international relief efforts, news agencies reported.

The development of modern ports under British rule raised the strategic importance of the island as a centre of trade. .During World War II, the island hosted important military installations and Allied forces.^ He was a member of the Moors Town Guard, Colombo, during the Great War 1914-1918 and was sectional ARP Warden during World War II 1939-1945.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Tribunal, and other critics of the war, claimed that the US behaviour in Vietnam was comparable to the atrocities committed by the Nazis in Europe during the Second World War.

^ Successive French Consuls made this their official residence until World War II when the Vichy Government took over power in France in 1941 and recalled its envoys.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, the plantation economy aggravated poverty and economic inequality. From 1948 to 1977 socialism strongly influenced the government's economic policies. Colonial plantations were dismantled, industries were nationalised and a welfare state established. While the standard of living and literacy improved significantly, the nation's economy suffered from inefficiency, slow growth and lack of foreign investment. .From 1977 the UNP government began incorporating privatisation, deregulation and promotion of private enterprise.^ Soon, through hard work and commitment, Nuwara Mudalali emerged as the largest supplier of vegetables to key government institutions and private enterprises in Colombo.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

While the production and export of tea, rubber, coffee, sugar and other agricultural commodities remains important, the nation has moved steadily towards an industrialised economy with the development of food processing, textiles, telecommunications and finance. .By 1996 plantation crops made up only 20% of export, and further declined to 16.8% in 2005 (compared with 93% in 1970), while textiles and garments have reached 63%.^ "The toll is going up and I will not be surprised it reaches 20,000 to 25,000," said Nimal Hettiarchchi, director of Sri Lanka's National Disaster Management Center.

The GDP grew at an average annual rate of 5.5% during the early 1990s, until a drought and a deteriorating security situation lowered growth to 3.8% in 1996. The economy rebounded in 1997–2000, with average growth of 5.3%. .The year of 2001 saw the first recession in the country's history, as a result of power shortages, budgetary problems, the global slowdown, and continuing civil strife.^ Since then he was returned to power in eight elections, counting 39 years as an MP. This was one of the longest unbroken parliamentary records in the country.
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^ The first thirteen years of his public life commencing in the year 1935 portrays him as a devoted, hardworking and enthusiastic public servant in the Ceylon Civil Service.
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^ He was appointed to the Cabinet in 1977 when the UNP came to power and became the first Foreign Minister of this country.
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Signs of recovery appeared after the 2002 ceasefire which died away following the beginning of war. .Since the separatist war ended in May 2009 the Sri Lankan stock market has shown marked gains to be among the 3 best performing markets in the world.^ Since then, many eminent Sri lankan Speakers have used this as their official residence.
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^ Since May 1965 as Secretary, ceylon Malay Research Organization he devoted his full time honorary service to the Sri Lankan Malay Community.
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^ Since a cease-fire in 2002 ended a 20-year civil war, tourism and foreign investment have soared, giving Sri Lanka a relatively stable economy and one of the fastest-growing stock markets in the world.

[35] .The Colombo Stock Exchange reported the highest growth in the world for 2003, and today Sri Lanka has the highest per capita income in South Asia.^ From Sri Lanka to the intellectual heritage of the world .

^ As President of the All Ceylon Malay Association (now known as Sri Lanka Malay Association) he established cultural and social contacts with Malay leaders of the world.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He held one of the highest positions in Sri Lanka as the Speaker of Parliament.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.About 14% of the population live on less than US$ 1.25 per day.^ Heart of darkness .” Let us imagine a desert country lying in absolute darkness with many living things swarming blindly about it ” .

^ The Chandler wobble, discovered by astronomer S. C. Chandler in 1891, is a variation in the earth's axis of rotation amounting to 0.7 seconds of arc over a period of 435 days, or about 14 months.

[36]
Sri Lanka's most widely known export, Ceylon tea.
.In April 2004, there was a sharp reversal in economic policy after the government headed by Ranil Wickremesinghe of the United National Party was defeated by a coalition made up of Sri Lanka Freedom Party and the leftist-nationalist Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna called the United People's Freedom Alliance.^ Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar said the United States was sending helicopters, and an airborne surgical hospital from Finland arrived in Sri Lanka.

^ Although the United Kingdom government called upon the Board of Ministers to draft a Constitution, which was started by had to abandon it as the Soulbury Commissioners were appointed.
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^ Survivors in Indonesia, India and Sri Lanka complained of the slow pace of national and international relief efforts, news agencies reported.

.The new government stopped the privatization of state enterprises and reforms of state utilities such as power and petroleum, and embarked on a subsidy program called the Rata Perata economic program.^ It was also agreed that the governments in North and South Vietnam would remain in power until new elections could be arranged to unite the whole country.

^ Soon, through hard work and commitment, Nuwara Mudalali emerged as the largest supplier of vegetables to key government institutions and private enterprises in Colombo.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Its main theme to support the rural and suburban SMEs and protect the domestic economy from external influences, such as oil prices, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. .Sri Lanka, with an income per head of US$1,400, still lags behind some of its neighbors including Maldives and Mauritius but is ahead of its giant neighbor India.^ Count on us when you want to organize a Holiday in Sri Lanka or when you want to book a Hotel in Sri Lanka.
  • Holidays in Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka Holidays, Hotels in Sri Lanka, Holiday Hotels 9 February 2010 17:57 UTC www.srilankanexpeditions.com [Source type: General]

^ Survivors in Indonesia, India and Sri Lanka complained of the slow pace of national and international relief efforts, news agencies reported.

^ Copyright © 2007- 2009 Sri Lanka Guardian : |Designed by Michael Jube|Devoloped by Sri Lanka Guardian IT Sri Lanka Guardian |Email Us slglanka@gmail.com .

Its economy grew by an average of 5% during the 1990s during the 'War for Peace' era. .According to the Sri Lankan central bank statistics, the economy was estimated to have grown by 7% last year, while inflation reached 20%.^ The Sri Lankan government estimates it will need between $1.3 billion and $1.5 billion to rebuild.

^ "The toll is going up and I will not be surprised it reaches 20,000 to 25,000," said Nimal Hettiarchchi, director of Sri Lanka's National Disaster Management Center.

^ The emotion and anger have not gone away in the year since this famous Sri Lankan journalist’s death,” Reporters Without Borders said.

.Parts of Sri Lanka, particularly the South and East coast, were devastated by the 2004 Asian Tsunami.^ South Asian earthquakes and Tsunamis.

^ Sri Lanka south, east tourist region worst-hit'...

^ Coastal residents from Indonesia to Thailand to Sri Lanka fled to higher ground when the alarm was raised, before hearing hours later that no tsunami materialized.

.The economy was briefly buoyed by an influx of foreign aid and tourists, but this was disrupted with the reemergence of the civil war resulting in increased lawlessness in the country[37] and a sharp decline in tourism.^ But a British consulate official in Thailand warned that hundreds more foreign tourists were likely killed in the country's resorts.

^ Since a cease-fire in 2002 ended a 20-year civil war, tourism and foreign investment have soared, giving Sri Lanka a relatively stable economy and one of the fastest-growing stock markets in the world.

^ The year-round tropical climes that made coastal Thailand and Sri Lanka beacons to foreign tourists are now the countries' enemies.

[38][39] .But following the end of the 3 decade long separatist war in May 2009 tourism has seen a steep uptick.^ Although the civil war in Sri Lanka ended in May 2009, more that 200,000 Sri Lankan Tamils are currently confined in internment camps where conditions are extremely poor and show little signs of improvement.

^ A new danger emerged Tuesday: the floods uprooted land mines in Sri Lanka _ a nation torn by a decades-old war with Tamil separatists in the north.

^ A new danger emerged Tuesday: the floods uprooted land mines in Sri Lanka - a nation torn by a decades-old war with Tamil separatists in the north.

Also the end of war has ensured the rule of law in the whole of the island.

Administrative divisions

Provinces

.The Provinces of Sri Lanka (Sinhala: පළාතTamil: மாகாணம்) have existed since the 19th century but they didn't have any legal status until 1987 when the 13th Amendment to the 1978 Constitution of Sri Lanka established provincial councils following several decades of increasing demand for a decentralization of the Government of Sri Lanka.^ They asked particularly what the status of the exiles was in Sri Lanka.
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^ Let the people of Sri Lanka whether Sinhalese, Tamils, Muslims, Burghers, Vedhas and many other communities forgetting their differences and join their hands and in unison give the much needed farewell to this terror government that has wrecked the established fundamental values that Sri Lankan society practiced for centuries on the election day.

^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
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[40] .Between 1988 and 2006 the Northern and Eastern provinces were temporarily merged to form the North-East Province.^ The exiles were ultimately allowed to reside in any part of the island except the northern and eastern provinces.
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^ Telephone communications between Jakarta and the province of Aceh in northern Sumatra have been cut.

^ Between 1957 and his retirement, in October 1962 on the language policy of the Government, Murad Jayah was appointed District Superintendent, Upper District, and later Northern & Eastern Districts.
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.Prior to 1987, all administration was handled by a district-based civil service which had been in place since colonial times.^ The British later took over the administration and based on minutes of Sir Hugh Cleghorn the British Colonial Secretary in 1976, it is evident that two different nations, entirely different in their religion, language and manners, lived in Ceylon at that time.

^ Torture and other forms of the use of force take place at all police stations all the time every day.

^ Since May 1965 as Secretary, ceylon Malay Research Organization he devoted his full time honorary service to the Sri Lankan Malay Community.
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.Sri Lanka is divided into 9 provinces[41] and 25 districts.^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
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^ "The toll is going up and I will not be surprised it reaches 20,000 to 25,000," said Nimal Hettiarchchi, director of Sri Lanka's National Disaster Management Center.

^ Sri Lanka Muslims @ 7:25 PM 0 Comments Links to this post .
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42] Each province is administered by a directly elected provincial council:
Administrative Divisions of Sri Lanka
province Capital Area (km²) Population
Central Kandy 5,674 2,423,966
Eastern Trincomalee 9,996 1,460,939
North Central Anuradhapura 10,714 1,104,664
Northern Jaffna 8,884 1,311,776
North Western Kurunegala 7,812 2,169,892
Sabaragamuwa Ratnapura 4,902 1,801,331
Southern Galle 5,559 2,278,271
Uva Badulla 8,488 1,177,358
Western Colombo 3,709 5,361,200

Districts

.The provinces of Sri Lanka are divided into 25 districts (Sinhala: දිස්ත්‍රි‌ක්‌ක sing. දිස්ත්‍රික්කයTamil: மாவட்டம்).^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sri Lanka's minority communities, especially ethnic Tamils, have been worst affected by the increase human rights violations.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sri Lanka : Sri Lanka Overview 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He stood for inter-racial harmony in Sri Lanka and his proficiency in all three languages namely Tamil, Sinhala and English proved to be a big boon for this avowed interest in him.
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Each district is administered under a District Secretariat. The districts are further subdivided into divisional secretariats, and these in turn to Grama Sevaka divisions.
The Districts are known in Sinhala as Disa and in Tamil as Maawaddam. Originally a Disa (usually rendered into English as Dissavony) was a duchy, notably Matale and Uva. The Government Agent, who is known as District Secretary, administers a district.
These were originally based on the feudal counties, the korales and ratas. .They were formerly known as 'D.R.O. Divisions' after the 'Divisional Revenue Officer'. Later the D.R.O.s became 'Assistant Government Agents' and the Divisions were known as 'A.G.A. Divisions'. Currently, the Divisions are administered by a 'Divisional Secretary', and are known as a 'D.S. Divisions'. Rural D.S. Divisions are also administered by a 'Pradeshiya Sabha' and 'Pradesha Sabhai' (Sinhala and Tamil for 'Regional Council'), which is elected.^ He was nominated to the State Council in 1936 and was elected to the Sate Council in 1947 when he became the Minister of Labour.
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^ He also foresaw the division of our community into Tamil speaking and Sinhala speaking Units.
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^ Later on he also became the first Muslim Speaker in 1956 in the Bandaranayake Government.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Cities

Cities by population

Rank City Province Population Rank City Province Population
1 Colombo Western 682 046 11 Galle Southern 97 209
2 Dehiwala-Mount Lavinia Western 232 220 12 Batticaloa Eastern 95 489
3 Moratuwa Western 202 021 13 Katunayake Western 90 231
4 Negombo Western 142 451 14 Battaramulla Western 84 200
5 Trincomalee Eastern 131 954 15 Dambulla Central 75 290
6 Kotte Western 125 914 16 Dalugama Western 74 129
7 Kandy Central 119 186 17 Maharagama Western 74 117
8 Kalmunai Eastern 103 879 18 Kotikawatta Western 71 879
9 Vavuniya Northern 101 143 19 Chavakachcheri Northern 70 273
10 Jaffna Northern 98 193 20 Anuradhapura North Central 66 951
2009 estimation[43]

Demographics

Population growth in Sri Lanka.
.Sri Lanka is the 53rd most populated nation in the world, with an annual population growth rate of 0.79%.^ In fact it may have made them worse," said Jehan Perera, director of the National Peace Council in Sri Lanka.

^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
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^ Sri Lanka is situated in the Indian Ocean at the southern most tip of India.The town of Galle is situated in the southern province and is otherwise known as the Dutch city.
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.Sri Lanka has a birth rate of 15.63 births per 1,000 people and a death rate of 6.49 deaths per 1,000 people.^ Sri Lanka Guardian too came under unimaginable pressures from the state following the death of Lasantha for upholding the just discipline of honest journalism.

^ Death was so widespread in Sri Lanka that the government waived rules requiring an autopsy before burial.

^ Ajward Cassim (1955-1995) of Belgrade Migrated to Yugoslavia and was appointed as the Honorary Counsel General of Sri Lanka for Yugoslavia and held this post until his death.
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.Population density is highest in western Sri Lanka, especially in and around the capital.^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
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^ Indonesia, with around 80,000 dead, was the worst hit, followed by Sri Lanka, India and Thailand.

^ He held one of the highest positions in Sri Lanka as the Speaker of Parliament.
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.There is a small population on the island of the Vedda people.^ On Nias, a sparsely populated island off Aceh's western coast, at least 42 people died in floods, police said.

They are believed to be the original indigenous group to inhabit the island. .The Sinhalese people form the largest ethnic group in the nation, composing approximately 81.9% of the total population.^ The Sinhala King Parakramabahu ruled Kotte in the south populated by Sinhalese people.

.Tamils are concentrated in the North, East, Central and Western provinces of the country.^ He also established many Tamil and Arabic Schools in many parts of the Central Province, some of which he himself managed and financed.
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^ Tamil by the Muslims of the South and Central Ceylon would almost cut them off from the Muslims of the East and North Ceylon; .....
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.Sri Lankan Tamils are the second major ethnic groupon the island and have called it home for generations.^ Tamil is the home language of the majority of the Muslims of Sri Lanka.
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^ A Sri Lankan expert stated that the movement of the second victim after being shot was not consistent with the normal expected reaction.

^ UN expert concludes that Sri Lankan video is authentic, calls for an independent war crimes investigation .

.Indian Tamils who were brought as indentured labourers from India by British colonists to work on estate plantations, nearly 50% of whom were repatriated following independence in 1948,[44] are called "Indian Origin" Tamils.^ There are two groups of Tamils: ‘Sri Lankan Tamils' (also known as ‘Ceylon' or ‘Jaffna' Tamils) are the descendants of Tamil-speaking groups who migrated from south India many centuries ago; and ‘Up Country Tamils' (also known as ‘Indian' or ‘estate' Tamils), who are descendants of comparatively recent immigrants.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sri Lanka : Sri Lanka Overview 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Tigers, who have fought a 20-year war for Tamil independence from the Sinhalese-dominated south, invited Annan to tour the northern province.

^ The country gained independence from British rule on 4 February 1948.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sri Lanka : Sri Lanka Overview 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

.They are distinguished from the native Tamil population that has resided in Sri Lanka since ancient times.^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
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^ Coastal residents from Indonesia to Thailand to Sri Lanka fled to higher ground when the alarm was raised, before hearing hours later that no tsunami materialized.

^ Individuals from the group have expressed that they do not want to go back to Sri Lanka, making this a forced repatriation exercise.

.According to 2001 census data Indian Tamils makeup 5.1% of the Sri Lankan population and, Sri Lankan Tamils 4.3% but this figure only accounted for Sri Lankan Tamils in government-controlled areas, not accounting for those in rebel-held territories.^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
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^ The Sri Lankan government estimates it will need between $1.3 billion and $1.5 billion to rebuild.

^ Their painstaking investigative journalism has the binocular research impact that the corrupt Sri Lankan governments found them hard to stomach.

.The World Factbook states that Sri Lankan Tamils make up 14% of the population.^ Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar said the United States was sending helicopters, and an airborne surgical hospital from Finland arrived in Sri Lanka.

^ A Sri Lankan expert stated that the lack of audio synchronization with the video indicated manipulation.

^ He gave the following examples: (a) A Sri Lankan expert stated that there was no recoil or movement of the weapon discharged.

.There is a significant population (8.0%) of Moors, who trace their lineage to Arab traders and immigrants from the Middle East.^ He traces his ancestry to Sheikh Jamaludeen Al Maghdoomi, the pioneer Arab settler who established himself in the seaboard town of Beruwala.
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^ He was the third issue of Muhammad Yehiya, son of Alim Naina-Marikar Khaleefathul Khadiri, whose lineage is traced back to the early Arab settlers at Beruwela.
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^ In 1799 there were 7,500 able bodied Moors who were taxed (“Sonaka” page 91) in lieue of personal service to the State.
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Their presence is concentrated in the cities and the central and eastern provinces. .There are also small ethnic groups such as the Burghers (of mixed European descent) and Malays from Southeast Asia.^ As for ZH Mantara, the argument raised against him was that he was only a young rising Proctor from a small minority Malay group within the Muslim community.
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^ Europeans desperately sought relatives missing from holidays in Southeast Asia _ particularly Thailand, where bodies littered the once crowded beach resorts.

^ Europeans desperately sought relatives missing from holidays in Southeast Asia - particularly Thailand, where bodies littered the once crowded beach resorts.

Language

.Sinhalese and Tamil are the two official languages of Sri Lanka.^ Tamil is the home language of the majority of the Muslims of Sri Lanka.
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^ In Tamil Nadu state, just across the straits from Sri Lanka, 1,567 people were killed, said the state's top elected official, Chief Minister Jayaram Jayalalithaa.

^ He stood for inter-racial harmony in Sri Lanka and his proficiency in all three languages namely Tamil, Sinhala and English proved to be a big boon for this avowed interest in him.
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.English is fluently spoken by approximately 10% of the population, and is widely used for education, scientific and commercial purposes.^ ISMAIL LEBBE MARIKAR SULTAN MARIKAR ILM Sultan Marikar received an elementary education but could converse in English fluently.
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^ CHINNA LEBBE MARIKAR Ismail Lebbe Marikar Sultan Marikar Ismail Lebbe Marikar Sultan Marikar of Galle, received an elementary education but could converse in English fluently.
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.Members of the Burgher community speak variant forms of Portuguese Creole and Dutch with varying proficiency, while members of the Malay community speak a form of creole Malay that is unique to the island.^ Besides donations from members of the Malay community, contributions were also received from well wishers.
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^ Jayah spoke because he was in a position to say that the "......Muslim Members of this Council have the fullest backing of the Muslim community in this island."
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^ Tuan Branudeen Jayah, Dr. Tuan Branudeen Jayah, famously known as TB Jayah, was a prominent member of the Malay Muslim community in Sri Lanka.
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Religions

The Nallur Kandaswamy Kovil, Jaffna is an important place for Hindus in Sri Lanka
.Sri Lanka has a multi ethnic and multi religious population.^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
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^ Sri Lanka's minority communities, especially ethnic Tamils, have been worst affected by the increase human rights violations.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sri Lanka : Sri Lanka Overview 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These shining qualities stood him in good stead as a leader among the multi-ethnic society in Sri Lanka.
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.Buddhism constitutes the religious faith of about 70% of the population of the island,[45][46] most of whom follow the Theravada school of Buddhism.^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
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[47] .According to traditional Sri Lankan chronicles, Buddhism was introduced into Sri Lanka in the 2nd century BCE by Venerable Mahinda, the son of the Emperor Ashoka, during the reign of Sri Lanka's King Devanampiyatissa.^ Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar said the United States was sending helicopters, and an airborne surgical hospital from Finland arrived in Sri Lanka.

^ How, then, does one consider the worth of this distinguished son of Sri Lanka?
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^ This was during the reign of the Singhalese King Dapula III who established a medical college.
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[47]
.During this time, a sapling of the Bodhi Tree under which the Buddha attained enlightenment was brought to Sri Lanka and the first monasteries were established under the sponsorship of the Sri Lankan king.^ First Muslim lawyer of Sri Lanka.
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^ Sri Lanka Guardian too came under unimaginable pressures from the state following the death of Lasantha for upholding the just discipline of honest journalism.

^ Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar said the United States was sending helicopters, and an airborne surgical hospital from Finland arrived in Sri Lanka.

The Pali Canon (Thripitakaya), having previously been preserved as an oral tradition, was first committed to writing in Sri Lanka around 30 BC.[48]
.Sri Lanka has the longest continuous history of Buddhism of any predominately Buddhist nation,[47] with the Sangha having existed in a largely unbroken lineage since its introduction in the 2nd century BCE. During periods of decline, the Sri Lankan monastic lineage was revived through contact with Thailand and Burma.^ Hundreds have been killed in Sri Lanka, and Thailand.

^ Coastal residents from Indonesia to Thailand to Sri Lanka fled to higher ground when the alarm was raised, before hearing hours later that no tsunami materialized.

^ Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar said the United States was sending helicopters, and an airborne surgical hospital from Finland arrived in Sri Lanka.

[48]
.Periods of Mahayana influence, as well as official neglect under colonial rule, created great challenges for Theravada Buddhist institutions in Sri Lanka, but repeated revivals and resurgences—most recently in the 19th century—have kept the Theravada tradition alive for over 2000 years.^ He returned to Sri Lanka that same year.
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^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
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^ Sri Lanka Guardian too came under unimaginable pressures from the state following the death of Lasantha for upholding the just discipline of honest journalism.

.Hinduism the second most prevalent religion in Sri Lanka and it also arrived from India.^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
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^ Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar said the United States was sending helicopters, and an airborne surgical hospital from Finland arrived in Sri Lanka.

^ Sri Lanka, then known as Ceylon, was ruled by 3 kingdoms when the Portuguese arrived in 1506.

.Today, most Hindus are Tamil and they constitute a majority in Northern Sri Lanka.^ Tamil is the home language of the majority of the Muslims of Sri Lanka.
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^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
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^ Individuals from the group have expressed that they do not want to go back to Sri Lanka, making this a forced repatriation exercise.

The Jami Ul Alfar mosque in Colombo. Islam was brought to Sri Lanka by Arab Merchants
Sri Lanka religiosity
religion percent
Buddhism
  
69%
Hinduism
  
15%
Islam
  
8%
Christianity
  
8%
Source: David, 1993[49]
.Religions which today exist in Sri Lanka, in addition to Buddhism and Hinduism include Islam as well as different churches of Christianity.^ It was the golden-era of P. de S. Kularatne at Ananda and the anti-imperialist agitation was at its peak in Sri Lanka and the fever was felt in schools as well.
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^ Sri Lanka was, of course, well known to Muslims, for whom Adam’s peak was regarded as a sacred mountain.
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^ Today the so-called humanitarian mission to rescue the mass civilians is diverted to those detained in Sri Lanka Army internment camps.

.Followers of Islam comprise nearly eight percent of the population,[46] having been brought to the island by Arab traders over the course of many centuries, most are Sunni who follow the Shafi'i school.^ They followed the Shafi School of jurisprudence.
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[50]
.Hinduism was primarily established in Sri Lanka by migrants and often invaders from southern India,[51] Hindus constitute just over 7 percent of the population,[46][52] mostly of the Shaivite school.^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
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^ Sri Lanka Guardian too came under unimaginable pressures from the state following the death of Lasantha for upholding the just discipline of honest journalism.

^ As President of the All Ceylon Malay Association (now known as Sri Lanka Malay Association) he established cultural and social contacts with Malay leaders of the world.
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[citation needed] European colonists introduced Christianity to the country in the 16th century,[53] and the religion has been adopted by around six percent of the population.[46]
.There also was a small population of Zoroastrian immigrants from India (Parsis) who settled in Ceylon during the period of British rule.^ Many were the Muslims of South India who came to ceylon in pursuit of trade as well as for the purpose of imparting the Arabic language and also spreading Islam.
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^ Early Muslims who settled in Ceylon were of the orthodox Sunnat Jama’at.
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^ During this time there were numerous callers with problems of whom many were students, for whom he would respond patiently and settle their affairs.
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.As a result of emigration, few remain, yet they have played a significant role in the growth of the country.^ Australian Prime Minister John Howard said he would investigate what role his country could play in setting up an Indian Ocean warning system.

^ With the establishment of the YMMA conference, Dr. Azeez began to play a significant role in the political arena of Ceylon.
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^ Died:22-Apr-1944 MT Akbar played a prominent role in the educational and judicial life of the country.
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.The former finance minister of Sri Lanka, Nariman Choksy, was a Parsi.^ Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar said the United States was sending helicopters, and an airborne surgical hospital from Finland arrived in Sri Lanka.

^ In Sri Lanka, 1,000 miles west of the epicenter, more than 2,150 people were killed, the prime minister's office said.

^ They were ordered by the Ministers of the Delhi Sultanate (Sultan Muizzudin) to leave for Sri Lanka at the invitation of a Sri Lankan Monarch, one Parakrama Bahu.
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.Other famous Parsi families in Sri Lanka include the Captain family and the Pestongee family.^ M U M SALIE 1869-1963 http://www.lankagems.com/ Family history related by Yssuf Salie (grandson of MUM Salie) Greetings from Sri Lanka and welcome to the LankaGems website.
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^ Here, in this palatial house on Church Street in Galle, with a massive door studded with huge brass fitrments guarding the entrance, lived one of Sri Lanka’s most famous and affluent families, the Macan Markar’s.
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^ The arrival in Sri Lanka of the two male ancestors of the Uda-Rata family had taken place during the reign of Parakrama Bahu II (1230 AD).
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.Religion plays an important part in the life and culture of Sri Lankans.^ The so-called Sri Lankan Government is still treating the Sinhala Buddhists as disabled or handicapped persons who have to be propped-up to enable them to lead a normal life.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sri Lanka : Sri Lanka Overview 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He is a life member of both the SLMA Colombo, and the Sri Lankan Malay Association of Sydney.- Australia.
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^ There are even news paper articles written in favour of this system on the basis that culturally Sri Lankans are incapable of operating as a team.

The Buddhist majority observe Poya Days, once per month according to the Lunar calendar. The Hindus and Muslims also observe their own holidays. .There are many Buddhist temples spread throughout the island in addition to numerous mosques, Hindu temples and churches, especially in areas where respective communities are concentrated.^ During this time there were numerous callers with problems of whom many were students, for whom he would respond patiently and settle their affairs.
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^ At this time, there were many with the last name 'Salie' working at the factory - and the people of the town wanted to give him a different and distinct name to honor his contribution to the community.
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^ The branch schools of Zahira College also received his generous gifts, as also many Mosques throughout the Island, the Deaf and Blind School at Ratmalana, and the Boy’s Industrial School at Maharagama.
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.Buddhists are distributed across most parts of the island except in the north.^ The exiles were ultimately allowed to reside in any part of the island except the northern and eastern provinces.
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.Hindus are concentrated in north, east, and central high lands, though high populations also exists in the capital city of Colombo and in the surrounding suburbs.^ Tamil by the Muslims of the South and Central Ceylon would almost cut them off from the Muslims of the East and North Ceylon; .....
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^ While the cease-fire was under threat politics in the capital city Colombo was also becoming turbulent.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sri Lanka : Sri Lanka Overview 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

Christians, particularly Roman Catholics are mainly concentrated along the western coastal belt.
.Muslims are concentrated in several pockets along the coast and in theinterior.^ Many European tourists remained among the several thousand people missing along Thailand's southern coast, which is dotted with smashed and wrecked cars and building material.

^ He, along with M.T.Akbar and several others, founded the Ceylon Muslim Educational Society Ltd., which established and managed the Hussainiya Boy’s School and Fathima Girl’s School.
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.All religious communities are represented in the western province and in other urban centers in sizable numbers.^ This helped not only the Muslims of the area but all communities that lived in the Eastern Province at that time.
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^ In all negotiations with the Government and with other communities for constitutional reform, the views of the Muslim League commanded respect with a man like him at the helm.
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.Sri Lanka was ranked the 3rd most religious country in the world by a 2008 Gallup poll, with 99% of Sri Lankans saying religion is an important part of their daily life.^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
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^ Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar said the United States was sending helicopters, and an airborne surgical hospital from Finland arrived in Sri Lanka.

^ As President of the All Ceylon Malay Association (now known as Sri Lanka Malay Association) he established cultural and social contacts with Malay leaders of the world.
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[54]

Health

Life expectancy was 69 for males and 76 for females in 2006.[55] Government expenditure on health care was aprox. .US$ 105 (PPP) in 2006. [56] Sri Lanka has about 48.9 physicians per 100,000 people.^ There was an assembly of about 5,000 people".
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^ In addition to the damage in Meulaboh, he said, four towns - each with about 10,000 people - were wiped out, except for one where about 30 survivors were camped on a hill.

^ Count on us when you want to organize a Holiday in Sri Lanka or when you want to book a Hotel in Sri Lanka.
  • Holidays in Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka Holidays, Hotels in Sri Lanka, Holiday Hotels 9 February 2010 17:57 UTC www.srilankanexpeditions.com [Source type: General]

[57] .The Médecins Sans Frontières are active in Sri Lanka.^ He also took an active part in Malay Community matters and is the author of the Malay Directory published by the Sri Lanka Malay Association in 1990.
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[57]

Education

University of Peradeniya
.With a literacy rate of 92%, and 83% of the total population having had Secondary Education,[58] Sri Lanka has one of the most literate populations amongst developing nations.^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
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^ He held one of the highest positions in Sri Lanka as the Speaker of Parliament.
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^ How, then, does one consider the worth of this distinguished son of Sri Lanka?
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[59] .An education system which dictates 9 years of Compulsory Schooling for every child is in place, with 99% of the children entering the first grade.^ This includes the recruitment of child soldiers by both the LTTE and the Karuna faction, on an average of 50 children every month.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sri Lanka : Sri Lanka Overview 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Rupee Fund holds a treat for poor children on June 18 every year to commemorate her birth and death anniversary.
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^ That same year a system of ‘standardization' was introduced in the universities, which in practice meant that Sinhalese were given a better chance of admission than many highly educated Tamils.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sri Lanka : Sri Lanka Overview 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

[58] A free education system initiated in 1945[60] by Dr. C. W. W. Kannangara, a former minister of education, has greatly contributed to this.
Dr. Kannangara led the establishment of the Madhya Maha Vidyalayas (Central Schools) in different parts of the country in order to provide education to Sri Lanka's rural population. In 1942 a special education committee proposed extensive reforms to establish an efficient and quality education system for the people. However in the 1980s changers to this system saw the separation the of administration of schools between the central government and the provincial government. .Thus the elite National Schools are controlled directly by the Ministry of Education and the provincial schools by the provincial government.^ Thus started the English education at Akurana Government School.
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^ As there were no facilities or staff to impart English education to the students of Akurana Government School, he made representations to the Department of Education, in Kandy and requested them to appoint an English Teacher to Akurana Government School .
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^ An incident can be quoted which served as the foundation to English Education at Akurana Government School.
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.Most schools in Sri Lanka provide education from grades 1 to 13 in the same institution.^ He returned to Sri Lanka that same year.
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^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
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^ Sri Lanka Muslims @ 12:13 PM 0 Comments Links to this post .
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.Students sit for the GCE Ordinary Level Examination (O/Levels) in grade 11 and the GCE Advanced Level Examination (A/levels) in grade 13, conducted by the Department of Examinations.^ He was the director and principal of Winchester College, Matale (named after a famous Public School in England) which prepared students for foreign and local examinations conducted in English.
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These schools are modeled on British colleges. A majority of them are public, but a number of private schools do exist. .While most reputed National and Private Schools centered around large cities are usually single-sex institutions, rural provincial schools tend to be coeducational.^ A highly religious personality he was a great philanthropist who generously helped a large number of Mosques, Schools and other Muslim institutions as well as needy individuals.
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.In recent decades, a large number of international schools have been established across the nation.^ A highly religious personality he was a great philanthropist who generously helped a large number of Mosques, Schools and other Muslim institutions as well as needy individuals.
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^ My husband provided financial assistance to build a Tamil School and a Madarasa in a Kayal Pattanam locality that was populated with a large number of illiterate children.
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.In these schools General Certificate of Secondary Education, International Baccalaureate and Cambridge International Examinations are popular education programs.^ Educated at St. Thomas’ College, Modera he passed the Cambridge Junior Examination and won a scholarship to study in England.
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^ Secondary education at Government Boys’ School, Pettah, Colombo 11, El Jamiathul Islamiyyah, 1888.
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.Many of the schools offer subjects in Sinhala and Tamil languages with regionally leading schools offering subjects in English medium also.^ Main languages: Sinhala (official and national language), Tamil (national language), English .
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sri Lanka : Sri Lanka Overview 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He stood for inter-racial harmony in Sri Lanka and his proficiency in all three languages namely Tamil, Sinhala and English proved to be a big boon for this avowed interest in him.
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^ EDUCATION : Seyed Abdul Cader received his education at Akurana Govt School in the Tamil Medium.Later he attended Sri Pushpadana Night school and studied English there.
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.Sri Lanka has around 16 public universities.^ Sri Lanka Muslims @ 7:16 PM 0 Comments Links to this post .
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^ Azeez contributed several articles to Publications in Sri Lanka and abroad.
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^ He has been described as the Sir Seyed Ahmed Khan of Sri Lanka, who was the founder of the Aligarh Muslim University in India.
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.They include the University of Colombo, the University of Peradeniya, the University of Kelaniya, the University of Sri Jayewardenepura, the University of Moratuwa, the University of Peradeniya, the University of Jaffna, the University of Ruhuna, the Eastern University of Sri Lanka, the Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka and the Wayamba University of Sri Lanka.^ Associated Press reporters Dilip Ganguly and Gemunu Amarasinghe in Colombo, Sri Lanka, K.N. Arun in Madras, India, and Sutin Wannabovorn in Phuket, Thailand, contributed to this report.

^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
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^ Individuals from the group have expressed that they do not want to go back to Sri Lanka, making this a forced repatriation exercise.

.However the lack of space in these institutions and the unwillingness to establish private universities has led to a large number of students been denied entry into formal universities as well as high undergraduate unemployment.^ A highly religious personality he was a great philanthropist who generously helped a large number of Mosques, Schools and other Muslim institutions as well as needy individuals.
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^ (I know the area well and there is simply no public transport to move such a large number of people).

^ Zainudeen was "At Home" to his friends and well-wishers during the whole of Saturday, when a large number of people called and congratulated him on his election.
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.As a result, a number of public and private institutions have emerged, which provide specialised education in a variety of fields, such as computer science, business administration and law.^ He also helped build a number of educational institutions, both Islamic and secular in South India.
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^ She established a Higher Educational Scholarship Scheme in 1959 to provide scholarships for such students.
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^ (I know the area well and there is simply no public transport to move such a large number of people).

.These include the government owned Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology and the Institute of Technological Studies.^ His journalism would have savaged the terror and corrupt cocktail of the government and the citizen’s of Sri Lanka would have come to know many of the hidden secrets of public importance to formulate their own opinion of the government.

^ Death was so widespread in Sri Lanka that the government waived rules requiring an autopsy before burial.

^ It was subsequently taken over by Government of Sri Lanka in 1957 for construction of the new Police station and officers’ quarters.
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.The free education system ensures that primary to tertiary education is provided free of charge to its citizens.^ Aziz made every endeavour to provide technical education to the students and in fact made use of an offer by the Education Department to grant an interest free loan of Rs.
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Transport

GM EMD G12 - ALBERTA diesel locomotive used for transportation
.Most Sri Lankan cities and towns are connected by the Sri Lanka Railways, the state-run national railway operator.^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
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^ Sri Lanka Guardian too came under unimaginable pressures from the state following the death of Lasantha for upholding the just discipline of honest journalism.

^ Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar said the United States was sending helicopters, and an airborne surgical hospital from Finland arrived in Sri Lanka.

.The first railway line was inaugurated on April 26, 1867, linking Colombo with Kandy.^ In 1981, he inaugurated the first meeting of Foreign Secretaries of South Asian countries held in Colombo to explore prospects for regional co-operation.
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^ Jayah first taught at Dharmaraja, Kandy, then Prince of Wales, Moratuwa and at Ananda, Colombo.
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^ In April 1945, Murad Jayah was appointed Assistant Divisional Transportation Superintendent in the Ceylon Government Railway, being the first Muslim to receive an executive appointment in the Railway.
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.The total length of Sri Lankan roads exceeds 11,000 kilometres (6,840 mi), with a vast majority of them being paved.^ A Sri Lankan expert stated that the movement of the second victim after being shot was not consistent with the normal expected reaction.

^ An estimated 18,000 to 20,000 foreign tourists who survived the waves have descended on Colombo, the capital, according to Sri Lankan Foreign Ministry officials.

^ Sri Lankan officials imposed a curfew as night fell, and tourists were being evacuated from the eastern coasts to the capital, Colombo, which is on the west coast and was unaffected.

.The government has launched several highway projects to bolster the economy and national transport system, including the Colombo-Katunayake Expressway, the Colombo-Kandy (Kadugannawa) Expressway, the Colombo-Padeniya Expressway and the Outer Circular Highway to ease Colombo's traffic congestion.^ Jayah always promoted national politics as the ideal system of governance in Sri Lanka.
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There are also plans to build a major bridge connecting Jaffna to the Indian city of Chennai.
.The Ceylon Transport Board is the state-run agency responsible for operating public bus services across the island.^ The first thirteen years of his public life commencing in the year 1935 portrays him as a devoted, hardworking and enthusiastic public servant in the Ceylon Civil Service.
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^ His stay in Cambridge was short-lived as he decided to return to the island after only one term at St. Catherine, when he was informed of his success at the Ceylon Civil Service Examination.
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.Sri Lanka also maintains 430 kilometres (270 mi) of inland waterways.^ She moved with the highest in society in Sri Lanka and maintained a close friendship with wives of leaders of Malaysia.
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^ In India, Thailand and Sri Lanka, thousands of people fled inland Thursday after unfounded rumors that another tsunami was approaching.

^ B ZAHIERE LYE B. Zahiere Lye was an Appointed Member of Parliament who spent most of his time in maintaining the image and unity of the Malay Community in Sri Lanka.
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.It has three deep-water ports at Colombo, Trincomalee and Galle.^ The business flourished and was moved to Colombo when the port of call for ships was moved from galle harbour to Colombo harbour.
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^ India agreed to assist Sri Lanka, sending two naval ships to the resort town of Galle, in the south, and Trincomalee, according to Colombo officials.

There is also a smaller, shallower harbour at Kankesanturai, north of Jaffna.
There are twelve paved airports and two unpaved airstrips in the country. SriLankan Airlines is the official national carrier, partly owned and operated by Emirates Airline. It was voted the best airline in South Asia by Skytrax. SriLankan Air Taxi is the smaller, domestic arm of the national carrier, while Expo Aviation and Lankair are private airline companies. .The Bandaranaike International Airport is the country's only international airport, located in Katunayaka, 22 kilometres (14 mi) north of Colombo.^ SLBC Watch (January 07, Colombo, Sri Lanka Guardian) “Only those leaders who have not had any education abroad have served the country well.

^ At Colombo's modern international airport Tuesday night, diplomats from various countries arrived to rescue their stranded citizens from a country that until recently was considered a nascent success story.

^ Name: Sri Lanka Muslims Location: Colombo, Western, Sri Lanka View my complete profile .
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Human rights

.Human rights as ratified by the United Nations are guaranteed by the constitution of Sir Lanka.^ The same applies to the Human Rights Commission of Sri Lanka which still bears this name.

^ Philip Alston was appointed Special Rapporteur in 2004 and reports to the United Nations Human Rights Council and the General Assembly.

^ It is easy to go about the world preaching about the human rights record of Sri Lanka.

.The human Rights situation in Sri Lanka has come under criticism by human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch,[61] as well as the United States Department of State[62] and the European Union,[63] have expressed concern about the state of human rights in Sri Lanka.^ It is easy to go about the world preaching about the human rights record of Sri Lanka.

^ Sri Lanka representative to Habitat International.
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^ Sri Lanka Guardian too came under unimaginable pressures from the state following the death of Lasantha for upholding the just discipline of honest journalism.

.Both the separatist Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) and the government of Sri Lanka are accused of violating human rights.^ Death was so widespread in Sri Lanka that the government waived rules requiring an autopsy before burial.

^ It was subsequently taken over by Government of Sri Lanka in 1957 for construction of the new Police station and officers’ quarters.
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^ However, at a level of reflection of the type of security problems that has arisen in Sri Lanka both deaths raise similar questions.

.In its 2007 report, however, Amnesty International stated that "escalating political killings, child recruitment, abductions and armed clashes created a climate of fear in the east, spreading to the north by the end of the year", whilst also outlining concerns with violence against women, the death penalty and "numerous reports of torture in police custody". However, the report also stated that the ceasefire between government and LTTE remained in place despite numerous violations.^ Tortured to death by the police and Prison officials for not paying bribes .

^ Torture and other forms of the use of force take place at all police stations all the time every day.

^ He kept trying to attract the Amnesty International's attention regarding the refugees through the Muslim Information Centre (MIC), a centre created for information purposes and chaired by him.
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[64]
However, the Sri Lankan minister for HR said "We regret one or two statements made here, that fly in the face of all concrete evidence, that the situation in Sri Lanka is deteriorating, when we have dealt more firmly with terrorism, with far-less damage to civilians, than in any comparative situation."[65] Foreign Minister Rohitha Bogollagama said, the report presents a distorted view of the actual situation in Sri Lanka during the year 2007 and is a litany of unsubstantiated allegations, innuendo and vituperative exaggerations.[66]
.Sri Lanka's government is labeled as one of the "world's worst perpetrators of enforced disappearances", according to a study by US-based pressure group 'Human Rights Watch' (HRW).^ It is easy to go about the world preaching about the human rights record of Sri Lanka.

^ Sri Lanka Guardian too came under unimaginable pressures from the state following the death of Lasantha for upholding the just discipline of honest journalism.

^ Individuals from the group have expressed that they do not want to go back to Sri Lanka, making this a forced repatriation exercise.

.An HRW report accuses security forces and pro-government militias of abducting and "disappearing" hundreds of people—mostly Tamils—since 2006. Sri Lanka's government says HRW has exaggerated the scale of the problem.^ Tamils being abducted and many of them have disappeared.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sri Lanka : Sri Lanka Overview 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hundreds have been killed in Sri Lanka, and Thailand.

^ Individuals from the group have expressed that they do not want to go back to Sri Lanka, making this a forced repatriation exercise.

.The report said, "The number of disappearances carried out by the Tamil Tigers in government-controlled areas was relatively low.^ He said the government did not know what was happening in areas of the northeast controlled by Tamil Tiger rebels.

^ Oxfam, which said it was assisting in the effort, reported that the Lion Brewery plant had produced 120,000 bottles of water for shipment to affected areas.

^ Colombo, and a considerable number must have turned out on this occasion.28 According to government orders.
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.But, the Tigers were responsible for targeted killings, forced child recruitment, bomb attacks on civilians and the repression of basic rights in areas they controlled."^ The fedayeen attack resulted in a 22-hour confrontation between the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) and the terrorists, who managed to entrench themselves in a local hotel before they were killed.

^ During 2009, 55 civilians and 78 members of the security forces were killed.

^ Rajapakse was on a tour of affected areas in a region that has been controlled by Tamil Tiger rebels, who have fought government forces for 20 years.

[67]

Culture and arts

The Buddha statue at Mihintale.
Hindu Devotess engaing in 'Kavadi' at a Vavuniya temple
.The island is the home of two main traditional cultures: the Sinhalese (centered in the ancient cities of Kandy and Anuradhapura) and the Tamil (centered in the city of Jaffna).^ One of the founder members of the Board of Trustees of the Moors’ Islamic Cultural Home Appointed as a Justice of the Peace for the whole Island by the British Government.
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^ There was a King in Kandy in the central highlands populated by Sinhalese to whom Tamil feudal Vanniar chieftain in Batticaloa in the east paid tribute and there was a Tamil Jaffna Kingdom ruled by Pararajasegaran.

.In more recent times a British colonial culture was added, and lately Sri Lanka, particularly in the urban areas, has experienced a dramatic makeover in the western mold.^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
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^ As President of the All Ceylon Malay Association (now known as Sri Lanka Malay Association) he established cultural and social contacts with Malay leaders of the world.
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^ Our business was started in the late 1700's on the tiny island of Sri Lanka (formerly known as Ceylon at the time of the British occupation).
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.Until recently, for example, most Sri Lankans, certainly those in the villages, have eaten traditional food, engaged in traditional crafts and expressed themselves through traditional arts.^ He gave the following examples: (a) A Sri Lankan expert stated that there was no recoil or movement of the weapon discharged.

^ Sri Lankan military authorities are reporting more than 3,200 people killed, most of them in the eastern district of Batticaloa.

^ Yet in Sri Lanka there is the most shameless tradition of not even doing this minimum thing of demanding an inquiry into a murder.

.But economic growth and intense economic competition in developed countries has spilled over to most of Sri Lanka, producing changes that might variously be identified as progress, westernisation or a loss of identity and assimilation.^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
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^ He returned to Sri Lanka, then as Ceylon as a Barrister-at-Law, not to serve as an erstwhile lawyer but to serve his country and community as a politician and a social worker.
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^ He spent his earnings very lavishly for the progress and development of the country, especially for the Muslims.
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Traditional food

Typical Sri Lankan dish of Rice and Prawns.
Sri Lankans have added western influences to the customary diet such as rice and curry, pittu (mixture of fresh rice meal, very lightly roasted and mixed with fresh grated coconut, then steamed in a bamboo mould). Kiribath (cooked in thick coconut cream for this unsweetened rice-pudding which is accompanied by a sharp chili relish called "lunumiris"), wattalapam (rich pudding of Malay origin made of coconut milk, jaggery, cashew nuts, eggs, and various spices including cinnamon cloves and nutmeg), kottu, and hoppers ("appa"), batter cooked rapidly in a hot curved pan, accompanied by eggs, milk or savouries.
Middle Eastern influences and practices are found in traditional Moor dishes. While Dutch and Portuguese influences are found with the island's Burgher community preserving their culture through traditional favourites such as Lamprais (rice cooked in stock and baked in a banana leaf), Breudher (Dutch Christmas cake) and Bolo Fiado (Portuguese-style layer cake).

Festivals

Elephants at the Esala Perahera.
.Every year on or about April 13 Sinhala and Tamil people celebrate Sinhala and Tamil New Year Festival, and Muslims celebrate Ramadan.^ It is from such people that we have had the truth about the shallow Chemmani grave containing hundreds of Tamil remains and the truth about the gang rape and murder of Krishanthy by the army personnel in Jaffna.

^ I wish you every success and very many Happy New Years...
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^ On the 6th February, 1955 he presided over the 'Tamil poet day' organised by the South Indian Muslim Educational Association in connection with its Golden Jubilee celebration.
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.Esala Perahera (A-suh-luh peh-ruh-ha-ruh) is the grand festival of Esala held in Sri Lanka.^ He held one of the highest positions in Sri Lanka as the Speaker of Parliament.
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^ Ajward Cassim (1955-1995) of Belgrade Migrated to Yugoslavia and was appointed as the Honorary Counsel General of Sri Lanka for Yugoslavia and held this post until his death.
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^ The formation of the Sri Lanka Muslim Media Forum took place in the same hotel and the meeting of the forum were and are held there.
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It is very grand with elegant costumes. .Happening in July or August in Kandy, it has become a unique symbol of Sri Lanka.^ He felt that without Arabic language, the Muslims of Sri Lanka will become culturally isolated, and shall lose entirely the rich heritage.
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^ Ishak's eldest son Halim Ishak becomes a Sri Lanka Freedom Party MCC for Kuppiyawatte East from 1963 to 1978 and SLFP MP from 1977-1994.
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^ In Sri Lanka murdering someone has become an easy job.

It is a Buddhist festival consisting of dances and richly decorated elephants.
There are fire-dances, whip-dances, Kandian dances and various other cultural dances. The elephants are usually adorned with lavish garments. The festival ends with the traditional 'diya-kepeema'. The elephant is paraded around the city bearing the tooth of Buddha. However the new year for tamils have been established as being on January 14 from this year.

Cinema

.Sri Lankan cinema in past years has featured subjects such as family relationships, love stories and the years of conflict between the military and Tamil Tiger rebels.^ The emotion and anger have not gone away in the year since this famous Sri Lankan journalist’s death,” Reporters Without Borders said.

^ Sri Lankan asylum seekers and refugees currently living in Malaysia cannot be forced to return to uncertain conditions of living where they might have to live in camps or where they might be subject to persecution.

.Many films are in the Sinhalese language and the Sri Lankan cinematic style is similar to bollywood, kollywood of Indian cinema.^ Many of us remember Sir Razik as the last surviving Sri Lankan knight...
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many Sri Lankans benefited from his kindness and generosity.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since then, many eminent Sri lankan Speakers have used this as their official residence.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first film to be produced and shown in Sri Lanka was Kadawunu Poronduwa (The Broken Promise) which was released in 1947. The first colour film of Sri Lanka was Ranmuthu Duwa.^ First Muslim lawyer of Sri Lanka.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jayah, the diplomat par excellence, was Sri Lanka's first High Commissioner in Pakistan.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meera Lebbe’s eldest son, Muhammad Ismail, was the first Muslim to rise to the rank of Senior Superintendent of Police and was also the Sergeant-at-Arms of the first Parliament of Sri Lanka in 1947.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Afterwards there were many Sinhalese movies produced in Sri Lanka and some of them, such as Nidhanaya, received several international film awards.^ Sri Lanka representative to Habitat International.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Survivors in Indonesia, India and Sri Lanka complained of the slow pace of national and international relief efforts, news agencies reported.

^ Sri Lanka's military later told residents there to be vigilant but not to panic, while coastal villagers climbed onto rooftops or sought high ground.

.The most influential filmmaker in the history of Sri Lankan cinema is Lester James Peiris who has directed many movies of excellent quality which led to global acclaim.^ Sir Muhammad Macan Markar was an active participant in Sri Lankan politics as was his son Ahmed Hussain Macan Markar, a lawyer who counted many decades in Municipal politics, being elected Deputy Mayor of Colombo.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sri Lankan military authorities are reporting more than 3,200 people killed, most of them in the eastern district of Batticaloa.

^ In essence the argument in favour the executive presidency is that Sri Lankans are an untrustworthy and they can only be led by a single man in power.

.His latest film, Wekande Walauwa ("Mansion by the Lake") became the first movie to be submitted from Sri Lanka for the Best Foreign Language film award at the Academy Awards.^ Experience Sri Lanka's Wildlife at it's best.
  • Holidays in Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka Holidays, Hotels in Sri Lanka, Holiday Hotels 9 February 2010 17:57 UTC www.srilankanexpeditions.com [Source type: General]

^ First Muslim lawyer of Sri Lanka.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We know Sri Lanka best and we know what we do.
  • Holidays in Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka Holidays, Hotels in Sri Lanka, Holiday Hotels 9 February 2010 17:57 UTC www.srilankanexpeditions.com [Source type: General]

.In 2005 the director Vimukthi Jayasundara became the first Sri Lankan to win the prestigious Camera d’Or award for Best First Film, or any award for that matter, at the Cannes Film Festival for his Sinhalese language film Sulanga Enu Pinisa (The Forsaken Land).^ This crime which was caught on television cameras also became shocking news and the story has profoundly reflected on the insecurity and the nature of the failure of the government in Sri Lanka.

^ He is the only Sri Lankan to be an active Director of Architectural, Project Management & Quantity Surveying Companies, in Colombo.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Controversial filmmaker Asoka Handagama's films are considered by many in the Sri Lankan film world to be the best films of honest response to the ethnic conflict currently raging in the country.^ There are two groups of Tamils: ‘Sri Lankan Tamils' (also known as ‘Ceylon' or ‘Jaffna' Tamils) are the descendants of Tamil-speaking groups who migrated from south India many centuries ago; and ‘Up Country Tamils' (also known as ‘Indian' or ‘estate' Tamils), who are descendants of comparatively recent immigrants.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sri Lanka : Sri Lanka Overview 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Since then, many eminent Sri lankan Speakers have used this as their official residence.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sri Lankan asylum seekers and refugees currently living in Malaysia cannot be forced to return to uncertain conditions of living where they might have to live in camps or where they might be subject to persecution.

.Prasanna Vithanage is one of Sri Lanka's most notable filmmakers.^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He held one of the highest positions in Sri Lanka as the Speaker of Parliament.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How, then, does one consider the worth of this distinguished son of Sri Lanka?
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His films have won many awards, both local and international.^ As a politician in both areas - local and national he was sincere, honest and forthright - qualities which many a politician lack in current times.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of his many acclaimed books, 'Ilangaiil Islam' (Islam in Sri Lanka) won the Ceylon Sathiya Academy award in the 1960s.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was here that he also won many praise awards, including the grand prize for his exhibits of fine gem material stones.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Recent releases like 'Sooriya Arana', 'Samanala thatu', and 'Hiripoda wessa' have attracted Sri Lankans to cinemas. Sri Lankan films are usually in the Sinhalese language. .Tamil language movies are also filmed in Sri Lanka but they are part of Kollywood which is Indian Tamil cinema.^ Tamil is the home language of the majority of the Muslims of Sri Lanka.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He stood for inter-racial harmony in Sri Lanka and his proficiency in all three languages namely Tamil, Sinhala and English proved to be a big boon for this avowed interest in him.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He felt that without Arabic language, the Muslims of Sri Lanka will become culturally isolated, and shall lose entirely the rich heritage.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is also known as Sri Lankan Tamil cinema in Sri Lanka.^ Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar said the United States was sending helicopters, and an airborne surgical hospital from Finland arrived in Sri Lanka.

^ Sri Lanka, then known as Ceylon, was ruled by 3 kingdoms when the Portuguese arrived in 1506.

^ As President of the All Ceylon Malay Association (now known as Sri Lanka Malay Association) he established cultural and social contacts with Malay leaders of the world.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However some Kollywood films are based in Sri Lanka as well.^ It was the golden-era of P. de S. Kularatne at Ananda and the anti-imperialist agitation was at its peak in Sri Lanka and the fever was felt in schools as well.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sri Lanka was, of course, well known to Muslims, for whom Adam’s peak was regarded as a sacred mountain.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The governor of Sri Lanka, Sir James longden, took a personal interest in the reception, accommodation and well being of the exiles.37 in February 1883.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Music

The earliest music came from the theater at a time when the traditional open-air drama (referred to in Sinhala as Kolam, Sokari and Nadagam). In 1903 the first music album, Nurthi, was released through Radio Ceylon. .Also Vernon Corea introduced Sri Lankan music in the English Service of Radio Ceylon.^ Since May 1965 as Secretary, ceylon Malay Research Organization he devoted his full time honorary service to the Sri Lankan Malay Community.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ever since its inception, the Muslim section of the Radio Ceylon (now SLBC) has provided yeoman service to the Muslims of this country.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the early 1960s, Indian music in films greatly influenced Sri Lankan music and later Sri Lankan stars like Sunil Shantha found greater popularity among Indian people.^ Sri Lankan officials said another 7,275 people were now known to have died in the Dec.

^ Their painstaking investigative journalism has the binocular research impact that the corrupt Sri Lankan governments found them hard to stomach.

^ Sri Lankan military authorities are reporting more than 3,200 people killed, most of them in the eastern district of Batticaloa.

.By 1963, Radio Ceylon had more Indian listeners than Sri Lankan ones.^ Today more than one million Sri Lankans are employed in the Middle East.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sri Lankan military authorities are reporting more than 3,200 people killed, most of them in the eastern district of Batticaloa.

^ In Sri Lanka, 1,000 miles west of the epicenter, more than 2,150 people were killed, the prime minister's office said.

The notable songwriters Mahagama Sekara and Ananda Samarakoon made a Sri Lankan music revolution. .At the peak of this revolution, musicians such as W. D. Amaradeva, H.R. Jothipala, Milton Mallawarachchi, M.S. Fernando, Annesley Malewana and Clarence Wijewardene did great work.^ His works and thoughts bear comparison to the great Islamists of the late 19th Century such as Moulana Jalaludeen Afghani, Muhammad Abduh and Allama Iqbal.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A very popular type of music is the so-called Baila, a kind of dance music that originated from Portuguese music introduced to the island in colonial times.^ This same person made me a very detailed report of all the plants in Ceylon which have been used from time immemorial for medical purposes by Muhammadan native physicians in the Island.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Media

The national radio station, Radio Ceylon is the oldest-running radio station in Asia.[68][69] It was established in 1923 by Edward Harper just three years after broadcasting was launched in Europe.[70] It remains one of the most popular stations in Asia, with its programming reaching neighboring Asian nations. .The station is managed by the Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation and broadcasts services in Sinhalese, Tamil, English and Hindi.^ It was subsequently taken over by Government of Sri Lanka in 1957 for construction of the new Police station and officers’ quarters.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He stood for inter-racial harmony in Sri Lanka and his proficiency in all three languages namely Tamil, Sinhala and English proved to be a big boon for this avowed interest in him.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The toll is going up and I will not be surprised it reaches 20,000 to 25,000," said Nimal Hettiarchchi, director of Sri Lanka's National Disaster Management Center.

Since the 1980s, a large number of private radio stations have also being introduced, and they have gained commercial popularity and success. Broadcast television was introduced to the country in 1979 when the Independent Television Network was launched. Initially all Television stations were state controlled, but private television networks began broadcasts in 1992.[71]
.Global television networks from India, Southeast Asia, Europe and the United States are also widely popular, and cable and satellite television is gaining in popularity with Sri Lanka's middle-class.^ Sri Lanka Guardian too came under unimaginable pressures from the state following the death of Lasantha for upholding the just discipline of honest journalism.

^ Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar said the United States was sending helicopters, and an airborne surgical hospital from Finland arrived in Sri Lanka.

^ Survivors in Indonesia, India and Sri Lanka complained of the slow pace of national and international relief efforts, news agencies reported.

.Popular publications include the English language Daily Mirror and The Sunday Observer and The Sunday Times, Divayina, Lankadeepa and Lakbima in Sinhalese and the Tamil publications Dinakaran and Uthayan.^ He showed a flair for English writing and started with the Children's Corner in the Sunday Observer to which he was a regular contributor from the age of 15.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His service as a sports journalist of the former Times of Ceylon, the present Sunday Times and the Daily Mirror, was only second to that of his father, H.M. Marikar.Both these sports lovers were known as Mariks in their native Kandy, as well as in Colombo.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Besides mastering the Arabic and Tamil languages he also studied higher English and qualified as a Proctor of the Courts.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sports

A Test match between Sri Lanka and England at the SCC Ground, Colombo, March 2001.
.While the national sport in Sri Lanka is volleyball,[72] by far the most popular sport in the country is cricket.^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Australia , he represented the Sri Lanka Club of Victoria in Cricket, and was the Club’s Badminton champion for 5 consecutive years..
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Survivors in Indonesia, India and Sri Lanka complained of the slow pace of national and international relief efforts, news agencies reported.

[72] .Rugby union also enjoys extensive popularity, as do aquatic sports, athletics, Football (soccer) and tennis.^ Zahirians also excelled in sports such as Cricket, Soccer, Rugby Football, Boxing, Shooting and Cadetting and were dreaded by mighty opponents such as Royal, Trinity and S. Thomas'.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sri Lanka's schools and colleges regularly organize sports and athletics teams, competing on provincial and national levels.^ Count on us when you want to organize a Holiday in Sri Lanka or when you want to book a Hotel in Sri Lanka.
  • Holidays in Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka Holidays, Hotels in Sri Lanka, Holiday Hotels 9 February 2010 17:57 UTC www.srilankanexpeditions.com [Source type: General]

^ Survivors in Indonesia, India and Sri Lanka complained of the slow pace of national and international relief efforts, news agencies reported.

^ "The toll is going up and I will not be surprised it reaches 20,000 to 25,000," said Nimal Hettiarchchi, director of Sri Lanka's National Disaster Management Center.

.The Sri Lankan cricket team achieved considerable success beginning in the 1990s, rising from underdog status to winning the 1996 World Cup[73] as well as the Asia Cup in 1996 and 2004. Sri Lanka remains one of the leading cricketing nations in the world, with the national team reaching the finals of the 2007 Cricket World Cup, where they lost to Australia.^ They asked particularly what the status of the exiles was in Sri Lanka.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Home About us Contact us News Updates Advanced search ›› Directory › Asia and Oceania › Sri Lanka › Sri Lanka Overview Quick search ›› .
  • Minority Rights Group International : Sri Lanka : Sri Lanka Overview 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar said the United States was sending helicopters, and an airborne surgical hospital from Finland arrived in Sri Lanka.

[74]
.Sri Lanka has a large number of sports stadiums, including the Sinhalese Sports Club Ground, the R. Premadasa Stadium and the Rangiri Dambulla International Stadium in Dambulla as well as the Galle International Stadium.^ Sri Lanka representative to Habitat International.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On Sri Lanka, Tamil Tiger rebels canceled a key meeting with international donors - a move threatening reconstruction efforts.

^ Survivors in Indonesia, India and Sri Lanka complained of the slow pace of national and international relief efforts, news agencies reported.

The country co-hosted the 1996 Cricket World Cup with India and Pakistan, and has hosted the Asia Cup tournament on numerous occasions. It will also co-host the 2011 Cricket World Cup. .Aquatic sports such as boating, surfing, swimming and scuba diving on the coast, the beaches and backwaters attract a large number of Sri Lankans and foreign tourists.^ Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar said the United States was sending helicopters, and an airborne surgical hospital from Finland arrived in Sri Lanka.

^ In Thailand’s once-thriving resorts, volunteers dragged scores of corpses — including at least 700 foreign tourists — from beaches and the remains of top-class hotels.

^ Sri Lanka said 72 foreign tourists were killed there, and Thailand said 35 of the dead were foreigners.

.There are two styles of martial arts native to Sri Lanka, Cheena di and Angampora.^ Sri Lanka's military later told residents there to be vigilant but not to panic, while coastal villagers climbed onto rooftops or sought high ground.

^ Sri Lanka said 72 foreign tourists were killed there, and Thailand said 35 of the dead were foreigners.

^ The waves hit Sri Lanka and India more than two hours after the quake.

See also

References

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  3. ^ a b c d e Demographics of Sri Lanka#CIA World Factbook demographic statistics.
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  5. ^ Census.gov
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  73. ^ Selvey, Mike (1996-03-18). "Sri Lanka light up the world". The Guardian. http://sport.guardian.co.uk/cricketworldcup2007/story/0,,2016636,00.html. Retrieved 2009-08-30. 
  74. ^ Cricinfo. "Final: Australia v Sri Lanka at Bridgetown, Apr 28, 2007". http://www.cricinfo.com/ci/engine/current/match/247507.html. Retrieved 2009-08-30. 

Further reading

.
  • Brow, James: Vedda villages of Anuradhapura: The historical anthropology Of a community in Sri Lanka, University Of Washington Press, Seattle, 1978.
  • Codrington, H. W.: A Short History of Ceylon, New Delhi 1994 (Reprint.^ Associated Press reporters Dilip Ganguly and Gemunu Amarasinghe in Colombo, Sri Lanka, K.N. Arun in Madras, India, and Sutin Wannabovorn in Phuket, Thailand, contributed to this report.

    ^ Sri Lanka High Commissioner in Kenya, accredited to Zambia & Ethiopia, 1978.
    • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Sri Lanka, then known as Ceylon, was ruled by 3 kingdoms when the Portuguese arrived in 1506.

    .Asian Educational Services).
  • De Silva, Chandra Richard: Sri Lanka — A History, New Delhi 1987 (Second, revised edition 1997).
  • De Silva, K. M.: A History of Sri Lanka.^ Survivors in Indonesia, India and Sri Lanka complained of the slow pace of national and international relief efforts, news agencies reported.

    ^ It was subsequently taken over by Government of Sri Lanka in 1957 for construction of the new Police station and officers’ quarters.
    • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It was the golden-era of P. de S. Kularatne at Ananda and the anti-imperialist agitation was at its peak in Sri Lanka and the fever was felt in schools as well.
    • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New Delhi, Penguin, xvii, p. 782, 2005.
  • Devendra, T. and D. Gunasena: Sri Lanka: The Emerald Island, (New Delhi 1996), Roli Books.
  • Domroes, Manfred: After the Tsunami: Relief and rehabilitation in Sri Lanka, New Delhi, Mosaic Books, 1st ed.^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
    • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Coastal residents from Indonesia to Thailand to Sri Lanka fled to higher ground when the alarm was raised, before hearing hours later that no tsunami materialized.

    ^ Count on us when you want to organize a Holiday in Sri Lanka or when you want to book a Hotel in Sri Lanka.
    • Holidays in Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka Holidays, Hotels in Sri Lanka, Holiday Hotels 9 February 2010 17:57 UTC www.srilankanexpeditions.com [Source type: General]

    .2006.
  • Gunaratne, Shelton A.: The Taming of the Press in Sri Lanka.^ Associated Press reporters Dilip Ganguly and Gemunu Amarasinghe in Colombo, Sri Lanka, K.N. Arun in Madras, India, and Sutin Wannabovorn in Phuket, Thailand, contributed to this report.

    ^ Press Association of Sri Lanka still conducts classes.
    • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Sri Lanka posted a tsunami warning, Agence France-Presse cited government authorities as saying.

    Journalism Monographs No. .39, May 1975.
  • Johnson, B. L. C., and M. Le M. Scrivenor.: Sri Lanka Land, People and Economy, Heinemann Educational Books Ltd, London, 1981.
  • Knox, Robert: An Historical Relation of the Island of Ceylon in the East Indies, New Delhi 2004 (Reprint.^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
    • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ As President of the All Ceylon Malay Association (now known as Sri Lanka Malay Association) he established cultural and social contacts with Malay leaders of the world.
    • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Count on us when you want to organize a Holiday in Sri Lanka or when you want to book a Hotel in Sri Lanka.
    • Holidays in Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka Holidays, Hotels in Sri Lanka, Holiday Hotels 9 February 2010 17:57 UTC www.srilankanexpeditions.com [Source type: General]

    .Asian Educational Services).
  • Mendis, G.C.: Ceylon Today and Yesterday, Colombo 1957 (Third edition 1995).
  • Sedere, Upali M.: Context of Educational Reforms Then and Now: 121st C. W. W. Kannangara.^ Muhammad Sameer was educated at St. Thomas’ College and entered the Colombo Municipal Council clerical service in 1910.
    • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Ever since its inception, the Muslim section of the Radio Ceylon (now SLBC) has provided yeoman service to the Muslims of this country.
    • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    *Memorial .Address, Ministry of Education, Isurupaya, Battaramulla, October 13, 2005.
  • Smith, Vincent A.: The Oxford History of India, Oxford 1958 (4th edition 1981).
  • Williams, Harry: Ceylon Pearl of the East, Robert Hale Limited, London, Great Britain, 1950.
  • Williams, H.: Ceylon : Pearl of the East Delhi, Surjeet, 2002.
  • Philippe Gilbert: Les Larmes de Ceylan Ed.^ Since then, seven editions of the Tamil translation have been published, in 1949, 1950, 1955, 1958, 1978, 1986 and 1995.
    • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ An account of his life appears in the "Twentieth Century" impressions of Ceylon edited by Arnold Wright and published in 1907 by Lloyds Great Britain Publishing Company Limited.
    • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ General Assembly of the World Assembly of Youth held in New Delhi, India, in 1958.
    • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    des Equateurs, France, 2005.

External links

Government
General information
Tourism
Business
Other

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Asia : South Asia : Sri Lanka
noframe
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:ce-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte, but Colombo is the commercial capital
Government Republic
Currency Sri Lankan rupee (LKR)
Area total: 65,610 km2
water: 870 km2
land: 64,740 km2
Population 20,064,776 (July 2006 est.)
Language Sinhala (official and national language) 74%, Tamil (official and national language) 18%, other 8%
note: English is commonly used in government and is spoken competently by about 10% of the population
Religion Buddhist 70%, Hindu 15%, Christian 8%, Muslim 8% (1999)
Electricity 230V/50Hz (British BS 1363 type plug is most common with fewer (older) installations of BS 546, the circular plug used in India, being present).
Calling Code +94
Internet TLD .lk
Time Zone UTC+5:30
.Sri Lanka, [1] formerly known as Ceylon, is in Southern Asia.^ Ceylon becomes the Republic of Sri Lanka .
  • Basic Teachings and Philosophical Doctrines of Buddhism, Himalayan realms 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ceylon is the old name of Sri Lanka.
  • Ceylon Sonata Tea 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.adagio.com [Source type: General]

^ Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka conventional short form: Sri Lanka former: Serendib, Ceylon .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is an island country in the Indian Ocean, south of India.^ Southern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of India .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Australian Prime Minister John Howard said he would investigate what role his country could play in setting up an Indian Ocean warning system.

^ OVERVIEW Sri Lanka is a small island in the Indian Ocean with a land area of 25,000 square miles and a population of 18.3 million.
  • Country Profile - Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Understand

Climate

.Tropical monsoon; northeast monsoon (December to March) only affects east coast; southwest monsoon (June to October) affects mostly the west coast and mountains.^ NATURAL DISASTERS AND CLIMATE The monsoon season extends from December to March in the northeast and June to October in the southwest.
  • Sri Lanka Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ September 2009 August 2009 July 2009 June 2009 May 2009 April 2009 March 2009 January 2009 November 2008 October 2008 August 2008 December 2006 Categories .
  • Sri Lanka « Sharif Abdullah’s Blog 16 January 2010 18:13 UTC blog.commonway.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The proportion of rain which falls is great, most particularly, among the mountains, and on those parts of the coast which are most subjected to the influence of the monsoon.
  • Malte-Brun - Island of Ceylon 1834 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.lakdiva.org [Source type: Original source]

Terrain

.Mostly low, flat to rolling plain; mountains in south-central interior.^ Terrain: Coastal plains in the northern third of country; hills and mountains in south-central Sri Lanka rise to more than 2,133 meters (7,000 ft.
  • Sri Lanka (07/09) 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Topographically the island consists of a south central mountainous region which rises to an elevation of 2,502m and is surrounded by broad lowland plains at an elevation of 0-75 m above sea level.
  • Country Profile - Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Highest point: Pidurutalagala 2,524 m

History

The island has been mentioned in several ancient Indian texts. .One of the most famous is the Ramayana, in which the island, which was referred to as Lanka, was the island fortress of the evil king Ravana, who captured the wife of Rama, an incarnation of the Hindu God, Vishnu.^ Râvana kidnaps Sîtâ, the wife of King Râma, an incarnation of the God Vishnu .
  • Basic Teachings and Philosophical Doctrines of Buddhism, Himalayan realms 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today it is one of the most sacred and popular places of pilgrimage in the island.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

.Legend has it that Hanuman the monkey flew over to Lanka and destroyed the capital by setting it on fire, while Rama and his remaining troops later crossed over from the mainland by building a land bridge across the sea.^ Sri Lankan Navy ships are firing cannon missiles towards the shore, while large number of fishing boats and ships are seen in the mid sea carrying troops.
  • Sri Lanka III | rabble.ca 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC rabble.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sri Lanka military air strike on 27 November 2007 destroyed the compound and someadjacent civilian buildings of the Voice of Tigers (VoT).
  • Sri Lanka: Silencing Dissent 16 January 2010 18:13 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "As we write this appeal there is a build up of Sri Lanka armed forces in the areas surrounding the so-called safe zone and an offensive via land, sea, and air is only a few hours away."
  • Sri Lanka III | rabble.ca 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC rabble.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Evidence for the land bridge mentioned in the Ramayana has since been found by NASA satellite images.^ Mr Jeff Spivack, an expert in forensic video analysis, found no evidence of breaks in continuity in the video, no additional video layers, and no evidence of image manipulation.

.The Sinhalese arrived in Sri Lanka late in the 6th century B.C., probably from northern India.^ The first Sinhalese arrived in Sri Lanka late in the 6th century B.C. probably from northern India.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ India reiterates support to Sri Lanka .
  • :. The Official Website of the Government of Sri Lanka .: 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.priu.gov.lk [Source type: General]

^ The Sinhalese arrived in Sri Lanka late in the 6th century B.C., probably from northern India.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Buddhism was introduced beginning in about the mid-3rd century B.C. and a great civilization developed at such cities as Anuradhapura (kingdom from c.^ Buddhism was introduced in about the mid-third century B.C., and a great civilization developed at the cities of Anuradhapura (kingdom from circa 200 B.C. to circa A.D. 1000) and Polonnaruwa (from about 1070 to 1200).
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Records indicate that the Bhikkhuni Sangha thus established flourished during the Anuradhapura period (third century B.C. to eleventh century A.C.), but disappeared after the decline of that kingdom.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The first such dagaba to be constructed after the official introduction of Buddhism into the country by the arahant Mahinda was the Thuparama at Anuradhapura, which enshrines the collar-bone of the Buddha.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

200 B.C. to c. 1000 A.D.) and Polonnaruwa (c. 1070 to 1200).
Occupied by the Portuguese in the 16th century and by the Dutch in the 17th century, the island was ceded to the British in 1796 and became a crown colony in 1802. As Ceylon, it became independent in 1948; the name was changed to Sri Lanka in 1972.
.Tensions between the Sinhalese majority and Tamil separatists erupted in violence in the mid-1980s, killing over 70,000. After a shaky ceasefire between 2001 and 2008, open warfare erupted again, with the Tamil Tigers finally surrendering in 2009. It remains to be seen whether winning the war can be parlayed into lasting peace as well.^ Tamil Tigers killed in Sri Lanka .
  • rediff.com, News from the South Asian countries: Sri Lanka home page 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC in.rediff.com [Source type: News]

^ This war, which has killed as many as 70,000 Tamil civilians, has become more brutal.
  • Sri Lanka III | rabble.ca 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC rabble.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pottu Amman in direct charge of LTTE Lanka virtually rejects India's appeal for ceasefire with LTTE Lanka asks LTTE to surrender for safe exit of Tamil civilians .
  • rediff.com, News from the South Asian countries: Sri Lanka home page 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC in.rediff.com [Source type: News]

Talk

.The majority of Sri Lankans speak Sinhala, with Tamil as the second language.^ Sinhala and Tamil are both national languages.
  • Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.mnstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tamil is the home language of the majority of the Muslims of Sri Lanka.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The vast majority of Tamils are Hindus and speak Tamil, a Dravidian language.
  • Sri Lanka 22 September 2009 17:017 UTC www2.hu-berlin.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.English is commonly used in most cities, especially Colombo, Kandy and Galle and by government and tourism officials.^ Sinhala (official and national language) 74%, Tamil (national language) 18%, other 8% note: English is commonly used in government and is spoken competently by about 10% of the population .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use of English has declined since independence, but it continues to be spoken by many in the middle and upper middle classes, particularly in Colombo.
  • Sri Lanka (07/09) 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After 1847 the Government promoted schools in native languages, and by 1869 there were 64 government schools using Sinhala and Tamil along with 40 bilingual schools using English.
  • Tibet, Nepal, and Ceylon 1800-1950 by Sanderson Beck 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

Don't expect everyone, everywhere to be able to speak it fluently. .In the beach and tourist areas you will have no problem with English.^ The navy has been airlifting tourists who were stranded at hotels and bungalows near affected beaches to safer areas.

^ Yes, I know you guys in Europe have no problems, no qualms in watching birds of many feathers as they do have in America.

^ "Nice to meet you, enjoy your stay," Thaksin told tourists who had returned to battered Patong beach.

.Most people in rural villages however cannot speak any English, beyond a few simple words.^ There is a small village, all the inhabitants of which speak the Malabaric language, and chiefly consist of Hindoos and Mahometans, some Romish Portuguese, and a very few Protestants.
  • Malte-Brun - Island of Ceylon 1834 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.lakdiva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Few police officers serving in Tamil majority areas were Tamil and generally did not speak Tamil or English.
  • Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, Sri Lanka government says that it cannot find a political solution to the Tamil people’s problems because of the existence of so called terrorists.

  • Sinhala Language The greeting in Sinhala is "ayubowan", pronounced "aybohan" It means "May you live longer"; 'Thank you' is "Bohoma istuti, pronounced "bohame stutti" and "how are you" is "kohomada", pronounced "Ko homede""
  • Tamil Language: The greeting in Tamil is "Vanakkam"; 'Thank you' is "Nanri"
  • Sri Lankan Muslim: If you meet a Muslim it is polite to say "Assalamu Aliakum" (Arabic); and Thank You "Jazakallahu Khaira "جزاك الله خيرا"" (arabic)
.Sinhala writing is much more curved than Tamil.^ The houses of the Sinhala, here, and indeed over all the island, are much more comfortable than the huts of the Hindoos on the continent, especially about Madras.
  • Malte-Brun - Island of Ceylon 1834 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.lakdiva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This hut provides her with a living space that is much larger, more durable and more rainproof than her thatched shelter.
  • Sri Lanka: Waiting to go home - the plight of the internally displaced 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And nowhere is this more apparent than in regard to the party's relationship with the Canadian Tamil community.
  • Sri Lanka III | rabble.ca 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC rabble.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

After a while, you'll learn how to distinguish between the two.
Map of Sri Lanka with provincial regions colour-coded
Map of Sri Lanka with provincial regions colour-coded
Central (Kandy, Matale, Nuwara Eliya)
the cultural heartland of Sri Lanka
Northern (Jaffna)
ravaged by the civil war and full of refugee camps, only time will tell if this beautiful region can begin to attract travelers
North Central (Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa)
North Eastern (Trincomalee)
North Western (Kurunegala)
Sabaragamuwa (Ratnapura)
Southern (Galle, Robolgoda, Tangalle, Unawatuna, Yala National Park)
the historic city of Galle and national parks
Uva (Badulla, Haputale)
cool highland hill retreats
Western (Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte, Beruwela, Colombo, Gampaha, Negombo)
the administrative capital and the largest city plus some popular beach resorts
  • Adam's Peak
  • Beruwela - beach resort not too far from Colombo
  • Haputale - small hill town in the cool highlands
  • Horton's Plains and World's End
  • Robolgoda- beach resort on the south coast
  • Sinharaja Rainforest
  • Unawatuna - beach resort on the south coast very close to Galle
  • Trincomalee - beautiful beaches in the north east
  • Yala National Park

Get in

By plane

.SriLankan Airlines [2] (flight code UL) is the national flagship carrier operating to and from Colombo-Bandaranayake International Airport (ICAO: VCBI, IATA: CMB) [3].^ As international relief flights arrived in Sri Lanka, a brewery in Colombo, the capital, switched from beer to bottled water to help survivors, according to the relief organization Oxfam International.

^ Departure Schedule After breakfast Transfer to Colombo International Airport.
  • Elephants of Sri Lanka, Elephant Safaris in Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka Elephant Watching Tours, Elephants, Sri Lanka Wildlife Tours 16 January 2010 18:13 UTC www.srilankanexpeditions.com [Source type: General]

.Flights are available from cities throughout Europe, Southeast Asia, China, Japan, the Middle East, India, and Pakistan.^ Indeed, the Sinhalese language is an Indo-European language of Indic group, unrelated to the older languages of South India (the Dravidian) and Southeast Asia.
  • Basic Teachings and Philosophical Doctrines of Buddhism, Himalayan realms 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Telecommunications in Western Asia and the Middle East (pp.
  • Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.mnstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The SLBC uses English, Sinhala, Japanese, Nepali, and several Indian languagesHindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Telugu and Tamilto broadcast its external services: World Service, Southeast Asia, Asia Hindi, Asia Tamil, Asia English, and Middle East.
  • Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.mnstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

SriLankan Air also flies to the nearby destinations such as Goa, Chennai, Trivandrum and the Maldives.
.Qatar Airways has become a popular choice from Europe to Sri Lanka by 2008, and the Indian carrier Kingfisher Airlines started operations on the Bangalore-Colmbo route in early 2009, enabling easy links to Sri Lanka via India.^ Power transmission link between India and Sri Lanka .
  • :. The Official Website of the Government of Sri Lanka .: 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.priu.gov.lk [Source type: General]

^ It operated airlines to and from India.
  • LankaWeb - Latest Sri Lanka News and Forum 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.lankaweb.com [Source type: News]

^ LTTE cadres fleeing Sri Lanka via India .
  • :. The Official Website of the Government of Sri Lanka .: 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.priu.gov.lk [Source type: General]

.Kingfisher Airlines has ceased the operation of direct flight from Bangalore to Colombo.^ Bhopal-Colombo direct flights soon .
  • :. The Official Website of the Government of Sri Lanka .: 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.priu.gov.lk [Source type: General]

Now Kingfisher fliers have to fly through Chennai. Other options are Jet Airways or its offshoot Jetlite.
.Mihin Lanka [4], Sri Lanka's first (and only) low-cost airline started operating in 2007. They fly to Dubai in United Arab Emirates and Tiruchirapalli and Buddhagaya in India.^ India reiterates support to Sri Lanka .
  • :. The Official Website of the Government of Sri Lanka .: 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.priu.gov.lk [Source type: General]

^ First Muslim lawyer of Sri Lanka.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It operated airlines to and from India.
  • LankaWeb - Latest Sri Lanka News and Forum 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.lankaweb.com [Source type: News]

.The budget airline Air Asia [5] now operates from Kuala Lampur, Malaysia to Colombo,Sri Lanka.^ Oman Air commences operations in Sri Lanka .
  • :. The Official Website of the Government of Sri Lanka .: 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.priu.gov.lk [Source type: General]

^ He is now operating a gem cutting and fashioning studio in Sri Lanka.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As Ananda Coomaraswamy points out, every Buddhist temple and monastery in India once had its Bodhi-tree and flower altar as is now the case in Sri Lanka.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

.This opens ups cheap flight for visitors from South East Asia as well as those who are visiting South Asia and then heading to South-East Asia (or vice-versa).^ Many were the Muslims of South India who came to ceylon in pursuit of trade as well as for the purpose of imparting the Arabic language and also spreading Islam.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The principle of purdah is general to the South Asian subcontinent and was brought by Muslims from Central Asia who entered and eventually conquered most of the Indian subcontinent by the 17th century.
  • Sri Lanka 22 September 2009 17:017 UTC www2.hu-berlin.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, the most popular form of Buddhism in East Asia is the Pure Land sect of the Buddha Amitâbha , who promises rebirth in his paradise even for the sinful.
  • Basic Teachings and Philosophical Doctrines of Buddhism, Himalayan realms 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Other airlines such as Singapore Airlines, Malaysian Airlines, Thai Airways, Cathay Pacific, Saudi Arabian, LTU (Germany), and Edelweiss Air (Switzerland) operate to Colombo-Bandaranayake from their respective home bases.

From USA/Canada

.There are no direct flights that reach Sri Lanka from cities outside Asia, the Middle East and Europe.^ Can there be peace in Sri Lanka?
  • Sri Lanka III | rabble.ca 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC rabble.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Etihad to resume flights to Sri Lanka .
  • :. The Official Website of the Government of Sri Lanka .: 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.priu.gov.lk [Source type: General]

^ Sri Lanka attracting Fortune No.
  • :. The Official Website of the Government of Sri Lanka .: 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.priu.gov.lk [Source type: General]

.From the American West Coast, the distance is almost half the globe.^ The south-west wind is felt generally over the island, but the north-east wind does not, during half its duration, reach across the mountains to Colombo on the west coast.
  • Malte-Brun - Island of Ceylon 1834 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.lakdiva.org [Source type: Original source]

.Depending on your preferences, and how much spare time you have, you can consider a stopover in Europe or SE Asia or take a non-stop flight over the North Pole to New Delhi or Mumbai from Atlanta, Chicago, Newark, New York City, or San Francisco.^ But rogue waves can rise in any ocean, and Sunday's disaster renewed attention on the vulnerability of major coastal cities like New York City.

^ "With so much loss of life, how could you not help?"

^ As Caturday draws to a close, it's time to do your final Are you ready for Goodnight?
  • Sri lanka - surchur 9 February 2010 17:57 UTC surchur.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In many cases, this may be the fastest route, but check if an Indian transit visa is required.^ Confirm if transit visa is required for any connections.
  • Sri Lanka Visa, Canada: Application for Sri Lankan Visa for Canadians. 16 January 2010 18:13 UTC sri-lanka.visahq.ca [Source type: General]

^ It may be the case that countries you pass through en route to your destination may require a separate transit visa.
  • Sri Lanka Visa, Canada: Application for Sri Lankan Visa for Canadians. 16 January 2010 18:13 UTC sri-lanka.visahq.ca [Source type: General]

By ship

.You can take Indian Shipping lines cargo and passenger ship from Trivandrum cheaper than the planes.^ It will take longer, officials said, for eight slow-moving Marine cargo ships coming from Guam and the Indian Ocean island of Diego Garcia to reach southeast Asia.

^ The period of the other monsoon is when the sun is to the south of the line, when the ocean, taken along with the southern part of Africa, is of a higher temperature than the Indian continent.
  • Malte-Brun - Island of Ceylon 1834 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.lakdiva.org [Source type: Original source]

.Sri Lanka port authority [6] has information.^ The number of tourist arrivals to Sri Lanka went up 2.1 percent in 2009, compared to the previous year, according to figures released by Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority.
  • :. The Official Website of the Government of Sri Lanka .: 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.priu.gov.lk [Source type: General]

^ Sri Lanka is trying to build up a bio-technology information network and capacity in the area of taxonomy.
  • Country Profile - Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ports in ancient Sri Lanka Taprobane: Ancient Sri Lanka as known to the Greeks and Romans.

Get around

Three-wheeler

.The most common mode of transport in Sri Lanka is via a three-wheeled automobile appropriately referred to as a three-wheeler (Tri-Shaw).^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Comment 2002 : Apart from the familial abuse common in every society, Sri Lanka appears to be particularly vulnerable to sexual exploitation.
  • Sri Lanka 22 September 2009 17:017 UTC www2.hu-berlin.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Three major newspaper groups dominate Sri Lankas newspaper industrythe Associated Newspapers of Ceylon Ltd.
  • Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.mnstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Also known as Tuk-Tuks from the noise of their motors. .These operate in a manner similar to taxis, and is a highly cost-efficient way to get around.^ Shop around, lick you lips don’t be shy to ask us how these modern mass killing weapons are operated.

.However, three-wheelers have been linked to many illegal and criminal activities, including an assasination attempt on a foreign ambassador, in the recent past.^ However in real life he had to arrest three poor peasants who illegally cut timber in his state and later to prosecute them.

^ However, it is widely believed that many of these groups continue to carry out armed activities against the LTTE in collaboration with the Sri Lankan security forces.
  • Sri Lanka: Waiting to go home - the plight of the internally displaced 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With continued hard work with many fund raising campaigns commended by Heads of Government and ambassadors of foreign countries, the fund was able to provide more assistance to the less fortunate.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is good to avoid Three Wheelers if you can. .They are not cheap even for the Sri Lankan (it is a common misconception that Three Wheelers are cheap).^ Sri Lankan government is basically clamping down on all Tamil civilians, putting them in concentration camps, because they want freedom and equal rights.
  • Sri Lanka III | rabble.ca 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC rabble.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In essence the argument in favour the executive presidency is that Sri Lankans are an untrustworthy and they can only be led by a single man in power.

^ Sri Lankan asylum seekers and refugees currently living in Malaysia cannot be forced to return to uncertain conditions of living where they might have to live in camps or where they might be subject to persecution.

A radio taxi (car) is metered (insist on the meter!). Metered taxis are always cheaper than the 'negotiated' ones. .If you are there for over a month you may be able to hire a private car/van with a driver for about US$350 (2008) plus fuel-costs for a month.^ The total cost of the car was Rs 3,350 of which he initially paid one-fourth cash down and the balance spread over eighteen months.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The members of the Chauffeur’s Union, of which I was the President at the time, readily helped us with their hiring cars to transport the office workers.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Considering that you may be spending over US$30 per day on Taxis this might be a better option, especially if you are touring with friends and can split the 'tab'.

By car

.Rented cars usually turn out cheaper than three-wheelers, and are less prone to road accidents--and are recommended by most hotels.^ They are obliged to go out of the way, or turn back, when a person of higher caste meets them on the road.
  • Malte-Brun - Island of Ceylon 1834 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.lakdiva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "We found, to our surprise, that there was three times more energy out there than at the 300-second period," Stein told New Scientist .

^ Counsel Ratnavale representing the three detainees claims the TID had caused the case to be called out of turn prior to the due calling date.
  • Sri Lanka: Silencing Dissent 16 January 2010 18:13 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Rented cars often come with their own drivers. Often the automobile itself is free, whereas the driver will charge a fee for his services. .Some drivers/guides are government-licensed; some are extremely knowledgeable and multi-lingual, specializing in historical and cultural knowledge, and environment/natural history for your visits to the ancient sites and the natural reserves.^ This leech is smaller than the medicinal species, and some varieties of it are extremely minute.
  • Malte-Brun - Island of Ceylon 1834 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.lakdiva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of the significant regulatory measures are: Environmental Protection Licensing Scheme Environment Impact Assessment Scheme Siting of industries in an industrial estate or park to ensure proper waste disposal.
  • Country Profile - Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Environment protection, which is an integral part of Sri Lankan culture, is reflected in the principles of its governance.
  • Country Profile - Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Tour operators

.Tour Operators are happy to get you a van and a driver who will take you all over the island but beware, the roads are bumpy and slow.^ The whole world wants to help you, my country especially," said Wolfowitz, who is touring the countries worst hit by the Indian Ocean tsunami.

.If you book off-the-cuff when you arrive, ask to be shown on a map where you are going before agreeing to any 'tour' of the island and research before you arrive so that you have a clear idea of where you might like to travel.^ The 2:15 car that is arranged to meet you might arrive at 3 p.m.
  • WWW Virtual Library - Tsunami -Worst ever tragedy in Sri Lanka History 16 January 2010 18:13 UTC www.lankalibrary.com [Source type: News]

^ He couldn’t go long before another friend if him who happens to come across asks the same question.

Senseless backtracking to lengthen the trip and increase the cost is a real danger, as is a driver's wish to take you on unwanted shopping expeditions in an effort to gain commission. .Travel websites specialising in Sri Lanka are easily found and have greatly increased the choice that is readily available to independent travellers seeking tailor-made tours.^ Sri Lanka websites .
  • Welcome Sri Lanka 9 February 2010 17:57 UTC lasrilanka.com [Source type: News]

^ Published on Sri Lanka FMM website.
  • Sri Lanka: Silencing Dissent 16 January 2010 18:13 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Emirates to increase flights to Sri Lanka .
  • :. The Official Website of the Government of Sri Lanka .: 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.priu.gov.lk [Source type: General]

.The best of them will produce clearly-stated travel itineraries and some are flexible enough to make late changes to itineraries.^ See also Web Editors comments and changes to some spelling to make it more readable.
  • Malte-Brun - Island of Ceylon 1834 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.lakdiva.org [Source type: Original source]

Ask to see their Booking Conditions and anti-fraud policies.

Taxi companies

.Taxis are a better way of getting around Colombo than three wheelers as, due to the metering, they often turn out to be cheaper.^ As they are performed in public places to bless the community as a whole and turn out to be social get-togethers, they bear a corporate character.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They are obliged to go out of the way, or turn back, when a person of higher caste meets them on the road.
  • Malte-Brun - Island of Ceylon 1834 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.lakdiva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "We found, to our surprise, that there was three times more energy out there than at the 300-second period," Stein told New Scientist .

Rates are about USD0.55 and they have full day packages (approx 8 hours and 80km) for around USD 40.
.They will also take you outstation for around USD 0.30-0.35 per km with no waiting charges.^ They walk to the pavilion on a carpet of white cloth (pavada) and take their seats around the table.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Yes, I know you guys in Europe have no problems, no qualms in watching birds of many feathers as they do have in America.

^ Even if they are suffering, they have no right to take up arms.

.You can also set up your own itenary and travel around that way as opposed to whatever the tour operator tells you.^ That was the way you operated."

^ That way your body will not betray you.

^ Registration will make your presence and whereabouts known in case it is necessary to contact you in an emergency and will enable you to receive up-to-date information on security conditions.
  • Sri Lanka (07/09) 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By bus

For those on a budget buses are everywhere. .They're ridiculously crowded and massively uncomfortable, but they get you around for almost nothing; it costs about a dollar to get half-way across the island.^ Crime has nothing fearsome about when you are….

^ It would appear at this point, that they're going to be handed a pretty significant military defeat, and the rest of the world will do bugger all about it.
  • Sri Lanka III | rabble.ca 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC rabble.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The south-west wind is felt generally over the island, but the north-east wind does not, during half its duration, reach across the mountains to Colombo on the west coast.
  • Malte-Brun - Island of Ceylon 1834 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.lakdiva.org [Source type: Original source]

If you're planning on splashing out, AC buses run most routes for twice the price, which offer air-conditioning and a guaranteed seat. .However, they're still uncomfortable.^ However, latest reports suggest that this had now changed and they will now get a permanent house under a re-housing grant supported by NGOs.
  • Sri Lanka: Waiting to go home - the plight of the internally displaced 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: Original source]

.Bus stations are confusing places, especially the big ones, but almost everyone will be delighted to practice their English and help you.^ If you would like call somebody a master of English language, there is only one choice.

^ The whole world wants to help you, my country especially," said Wolfowitz, who is touring the countries worst hit by the Indian Ocean tsunami.

^ Its well suited anytime and everyone I know likes it, but its not the most exotic tea ever ;-)" Jason L. Dec 12th '05 "I think it's one of the best black teas you can get.
  • Ceylon Sonata Tea 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.adagio.com [Source type: General]

.Also, when travelling by bus, it is local etiquette in most buses to provide or give up the very front passenger seats to members of the clergy such as monks or priests if they are present.^ These would be seated on a mat on the ground in front of the reciting monks.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the late rebellion, instances occurred of fathers giving themselves up as soon as they knew that their families were taken.
  • Malte-Brun - Island of Ceylon 1834 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.lakdiva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The hosts would assume responsibility for providing all the needs of the monk or monks during this period, and they attend to this work quite willingly as they regard it as highly meritorious.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

By train

.(see warning in the stay safe section) Trains also run in some places - these can be slower than buses, depending if you are on a line that offers an express train or not, but more comfortable and picturesque and even less expensive than buses.^ These are less shunned than the men.
  • Malte-Brun - Island of Ceylon 1834 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.lakdiva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The houses of the Sinhala, here, and indeed over all the island, are much more comfortable than the huts of the Hindoos on the continent, especially about Madras.
  • Malte-Brun - Island of Ceylon 1834 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.lakdiva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A live cock, with its legs tied together so that it cannot run about, is placed in a corner as an offering to the evil spirits.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

.Sri Lanka has an extensive railway system serving all major towns and cities in the island except for the North.^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As President of the All Ceylon Malay Association (now known as Sri Lanka Malay Association) he established cultural and social contacts with Malay leaders of the world.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If these two are not meet there will be an international insurgency against Sri Lanka and it will be less open for negotiation or no negotiation at all.
  • Sri Lanka III | rabble.ca 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC rabble.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are special Observation cars for tourists that like to take in the scenery.^ There are also occasions when devotees light and offer a particular large number of lamps for special purposes, such as redeeming a vow (baraya) or on special occasions like Vesak Day.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Railway system in Sri Lanka is very picturesque when entering the hill country because of the winding tracks along the mountains especially on the Badullu-Nanu Oya line.^ Sri Lanka is an ethnically heterogeneous country.
  • Sri Lanka 22 September 2009 17:017 UTC www2.hu-berlin.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Add your comment Although the suspension of Sri Lanka s GSP+ facility, important especially to the garment export ind..
  • Sri lanka - surchur 9 February 2010 17:57 UTC surchur.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sri Lanka has rejected rumours that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has imposed a ban on recruiting maids from the country.
  • Sri lanka - surchur 9 February 2010 17:57 UTC surchur.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Make sure, if you can, to sit on the right side of the train, as it offers the better view.
Certain trains like the intercity to Kandy have to be booked in advance as they do get sold out. .See [7] and [8] for more details.^ For a more detailed discussion, see the 2007 International Religious Freedom Report .
  • Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By plane

.Sri Lankan Airlines operates small Seaplane service to destinations such as Nuwara Eliya, Kandy, Galle and many more locations.^ Moreover, the presence of so many international organisations has inflated the prices of property and services, making it hard for smaller local NGOs to continue to operate.
  • Sri Lanka: Waiting to go home - the plight of the internally displaced 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sri Lankan Expeditions is a pure Sri Lankan owned experienced and knowledgeable Specialist Independent Tour Operator .
  • Holidays in Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka Holidays, Hotels in Sri Lanka, Holiday Hotels 9 February 2010 17:57 UTC www.srilankanexpeditions.com [Source type: General]

^ It is customary for many Sri Lankan Buddhists to visit a devalaya of one of the deities and make a vow that if the problem at hand (i.e., illness, enemies, etc.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

.This is perfect for Photography trips because you can get a bird's eye view of the island and takes less time to get to a destination than using the road.^ Torture and other forms of the use of force take place at all police stations all the time every day.

^ This same person made me a very detailed report of all the plants in Ceylon which have been used from time immemorial for medical purposes by Muhammadan native physicians in the Island.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ceylon suffers much less from violent storms and hurricanes than islands in general, especially between the tropics; instances of this kind, however, have occurred.
  • Malte-Brun - Island of Ceylon 1834 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.lakdiva.org [Source type: Original source]

Also the seaplanes land on picturesque lakes and tanks around the island.
Aero Lanka operates domestic flights between Colombo-Ratmalana, Jaffna and Trincomalee

Buy

The currency is the Sri Lankan Rupee. .The exchange rates are approximately 117Rs/ USD, 160Rs/ EUR or 186Rs/GBP There are coins for 25 and 50 cents (bronze), 1 rupee (old version is big and silver, new version is small and gold,) 2 rupees (silver,) and 5 rupees (gold,) as well as banknotes ranging from 10- 2000 rupees.^ Penalties for employing minors were increased from approximately $9 (1,000 rupees) and/or six months' imprisonment to $93 (10,000 rupees) and/or 12 months' imprisonment.
  • Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Dalai Lama introduced paper currency and postage stamps and later minted gold and silver coins.
  • Tibet, Nepal, and Ceylon 1800-1950 by Sanderson Beck 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This created about 10 new islands ranging in length from 100 meters to 1.5 kilometers, they said.

.Coins that are more than a few years old are typically in quite bad condition.^ Udaya Tharakai (1841) served a Jaffna clientele for more than 130 years.
  • Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.mnstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In three years more than 100,000 immigrant workers returned to India.
  • Tibet, Nepal, and Ceylon 1800-1950 by Sanderson Beck 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The earth's orbit around the sun is not quite circular, which means that the earth is slightly closer to the sun at some times of the year than others.

Handicrafts Of Sri Lanka. .For reed, cane, cotton, paper, leather, wood, clay, metal, and gemstones have been transformed and re-expressed in a array of batiks, toys, curios and jewelery, all exquisite hand made treasures.^ It would appear at this point, that they're going to be handed a pretty significant military defeat, and the rest of the world will do bugger all about it.
  • Sri Lanka III | rabble.ca 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC rabble.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The wave swept all settlements on the coast, and most houses, on stilts and made of wood, were either swept away or destroyed.

Credit cards and ATMs

ATMs are located in many places (specially at bank branches) in the cities and suburbs, less so in the countryside. .Be careful of using the credit card as credit card fraud is on the rise in Sri Lanka.^ CARE Australia teams from Sri Lanka, Indonesia, India and Thailand are traveling to affected areas to gauge the impact of the disaster.

^ Conservation and sustainable use of these resources based on the indigenous knowledge systems and practices is ingrained in Sri Lanka's ethos and way of life.
  • Country Profile - Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ More than 18,700 people died in Sri Lanka, more than 4,000 in India and more than 1,500 in Thailand, with numbers expected to rise.

.You can withdraw from debit cards too (Cirrus, Maestro, Visa Electron etc) where the logos are displayed - so no need to carry wads of US dollars when entering the country.^ There was no Pol Pot among the apes.Don't you need an Pol Pot to give birth killing Fields?

Eat

.Sri Lanka and South Indian food share a lot in common, and many local restaurants will describe their menus as Sri Lankan & South Indian.^ Sri Lanka shares at record high .
  • :. The Official Website of the Government of Sri Lanka .: 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.priu.gov.lk [Source type: General]

^ In 1989, University of Moratuwa asked the Sri Lanka government to help set up the Lankan Experimental Academic and Research Network, which became a reality in 1994.
  • Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.mnstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Comparing the atrocities against the Tamils in Sri Lanka with that of Hitler’s concentration camp, she said the only solution for the Lankan issue is a separate Eelam for Tamils...'
  • Sri Lanka III | rabble.ca 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC rabble.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are a number of regional variations though, the different types of hopper, devilled prawns/cuttlefish/chicken/etc.^ The numbers reported by different organizations therefore vary widely.
  • Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are various dialects appropriated to different castes and to different occasions.
  • Malte-Brun - Island of Ceylon 1834 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.lakdiva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But because the numbers of dead in the tsunamis vary widely by region, the sheer magnitude of the situation may not allow governments to follow the burial guidelines everywhere.

and the common fiery addition to any curry, pol sambol made of grated coconut, red chilli powder and lime juice.
.The food is very cheap generally, with a cheap meal costing about a dollar.^ The above mentioned measures are very simple ones which General Fonseka can easily take if he is sincere about his ‘election promise’ of implementing the provisions of the 17th Amendment.

.The most expensive, tourist-orientated places seldom charge more than ten dollars.^ The death toll from the tsunamis and the resultant floods was reported to be more than 59,000, with tens of thousands of people reported missing, and over a million left homeless.

^ Sri Lankan military authorities are reporting more than 3,200 people killed, most of them in the eastern district of Batticaloa.

^ A magnitude 8.0 earthquake on the island's southern tip was the most deadly tremor of 2000, causing at least 103 fatalities and more than 2,000 injuries.

.The staple food of Sri Lankans is rice and curry - a massive mound of rice surrounded by various curries and delicacies.^ The Bar Association of Sri Lanka, the Sri Lankan Women Lawyers’ Association, and various other organizations offer free legal aid to women and children.
  • Sri Lanka 22 September 2009 17:017 UTC www2.hu-berlin.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ritual is generally known as alut-sahal-mangalyaya (the ritual of offering new rice), rice being the staple food of Sri Lanka.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sri Lankan Muslims typically conceive of heaven as a libidinous world devoid of cultural controls: sex, food, drink, and comforts are there for the asking.
  • Sri Lanka 22 September 2009 17:017 UTC www2.hu-berlin.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If you want to eat a cheap lunch you can follow the Sri Lankan crowds and duck into any of a million small cafes, confusingly called 'Hotels'. These normally sell a rice and curry packet, as well as 'short eats', a collection of spicy rolls.^ If it is lunch, it would be the usual rice-and-curry meal and is invariably offered before noon.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sri Lankan government is basically clamping down on all Tamil civilians, putting them in concentration camps, because they want freedom and equal rights.
  • Sri Lanka III | rabble.ca 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC rabble.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He gave the following examples: (a) A Sri Lankan expert stated that there was no recoil or movement of the weapon discharged.

.This is ideal for backpackers and those who want to get past the touristy hotels selling burnt chicken and chips - you're charged by how much you eat, and unless you're absolutely ravenous it probably won't cost over a dollar.^ To those who glorified You in it prostrating.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "With so much loss of life, how could you not help?"

^ If you're looking for a nice smooth black tea, this is probably the one, if a little generic.
  • Ceylon Sonata Tea 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.adagio.com [Source type: General]

.Kottu (Kothu) Roti (a medley of chopped roti, vegetables and your choice of meat) is a must-have for anyone - tourist or otherwise - in Sri Lanka.^ Canada must do something to prevent this sinking ship, the Government of Sri Lanka, from taking hundreds of thousands of innocent lives along with it.
  • Sri Lanka III | rabble.ca 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC rabble.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The number of tourist arrivals to Sri Lanka went up 2.1 percent in 2009, compared to the previous year, according to figures released by Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority.
  • :. The Official Website of the Government of Sri Lanka .: 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.priu.gov.lk [Source type: General]

^ Sexual exploitation in Sri Lanka has been closely linked with the sex-tourist industry.
  • Sri Lanka 22 September 2009 17:017 UTC www2.hu-berlin.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is uniquely Sri Lankan and tastes best when made fresh by street vendors.
.Note that Sri Lankans eat with their right hands - this isn't a major problem, because everywhere will be able to provide cutlery if you can't eat otherwise.^ Sri Lankan government is basically clamping down on all Tamil civilians, putting them in concentration camps, because they want freedom and equal rights.
  • Sri Lanka III | rabble.ca 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC rabble.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Member: 16950 Joined: Jan 8 2009 April 22, 2009 - 9:13am #15 (permalink) Media: If you are not covering Sri Lanka right now, why not?
  • Sri Lanka III | rabble.ca 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC rabble.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is customary for many Sri Lankan Buddhists to visit a devalaya of one of the deities and make a vow that if the problem at hand (i.e., illness, enemies, etc.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

.But try the Sri Lankan way (tips of fingers only!^ Comparing the atrocities against the Tamils in Sri Lanka with that of Hitler’s concentration camp, she said the only solution for the Lankan issue is a separate Eelam for Tamils...'
  • Sri Lanka III | rabble.ca 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC rabble.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In essence the argument in favour the executive presidency is that Sri Lankans are an untrustworthy and they can only be led by a single man in power.

^ UN General Assembly to establish a specific ICT- International Criminal Tribunal , to try the war crimes of the Sri Lankan government.
  • Sri Lanka III | rabble.ca 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC rabble.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

), it's harder than it looks but strangely liberating.
There are many upscale restaurants to choose from in the city of Colombo. .There are several fine dining restaurants at the 5 star hotels which offer both Local and International cuisine.^ Independent verification and analysis, by both local and international actors, is one of the key means to foster freedom of expression and information flow in any country, especially one where there is an armed conflict.
  • Sri Lanka: Silencing Dissent 16 January 2010 18:13 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Local NGOs also reported that staff members were leaving to join international NGOs which offer higher salaries, thereby reducing their capacity to operate.
  • Sri Lanka: Waiting to go home - the plight of the internally displaced 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: Original source]

.These establishments are found largely in western Colombo (along Galle Road), though more are located around Colombo and other major cities.^ Thousands more bodies were found in Indonesia, dramatically increasing the death toll across 11 nations to around 44,000.

^ The majority of Tamils, known as Ceylon Tamils, are concentrated in Jaffna, the northernmost province, along the eastern seaboard, and in the capital of Colombo.
  • Sri Lanka 22 September 2009 17:017 UTC www2.hu-berlin.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result, the Colombo-based Virakesari has established itself as the major Tamil daily.
  • Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.mnstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fast-food outlets such as KFC, Pizza Hut etc. can be found in Colombo and Kandy.

Drink

Water is not always healthy for unseasoned travelers, and so it is recommended that either purifying tablets or bottled water be used whenever possible. .Fresh milk, due to the climate, spoils easily, and so is often very expensive.^ Very often, the state blames the absence of the cooperation from the public when, in fact, this cooperation is not forthcoming due to public perception that there is serious involvement of the state in hushing up the crime.

Powdered milk, however, is safe and is often substituted.
Thambli the juice from King Coconut, is very refreshing. .It's sold at the side of streets throughout the island, you know it's clean as the coconut is cut open in front of you and it's cheaper than bottled drinks at about R20/- each.^ The houses of the Sinhala, here, and indeed over all the island, are much more comfortable than the huts of the Hindoos on the continent, especially about Madras.
  • Malte-Brun - Island of Ceylon 1834 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.lakdiva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Coconut trees are rare on this side of the island compared to the other.
  • Malte-Brun - Island of Ceylon 1834 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.lakdiva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Batticaloa, on the east side of the island, lies much more to the north than Colombo on the west, being nearly in the latitude of Chilaw.
  • Malte-Brun - Island of Ceylon 1834 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.lakdiva.org [Source type: Original source]

Soft drinks are available almost everywhere, normally in dusty-looking glass bottles. The local producer, Elephant, make a range of interesting drinks - try the ginger beer and cream soda.
."Coca Cola" and "Pepsi" also available in large and small sizes (plastic bottles) including several local soft drink brands - all available at rapidly multiplying supermarkets all across the country and grocery shops.^ If the cameras were to be available at all such police stations the films, such as the one of Balavarnam Sivakumar’s assault at the Bambilipitya Sea would be available in all parts of the country.

^ Proportionately the number is still small; but in education it is easier to multiply a large number than to multiply a small one.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The most common local beer is Lion Lager. For something a bit different try Lion Stout. It is characterized by it's tar-like oiliness of body and chocolate finish. Other brews include Three Coins, which is brewed by the Mt Lavinia hotel chain, allegedly to a Belgian recipe.
The traditional spirit is Arrack, which costs about 4 USD for a bottle, and is often drunk with ginger beer. .The quality can vary depending on how much you want to pay.^ "With so much loss of life, how could you not help?"

^ I have a Gateway computer about 7 years, I can not use, much too slowly, but Poptropica How Do You Get A Sharp Tool How Do You Beat Speedy .....
  • Sri lanka - surchur 9 February 2010 17:57 UTC surchur.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, widely recommended brand would be "Old Reserve" and worth paying 7.5 USD for it.

Sleep

.Sri Lanka accommodation has been transformed in recent years.^ He returned to Sri Lanka that same year.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Australia , he represented the Sri Lanka Club of Victoria in Cricket, and was the Club’s Badminton champion for 5 consecutive years..
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Restrictions on freedom of expression through both formal and informal measures have been regularly imposed for many years in Sri Lanka.
  • Sri Lanka: Silencing Dissent 16 January 2010 18:13 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.What would be recognised as the modern tourist industry began in the 1960s with traditional beach hotels built on the west coast which were aimed primarily at the package holiday crowd and traditional travel operators.^ Modern tourist hotel to Jaffna .
  • :. The Official Website of the Government of Sri Lanka .: 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.priu.gov.lk [Source type: General]

^ The navy has been airlifting tourists who were stranded at hotels and bungalows near affected beaches to safer areas.

^ In Thailand’s once-thriving resorts, volunteers dragged scores of corpses — including at least 700 foreign tourists — from beaches and the remains of top-class hotels.

But the past decade has brought a major change, with the growth of villas, boutique hotels, and small independent and individualistic properties offering a huge array of choice.

Learn

.Buddhist Studies and Pali Language Universities of Peradeniya [9] and Kelaniya [10] offer variety of Buddhist Studies and Pali Language courses in English.^ And that is, I feel privileged to have a chance to teach non other than Buddhist Bhiksus themselves, albeit English language.

^ He it was, who was instrumental in founding a Department for Arabic studies in the University of Peradeniya.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Besides mastering the Arabic and Tamil languages he also studied higher English and qualified as a Proctor of the Courts.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Meditation You may find monasteries and meditation centers that offer meditation courses (generally free of charge) in the Buddhist Publication Society guide: www.bps.lk/other_library/information_sri Lanka_monasteries_2008_jan.pdf
Mahamevnawa Meditation Monastery is a good place to learn true buddhism.

Stay safe

.Sri Lanka's lengthy and bloody civil war seems to come to an end in May 2009, when the Sri Lankan army finally defeated the rebel group Tamil Tigers.^ Civilians flee as Sri Lankan government closes in on Tamil Tigers .
  • Sri Lanka III | rabble.ca 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC rabble.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Evolution of the Tamil press of Sri Lanka.
  • Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.mnstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Call for solidarity with Tamils End the killing in Sri Lanka NOW !
  • Sri Lanka III | rabble.ca 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC rabble.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is still way too early to assess if the broader conflict between the hinduistic tamil minority and the buddhist sinhalese majority will now be settled in the political arena.^ In the nature of the sharp dispute between the Sinhalese and Tamils that gathered momentum in recent times, even this is disputed for reasons that can only be described as mischievous.
  • Sri Lanka III | rabble.ca 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC rabble.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The situation has reached the stage of no-return since Sinhala political rulers at different times and in various ways worked up the Sinhala mind homing on them this was, is and will be the Land of the Sinhalese majority.
  • Sri Lanka III | rabble.ca 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC rabble.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Sinhalese and Tamils got along as the majority until 1922, when the Tamils began to side with the other minorities.
  • Tibet, Nepal, and Ceylon 1800-1950 by Sanderson Beck 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.The northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka are likely to remain under strict military control for a considerable time.^ A M SHERIFF of Kattankudy The Eastern Province of Sri Lanka is the most thickly populated Muslim area in the whole Island.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sri Lanka Guardian too came under unimaginable pressures from the state following the death of Lasantha for upholding the just discipline of honest journalism.

^ The exiles were ultimately allowed to reside in any part of the island except the northern and eastern provinces.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some areas may contain land mines, and the facilities in cities and towns are war torn.^ The LTTE is suspected of having used claymore mines to attack buses in Sinhalese areas, including some carrying civilians.
  • Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The way in which land is identified for resettlement in LTTE areas may be contributing to further displacement and land conflicts.
  • Sri Lanka: Waiting to go home - the plight of the internally displaced 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The main road connecting the north and South, the A9, was re-opened allowing individuals and civil society groups from the South to visit war torn areas of the north.
  • Sri Lanka: Silencing Dissent 16 January 2010 18:13 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Bombings and assassinations were a firm part of the Tigers' repertoire, and there is heavy security in all sensitive locations. While the separatists have never targeted tourists and none have ever been killed, a few have been wounded by terrorist actions. .In general, though, traffic accidents should be a greater concern than terrorism.^ Among the mountains, the temperature is generally cooler than might be expected, and the vicissitudes are greater.
  • Malte-Brun - Island of Ceylon 1834 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.lakdiva.org [Source type: Original source]

.Violent crime is not a serious problem for tourists in Sri Lanka.^ However, at a level of reflection of the type of security problems that has arisen in Sri Lanka both deaths raise similar questions.

^ The number of tourist arrivals to Sri Lanka went up 2.1 percent in 2009, compared to the previous year, according to figures released by Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority.
  • :. The Official Website of the Government of Sri Lanka .: 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.priu.gov.lk [Source type: General]

^ Sexual exploitation in Sri Lanka has been closely linked with the sex-tourist industry.
  • Sri Lanka 22 September 2009 17:017 UTC www2.hu-berlin.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As in most tourist locations, beware of pickpockets, and don't leave valuables unguarded. Women should not be alone at night on the beach or streets. .There has been a slight increase in violent crimes involving tourists in the past few years, but it is still very rare.^ During the year the Bureau for the Protection of Children and Women received 2,010 complaints of violent crimes against children and 425 cases of sexual abuse of children.
  • Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are some very large spiders; one of them, which has legs four inches long, and the body covered with hair, is said to be poisonous in its bite, but fortunately it is rare.
  • Malte-Brun - Island of Ceylon 1834 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.lakdiva.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Very few are aware that the Ceylon Muslim Scholarship Fund has helped over 2000 poor Muslim students to pursue their higher education over the last 57 years.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Con artists and touts are a serious problem throughout all tourist areas. Using the services of a tout for accommodation, local travel, etc. will most likely increase the price. First time travelers to Sri Lanka may find themselves the victim of scams, however seasoned travelers to Sri Lanka are very rarely scammed and it is simple to avoid becoming a victim of scammers by taking precautions:
  • Do not believe anyone who claims to be a professional (e.g. airline pilot), or in charge of a location (like a bus terminal) without proof.
  • Scams involving gemstones are common. .Do not buy with the intention of selling them in your home country for a profit.
  • Be on guard for anybody trying to help you by giving you unsolicited directions or travel advice.^ The whole world wants to help you, my country especially," said Wolfowitz, who is touring the countries worst hit by the Indian Ocean tsunami.

    ^ Self, you Now offering self-help legal services at your direction, simple SC divorce ..
    • Sri lanka - surchur 9 February 2010 17:57 UTC surchur.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It was during that same year that he commissioned my father, his siblings and a couple of his cousins to travel throughout the orient to explore the possibility of buying and selling gemstones in that region.
    • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Take any advice from taxi and auto drivers with a grain of salt, especially if they tell you the place you want to go to is closed, dangerous, non-existent etc.^ Individuals from the group have expressed that they do not want to go back to Sri Lanka, making this a forced repatriation exercise.

    ^ This will be heralded by the Globe and other junk mainstream news as a victory, and they'll tell everyone to go home and relax.
    • Sri Lanka III | rabble.ca 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC rabble.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This is also an outright violation of the international customary law of non-refoulement, which prohibits the return of people to places where they may face persecution or threats to their life or freedoms.

    .If you are unsure, check a map.
  • Don't engage in business with people who have to actively approach you for business.^ For those of you who don't like the bad tasting store brands, but aren't ready to try some of the more adventuresome flavors, this is a good one to try!"
    • Ceylon Sonata Tea 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.adagio.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Will RT @BudweiserBob: People who drink light 'beer' don't like the taste of bee..
    • Sri lanka - surchur 9 February 2010 17:57 UTC surchur.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The people who were with you in victory should remain with you even in times of defeat -- forever.'
    • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .If people have to approach or make overtures to you for business without you seeking them on your own volition then they shouldn't be considered for business dealings.
  • If you have been told your hotel is closed or full, give them a call.^ You hitting the hotel UFC 109 LIVE STREAM COUTURE VS COLEMAN FULL FIGHT http://UFCVIEW.com/ UFC 109 LIVE STREAM COUTURE VS COLEMAN FULL FIGHT http://UFCVIEW.com/ Watching ufc fights (: Watching ufc fights (: You can vote and comment by registering OR loggin in to your account and your comments and votes will be added to your account.
    • Sri lanka - surchur 9 February 2010 17:57 UTC surchur.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They were absorbed into the business of Minna Marikar who traded in laces and embroidery of local make.
    • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The closest approach of the earth to the sun is called perihelion, and it now occurs in January, making northern hemisphere winters slightly milder.

    If you are a first time visitor to Sri Lanka, don't admit it as it will make you a target for the scam artists.
.Also, beware of single males who wish you to accompany them after a religious service.^ To those who predict victory for the opposition, he wished to remind them that the war victory was not won by any single person or group but the correct political leadership of the president.

First, ask other members if the person is honest and reliable. .Dishonest Sri Lankans (mostly male) are very adept at talking tourists out of their money, and generally prefer this method over violence.^ Sri Lankans in general have a very Victorian attitude toward sex.
  • Sri Lanka 22 September 2009 17:017 UTC www2.hu-berlin.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has become a normal pattern of behaviour for Sri Lankans to take measures to safeguard their thoughts and tongues when talking about things which affect their own lives.

^ Sri Lankan sexual foreplay is not very elaborate and does not involve kissing, which is considered unhygienic and disgusting.
  • Sri Lanka 22 September 2009 17:017 UTC www2.hu-berlin.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They frequent the Galle Face Road area surrounding the tourist hotels, Galle Face Hotel and the Holiday Inn.^ The navy has been airlifting tourists who were stranded at hotels and bungalows near affected beaches to safer areas.

^ When Amnesty International asked TAFREN representatives about the justification for this exemption they replied that, in order to attract tourists, hotels must be located on the beach.
  • Sri Lanka: Waiting to go home - the plight of the internally displaced 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Galle Face Hotel-Colombo .
  • Elephants of Sri Lanka, Elephant Safaris in Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka Elephant Watching Tours, Elephants, Sri Lanka Wildlife Tours 16 January 2010 18:13 UTC www.srilankanexpeditions.com [Source type: General]

.Their "modus operandi" is to tell you upfront that they don't want anything from you, only to talk.^ (Still makes a great morning tea)" Aimee G. Nov 19th '08 "A good choice when you want to have flavored tea but don't want the really strong flavor of some teas."
  • Ceylon Sonata Tea 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.adagio.com [Source type: General]

^ (Within reason of course- I'm talking a few weeks)" Christina K. Apr 15th '06 "A very nice tea when you want something mild.
  • Ceylon Sonata Tea 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.adagio.com [Source type: General]

^ The Chinese did not want to negotiate with Tibet as equals, but eventually they sent Ivan Chen to Simla for talks with Shatra Paljor Dorje and Henry McMahon.
  • Tibet, Nepal, and Ceylon 1800-1950 by Sanderson Beck 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.There may be an auspicious day occurring in Sri Lanka and they will use this to coerce you to accompany them to a temple or church.^ Can there be peace in Sri Lanka?
  • Sri Lanka III | rabble.ca 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC rabble.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most destinations, including Sri Lanka, require that you have adequate un-used pages in your passport, allowing for any necessary stamps upon arrival and departure.
  • Sri Lanka Visa, Canada: Application for Sri Lankan Visa for Canadians. 16 January 2010 18:13 UTC sri-lanka.visahq.ca [Source type: General]

^ As Ananda Coomaraswamy points out, every Buddhist temple and monastery in India once had its Bodhi-tree and flower altar as is now the case in Sri Lanka.
  • Buddhist Ceremonies and Rituals of Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC www.accesstoinsight.org [Source type: Original source]

.They will wine, dine, and pay for everything, and then, after two days, will begin to extort money from you.^ It was this beginning that paved the way for the two brothers to set up their own vegetable and supplies business in Kandy after a few years when they were almost in their early twenties.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This does not happen commonly, but there have been a few cases - so beware.
Although snake bites are extremely rare among tourists (comparable to being struck by lightning), anyone bitten should seek prompt medical care. This is true even if the bite doesn't result in any pain and swelling. The National Emergency number is 119. In Colombo, dial either 119 or if you want an emergency ambulance - 110.
  • Vaccination are recommended for Hepatitis A+B, Polio, and Tetanus. .Also, the Typhus vaccination outside of tourist areas especially in the wet season.
  • Dengue fever: During the rainy season use mosquito repellent.^ In addition to the large number of local residents, some tourists during the busy Christmas holiday travel season were among the casualties.

    ^ During the year, UNICEF reported that the Karuna group recruited and rerecruited children for use as child soldiers, especially in Batticaloa district for a total of 251.
    • Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    When head and joint aches occur get a blood check. .There is no vaccination yet.
  • Malaria : Gampaha (e.g.^ In other areas, victims were more vulnerable, though health officials said there were no signs yet of feared epidemics of disease.

    .Negombo), Colombo, Kalutara, Galle, and Nuwara Eliya districts are considered malaria free, as is the city (but not the entire district) of Kandy.^ For the Colombo-Kandy Road from the 35th to 45th mile post, that is from Warakapola to Galigamuwa and for the Warakapola-Ruwanwella Road upto 7 ¼ mile post, that is from Warakapola to Galapitamada in the Kegalle District of the Sabaragamuwa Province.
    • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Outside Colombo, sex workers were tested for HIV infection in Kandy, Anuradhapura, Galle, Kurunegala, Ratnapura, and Badulla between 1993 and 1998.
    • Sri Lanka 22 September 2009 17:017 UTC www2.hu-berlin.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Some of his sensational bowling feats were 4 for 4 for Colombo Moors vs Galle Moors in 1920 and 7 for 27 for Moors Sports Club vs Colombo Sports Club in 1921, 4 for 4 and 6 for 26 vs Nuwara Eliya, and 8 for 7 vs Times of Ceylon in 1926.
    • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Elsewhere, malaria exists and is most likely in Anuradhapura. .In the dry season, using DEET repellent for a mid-day road or train trip to Kandy (including visits to the Peradeniya Gardens) or Nuwara Eliya should suffice.^ Captain Wilson was operaring on the base from the present road between Welimada and Nuwara Eliya, known even today as “Wilson’s” (Van Sanden pp98).
    • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Ella, the Paradise Village, Central Highlands, Sri Lanka Badulla, Central Highlands, Sri Lanka Bandarawela, Central Highlands, Sri Lanka Little England Nuwara Eliya, Central Highlands, Sri Lanka Haputale, Central Highlands, Sri Lanka Central Highlands Kandy -Nuwara Eliya Road Colombo- Kandy Road .

    ^ Group of Palms, Peradeniya Gardens, Kandy.
    • Foreign Topographical Postcards - Ceylon 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.collections.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

    Risk increases after sunset. .Malaria prophylaxis (anti-malarials) are warranted for trips to the north (especially Anuradhapura), east, and southeast (however some types are not available locally, and it may not be as effective as what you could obtain back home.^ People could go back to their homes.

    ^ However, after several rounds of talks the LTTE withdrew from the negotiations in April 2003 citing the lack of peace dividends for the north and east.
    • Sri Lanka: Waiting to go home - the plight of the internally displaced 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The LTTE claims that the government's insistence on centralising the tsunami response has been highly detrimental to the north and east where a different type of response is needed because of the different conditions that prevail.
    • Sri Lanka: Waiting to go home - the plight of the internally displaced 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: Original source]

    )
  • Yellow fever: A yellow fever vaccination certificate is required from travelers over 1 year of age coming from infected areas.

Respect

There are several customs that (for Westerners) take a bit of getting used to.
  • It is customary to remove shoes and wear respectful attire (i.e. no miniskirts, tank tops, short pants etc.) when visiting temples. It is also the custom to remove shoes before entering a home, though this is not as strictly followed as in places such as Japan.
  • Never touch or pat the top of the head of Buddhist monks, including children who practice at a temple.
  • Do not turn your back to (or be alongside) a Buddha statue when within a reasonable distance (observe what others are doing). This includes posing for photos. .It's OK to photograph a statue, but all persons should be facing it.
  • Public nudity is illegal in Sri Lanka - nude/topless sunbathing and skinny dipping should be avoided except in the private beach resorts which allow it.
  • Although much latitude is given to tourists, it is more polite to use your right hand when shaking hands, handing money and small objects, etc.^ Click here for more photographs of Elephants of Sri Lanka .
    • Elephants of Sri Lanka, Elephant Safaris in Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka Elephant Watching Tours, Elephants, Sri Lanka Wildlife Tours 16 January 2010 18:13 UTC www.srilankanexpeditions.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Sri Lanka needs all the publicity on our heritage.

    ^ Add your comment Although the suspension of Sri Lanka s GSP+ facility, important especially to the garment export ind..
    • Sri lanka - surchur 9 February 2010 17:57 UTC surchur.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Of course you can use both hands for something big and/or heavy.
  • Be respectful to monks.^ (Within reason of course- I'm talking a few weeks)" Christina K. Apr 15th '06 "A very nice tea when you want something mild.
    • Ceylon Sonata Tea 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.adagio.com [Source type: General]

    .There's no particular etiquette for Westerners - just be polite.^ We thought that when teachers cursed Christians & Jews, that it was just words & there would be no impact.

    ^ There is no way that you can create a just society by wounding people, maiming people, killing people.

    ^ There was also no progress made in the investigation of the killing of E. Kausalyn, political head of the Batticaloa‑Ampara division of the LTTE. .
    • Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Always give them a seat on a crowded bus (unless you're disabled or very elderly).
  • No photography of sensitive locations (inside and outside), and inside of shopping malls and tea factories (outside OK).^ Michael T. Mar 15th '09 "A very smooth tea...I drink this just straight, no sugar, no lemon, just as is."
    • Ceylon Sonata Tea 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.adagio.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If you're looking for a nice smooth black tea, this is probably the one, if a little generic.
    • Ceylon Sonata Tea 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.adagio.com [Source type: General]

    ^ (Within reason of course- I'm talking a few weeks)" Christina K. Apr 15th '06 "A very nice tea when you want something mild.
    • Ceylon Sonata Tea 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.adagio.com [Source type: General]

    Be especially careful in Fort, Colombo (except on the beach). If soldiers are guarding something, it probably shouldn't be photographed. Don't rely on signs alone, as sometimes they are old or missing. .For example, one end of a bridge may have a "No Photography" sign, but not the other.
  • Seemingly innocuous public displays of affection between lovers such as kissing and/or hugging may be culturally frowned upon as it is considered to be private behaviour but it is acceptable in functions and establishments designated for adults such as nightclubs, casinos and beach parties.^ The exiles took advantage of all the opportunities to impress which came their way, one early example of their active participation in a public function was the reception they gave to the blunts, who came especially to see them.
    • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Local NGOs believe that such attacks are possible because, among other things, there is no electric light in parts of the camp.
    • Sri Lanka: Waiting to go home - the plight of the internally displaced 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ An investigation into the death of a judicial officer, Sarath Ambepitiya, is one such example of a successful inquiry in recent times.

    Much lenience is given to foreigners and holding hands and public affection between parents and their children is not frowned upon.

Contact

Phone

.The country code for Sri Lanka is 94.^ Sri Lanka is an ethnically heterogeneous country.
  • Sri Lanka 22 September 2009 17:017 UTC www2.hu-berlin.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sri Lanka has rejected rumours that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has imposed a ban on recruiting maids from the country.
  • Sri lanka - surchur 9 February 2010 17:57 UTC surchur.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ IES - Countries - Sri Lanka - Interpersonal Heterosexual Behaviors ↑ Previous subject , same country ↓ Next subject , same country IES - Subjects - Interpersonal Heterosexual Behaviors - Sri Lanka ← Previous Country , same subject → Next Country , same subject .
  • Sri Lanka 22 September 2009 17:017 UTC www2.hu-berlin.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Remove the '0' from a Sri Lankan number beginning with '0' (ie 0112 688 688 becomes 94 112 688 688) when dialling from abroad.^ It has become a normal pattern of behaviour for Sri Lankans to take measures to safeguard their thoughts and tongues when talking about things which affect their own lives.

^ Sri Lankan Navy ships are firing cannon missiles towards the shore, while large number of fishing boats and ships are seen in the mid sea carrying troops.
  • Sri Lanka III | rabble.ca 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC rabble.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Throughout the mid-1980s the fighting between Tamil armed groups(3) and the Sri Lankan security forces continued to displace significant numbers of people from their homes.
  • Sri Lanka: Waiting to go home - the plight of the internally displaced 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: Original source]

.The two next numbers after 94 represents the area code, they are different for every district for more information see Telephone numbers in Sri_Lanka.^ In Kham they reduced the number of monks and forbade recruiting monks for the next twenty years.
  • Tibet, Nepal, and Ceylon 1800-1950 by Sanderson Beck 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They reported being told by neighbouring Tamil villagers and LTTE representatives that, if they did not move from the area, their well would be poisoned and they would be killed.
  • Sri Lanka: Waiting to go home - the plight of the internally displaced 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.amnestyusa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "For Number Sixty Two, I entertained a more than ordinary respect.
  • The Muslims of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC slmuslim.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Etymology

.From Sinhalese ශ්‍රී ලංකාව (śrī laṃkā), from Sanskrit श्री (śrī), holy) and लंका (lankā), island).^ Sri Lanka - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Sri Lanka (from the Sanskrit “ Venerable Island ”), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (pronounced /ˌʃriːˈlæŋkə/, Sinhalese: ශ්‍රී ...
  • Sri Lanka - Search Results - MSN Encarta 22 September 2009 17:017 UTC ca.encarta.msn.com [Source type: General]
  • Sri Lanka - Search Results - ninemsn Encarta 22 September 2009 17:017 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: General]

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /ˌʃɾiː.ˈlaŋ.kaː/

Proper noun

Singular
Sri Lanka
Plural
-
Sri Lanka
.
  1. Country in South Asia.^ He has reported from over 30 countries throughout West Africa, the Mideast, Central and South Asia for leading US and international media outlets .

    ^ The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (known as Ceylon before 1972) is an island country in South Asia .
    • Ceylon - Harry Turtledove Wiki - Historical fiction, Days of Infamy, Homeward Bound 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC turtledove.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Strategically located at the cross roads of both east and west sea routes the country serves as the point of entry to South Asia.
    • Property in Sri Lanka » Properties for Sale and to Rent 16 January 2010 18:13 UTC www.property-lanka.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Official name: Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka.

Usage notes

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Wikipedia has an article on:
“Sri .Lanka” has been the official name since 1972; prior to that it was Ceylon.^ Prior to the year 1972, Sri Lanka was known as Ceylon.

^ In 1972, it officially changed its name to Sri Lanka.

^ In 1972 the country changed its name from Ceylon to Sri Lanka.
  • Sri Lanka - Atlapedia Online 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.atlapedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Place names are a source of controversy in Sri Lankan politics, in connection with the Sri Lankan Civil War, and some find “Sri Lanka” to be too Sinhalese.^ Sri Lanka has been involved in a civil war since 1983.

^ Find Property for sale in Sri Lanka .
  • Property For Sale in Sri Lanka | Find Properties | Buy Real Estate 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.themovechannel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Property For Sale in Sri Lanka | Find Properties | Buy Real Estate 16 January 2010 18:13 UTC sri-lanka.themovechannel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sri Lankan tsunami in Indian politics .
  • rediff.com, News from the South Asian countries: Sri Lanka home page 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC in.rediff.com [Source type: News]

.A Tamil name is Eelam, and some Tamil political parties retain “Ceylon” in their name, such as the All Ceylon Tamil Congress and the Ceylon Workers’ Congress.^ All Ceylon Tamil Congress to support Fonseka .
  • Sri Lanka news updated 24 hours day: The Lanka Academic 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC theacademic.org [Source type: News]

^ All Ceylon Tamil Congress to support Fonseka ENS, jan 7.
  • Sri Lanka news updated 24 hours day: The Lanka Academic 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC theacademic.org [Source type: News]

^ We should keep alive and propagate those ideals throughout Ceylon and promote the union and solidarity of what we have been proud to call 'Tamil Eelam'.
  • Chapter 4: The Ceylon National Congress and its intrigues : Cheap Car Rentals and Cheap Airline Tickets 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.atimes.com [Source type: Original source]

Synonyms

Translations

See also


Dutch

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Dutch Wikipedia has an article on:
Sri Lanka
Wikipedia nl

Proper noun

Sri Lanka
  1. Sri Lanka (an island and a country)

Finnish

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Finnish Wikipedia has an article on:
Sri Lanka
Wikipedia fi

Proper noun

Sri Lanka
  1. Sri Lanka

Declension


German

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German Wikipedia has an article on:
Sri Lanka
Wikipedia de

Proper noun

Sri Lanka n.
  1. Sri Lanka

Italian

Wikipedia-logo.png
Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Sri Lanka
Wikipedia it

Proper noun

Sri Lanka m.
  1. Sri Lanka

See also


Norwegian

Proper noun

Sri Lanka
  1. Sri Lanka

Related terms


Polish

Proper noun

Sri Lanka f.
  1. Sri Lanka

Declension

Singular only
Nominative Sri Lanka
Genitive Sri Lanki
Dative Sri Lance
Accusative Sri Lankę
Instrumental Sri Lanką
Locative Sri Lance
Vocative Sri Lanko

Derived terms

  • Lankijczyk m., Lankijka f.
  • adjective: lankijski

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

.Sri Lanka, known as "Serendib" to Arabs and "Ceylon" when under British rule, is a large island south-east of India.^ The island nation of Ceylon is now, since 1972, generally known as Sri Lanka .
  • Basic Teachings and Philosophical Doctrines of Buddhism, Himalayan realms 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ceylon tea refers to tea that originates from the island of Sri Lanka, located south of India.
  • Ceylon Tea | Tea Infusion 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.teainfusion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sri Lanka borders: India .
  • Find Sri Lanka search engines with Search Engine Colossus 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.searchenginecolossus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its commercial capital is Colombo.^ Colombo is the commercial capital of Sri Lanka.

^ Sri Lanka’s commercial capital, Colombo, is a fascinating city, not only for a comfortable blend of east and west, but also for a cozy mixture of the past and present.
  • Sri Lanka Profile 16 January 2010 18:13 UTC slembvn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The historical city of Colombo is considered as the "Commercial capital of Sri Lanka".

.In 459, Dathusena became king of Sri Lanka.^ Ceylon became independent in 1948 and adopted the name Sri Lanka in 1972.
  • British Empire: The Map Room: Asia: Ceylon 30 January 2010 2:41 UTC www.britishempire.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Known as Ceylon prior to 1972, Sri Lanka became an English Crown colony in 1802.
  • World Vision - Information and Facts About Sri Lanka — World Vision 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.worldvision.org [Source type: News]

^ The Sri Lanka chronicle Mahavamsa relates the arrival of Vijaya, the first Sinhalese king, in 483 The Sinhalese settled in the north and developed an elaborate irrigation system.
  • Sri Lanka - Facts from the Encyclopedia - Yahoo! Education 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC education.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 807, Dhappula III became king, making the capital city Anuradhapura.^ The ancient capital cities of Polonnaruwa and Anuradhapura are a delight featuring many outstanding ruins, enormous statues of reclining Buddhas, and Buddhist shrines and temples galore.

^ The capital city of Colombo, the Cultural Triangle (Kandy, Anuradhapura, and Polonnaruwa), and many southern beach towns have good tourist facilities.
  • Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Sri Lanka 20 September 2009 21:19 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So whether you are in Colombo, the capital, or Anuradhapura, an ancient city, get ready to enjoy a fantastic, relaxing vacation in Sri Lanka, also known as the "Emerald Isle".
  • Sri Lanka Hotel and Travel Directory - Book Accommodation and Tours in Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.srilankahotel-link.com [Source type: General]
  • Sri Lanka Hotel and Travel Directory - Book Accommodation and Tours in Sri Lanka 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.srilankahotel-link.com [Source type: General]

Other notable residents have included:
  • Solomon West Ridgeway Dias Bandaranaike, Prime Minister
  • Dr. Arthur C. Clarke (1917), C.B.E.
  • William Ivor Jennings (1903-1965), "Sir Ivor", QC, Litt D (Cantab) LLD (Lond), founder Vice Chancellor of the University of Ceylon, and Deputy Civil Defense Commissioner during World War 2.
  • Sir Thomas J. Lipton, British grocery-chain owner turned tea blender then planter: "Between the estates I had bought and the big sum of money I left with my agent I think I must have invested well over a hundred thousand pounds in Ceylon within a week of my arrival in that lovely and delectable island of spicy breezes."

See also

External links


This page is a "stub" and could be improved by additions and other edits.

This article uses material from the "Sri Lanka" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 02, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Sri Lanka, which are similar to those in the above article.