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St. Gallen
St. Gallen -
Country Switzerland Coat of Arms of St. Gallen
Canton St. Gallen
District St. Gallen
47°25′N 9°22′E / 47.417°N 9.367°E / 47.417; 9.367Coordinates: 47°25′N 9°22′E / 47.417°N 9.367°E / 47.417; 9.367
Population 72,040 (December 2008)
  - Density 1,828 /km2 (4,734 /sq mi)
Area 39.41 km2 (15.22 sq mi)
Elevation 675 m (2,215 ft)
  - Highest 1074 m - Birt
  - Lowest 496 m - Goldachtobel
Postal code 9000
SFOS number 3203
Mayor (list) Thomas Scheitlin (as of 2008) FDP/PRD
Localities West: Winkeln, Bruggen, Lachen; Centrum: Rosenberg, Riethüsli, St. Georgen, Innenstadt, St. Jakob, Linsenbühl-Dreilinden; Ost: Rotmonten, Langgass-Heiligkreuz, St. Fiden, Notkersegg, Neudorf-Industrie
Surrounded by
(view map)
Eggersriet, Gaiserwald, Gossau, Herisau (AR), Mörschwil, Speicher (AR), Stein (AR), Teufen (AR), Untereggen, Wittenbach
Twin towns Liberec (Czech Republic)
Website www.stadt.sg.ch
SFSO statistics
St. Gallen [zoom] is located in Switzerland
St. Gallen [zoom]

St. Gallen (About this sound Sankt Gallen ; French: Saint-Gall; Italian: San Gallo; Romansh: Son Gagl) is the capital of the canton of St. Gallen in Switzerland. It evolved from the hermitage of Saint Gall, founded in the 7th century. Today, it is a large urban agglomeration (with around 160,000 inhabitants) and represents the center of eastern Switzerland. The town mainly relies on services for its economic base.

The main tourist attraction is the Abbey of St. Gall, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Its renowned library contains books which date to the 9th century.

The city has good transport links to the rest of the country and to neighbouring Germany and Austria. It also functions as the gate to the Appenzell Alps.

Contents

Geography

A view of the city from the nearby hills. The St. Gallen University is in the foreground, the Abbey of St. Gall is visible above

St. Gallen is situated in the northeastern part of Switzerland in a valley around 700 meters (2,300 ft) above sea level. It is one of the highest cities in Switzerland and it often receives a lot of snow in winter. The town is nicely situated between Lake Constance and the mountains of the Appenzell Alps (with the Säntis as the highest peak at 2,502 meters (8,209 ft)). It therefore offers excellent recreation areas nearby.

As the city center is built on an unstable turf ground (thanks to its founder Gallus who was looking for a hermitage and not founding a city), all buildings on the valley floor must be built on piles. For example, the entire foundation of the train station and its plaza are based on hundreds of piles.

St.Gallen has an area, as of 2006, of 39.3 square kilometers (15.2 sq mi). Of this area, 31.1% is used for agricultural purposes, while 28.9% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 38.4% is settled (buildings or roads) and the remainder (1.7%) is non-productive (rivers or lakes).[1]

History

Reichsstadt Sankt Gallen
Imperial City of St Gallen
Free Imperial City of the Holy Roman Empire
Duchy of Swabia
1401–1648
Capital St. Gallen
Government Republic
Historical era Middle Ages
 - City founded ca 612
 - Gained Reichsfreiheit 1401
 - Abbey became Swiss
    protectorate
 
17 August 1451
 - Associate and protectorate
    of Swiss Confederacy
 
13 June 1454
 - Swabian War: de facto
    independence from HRE
 
1499
 - Peace of Westphalia:
    de jure independence
 
1648
 - Annexed to Helvetic
    Rep.
canton of Säntis
 
1798 1648
 - Helv. Rep. collapsed; city
    and abbey joined Swiss
    canton of St. Gallen
 
 
1803
The Abbey of St. Gall
St.Gallen
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Founding of the City

The founding of St. Gallen is based on the Irish monk Gallus (ca 550–620 or 640), who built a hermitage at the river Steinach in 612.[2]

Founding of the Abbey of St. Gall

Around 720, one hundred years after Gallus's death, the Alemannian priest Othmar built an abbey and gave it the name Abbey of St. Gallen. In 926 Hungarian raiders attacked the abbey and surrounding town. Saint Wiborada, the first woman formally canonized by the Vatican,[3] reportedly saw a vision of the pending attack and warned the monks and citizens to flee. While the monks and the abbey treasure escaped, Wiborada chose to stay behind and was killed by the raiders.[4]

About 954 the monastery was surrounded by walls as a protection against the Saracens, and the town grew up around these walls. About 1205 the abbot became a prince of the church in the Holy Roman Empire.[2] In 1311 St. Gallen became a Free imperial city. By about 1353 the guilds, headed by the cloth-weavers guild, gained control of the civic government.[2] In 1415 the city bought its liberty from the German king Sigismund.[2]

Freedom from the Abbey

In 1405 the Appenzell estates of the abbot successfully rebelled and in 1411 they became allies of the Old Swiss Confederation. A few months later the town of St. Gallen also became allies. They joined the "everlasting alliance" as full members of the Confederation in 1454 and in 1457 became completely free from the abbot[2]. However, in 1451 the abbey became an ally of Zürich, Lucerne, Schwyz and Glarus who were all members of the Confederation.

One of the earliest mayors of St. Gallen may be among the most colorful, Ulrich Varnbüler. Hans, the father of Ulrich, was prominent in city affairs in St. Gallen, Switzerland, in the early 1400s. Ulrich made his entry into public affairs in the early 1460s and gathered the various offices and honors that are available to a talented and ambitious man. He demonstrated fine qualities as field commander of the St. Gallen troops in the Burgundian Wars.

In the battle of Grandson in 1476 he and his troops were part of the advance units of the Confederation and took part in their famous attack. (A large painting of Ulrich returning triumphantly to a hero's welcome in St. Gallen can still be seen in St. Gallen).

After the war, he often represented St. Gallen at various Confederation parliaments. In December 1480 he was offered the position of mayor for the first time. From that time on he served in several leading city positions and was considered the intellectual and political leader.

According to Vadian, who understood his contemporaries well, "Ulrich was a very intelligent, observant, and eloquent man who enjoyed the trust of the citizenry to a high degree."

His reputation among the Confederates was also substantial. However, in the late 1480s he became involved in a conflict that was to have serious negative consequences for him and for the city of which he was mayor.

St. Gallen in 1548
St. Gallen in 1642

In 1463 Ulrich Rösch had assumed the management of the abbey of St. Gall. He was an ambitious prelate, whose goal it was to raise the abbey by every possible means to prominence again following the losses of the Appenzell War.

His restless ambitions offended the political and material interests of his neighbors. When he arranged for the help of the pope and the emperor to carry out a plan of moving the abbey to Rorschach on Lake Constance, he encountered stiff resistance from the St. Gallen citizenry, other clerics, and the Appenzell nobility in the Rhine Valley who were concerned about their holdings.

At this point, Varnbüler entered the conflict against the prelate. He wanted to restrict the increase of power in the abbey and simultaneously increase the power of the town that had been restricted in its development.

For this purpose he established contact with farmers and Appenzell residents (led by the fanatical Hermann Schwendiner) who were seeking an opportunity to weaken the abbot.

Initially, he protested to the abbot and the representatives of the four sponsoring Confederate cantons (Zürich, Lucerne, Schwyz, and Glarus) against the construction of the new abbey in Rorschach. Then, on July 28, 1489 he had armed troops from St. Gallen and Appenzell destroy the buildings already under construction[2].

When the abbot complained to the Confederates about the damages and demanded full compensation, Ulrich responded with a counter suit and in cooperation with Schwendiner rejected the arbitration efforts of the non-partisan Confederates.

He motivated the clerics from Wil to Rorschach to discard their loyalty to the abbey and spoke against the abbey at the town meeting at Waldkirch, where the popular league was formed.

He was confident that the four sponsoring cantons would not intervene with force, due to the prevailing tensions between the Confederation and the Swabian League.

He was strengthened in his resolve by the fact that the people of St. Gallen elected him again to the highest magistrate in 1490.

An Associate of the Confederation

Ulrich Varnbüler turned out to have badly miscalculated. In early 1490 the four cantons decided to carry out their duty to the abbey and to invade the St. Gallen canton with an armed force. The people of Appenzell and the local clerics submitted to this force without noteworthy resistance, while the city of St. Gallen braced for a fight to the finish.

However, when they learned that their compatriots had given up the fight, they lost confidence; the end result was that they concluded a peace pact that greatly restricted the city's powers and burdened the city with serious penalties and reparations payments.

Ulrich, overwhelmed by the responsibility for his political decisions, panicked in the face of the approaching enemy who wanted him apprehended. His life was in great danger, and he was forced to disguise himself as a messenger and escape out of the city.

He made his way to Lindau and to Innsbruck and the court of King Maximilian. The victors confiscated those of his properties that lay outside of the city of St. Gallen and banned him from the confines of the Confederation.

Ulrich then appealed to the imperial court (as did Schwendiner, who had fled with him) for the return of his property.

The suit had the support of Friedrich II and Maximilian and the trial would drag on for years. It was continued by Ulrich's sons Hans and Ulrich after his death in 1496, and eventually they regained the properties.

However, other political ramifications resulted from the court action, because the Confederation took ownership of the city of St. Gallen and rejected the inroads of the empire.

Thus, the conflict strengthened the relationship between the Confederation and the city of St. Gallen. On the other hand the matter increased the alienation between Switzerland and the German Holy Roman Empire, which would eventually mean a total separation as a result of the Swabian War.

Despite the unpropitious end of his career, Varnbüler is immortalized in a famous woodcut by Albrecht Dürer, which is part of the Smithsonian Institution's woodcut collection(q.v.).

Of the Varnbüler sons, the elder (Hans/Johann) became the mayor of Lindau. He is the patriarch of the Baden and Württemberg Varnbülers.

Reformation

Starting in 1526 then-mayor and humanist Joachim von Watt (Vadian) introduced the reformation in the city of St. Gallen. The town converted to the new reformed religion while the Abbey remained Roman Catholic.

While iconoclastic riots forced the monks to flee the city and removed images from the city's churches, the fortified Abbey remained untouched.[5] The Abbey would remain a Catholic stronghold in the Protestant city until 1803.

Helvetic Republic and Act of Mediation

In 1798 Napoleon invaded the Old Swiss Confederation destroying the Ancien Régime. Under the Helvetic Republic both the abbey and the city lost their power and were combined with Appenzell into the Canton of Säntis.

The Helvetic Republic was widely unpopular in Switzerland and was overthrown a few years later in 1803. Following the Act of Mediation the city of St. Gallen became the capital of the Protestant Canton of St. Gallen.

One of the first acts of the new canton was to suppress the abbey[5]. The monks were driven out of the abbey with the last abbot dying in Muri in 1829.[6] In 1846 a rearrangement in the local dioceses made St. Gall a separate see, with the abbey church as its cathedral and a portion of the monastic buildings being resigned for the bishop's residence.

Gustav Adolf, former king of Sweden, spent the last years of his life in St. Gallen, and finally died there in 1837.

St. Gallen as a center of textile-industry

A view of St. Gallen in around 1900 by Spelterini

In the 15th century St. Gallen became successful in producing textiles. In 1714 the climax was reached with a yearly production of 38,000 pieces of cloth. The first depression happened in the middle of the 18th century caused by strong foreign competition and starting cotton production. But St. Gallen was able to catch up and an even more glamorous era arrived.

At the beginning of the 19th century, the first embroidery machines were developed in St. Gallen. In 1910 the embroidery production was the largest export branch (18 percent of the total export value) in Switzerland and more than half of the global production originated in St. Gallen. One fifth of the population in the eastern part of Switzerland lived from the textile industry. World War I and the Great Depression thereafter let the St. Gallen embroidery fall into a second large crisis. Only in the 1950s a slight recovery started in the textile industry. Nowadays, only a small textile industry can survive in St. Gallen because of high specialization and the production of powerful embroidery machines. St. Gallen embroideries (e.g. by Akris) are still in high demand by the creators of Paris Haute Couture.

Education

HSG campus

St. Gallen is known for its business school, now named University of St. Gallen (HSG). It was ranked as the top business school in Europe by Wirtschaftswoche, a weekly German business news magazine, and is highly ranked by several other sources.[7] Recently, HSG has been building a reputation for Executive Education, with its International MBA recognised as one of Europe's leading programmes[8], and runs a PhD programme.[9] HSG is a focused university that offers degrees in business and management, economics, political science and international relations as well as business law.[10] It is comparatively small, with about 5,000 students enrolled at present, has both EQUIS and AACSB accredited, and is a member of CEMS (Community of European Management Schools).[11] The university maintains student and faculty exchange programs around the world.

St. Gallen's public school system contains 64 Kindergartens, 21 Primary Schools and 7 Secondary Schools and about 6,800 students.[12] In addition to the public system St. Gallen is home to the Institut auf dem Rosenberg — an elite boarding school attracting students from all over the world. The Institut provides an education in English, German and Italian and prepares the students to enter the American, British, Swiss, Italian, German and other European university programs.[13]

In St.Gallen about 68.8% of the population (between age 25-64) have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education (either University or a Fachhochschule).[1] Out of the total population in St.Gallen, as of 2000, the highest education level completed by 15,035 people (20.7% of the population) was Primary, while 27,465 (37.8%) have completed Secondary, 10,249 (14.1%) have attended a Tertiary school, and 2,910 (4.0%) are not in school. The remainder did not answer this question.[14]

Coat of Arms

The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Argent a Bear rampant Sable langued and in his virility Gules and armed and gorged Or.[15]

Demographics

St.Gallen has a population (as of 2008) of 72,040, of which about 27.5% are foreign nationals. Of the foreign population, (as of 2000), 2,363 are from Germany, 3,691 are from Italy, 7,111 are from ex-Yugoslavia, 794 are from Austria, 1,060 are from Turkey, and 4,405 are from another country.[16] Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 0.7%. Most of the population (as of 2000) speaks German (83.0%), with Italian being second most common ( 3.7%) and Serbo-Croatian being third ( 3.7%).[1] Of the Swiss national languages (as of 2000), 60,297 speak German, 575 people speak French, 2,722 people speak Italian, and 147 people speak Romansh.[14]

The age distribution, as of 2000, in St.Gallen is; 6,742 children or 9.3% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old and 7,595 teenagers or 10.5% are between 10 and 19. Of the adult population, 12,574 people or 17.3% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 11,735 people or 16.2% are between 30 and 39, 9,535 people or 13.1% are between 40 and 49, and 8,432 people or 11.6% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 6,461 people or 8.9% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 5,633 people or 7.8% are between 70 and 79, there are 3,255 people or 4.5% who are between 80 and 89,and there are 655 people or 0.9% who are between 90 and 99, and 9 people or 0.0% who are 100 or more.[14]

In 2000 there were 16,166 persons (or 22.3% of the population) who were living alone in a private dwelling. There were 17,137 (or 23.6%) persons who were part of a couple (married or otherwise committed) without children, and 27,937 (or 38.5%) who were part of a couple with children. There were 4,533 (or 6.2%) people who lived in single parent home, while there are 419 persons who were adult children living with one or both parents, 475 persons who lived in a household made up of relatives, 2,296 who lived household made up of unrelated persons,and 3,663 who are either institutionalized or live in another type of collective housing.[14]

In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SP which received 25.4% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the SVP (23.2%), the CVP (17.3%) and the FDP (15.3%).[1]

Historical population

The historical population is given in the following table:[17]

year population Swiss Nationals  % German Speaking  % Italian Speaking  % Romansh Speaking  % Protestant  % Roman Catholic
1411 ca. 2,300-2,900
about 1500 ca. 3,000-4,000
1680 ca. 6,000
1766 ca. 8,350
1809 8,118
1837 9,430
1850 17,858 16,529 50.4% 49.3%
1870b 26,398 23,805 49.8% 49.9%
1888 43,296 34,168 97.5% 1.4% 0.5% 49.0% 49.7%
1900 53,796 40,342 94.9% 3.6% 0.7% 46.8% 52.1%
1910 75,482 50,582 88.7% 9.5% 0.8% 43.5% 54.2%
1930 63,947 52,679 95.9% 2.5% 0.8% 48.5% 49.0%
1950 68,011 61,009 95.4% 2.6% 1.0% 49.3% 47.8%
1970 80,852 66,270 86.3% 8.6% 0.8% 42.1% 55.1%
1990 75,237 58,300 82.4% 5.6% 1.1% 35.1% 50.8%
2000 72,626 53,132 83.0% 3.7% 0.8% 28.9% 44.0%

Economy

As of 2007, St.Gallen had an unemployment rate of 2.69%. As of 2005, there were 336 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 95 businesses involved in this sector. 11,227 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 707 businesses in this sector. 48,729 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 4,035 businesses in this sector.[1] As of October 2009 the average unemployment rate was 4.5%.[18] There were 4857 businesses in the municipality of which 689 were involved in the secondary sector of the economy while 4102 were involved in the third.[19] As of 2000 there were 28,399 residents who worked in the municipality, while 8,927 residents worked outside St.Gallen and 31,543 people communted into the municipality for work.[20]

Religion

From the 2000 census, 31,978 or 44.0% are Roman Catholic, while 19,578 or 27.0% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there are 112 individuals (or about 0.15% of the population) who belong to the Christian Catholic faith, there are 3,253 individuals (or about 4.48% of the population) who belong to the Orthodox Church, and there are 1,502 individuals (or about 2.07% of the population) who belong to another Christian church. There are 133 individuals (or about 0.18% of the population) who are Jewish, and 4,856 (or about 6.69% of the population) who are Islamic. There are 837 individuals (or about 1.15% of the population) who belong to another church (not listed on the census), 7,221 (or about 9.94% of the population) belong to no church, are agnostic or atheist, and 3,156 individuals (or about 4.35% of the population) did not answer the question.[14]

Culture and Sightseeing

Old houses of St. Gallen
The interior of the Cathedral is one of the most important baroque monuments in Switzerland
Library of St. Gallen
Stadtlounge

In 1992 St. Gallen was awarded the Wakker Prize for the city's effort to create a unified structure and appearance in current and future construction.[21].

Heritage sites of national significance

There are 28 sites in St. Gallen that are listed as Swiss heritage sites of national significance. There are four religious buildings in St. Gallen that are on the inventory. Of course, the Abbey of St. Gallen is on the list. Additionally, the former Dominican Abbey of St. Katharina, the Reformed Church of St. Laurenzenkirche and the Catholic parish church of St. Maria Neudorf are also part of the inventory.

There are six museums or archives in the inventory. This includes the Textile museum, the Historical and ethnographical museum, the Cantonal library and city archives, the Art and Natural History museum, the Museum in Lagerhaus and the Cantonal archives. The entire city of St. Gallen is the only archeological heritage site. There are two bridges that are listed as well, the Eisenbahnbrücke BT (railroad bridge) and the Kräzern-Strassenbrücke with a custom house.

There are twelve other sites that are part of the inventory. These include the main train station, main post office, Univeristy of St. Gallen, Cantonal School, City Theatre as well as several other buildings. Two towers are part of the dozen sites, the Lokremise with Wasserturm and the Tröckneturm. [22]

Theater

  • In the modern and somewhat extravagant building of the Theater St. Gallen operas, operettas, ballet, musicals and plays are performed. It has an impressive average utilization of nearly 80 percent.
  • In the nearby Concert Hall with its grand art nouveau style all sorts of concerts (classic, symphony, jazz etc.) are given.

Museums

  • Historical and ethnographical museum (collections of regional early history, city history, folk art, cultural history as well ethnographical collections from all over the world)
  • Art museum (painting and sculptures from the 19th and 20th century)
  • St. Gallen art gallery (national and international modern art)
  • Natural history museum (natural history collection)
  • Museum in the storehouse (Swiss native art and art brut)
  • Textile museum (historical laces, embroidery and cloth)
  • Lapidarium of the abbey (building blocks from 8th to 17th century)
  • Point Jaune museum (Mail Art, Postpostism)
  • Beer bottle museum (located at the Schützengarten brewery—the oldest brewery in Switzerland)[23]

Music

Buildings

  • Drei Weieren (three artificial water basins from the zenith of the textile industry with art nouveau-bath houses; reachable by the Mühleggbahn (train) from 1893). The Drei Weieren are a water park by day and a gatheringplace of the youth by night. This results in many complaints about noise, drug abuse and vandalism by people who live in the vicinity. Locals jokingly call the three basins "Lakes with the most THC in the country". The youth who spends their time there claim that the Drei Weieren are a place where they can spend their time in a consume-free environment.
  • Convent of St. Gall with the famous library and abbey (UNESCO World Heritage Site)
  • Bank Wegelin, the oldest bank in Switzerland, founded in 1741
  • Tröckneturm Schönenwegen; the tower was built 1828 and was used to hang up freshly colored cloth panels for drying.
  • Protestant church Linsebühl, an impressive new renaissance building dating from 1897
  • University of St. Gallen (HSG; University for Business Administration, Economics and Law with an excellent reputation in the German-speaking world), founded 1898.
  • Embroidery exchange, splendid building with the god for trade Hermes on its roof.
  • Public bath, the oldest public bath in Switzerland dating from 1908.
  • Catholic church St. Martin in the Bruggen district; the concrete church built in 1936 was at that time highly modern.
  • 1992 the city of St. Gallen received the Wakker Prize.
  • Stadtlounge (City Lounge) - a pedestrianised area in the central city designed to represent a loungeroom, but in the street.[1] German only, pictures are universal though. The Stadtlounge was designed by Pippilotti Rist.
  • Synagogue St.Gallen - Built by the architects Chiodera and Tschudy, it is only synagogue in the Lake Constance region that is preserved in its original state.

Parks

  • Wildlife park Peter and Paul
  • City park at the theater
  • Cantonal school park

Regular Events

  • The St. Gallen Symposium attracts about 600 personalities from economy, science, politics and society to the University of St. Gallen every year. It hosts the world's largest student essay competition of its kind with about 1'000 participants of whom the 100 best contributions are selected to participate in the St. Gallen Symposium. The St. Gallen Symposium will next take place in 2010 from 6 May to 7 May for its 40th anniversary. The subject of the forthcoming "3 Days in May" is "Entrepreneurs – Agents of Change".
  • OLMA, traditional Swiss Fair for Agriculture and Nutrition in autumn as well as numerous other exhibitions at the OLMA Fairs St. Gallen.
  • Openair St. Gallen in the sitter valley.
  • Children Feast, originally a product from the textile industry. It is organized every third year.
  • Nordklang Festival takes place in multible sites around St. Gallen

Sports

  • The football team FC St. Gallen is based in the city and plays in the Super League, Switzerland's highest football division. It is the oldest football club in Switzerland and second oldest in continental Europe, founded in 1879.

Transportation

Trogen tramway

The A1 motorway links St. Gallen with St. Margrethen, Zürich, Berne and Geneva. In 1987 the city motorway was opened, which leads the traffic through two tunnels (Rosenberg and Stefanshorn) almost directly below the city center.

St. Gallen has its own small airport Airport St. Gallen-Altenrhein, residing at nearby Lake of Constance with regular flights to Vienna and other destinations.

St. Gallen is closely tied to the national Swiss Federal Railways network and has InterCity connections to Zürich and the Zurich International Airport every half an hour. St. Gallen is the hub for many private railways such as the Südostbahn (SOB), connecting St. Gallen with Lucerne, the Appenzeller Bahnen with connections to Appenzell and the Trogenerbahn to Trogen, which also serves as a tram in downtown.

The town has a dense local bus transportation system operated by the VBSG, which is well established on the valley floor and less on the hills. As St. Gallen is located near the Appenzell mountain area, it offers also many Postauto (post bus) connections. The agglomeration also has its own S-Bahn System (overground local trains).

The large urban area Zürich is about 80 km south-west of St. Gallen and is reachable by car in about 50–90 minutes depending to traffic and by train in 65 minutes (by ICN).

Weather

St.Gallen has an average of 144 days of rain or snow per year and on average receives 1,248 mm (49.1 in) of precipitation. The wettest month is August during which time St.Gallen receives an average of 155 mm (6.1 in) of rain or snow. During this month there is precipitation for an average of 13.5 days. The month with the most days of precipitation is May, with an average of 14.3, but with only 134 mm (5.3 in) of rain or snow. The driest month of the year is February with an average of 64 mm (2.5 in) of precipitation over 13.5 days.[24]

Weather data for St.Gallen
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 1.8
(35)
3
(37)
6.3
(43)
10.3
(51)
15
(59)
18
(64)
20.5
(69)
19.7
(67)
17
(63)
11.9
(53)
6.4
(44)
2.7
(37)
11.1
(52)
Daily mean °C (°F) -1.1
(30)
-0.1
(32)
2.9
(37)
6.3
(43)
10.6
(51)
13.8
(57)
16.1
(61)
15.6
(60)
13
(55)
8.5
(47)
3.4
(38)
-0.2
(32)
7.4
(45)
Average low °C (°F) -3.8
(25)
-2.9
(27)
-0.1
(32)
2.8
(37)
6.8
(44)
9.9
(50)
12.1
(54)
11.8
(53)
9.3
(49)
5.4
(42)
0.7
(33)
-2.8
(27)
4.1
(39)
Precipitation mm (inches) 65
(2.56)
64
(2.52)
73
(2.87)
110
(4.33)
134
(5.28)
152
(5.98)
152
(5.98)
155
(6.1)
115
(4.53)
74
(2.91)
86
(3.39)
71
(2.8)
1,248
(49.13)
Avg. precipitation days 11.8 10.2 12.4 13.4 14.3 14.3 13.4 13.5 9.8 8.6 11 11.3 144
Source: MeteoSchweiz [24] 8 May 2009

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Swiss Federal Statistical Office accessed 11-January-2010
  2. ^ a b c d e f "St Gall". The Encyclopaedia Britannica. 24. New York: The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company. 1911. pp. 4. http://books.google.com/books?id=U4AoYvJG7LAC&pg=PA1&source=gbs_toc_r&cad=0_0#PPA4,M1. Retrieved 2008-11-15.  
  3. ^ Jones, Terry. "Wiborada". Patron Saints Index. http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintw27.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-02.  
  4. ^ ">McNamara, Robert F. (Rev.) (2007-02-20). "St. Wiborada". Saints Alive. St. Thomas the Apostle Church. http://www.stthomasirondequoit.com/SaintsAlive/id811.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-02.  
  5. ^ a b Switzerland is yours.com-St. Gallen History accessed 20 November 2008
  6. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg "Abbey of St. Gall" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
  7. ^ University of St Gallen, International MBA rankings accessed 29 April 2009
  8. ^ Mohr, Christoph (09/04/2008). "Wo steht der deutsche MBA-Markt?". Wirtschafts Woche. http://www.wiwo.de/handelsblatt/wo-steht-der-deutsche-mba-markt-272337/. Retrieved April 29, 2009.   (German) mentions that there are only 7 "true" German MBA with international appeal, of which HSG is one
  9. ^ University of St Gallen, Doctral programs accessed 29 April 2009
  10. ^ University of St Gallen portal accessed 29 April 2009
  11. ^ University of St Gallen-MBA Programme accessed 29 April 2009
  12. ^ St Gallen Public School Office (German) accessed 29 April 2009
  13. ^ Swiss Federation of Private Schools website accessed 29 April 2009
  14. ^ a b c d e Canton St. Gallen Statistics-Hauptergebnisse der Volkszählung 2000: Regionen- und Gemeindevergleich-Personen (German) accessed 30 December 2009
  15. ^ Flags of the World.com accessed 11-January-2010
  16. ^ Der Kanton St. Gallen und seine Menschen in Zahlen - Ausgabe 2009 (German) accessed 30 December 2009
  17. ^ St.Gallen in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  18. ^ St Gallen Canton statistics-Unemployment (German) accessed 30 December 2009
  19. ^ St Gallen Canton statistics-Businesses (German) accessed 31 December 2009
  20. ^ St Gallen Canton statistics-Communters (German) accessed 31 December 2009
  21. ^ Wakker Prize (German) accessed 11 May 2009
  22. ^ Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance 21.11.2008 version, (German) accessed 11-Jan-2010
  23. ^ Schützengarten brewery accessed 14 November 2008
  24. ^ a b "Temperature and Precipitation Average Values-Table, 1961-1990" (in German, French, Italian). Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology - MeteoSwiss. http://www.meteoswiss.admin.ch/web/de/klima/klima_schweiz/tabellen.html. Retrieved 8 May 2009.  , the weather station elevation is 775 meters above sea level.

Newspaper articles

Auf Pantoffeln in goldene Zeiten in St. Galler Tagblatt (German)

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Saint Gallen article)

From Wikitravel

Saint Gallen [1] (St. Gallen, German: Sankt Gallen) is in Switzerland.

Get in

By plane

Zurich International Airport [2] is the closest international airport to St. Gallen. Direct trains between St. Gallen and the airport run twice an hour with a travel time of exactly one hour, see SBB [3]

Alternative airports are the St. Gallen-Altenrhein Airport [4] (with connections to Vienna) and the Bodensee-Airport Friedrichshafen [5].

By train

St. Gallen is a major hub for northeastern Switzerland. Trains between St. Gallen and Zurich depart twice an hour with a travel time of 1h10min. The St. Gallen train station is 500m from the old town and is surrounded my numerous hotels, restaurants, and shops. If you want to get quickly to Munich, 3 times a day the Eurocity from Zurich stops at Saint Gallen. The main train station also acts as terminus for a number of local train lines running to Appenzell and Trogen.

By Bus

Outside the main train station is a central hub for bus and Postbuses [6] to get around St.Gallen and to surrounding smaller villages.

Get around

The old town of St. Gallen is almost void of traffic and is therefore best enjoyed on foot. The VBSG buses [7] connect to the fringes of the city and run frequently and punctually. Bus tickets can be purchased at major bus stops or on the bus from the onboard vending machine. Standard fare is CHF 2.50 and is valid for one direction only. Taxis are always waiting at the train station and along the Marktplatz in the old town.

The Trogenerbahn [8] is your connection from St. Gallen to great hiking trails in Speicher and Trogen.

Bike rental is available at the train station, but check the opening hours before planning a trip.

By car

Parking is available underground in the Migros shopping center garage, near the train station. The garage is spacious and safe but like many things in Switzerland it closes on Sunday.

See

The St. Gallen Stiftsbibliothek [9], in the Abbey of St. Gallen [10], is St. Gallen's most famous tourist attraction. The Stiftsbibliothek contains many books dating back from the early Medieval times, and the library itself is a stunning piece of baroque architecture.

Within the city center, just a short while from the Stiftsbibliothek, there are several museums:

  • Kunstmuseum St. Gallen [11]
  • Kunst Halle St. Gallen [12]
  • Point Jaune Museum [13]
  • Naturmuseum St. Gallen [14]
  • Textilmuseum [15] which displays St. Gallen's rich history as a center for textile production and design.

If you are interested in beer, visit St. Gallen's local brewery, Schutzengarten [16]. Schutzengarten also hosts a beer bottle museum and a restaurant next door to the brewery itself.

On top of the northern hill at Rotmonten there is the Peter und Paul Wildlife park [17].

On the top of the southern hill there are three little lakes called "die drei Weihern". In the summer you can swim there and you also have a nice view over the city. It is an excellent place to jog or simply spend an afternoon.

At the eastern corner of the city you can find the Botanical Garden [18] which houses over 8000 plants.

In August there is the Inline one-eleven, 111km Inlining Marathon.

Buy

The area between the Banhof and Old Town is Marktplatz the main street of a collection of pedestrian-only streets filled with shops. Within the area, there are numerous shoe stores, tea shops, coffee houses, perfumeries, and mainstream clothes stores like H&M.

While the weather is nice, there are occasionally flea markets set up along the streets of Old Town, just a few streets away from the Abbey. If you happen to be lucky and catch a glimpse of some tents, check them out. There are some surprisingly good deals and treasures.

Eat

Nothing can be more St. Gallen than the OLMA bratwurst. You can get a juicy OLMA bratwurst, served with a hard roll, at a number of street stands around Marktplatz and around the entire city.

  • Restaurant & Bistro Neubad, Bankgasse 6, +41 71 222 86 83, [19]. closed @ weekends. Traditional Swiss restaurant with excellent kitchen and service in the heart of the old town  edit
  • Café Colony, Neubaugasse 46, +41 71 222 16 35, [20]. Classic cafe near the pedestrian area in the center of St. Gallen. CGood cakes, pastries etc.  edit

Drink

St. Gallen has its own brewery that makes at least two beers that are definitely worth a try. These are the "St. Galler Klosterbräu" and the "Schwarzer Bär".

This guide uses the following price ranges for a standard double room:
Budget Under CHF 150
Mid-range CHF 150 to CHF 300
Splurge Over CHF 300
  • Ekkehard*** Swiss Quality Hotel, Rorschacherstrasse 50, CH-9000, (, fax: +41 (0)71 224 04 74).  edit
  • Rorschach is about 10km to the northeast direct at the Lake of Konstanz. Check it out for the lake and nice promenade. In august there is the international sand-sculpturing contest [21]. From Rorschach to Kreuzlingen you have a nice 40km route for biking and inlining.

South of St.Gallen is the Canton and Town of Appenzell and the Alpstein mountain range. This area of green pastures, steep wooded valleys, pretty farm buildings with a stunning mountain backdrop is picturesque and, apart from the town of Appenzell itself, little visited by tourists. The Alpstein range provides some spectacular mountain walks and is well served with mountain huts and cable cars.

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Simple English

This article is about the city in Switzerland. For the Swiss canton with the same name, see St. Gallen (canton).

St. Gallen is a city in the eastern part of Switzerland. It is located near the Lake of Constance. St. Gallen is the capital of th canton of St. Gallen. The city was founded as a monastery by the Irish monk Gallus in the 7th century. In the Middle Ages a city grew around the monastery. The role of the monastery (and the city) was very important in the Middle Ages. One of the three remaining manuscripts of the Nibelungenlied are from the monastery of St.Gallen. Today, the monastery, with its library, and parts of the old town are classed as an UNESCO World Heritage site.

The city is about 675 meters above sea level and is located in a part of Switzerland with many hills. As of 2004, about 70.000 people lived in the city. The urban area has about 100.000 to 120.000 people.

In the 18th and 19th century the city became known for its embroideries, which are still very well-known. Every four years, there is the St.Galler Kinderfest (Children's festival). This is a large representation of the primary (and some secondary) schools in the city. It's usually in early summer.

The city also has an university, which is known for its courses in economics, and (to a lesser extent), law.

In Switzerland, the city is also known for St.Galler Bratwurst, and a fair centered around agriculture, held once a year, in autumn. That fair is called OLMA ('Ostschweitzerische Landwitschaftsmaschinenaustellung, roughly translates to Exhibition of agricultural machinery of eastern Switzerland).

In early summer there is also an open-air rock festival. Its called Open-Air St.Gallen, and held in a valley, near the river. Since the weather is not always as good, in many years its a battle with the mud.frr:St. Gallen


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