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Coordinates: 56°20′13″N 2°47′59″W / 56.336978°N 2.799761°W / 56.336978; -2.799761

Royal Burgh of St Andrews
Scottish Gaelic: Cill Rìmhinn (modern);
Cell Rígmonaid,
Ceann Righmhonaidh (obsolete)
Scots: Sanct Androis
St Andrews from St Rules Tower.jpg
St Andrews, seen from the top of St Rules Tower
Royal Burgh of St Andrews is located in Scotland
Royal Burgh of St Andrews

 Royal Burgh of St Andrews shown within Scotland
Population 16,596 [1]
OS grid reference NO507168
Council area Fife
Lieutenancy area Fife
Country Scotland
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town ST. ANDREWS
Postcode district KY16
Dialling code 01334
Police Fife
Fire Fife
Ambulance Scottish
EU Parliament Scotland
UK Parliament North East Fife
Scottish Parliament Fife North East
Mid Scotland and Fife
List of places: UK • Scotland •

St Andrews (Scots:Sanct Androis), (Scottish Gaelic: Cill Rìmhinn) is a university town and former royal burgh on the east coast of Fife in Scotland. The town is named after Saint Andrew the Apostle. St Andrews has a population of 16,596 making this the fifth largest settlement in Fife.

There has been an important church in St Andrews since at least the 8th century, and a bishopric since at least the 11th century. The settlement grew to the west of St Andrews cathedral with the southern side of the Scores to the north and the Kinness burn to the south. The burgh soon became the ecclesiastical capital of Scotland, a position which was held until the Scottish Reformation. The famous cathedral, the largest in Scotland, now lies in ruins.

Today, St Andrews is known worldwide as the "home of golf". This is in part because the Royal and Ancient Golf Club, founded in 1754, exercises legislative authority over the game worldwide (except in the United States and Mexico), and also because the famous links (acquired by the town in 1894) is the most frequent venue for The Open Championship, the oldest of golf's four major championships. Visitors travel to St Andrews in great numbers for several courses ranked amongst the finest in the world, as well as for the sandy beaches.

The town is also home to the University of St Andrews, the third oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of the UK's most prestigious. The University is an integral part of the burgh, and during term time students make up approximately one third of the town's population.

The Martyrs Memorial, erected to the honour of Patrick Hamilton, George Wishart, and other martyrs of the Reformation epoch, stands at the west end of the Scores on a cliff overlooking the sea.

Contents

History

The first inhabitants who settled on the estuary fringes of the river Tay and Eden during the mesolithic (middle stone age) coming from the plains in Northern Europe between 10,000 to 5,000BC.[2] This was followed by the nomadic people who settled around the modern town around 4,500BC as farmers cleaning the area of woodland and building monuments.[2] The name of the settlement was called Cennrigmonaid (Old Irish for "head of the King's monad") for the memory of Túathalán, abbot of "Cennrígmonaid" around 746AD. In 906AD, the town became the seat of the bishop of Alba, with the boundaries being extended to include land between the River Forth and River Tweed.[3]

The establishment of present town began around 1140 by Bishop Robert on a L-shapled vil, possibly on the site of the ruined St Andrews Castle.[4] According to a charter of 1170, the new burgh was built to the west of the Cathedral precinct, along Castle Street and possibly as far as what is now known as North Street.[5] This means that the lay-out may have led to the creation of two new streets (North Street and South Street) from the foundations of the new St Andrews Cathedral filling the area inside a two-sided triangle at its apex.[5] The northern boundary of the burgh was the southern side of the scores with the southern by the Kinness Burn and the western by the West Port.[6] The burgh of St Andrews was first represented at the great council at Scone Palace in 1357.[6]

Recognised as the ecclesiastical capital of Scotland, the town now had vast economic and political influence within Europe as a compolitian town.[7] In 1559, the town fell into decay after the violent Scottish Reformation and the English Civil War losing the status of ecclesiastical capital of Scotland.[8] Even the St Andrews University were in consideration over a re-location to Perth around 1697 and 1698.[7] Under the authorisation of the bishop of St Andrews, the town was made a burgh of barony in 1614. Royal Burgh was then granted as a charter by King James VI in 1620.[9][10] In the 18th century, the town was still in decline, but despite this the town was becoming known for having links 'well known to golfers'.[7] By the 19th century, the town began to expand beyond the original medieval boundaries with streets of new houses and town villas being built.[7] Today, St Andrews is served by education, golf and the tourist and conference industry.[7]

Governance

St Andrews Town Hall

St Andrews is represented by several tiers of elected government. St Andrews Community Council form the lowest tier of governance whose statutory role is to communicate local opinion to local and central government. Fife Council, the unitary local authority for St Andrews, based in Glenrothes is the executive,deliberative and legislative body responsible for local governance.[11] The Scottish Parliament is responsible for devolved matters such as education, health and justice while reserved matters are dealt with by the Parliament of the United Kingdom.[11]

The first parliament to take place in the town was in 1304, when King Edward I came to be received by Bishop William de Lamberton as overlordship of Scotland. As many as 130 landowners turned up to witness the event ranging from Sir John of Combo to Sir William Murray of Fort.[12] In the early days of the union of 1707, St Andrews elected to send one member of parliament along with Cupar, Perth, Dundee and Forfar.[13] The first elected parliament was introduced on 17 November 1713 as St Andrews Burgh, which merged with Anstruther, the result of a reform bill in 1832.[13] The act of reformation seats in 1855, would find one MP sitting for St Andrews Burgh (which would include Anstruther Easter, Anstruther Wester, Crail, Cupar, Kilrenny and Pittemweem).[13] Prior to 1975 the town was governed by a council, provost and baillies. In 1975, St Andrews came under Fife Regional Council and North East Fife District Council. This was abolished when a single-tier authority was introduced in 1996 as Fife Council based in Glenrothes.

St Andrews forms part of the North East Fife, electing one Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom by the first past the post system. The constituency is represented by Sir Menzies Campbell, MP of the Liberal Democrats.[14] For the purposes of the Scottish Parliament, St Andrews forms part of the North East Fife constituency. The North East Fife Scottish Parliament (or Holyrood) constituency created in 1999 is one of nine within the Mid Scotland and Fife electoral region. Each constituency elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) by the first past the post system of election, and the region elects seven additional members to produce a form of proportional representation. The constituency is represented by Iain Smith, MP for the Liberal Democrats.[15] St Andrews is also represented by seven regional MSPs from the Mid Scotland and Fife electoral region.[16]

Demography

St Andrews compared according to UK Census 2001[17][18][19][20]
St Andrews Fife Scotland
Total population 14,209 349,429 5,062,011
Foreign born 11.60% 1.18% 1.10%
Over 75 years old 10.51% 7.46% 7.09%
Unemployed 1.94% 3.97% 4.0%

According to the 2001 census, St Andrews had had a total population of 14,209.[17] The population of St Andrews has since increased to around 16,529 in 2006.[1] The demographic make-up of the population is much in line with the rest of Scotland. The age group from 16 to 29 forms the largest portion of the population (37%).[17] The median age of males and females living in St Andrews was 29 and 34 years respectively, compared to 37 and 39 years for those in the whole of Scotland.[17]

The place of birth of the town's residents was 87.78% United Kingdom (including 61.80% from Scotland), 0.63% Republic of Ireland, 4.18% from other European Union countries, and 7.42% from elsewhere in the world.[17] The economic activity of residents aged 16–74 was 23.94% in full-time employment, 8.52% in part-time employment, 4.73% self-employed, 1.94% unemployed, 31.14% students with jobs, 9.08% students without jobs, 13.24% retired, 2.91% looking after home or family, 2.84% permanently sick or disabled, and 1.67% economically inactive for other reasons.[19]

Weather and climate

St Andrews has a temperate maritime climate, which is relatively mild despite its northerly latitude. Winters are not as cold as one might expect, considering that Moscow and Labrador in Newfoundland lie on the same latitude. Daytime temperatures can fall below freezing and average around 4 °C. Night-time frosts are common, however snowfall is more rare. The lowest winter temperature recorded in St Andrews is -14 °C.[citation needed] Summer temperatures are normally moderate, with daily upper maxima rarely exceeding 20 °C.

Landmarks

West Port

In the centre, St Andrews was once bounded by three 'gaits' - North, South and Church - accompanied by cross wynds which extended to the west of the Cathedral to the respective ports.[21] West Port on South Street is one of two surviving town 'Ports' in Scotland.[22] The towers were influenced by those seen on Netherbow Port in Edinburgh.[21] The central archway which displays semi-octagonal 'rownds' and 'battling' is supported by corbelling and neatly moulded passageways. Side arches and relief panels were added to the port, during the reconstruction between 1843 and 1845.[21]

The tower of Holy Trinity

Holy Trinity (also known as the Holy Trinity Parish Church or "town kirk") is the most historic church in St Andrews.[23] The church was initially built on land, close to the south-east gable of the Cathedral, around 1144 by bishop Robert Kennedy.[23] The church was dedicated in 1234 by Bishop David de Bernham and then moved to a new site on the north side of South Street between 1410 and 1412 by bishop Warlock.[21][23] Towards the end of June 1547, the church was location where John Knox first preached in public. John Knox returned to give an inflammatory sermon on 4 June 1559 which led to the stripping of both the cathedral and ecclesiastical status.[24][25] Much of the architecture feature of the church was lost in the re-building by Robert Balfour between 1798 and 1800.[26] Later, the church was restored to a (more elaborately decorated) approximation of its medieval appearance between 1907-1909 by MacGregor Chambers.[21][27] Only the north-western tower and spire with parts of the arcade arches were retained.[26] In South Street stands the elegant late medieval ruin of the north transept of the chapel of the Dominican Friary on the grounds ofMadras College, said to date back to the late 13th century.[21][28] The only remains of the 15th century Observantine Franciscan Friary which lay in Greyfriars Gardens are the well and a small section of boundary wall which linked to the Marketgait Port.[28]

View of the cathedral grounds from the top of St Rule's Tower.

To the east of the town centre, lie the ruins of the Cathedral of St Andrew.[29] This was at one time Scotland's largest building, originated in the priory of Canons Regular founded by Bishop Robert Kennedy. St Rule's Church, located to the south-east of the medieval cathedral is said to date from around 1120 and 1150, being the predecessor of the cathedral.[30] The tall square tower, part of the church, was built to hold the relics of St Andrew and became known as the first cathedral in the town.[30][31] After the death of Bishop Robert Kennedy, a new cathedral began in 1160 by Bishop Arnold (his successor) on a site adjacent to St Rule's Church.[30][31] Work on the cathedral was finally completed and consecrated in 1318 by Bishop Lamberton with Robert The Bruce (1306-29) present at the ceremony.[30][31] Following the savage attack of the cathedral by the Reformation in 1559, the cathedral was allowed to decay.[30]

Apart from most of the east and west gables, the south nave wall, and parts of the south transept, the Cathedral itself has been reduced to its foundations by stone robbing. The most important single piece is the St Andrews Sarcophagus, a masterpiece of 8th or 9th century Pictish sculpture.[30] In 1826, the ownership of the ruins of the cathedral were acquired by the barons of the Exchequer.[28] The picturesque ruins of St Andrews Castle are situated on a cliff-top, maintained by a man-made ditch (similar to Ravenscraig Castle in Kirkcaldy) to the north of the town.[32][33] The castle was first erected around 1200 as the home of the bishops and later archbishops for use as a palace, prison and fortress, bearing the ecclesiastic ties with the town.[32] Since several demolitions and re-built have taken shape, the majority of the castle only now dates back to between 1549 and 1571. The work was done by Archbishop John Hamilton in a renaissance style retaining the use of a palace rather than a fortress.[32] Today, the castle serves as a visitor centre.

Education

Original building of Madras College on South Street

Today, St Andrews to home to one secondary school; one private school and three primary schools.[34] Cannongate Primary School, which opened in 1972 is located off the Canongate, beside the St Andrews Royal Botanic Gardens. The school role was recorded in February 2008 as 215.[35] Lawhead Primary School, which opened in 1974 is on the western edge of the town. The school role was recorded in September 2009 as 181.[36] Greyfriars RC Primary School serves the local Roman catholic population.[37]

Madras College is the only secondary school in the town. The school which opened to pupils in 1832 was based on a Madras system - founded and endowed by Dr Andrew Bell (1755-1832), a native of the town.[38][39] Prior to the opening, Bell was interested in the demand for a school which was able to teach both poor and privileged children on one site.[38] The high reputation of the school meant that many children came from within other parts of the United Kingdom to be taught there, often lodging with masters or residents in the town.[38] The school is now located on two campuses – Kilyrmont and South Street (incorporating the original 1833 building). Pupils in S1-S3 are served by Kilyrmont and S4-S6 by South Street.[40] There are plans to build a new Madras College to serve all pupils and bring all facilities into single building.[41]

The private school known as St Leonards School was initially established as the St Andrews School for girls company in 1877. The present name was taken in 1882 when a move to St Leonards House was made.[42] The school is now spread across thirty acres between Penns Road and Kinnesburn.[42] A private school for boys was also set up in 1833 as New Park. The operations of the school merged with the middle and junior sections of St Leonards to become St Leonards-New Park in 2005.[42]

St Andrews University Classics Building

The University of St Andrews, the oldest in Scotland, dates back to 1410.[43] A charter for the university was issued by Bishop Hendry Wardlaw between 1411 and 1412.[21][43] This was followed by Pope Benedict VIII granting university status to award degrees to students in 1413.[21][43] The school initially started out as a society for learned men in the fields of canon law, the arts and divinity.[43] The chapel and college of St John the evangelist became the first building to have ties with the university in 1415.[21] The two original colleges to be associated with the university were St Salvador in 1450 by Bishop James Kennedy and St Leonard in 1512 by archbishop Alexander Stewart and prior James Hepburn.[21]

Sport and recreation

St Andrews is known widely as the "home of golf".[44] According to the earliest surviving document from 1552, the "playing at golf" on the links adjacent to the "water of eden" was granted permission by Archbishop Hamilton.[44] The most famous golf course in the town is the Old Course, purchased by the town council in 1894.[45] The course which dates back to medieval times, is an Open Championship course - which was first staged in 1873.[7][46] Famous winners at St Andrews have included: Old Tom Morris (1861, 1862, 1867 and 1874); Jack Nicklaus (1970 and 1978) and Tiger Woods (2000 and 2005).[46][47] According to Jack Nicklaus, "if a golfer is going to be remembered, he must win at St Andrews".[46] There are seven golf courses in total - Old, New, Jubilee, Eden, Strathtyrum, Balgove and the Castle - surrounding the western approaches of the town.[45][46] The seventh golf course (the Castle) was added in 2007 at Kinkell Braes, designed by David McLay Kidd.[46]

Other leisure facilities in the town include a junior football team; rugby club (known as Madras Rugby Club); tennis club; university sports centre and a links golf driving range. The East Sands Leisure Centre, which opened in 1988, sits on the outskirts of the town as the town's swimming pool with gym facilities. The University of St Andrews have expressed plans to provide a new multi-million pound leisure centre to replace East Sands.[48]

See also

References

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Notes

  1. ^ a b "Population Estimates for Towns and Villages in Fife" (PDF). Fife Council. March 2008. http://www.fifedirect.org.uk/uploadfiles/publications/c64_Population06Leaflet.pdf. Retrieved 2008-05-07. 
  2. ^ a b Lamont-Brown St Andrews – City by The Northern Sea pp.1–2.
  3. ^ Lamont-Brown St Andrews – City by The Northern Sea p.16.
  4. ^ Lamont-Brown Fife in History and Legend p.71.
  5. ^ a b Gifford Buildings of Scotland – Fife p.357.
  6. ^ a b Gifford The Buildings of Scotland: Fife p.359.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Cook Old St Andrews p.3.
  8. ^ Lamont-Brown Fife in History and Legend p.76.
  9. ^ Lamont-Brown St Andrews –City by The Northern Sea p.19.
  10. ^ Omand The Fife Book p.109.
  11. ^ a b "Reserved and devolved matters". Scotland Office. http://www.scotlandoffice.gov.uk/what-we-do/reserved-and-devolved-matters.html. Retrieved 2010-01-06. 
  12. ^ Lamont-Brown St Andrews – The City By The Northern Sea p.188.
  13. ^ a b c Lamont-Brown St Andrews – The City By The Northern Sea p.190.
  14. ^ "MP for North East Fife". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/mpdb/html/699.stm. Retrieved 2010-01-06. 
  15. ^ "MSP for North East Fife". Scottish Parliament. http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/msp/membersPages/iain_smith/index.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-06. 
  16. ^ "Regional MSPs for Mid Scotland and Fife". Scottish Parliament. http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/msps/locate/con-east.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-06. 
  17. ^ a b c d e "Comparative Populartion: St Andrews Locality Scotland". scrol.co.uk. 2001. http://www.scrol.gov.uk/scrol/browser/profile.jsp?profile=Population&mainLevel=Locality&mainText=St+Andrews&mainTextExplicitMatch=false&compLevel=CountryProfile&compText=&compTextExplicitMatch=null. Retrieved 2009-03-01. 
  18. ^ "Comparative Population Profile: Fife Council Area Scotland". scrol.gov.uk. 2001. http://www.scrol.gov.uk/scrol/browser/profile.jsp?profile=Population&mainLevel=CouncilArea&mainArea=Fife&mainText=&mainTextExplicitMatch=false&compLevel=CountryProfile&compText=&compTextExplicitMatch=null. Retrieved 2009-03-01. 
  19. ^ a b "Comparative Employment Profile: St Andrews Locality Scotland". scrol.gov.uk. 2001. http://www.scrol.gov.uk/scrol/browser/profile.jsp?profile=Employment&mainLevel=Locality&mainText=St+Andrews&mainTextExplicitMatch=false&compLevel=CountryProfile&compText=&compTextExplicitMatch=null. Retrieved 2009-03-01. 
  20. ^ "Comparative Employment Profile: Fife Locality Scotland". scrol.gov.uk. 2001. http://www.scrol.gov.uk/scrol/browser/profile.jsp?profile=Employment&mainLevel=CouncilArea&mainArea=Fife&mainText=&mainTextExplicitMatch=false&compLevel=CountryProfile&compText=&compTextExplicitMatch=null. Retrieved 2009-03-01. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Pride Kingdom of Fife pp.124–126.
  22. ^ Walker and Ritchie Fife, Perthshire and Angus p.79.
  23. ^ a b c Lamont-Brown St Andrews – City by The Northern Sea p.171.
  24. ^ Lamont-Brown St Andrews – City by The Northern Sea p.173.
  25. ^ Lamont-Brown Fife in History and Legend p.81.
  26. ^ a b Fife Regional Council Medieval Abbeys and Historic Churches in Fife p.46.
  27. ^ Cook Old St Andrews p.14.
  28. ^ a b c Lamont-Brown Fife in History and Legend pp.76–77.
  29. ^ Fife Regional Council Medieval Abbeys and Historic Churches in Fife p.22.
  30. ^ a b c d e f Walker and Ritchie Fife, Perthshire and Angus pp.130–132.
  31. ^ a b c Lamont-Brown Fife in History and Legend pp.70–72.
  32. ^ a b c Walker and Ritchie Fife, Perthshire and Angus pp.115–116.
  33. ^ Pride Kingdom of Fife p.121.
  34. ^ "list of primary schools in Fife". Fife Council. http://www.fifedirect.org.uk/topics/index.cfm?startRow=101&OBJECTID=xxx&ORDERBY=location&FUSEACTION=Facility%2EList&SUBJECTID=0AB411F8%2D508B%2DDE79%2D478BA07C673E89C9. Retrieved 2010-03-05. 
  35. ^ "Cannongate Primary School". Fife Council. http://www.fifedirect.org.uk/atoz/index.cfm?fuseaction=facility.display&facid=CEFA5EC0-5DB7-404F-97AA571607B8AD98. Retrieved 2010-03-08. 
  36. ^ "Lawhead Primary School". Fife Council. http://www.fifedirect.org.uk/atoz/index.cfm?fuseaction=facility.display&facid=003A0E36-40C7-4D1D-A9A7AAECD602137B. Retrieved 2010-03-08. 
  37. ^ "Greyfriars RC Primary School". Fife Council. http://www.fifedirect.org.uk/atoz/index.cfm?fuseaction=facility.display&facid=46485F4C-9C21-42A1-921C7874F8AE4DA4. Retrieved 2010-03-08. 
  38. ^ a b c Lamont-Brown St Andrews – A City By The Northern Sea pp177–178
  39. ^ Cook Old St Andrews p.13.
  40. ^ "Madras College info, fifedirect". Fife Council. http://www.fifedirect.org.uk/atoz/index.cfm?fuseaction=facility.display&facid=02594B20-2A48-48EB-8CAA25FCCAE0DFEB. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
  41. ^ Howie, Janet (April 17 2008). "New Madras College within three years?". St Andrews Citizen. http://www.fifetoday.co.uk/st-andrews-news/Madras-College-single-site-within.3993128.jp. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
  42. ^ a b c Lamont-Brown St Andrews – City By The Northern Sea pp183–185.
  43. ^ a b c d Lamont-Brown Fife in History and Legend p.83.
  44. ^ a b Pride Kingdom of Fife p.118.
  45. ^ a b Lamont-Brown St Andrews – City by The Northern Sea p.85.
  46. ^ a b c d e Lamont-Brown Fife in History and Legend pp.224–227.
  47. ^ Cook Old St Andrews p.39.
  48. ^ ""What does the future hold for St Andrews leisure centre?"". St Andrew Citizen. January 10, 2008. http://www.fifetoday.co.uk/st-andrews-news/What-does-future-hold-for.3662337.jp. Retrieved 2009-03-04. 

Bibliography

  • Lamont-Brown, Raymond (2002). Fife in History and Legend. Edinburgh: John Donald. ISBN 0859765679. 
  • Lamont-Brown, Raymond (2006). St Andrews:city by the northern sea. Edinburgh: Birlinn Publishing. ISBN 1841584509. 
  • Omand, Donald (2000). The Fife Book. 
  • Pride, Glen L. (1999). The Kingdom of Fife (2nd edition ed.). Edinburgh: Rutland Press. ISBN 1873190492. 

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

The Royal Burgh of St Andrews [1] is a small town (population 18,000) in the kingdom of Fife on the east coast of Scotland, facing the North Sea, and hosting the oldest university in Scotland. The town is perhaps most famous, however, as the home of golf.

The Old Course and Royal and Ancient Clubhouse

Understand

St Andrews was historically the Ecclesiastical capital of Scotland. The cathedral was the most important in Scotland during the mediaeval period, and the Bishops of St Andrews lived in St Andrews Castle. John Knox preached in the town.

The University grew up out of the cathedral, and was founded in 1410, being the oldest university in Scotland, and the third oldest university in the English-speaking world. Today, the University dominates the town, particularly during termtime. The university is often seen as being quite elite, and was the place of education of Prince William, second in line to the British throne.

St Andrews is also seen as the Home of Golf, being the home of the Royal and Ancient [2], one of the oldest Golf Clubs in the world and the R&A [3] one of game's worldwide ruling bodies. There are a large number of golf courses or links, as coastal courses are properly known. The most famous golf course in the world, the Old Course is located in St Andrews. It hosts the Dunhill Cup each October and, more importantly, the Open Championship every five years with the next scheduled Open to be held in 2010.

Get in

By Plane

The nearest major international airport to St Andrews is at Edinburgh - 51 mi (83km), approximately 60 minutes from St Andrews by train or car. Buses run directly from Edinburgh to St Andrews. Although St. Andrews does not have its own train station, you can disembark in the nearby town of Leuchars and take a bus or taxi to St. Andrews.

Flights to London are also available from nearby Dundee Airport - 14 mi (23km).

By train

The nearest train station is at Leuchars, about 10km away. It is served by trains from Edinburgh and Dundee / Aberdeen. There are some direct trains from London. Buses to St Andrews connect with the train at Leuchars, combined tickets are available [4]. The bus fare from Leuchars to St. Andrews is £2.35. Taxi service is available at Leuchars and it will cost about 10 pounds to reach the city centre.

By bus

Stagecoach Fife operate buses to St Andrews

Get around

The town is small enough that it is simplest to walk. Taxis are also available (taxi ranks are located on an street connecting Market Street to South Street called Bell Street, outside Holy Trinity Church on South Street and also at the bus station). Bus services link some of the outlying areas, operated by Stagecoach Fife [5].

There is a Park & Ride scheme, where visitors can leave their cars outside of the town in a large carpark, and take a bus into the town centre, though it is easier to walk the 200 metres or so from the outlying carpark to the high street. It is very difficult, and expensive, to park in the town. A parking voucher system operates in the town centre--these are in the form of 'scratch-cards' and can be purchased from shops displaying purple signs [6]. There is also a complex one-way system, resulting in it taking longer to drive from one part of the town centre to another than it would to walk.

  • University of St. Andrews--The University of St. Andrews [7] was founded in 1413 and is the oldest university in Scotland. Today it is a bustling university of approximately 7,000 students, with its most famous recent alumnus being Prince William, who studied Art History at the university from 2001-2005. Its campus, which is spread throughout downtown St. Andrews, features many interesting historical buildings, including the 16th Century St. Salvator's Chapel.
  • St Salvator's Quad, North Street (behind St Salvator's Chapel), [8]. Open daily. This is the historic Quadrangle of St Salvator's College of the University and teaching still takes place in the college buildings. St Salvator's Chapel is used for University services every Sunday, and visitors will see staff and students in the traditional university dress (red gowns for undergraduate students of the United College). After chapel, students walk down to the end of the pier in the traditional Pier Walk. On North Street, just outside St Salvator's Quad, visitors will see the letters PH in the cobbles. This is the site where the martyr Patrick Hamilton was burned at the stake, and it is considered bad luck to walk on the letters: it is said that students who walk across these letters will fail their degree but can remove the 'curse' by bathing in the sea at dawn on 1st May (The May Dip).
  • St Mary's Quad, South Street (enter through black iron gate with words "In Principio Erat Verbum"), [9]. Open daily. This is the historic quadrangle of St Mary's College, University of St Andrews (founded 1410). On entering the quadrangle from South Street, St Mary's College is on the right - now houses the university's Faculty of Divinity. On the left of the gate is Lower Parliament Hall which was temporarily the site of the Scottish Parliament during an outbreak of plague in Edinburgh from 1645-6, and is now used as the University Debating Hall. The building on the left of the Quadrangle is now the School of Psychology, but was formerly the University Library (which was a copyright library 1710-1837). The tree on the right hand side of the Quadrangle was planted by Mary Queen of Scots. This is commonly mistaken for the large oak tree present in the centre of the Quadrangle. On the far side of the Quadrangle is the ruined remains of a gate, now being restored, and beyond that lies the Bute Medical School, dating from 1899. Information panels in the Quadrangle give visitors historical information.
  • St Andrews Botanic Gardens, Canongate, St Andrews KY16 8RT, 01334 476452 OR 01334 477178 (botanic@standbg.plus.com), [10]. Daily, May-Sept, 10.00-19.00; Oct-April, 10.00-16.00. Originally founded as the University Botanic Gardens in 1889, now run by Fife Council. Beautiful landscaped gardens, with different conditions (water garden, heath garden, peat garden, rock garden, Chinese garden, Chile garden). Eight beautiful glass houses with orchids, cacti alpine and tropical plants. £2 (Child £1; Friends of Botanic Garden FREE).
  • St Andrews Preservation Trust Museum and Gardens, 12-16 North Street, St Andrews, 01334 477152 (trust@standrewspreservationtrust.org.uk), [11]. Daily, 2pm-5pm. Museum about the history of St Andrews. Displays feature old shops, furniture, art, etc relating to local area, gardens, and souvenir shop. Free, but donations welcomed.
  • British Golf Museum, Bruce Embankment, 01334 460046, [12]. Easter-Oct, Mon-Sat 9.30-5.30, Sun 10-5; Oct-Easter, 10am-4pm Mon-Sun. Located near the Royal and Ancient Golf Clubhouse, this museum offers an interesting look at golf through the ages. £5 (£4 Senior Citizens & Students; £2.75 children 5-15; FREE children under 5).
  • Aquarium, The Scores, St Andrews KY16 9AS, 01334 474786 (nfo@standrewsaquarium.co.uk; Fax 01334 475985), [13]. Aquarium with seals, fish, reptiles, etc. The seemingly diminutive exterior hides a fairly extensive complex. £6.20 (Child £4.40; OAP £5.00; Student £5.20).
  • St Andrews Museum, Kinburn Park, Doubledykes Road, St Andrews KY16 9DP (located in middle of Kinnburn Park), 01334 412690, [14]. Museum about the history of St Andrews. Also regular temporary exhibitions on various subjects.
St Andrews Castle
St Andrews Castle
  • St Andrews Castle, St Andrews (near Cathedral), 01334 477196, [15]. April-Sept, Mon-Sun, 9.30am-6.30pm; Oct-March, Mon-Sun, 9.30am-4.30pm. St Andrews Castle, built in approximately 1400, is where the Bishops of St Andrews lived before the Reformation. It has also served as a fortress and even a prison, but fell into ruin in the 17th century. It has a beautiful location next to the sea. See and explore the mine and counter-mine built under the Castle during a siege in the 1540s. £4.50 (Child £2.00, Concessions £3.50, joint Castle & Cathedral ticket available).
St Andrews Cathedral
St Andrews Cathedral
  • St Andrews Cathedral and St Rule's Tower, North Street, St Andrews, 01334 472563, [16]. April-Sept, Mon-Sun, 9.30am-6.30pm; Oct-March, Mon-Sun, 9.30am-4.30pm. Ruined Cathedral. St Andrews was the Ecclesiastical Capital of Scotland before the reformation, and St Andrews Cathedral was the most important cathedral in Scotland. Constructed between 1160 and 1318, it was consecrated in the presence of the legendary Robert the Bruce. However, the cathedral fell into disuse in the 1550's, following the Reformation, and many of its stones were removed in the 17th century to construct other buildings in the town. Its picturesque outline remains, however, including stunning towers. Museum tells of the history of the cathedral, and has mediaeval sculpture and artefacts from the site. Cathedral ruins can be explored, and panels explain history. St Rule's Tower, a remnant of the church that predated the cathedral, can be climbed and provides stunning views over St Andrews and the surrounding area. The grounds are free of charge to the wandering tourist. To go up St Rule's Tower costs £3.50 (Child £1.50 Concessions £2.50).
  • Pier and Harbour, St Andrews (Walk down The Pends to the harbour/pier area), Pier and harbour, have survived from St Andrews fishing industry history. This is a pretty place to walk to on a summer's day, with views from the end of the pier of the whole of St Andrews Bay and across the mouth of the Tay to the mountains of Angus. On Sundays, staff and students walk to the pier in their traditional academic dress at the end of chapel.
  • West Sands (beach), One of St Andrews' three beaches, it is the largest, accessible from The Scores. There are large dunes (not accessible to the public) and a large expanse of sand. Several scenes from the film Chariots of Fire were filmed on this beach.
St Andrews from the West Sands
St Andrews from the West Sands
  • East Sands (beach), Accessible from The Scores. This is a smaller and more sheltered beach than West Sands.
  • Castle Sands (beach), This is the smallest of St Andrews' beaches, located below the castle. It is the site of the annual May Dip, where students jump into the sea at daybreak on May 1st as part of an ancient university tradition.
  • St Andrews Links
  • Byre Theatre, Abbey Street KY16 9LA, 01334 475000 (Fax: 01334 475370), [17]. Professional theatre, variety of repertory productions on. Also some touring productions and some good amateur productions. Also has a cafe-bar.
  • Crawford Arts Centre, 93 North Street, KY16 9AD (near New Picture House cinema; opposite police station), 01334 474610 (crawfordarts@crawfordarts.free-online.co.uk; Fax 01334 479880), [18]. Mon-Sat, 10am-5pm; Sun 2-5pm. Arts Centre with crafts, exhibitions and performances. FREE for exhibitions (extra price for performances, varies with performance).
  • New Picture House(Cinema), North Street, St Andrews, 01334 474902 (info@nphcinema.co.uk), [19]. Open daily, depends on film. Independent cinema, varied selection of films, from new releases to some alternative/independent/foreign language films (especially during termtime). Late night showing on Wednesday night during university termtime (usually old/cult film). £4.20 (£5.20 for Circle in Auditorium 1; £3.20 Child; £3.50 Senior Citizen).
  • St Andrews Historical Tours--In the summer months, the University of St Andrews sponsors historical tours of the town, including the castle ruins, cathedral ruins, and historical sites of the University: St Andrews Historical Tours
The Isle of May from Crail
The Isle of May from Crail
  • The Isle Of May, 01333 310103, [20]. Small island lying in the entrance to the Firth of Forth, approximately 5 miles off the Fife coast. National Nature Reserve owned and managed by Scottish National Heritage. Boat trips on the 'May Princess' leave once a day (except some weekdays in April and May) from Anstruther's middle pier from April to 31st of September. Seals can be seen all year round, whales can be spotted in late July and August. Notable for its many seabirds, especially puffins, which can be seen in their thousands from April to July and are the island's main attraction. Tickets can be purchased from the small kiosk on the pier from which the boat leaves. Adults £16, children (3-16 years) £8. Note that sailings can be cancelled at short notice depending on the weather conditions.
  • Walk the golf course. The game of golf had its beginnings in this little Scottish town and even non-golfers should consider a stroll along the perimeter of the very first golf course, the old course. Watch out for flying balls, except on Sunday when the old course is closed and anyone can walk on its fairways. Located on the edge of the course is the imposing Royal and Ancient Golf Clubhouse [21]. If you're lucky, you may spot one of the celebrities who occasionally visit to play the famous course (including not just Tiger Woods but amateur golfers such as Michael Douglas and Samuel L. Jackson).
  • Play a round of golf, Playing St. Andrews' Old Course can be a difficult accomplishment, often involving exorbitant greens fees and a long waiting list. Golf enthusiasts may wish to contact The Royal and Ancient Golf Club[22] well in advance. As an alternative, consider a round on one of St. Andrews' many other courses - ask at the tourist information office for more information.
  • Stroll along the beaches, Yes, St. Andrews has three beaches (see above), but don't break out your swimming gear. Only the most brave or most foolish would attempt to dip in the frigid North Sea, particularly given Scotland's chilly clime (though this doesn't deter the annual "May Dip"!) The beaches are pleasant, however, and provide a nice view of the town.
  • University of St Andrews, North Street, St Andrews [23]. Offers degree programmes in humanities, social sciences, divinity, sciences and medicine

Buy

Golf souvenirs, accessories, and equipment can be purchased in many shops around the town, with several specialist shops near to the Old Course, including the prestige outlets within the Old Course Hotel's shopping arcade. Numerous tourist-friendly shops line Market Street, South Street, North Street, and The Links in central St Andrews. Shops primarily feature golf paraphernalia, Scottish souvenirs, and wool products. There are a number of high-street stores in St. Andrews, including Monsoon, Waterstones, Currys, Boots and others, all of which are primarily located on Market Street. If in need of staple items, a Tesco can be found on Market Street. University of St Andrews merchandise, including clothing, can be bought from the University's Book Exchange & Stationery Store (B.E.S.S.) which is situated at the front of the Students' Union on St Mary's Place.

Eat

The town has two supermarkets; the fairly small and busy 'Tesco Metro', situated on Market Street, and 'Morrisons', situated further out of the town at the end of Largo Road. There is a butcher's shop and a greengrocer on South Street (West Port end), a fishmonger is further along South Street who also sells game, a bakery and confectioner on Church Street (between Market and South Streets)--the famous 'Fisher and Donaldson' (fudge doughnuts are a speciality), a delicatessen--'Butler's'--opposite 'Fisher and Donaldson' (their wraps are popular). Market Street has three health food shops. If you have the opportunity, indulge in "chips and cheese" from one of the small fish and chip shops. You will find yourself enjoying steak fries smothered in salt, vinegar, and melted cheese, the perfect snack if you've just emerged from one of the nearby pubs.

  • Kinness Fry Bar (KFB), 79 Bridge Street, St.Andrews (near bridge over Kinness Burn), 01334 473802 (sales@kfb-standrews.co.uk), [24]. Sun-Weds 16.30-01.30; Thurs-Sat 16.30-02.00. Take-away selling fish and chips, pizza, kebabs and deep-fried Mars bars (a local delicacy). They have unusual pizza toppings including haggis and chocolate. Also sell alcohol for consumption off the premises until 10pm. £1.50-£10.
  • 101 Connection (formerly Pizza Connection) 131 South St (opposite the remains of Blackfriar's Chapel), 01334 470400. Take-away serving pizza and fried food.
  • Jannettas, 31 South Street (the end of South Street nearest the cathedral), 01334 473285, [25]. Excellent ice cream. They have 52 flavours, including the elusive Irn-Bru sorbet.  edit
  • The Oak Rooms, 127 North Street, 01334 473387, [26]. Food available 12pm-10pm. Ranges from baguettes and soup to steaks, salmon and venison (recommended). Excellent butterscotch sauce accompanies the sticky toffee pudding. Nicely decorated dining area. Also a 3* hotel. Prices from £2.50 for the soup of the day to £17.95 for the marinated lamb loin.
  • Balaka, 3 Alexandra Place (end of Market Street, near Students' Union), 01334 474825 [27]. Monday-Saturday--Lunch served 12pm-3pm Dinner served 5pm-1am, Sunday--Dinner served 5pm-1am. Fine Bangladeshi Cuisine. One of the best in the United Kingdom. Prices from £2.95 for lentil soup to £14.95 for a Tandoori Mixed Grill.

Splurge

The Road Hole Grill, The Old Course Hotel, Old Station Road (overlooking the golf courses), 01334 474371, [28]. Open daily 7-10pm. Located on the top floor with fine views over the golf courses, West Sands and North Sea. 3 AA rosettes. Excellent meat, game and seafood dishes. Open kitchen. Excellent and attentive service. Extensive (and expensive) wine list. Very pricy.

number forty, The Golf Hotel, 40 The Scores, 01334 472611, [29]. Nicely decorated, has sea views, good service. 2 AA rosettes. £25-30 for 3 courses. Excellent seafood and game.

Drink

St Andrews features several quaint pubs, many of which are taken over by university students in the evenings during the academic year. Pubs worth buying a pint in include Ma Bell's, The Criterion, The Oak Rooms, The Raisin, The Lizard Lounge, The West Port, and The Victoria ("the Vic").

  • The Central, 77 Market Street, 01334 478296. Daily. Pleasant pub in centre of St Andrews. Bar located in centre of pub. Serves good range of beers and ales. Tables outside pub. Sports shown on small television in corner, but many people don’t watch it. Range of cheap but good quality food. Popular with both students and locals.
  • Aikman's Bar and Bistro, Bell Street, 01334477425. More a proper 'pub' than a bar. Has many fine European beers and ales. Serves food till late. Friendly barmen are up for banter and always ready to recommend a drink to suit your tastes. Downstairs is the Cellar Bar, open every evening, a cosy area where you'll find each week's selection of real ales. Most Tuesdays in the Cellar is 'session' night, where a small live group plays traditional Scottish music. Pub quizzes are also hosted here. Live music upstairs every Friday.
  • The Lizard, Underneath The Oak Rooms, North Street. The closest thing St Andrews has to a club. Gets very busy on Friday and Saturday -people even dance! DJs Friday & Sat, Live Music on Mondays.

Sleep

There are many Bed and Breakfasts and Guest Houses in St Andrews, most of which are centrally located--the majority of these in Murray Park and Murray Place. Prices are generally in the £25-35 range per person per night.

  • St Andrews Tourist Hostel, Inchcape House, St Marys Place (Opposite Students' Association, above Grill House Mexican restaurant), 01334 479911 (fax 01334 479988) In centre of St Andrews, close to bus station. Kitchen, laundry, free linen, showers. £12-£16.
  • St Andrews Youth Hostel (David Russell). Modern apartments with 5 double ensuite bedrooms and a kitchen/living area per apartment, situated roughly a mile from the town centre. This is student accommodation most of the year, so is only open to the public in July and August. Office hours are 8AM-10AM and 4PM-10PM. The office/Youth Hostel reception is situated in a small room to the left as you enter the main facilities building, not at the Reception to the right. Bistro on site, also bar and small shop run by the Students' Association (open irregularly). Games room and laundry facilities also available. More expensive than the Tourist Hostel.
  • Albany Hotel, 56-58 North St, 01334 477737. Peacefully situated in the heart of historic St. Andrews this elegant Georgian terraced house dates from 1795. Prices start at £80 for a single and £130 for a double room per night.
  • Yorkston Guest House, 68- 70 Argyle Street, 01334 472019, [30]. Situated in the west end of St. Andrews, a few minutes walk from the west port and town centre. Bed and breakfast from £45 per person per night.
  • Old Course Hotel, Old Station Road, [31]. Golf Resort and Spa overlooking the town golf courses and the North Sea. 109 rooms, 35 suites--according to the website, all rooms boast bathrobes, iron and ironing board, slippers, wireless connectivity, mini-bar, direct dial telephone, tea and coffee making facilities, voicemail, hairdryer, CD player, toiletries and best water pressure in the United Kingdom. Expect to pay at least £280 per room per night.
  • Golf Hotel, 40 The Scores, [32]. Views over St Andrews Bay. Suites with up to 4 bedrooms available. Bed and Breakfast from £100 per person per night (£15 for a child sharing a room with 3 adults, £50 for an extra adult sharing a room with 2 adults). Parts of the hotel recently refurbished.
  • Fairmont St Andrews, +44 (0) 1334 837000. Originally opened as the St Andrews Bay Resort & Spa, this magnificent hotel complex sits on the summit of a spectacular formation, the hotel and its two stunning golf courses have breathtaking panoramic views of the Eden estuary and the medieval skyline of St Andrews. Expect to pay at least £160 per room per night.

Contact

Information on communications -- phone, Internet, other. Give information on cellular phone coverage in the city, and telephone centres where travellers can make long-distance calls. This is also where you'd list Internet cafes or computer rental centres for staying in touch by email or on the Web. If there are free or paid wireless Internet hotspots in the city, name them here.

  • There are internet facilities inside Costa Coffee (Market Street, opposite the fountain), however, if you have you own laptop, there are wireless facilities in Starbucks (also Market Street) as well.

St Andrews is over run with payphones, which take coins and cards (and you can also surf the web in some). They're the cheapest way to call other landlines in the UK (unless you have access to a private number).

Stay safe

St Andrews is one of the safest Places in the World, with practically a non-existent crime rate. General caution, however, applies, as it does anywhere.

Cope

There is a municipal gym in the East Sands Leisure Centre (off the east sands) which also has a swimming pool. For the more deluxe option, you can indulge yourself at the Old Course or Fairmont St Andrews hotels. University students tend to patronise the University Sports Centre on the North Haugh.

Get out

St Andrews is close to the larger cities of Dundee and Edinburgh. A visit to the nearby Isle of May is highly recommended.

This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Proper noun

Singular
St Andrews

Plural
-

St Andrews

  1. A city in Scotland, named after St. Andrew the Apostle. It is the home of golf.

Translations


Simple English

[[File:|thumb|500px|St Andrews from St Rules Tower]] St Andrews is a town, that has its name from Saint Andrew the Apostle and is a former royal burgh on the east coast of Fife, Scotland, and an important home of golf. It has a population of about 18 000, and stands on the North Sea coast between Edinburgh and Dundee. It is home to Scotland's oldest university, the University of St Andrews.

The town is called "home of golf" for two reasons. First, the Royal and Ancient Golf Club, founded in 1754,has authority over the game worldwide except in the USA and Mexico. Second, the beautiful links (acquired by the town in 1894) is the most frequent venue for The Open Championship, the oldest of golf's four major championships.


Visitors travel to St Andrews in great numbers for several courses ranked amongst the finest in the world, as well as for the sandy beaches.

Contents

Buildings

Cathedral

[[File:|180px|left|thumb|St Andrews cathedral ruins]] [[File:|120px|right|thumb|St Rule's tower]] The Cathedral of St Andrew was at one time Scotland's largest building. It was founded by Bishop Robert (1122 - 1159). It was not completed and consecrated until 1318 in the reign of Robert the Bruce (1306-29).

St Rule's Tower

St Rule's tower stands in the Cathedral grounds but is older than the cathedral. Probably it was part of the Cathedral up to the early 12th century.

Castle

[[File:|280px|thumb|St Andrews University classics building]] The ruins of St Andrews Castle stand on a rock at the sea. It is said that Bishop Roger erected the first stone castle on the site about the beginning of the 13th century as an episcopal residence.

The University of St Andrews

The University of St Andrews owed its origin to a society formed in 1410 by Lawrence of Lindores, abbot of Scone and a few others.

The University library, which now includes the older college libraries, was founded about the middle of the 17th century, rebuilt in 1764, and improved in 1829 and 1889 - 1890.

The modern buildings, in the Jacobean style, were erected between 1827 and 1847. University College, Dundee, became in 1890 affiliated to the University of St Andrews.

Other websites

[[File:|thumb|right|The plaque on the bookshop on the corner of South Street and Church Street in St Andrews.]]

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References


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