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Graph of isotopes/nuclides by type of decay. Orange and blue nuclides are unstable, with the black squares between these regions representing stable nuclides. The unbroken line passing below many of the nuclides represents the theoretical position on the graph of nuclides for which proton number is the same as neutron number. The graph shows that elements with more than 20 protons must have more neutrons than protons, in order to be stable.

Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive (they have not been observed to decay, though a few of them may be theoretically unstable with exceedingly long half-lives). By this definition, there are 256 known stable isotopes of the 80 elements, which have one or more stable nuclides. A list of these is given at the end of this article. About two thirds of the elements have more than one stable isotope. One element (tin) has ten stable isotopes.

Contents

Properties of stable isotopes

Different isotopes of the same element (whether stable or unstable) have nearly the same chemical characteristics and therefore behave almost identically in biology (a notable exception is the isotopes of hydrogen—see heavy water). The mass differences, due to a difference in the number of neutrons, will result in partial separation of the light isotopes from the heavy isotopes during chemical reactions and during physical processes such as diffusion and vaporization. This process is called isotope fractionation. For example, the difference in mass between the two stable isotopes of hydrogen, 1H (1 proton, no neutron, also known as protium) and 2H (1 proton, 1 neutron, also known as deuterium) is almost 100%. Therefore, a significant fractionation will occur.

Study of stable isotopes

Commonly analysed stable isotopes include oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and sulfur. These isotope systems have been under investigation for many years in order to study processes of isotope fractionation in natural systems because they are relatively simple to measure. Recent advances in mass spectrometry (i.e. multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) now enable the measurement of heavier stable isotopes, such as iron, copper, zinc, molybdenum, etc.

Stable isotopes have been used in botanical and plant biological investigations for many years, and more and more ecological and biological studies are finding stable isotopes (mostly carbon, nitrogen and oxygen) to be extremely useful. Other workers have used oxygen isotopes to reconstruct historical atmospheric temperatures, making them important tools for climate research.

Definition of stability, and natural isotopic presence

Most naturally occurring nuclides are stable (fewer than 260; see list at the end of this article); about 30 more are radioactive with sufficiently long half-lives to occur "primordially." If the half-life of a nuclide is comparable to or greater than the Earth's age (4.5 billion years), a significant amount will have survived since the formation of the Solar System, and then is said to be primordial. It will then contribute in that way to the natural isotopic composition of a chemical element. The shortest half-lives of easily detectable primordially present radioisotopes are around 700 million years (e.g., 235U), with a lower present limit on detection of primordial isotopes of 80 million years (e.g., 244Pu).

Many naturally-occurring radioisotopes (another 50 or so) exhibit still shorter half-lives, but they are made freshly, by decay processes or ongoing energetic reactions, such as those produced by present bombardment of Earth by cosmic rays.

Many isotopes that are presumed to be stable (i.e. no radioactivity has been observed for them) are predicted to be radioactive with extremely long half-lives (sometimes as high as 1018 years or more). If the predicted half-life falls into an experimentally accessible range, such isotopes have a chance to move from the list of stable nuclides to the radioactive category, once their activity is observed. Good examples are bismuth-209 and tungsten-180 which were formerly classed as stable, but have been recently (2003) found to be alpha-active.

Most stable isotopes in the earth are believed to have been formed in processes of nucleosynthesis, either in the 'Big Bang', or in generations of stars that preceded the formation of the solar system. However, some stable isotopes also show abundance variations in the earth as a result of decay from long-lived radioactive nuclides. These decay-products are termed radiogenic isotopes, in order to distinguish them from the much larger group of 'non-radiogenic' isotopes. They play an important role in radiometric dating and isotope geochemistry and also helpful for determining the food web dynamics in an aquatic ecosystem

Research areas

The Island of Stability may reveal a number of stable atoms that are heavier (and with more protons) than lead.

Stable isotope fractionation

There are three types of isotope fractionation:

Isotopes per element

Of known elements (the first 82 from hydrogen to lead except for technetium and promethium) 80 have at least one stable nuclide. As of January 2009, there were 256 known stable nuclides (nuclides which have never been observed to decay). Only one element (tin) has 10 stable isotopes, and one (xenon) has nine stable isotopes. No elements have exactly eight stable isotopes, but five elements have seven stable isotopes, eight have six stable isotopes, nine have five stable isotopes, nine have four stable isotopes, five have three stable isotopes, 16 have two stable isotopes, and 26 have only a single stable isotope.[1] The mean number of stable isotopes for elements which have at least one such isotope, is 256/80 = 3.2.

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Nuclear isomers

The count of 256 stable nuclides known includes Ta-180m, since its decay is automatically implied by its notation of "metastable", yet has not been observed. All stable isotopes are the ground states of nuclei, with the exception of tantalum-180m, which is the nuclear isomer or excited level (the ground state of this nucleus is radioactive with a very short half-life of 8 hours); but the decay of the excited nuclear isomer is extremely strongly forbidden by spin-parity selection rules, and has never been observed and is thus included in the list. It has been reported experimentally by direct observation that the half-life of 180mTa to gamma decay must be more than 1015 years. Other possible modes of 180mTa decay (beta decay, electron capture and alpha decay) have also never been observed.

Primordial radioactive and naturally occurring non-primordial isotopes

Elements with more than 82 protons only have radioactive isotopes, although they can still occur naturally because their half-lives are more than about 2% of the time since the supernova nucleosynthesis of the elements from which our solar system was made. An extreme case of this is plutonium-244, which is still detectable from primordial reservoirs, even though it has a half-life of only 80 million years (1.8% of the solar system age). In about 50 known cases, elements with shorter half-lives than plutonium-244 are naturally observed on Earth, since as they are produced by cosmic rays (e.g., carbon-14), or else because (like radium and polonium) they occur in a decay chain of radioactive isotopes (primarily uranium and thorium), which have long-enough half-lifes to be abundant primordially.

Still-unobserved decay

It is expected that continuous improvement of experimental sensitivity will allow discovery of very mild radioactivity (instability) of some isotopes that are considered stable today. For example, it wasn't until 2003 that bismuth-209 was shown to be radioactive.[2] Many "stable" nuclides are possibly "meta-stable" in as much as they may be calculated to have an energy release[3] upon several possible kinds of radioactive decays. These include:

These include all nuclides of mass 165 and greater, and all but nine nuclides of mass 140 and greater.

Binding energy per nucleon of common isotopes.

The positivity of energy release in these processes means that they are allowed kinematically (they do not violate the conservation of energy) and, thus, in principle, can occur. They are not observed due to strong but not absolute suppression, by spin-parity selection rules (for beta decays and isomeric transitions) or by the thickness of the potential barrier (for alpha and cluster decays and spontaneous fission).

List of observationally-stable isotopes

In the list below, the predicted (but not observed) modes of radioactive decay are noted as: A for alpha decay, B for beta decay, BB for double beta decay, E for electron capture, EE for double electron capture, and IT for isomeric transition. Because of the curve of binding energy, all nuclides beyond Z = 28 (nickel) have less than nickel-62's maximal binding energy per nucleon, and are thus theoretically unstable with regard to spontaneous fission.

Some sources may give lower limits on possible half-lives for such decays, estimated either from theory or (negative) observation. However, without a hard figure for decay life, nuclides are still classed as being "observationally-stable," and remain in this list.

  1. Hydrogen-1
  2. Hydrogen-2
  3. Helium-3
  4. Helium-4
  5. Lithium-6
  6. Lithium-7
  7. Beryllium-9
  8. Boron-10
  9. Boron-11
  10. Carbon-12
  11. Carbon-13
  12. Nitrogen-14
  13. Nitrogen-15
  14. Oxygen-16
  15. Oxygen-17
  16. Oxygen-18
  17. Fluorine-19
  18. Neon-20
  19. Neon-21
  20. Neon-22
  21. Sodium-23
  22. Magnesium-24
  23. Magnesium-25
  24. Magnesium-26
  25. Aluminium-27
  26. Silicon-28
  27. Silicon-29
  28. Silicon-30
  29. Phosphorus-31
  30. Sulfur-32
  31. Sulfur-33
  32. Sulfur-34
  33. Sulfur-36
  34. Chlorine-35
  35. Chlorine-37
  36. Argon-36 (EE)
  37. Argon-38
  38. Argon-40
  39. Potassium-39
  40. Potassium-41
  41. Calcium-40 (EE)
  42. Calcium-42
  43. Calcium-43
  44. Calcium-44
  45. Calcium-46 (BB)
  46. Scandium-45
  47. Titanium-46
  48. Titanium-47
  49. Titanium-48
  50. Titanium-49
  51. Titanium-50
  52. Vanadium-51
  53. Chromium-50 (EE)
  54. Chromium-52
  55. Chromium-53
  56. Chromium-54
  57. Manganese-55
  58. Iron-54 (EE)
  59. Iron-56
  60. Iron-57
  61. Iron-58
  62. Cobalt-59
  63. Nickel-58 (EE)
  64. Nickel-60
  65. Nickel-61
  66. Nickel-62
  67. Nickel-64
  68. Copper-63
  69. Copper-65
  70. Zinc-64 (EE)
  71. Zinc-66
  72. Zinc-67
  73. Zinc-68
  74. Zinc-70 (BB)
  75. Gallium-69
  76. Gallium-71
  77. Germanium-70
  78. Germanium-72
  79. Germanium-73
  80. Germanium-74
  81. Arsenic-75
  82. Selenium-74 (EE)
  83. Selenium-76
  84. Selenium-77
  85. Selenium-78
  86. Selenium-80 (BB)
  87. Bromine-79
  88. Bromine-81
  89. Krypton-78 (EE)
  90. Krypton-80
  91. Krypton-82
  92. Krypton-83
  93. Krypton-84
  94. Krypton-86 (BB)
  95. Rubidium-85
  96. Strontium-84 (EE)
  97. Strontium-86
  98. Strontium-87
  99. Strontium-88
  100. Yttrium-89
  101. Zirconium-90
  102. Zirconium-91
  103. Zirconium-92
  104. Zirconium-94 (BB)
  105. Niobium-93
  106. Molybdenum-92 (EE)
  107. Molybdenum-94
  108. Molybdenum-95
  109. Molybdenum-96
  110. Molybdenum-97
  111. Molybdenum-98 (BB)
    Technetium - No stable isotopes
  112. Ruthenium-96 (EE)
  113. Ruthenium-98
  114. Ruthenium-99
  115. Ruthenium-100
  116. Ruthenium-101
  117. Ruthenium-102
  118. Ruthenium-104 (BB)
  119. Rhodium-103
  120. Palladium-102 (EE)
  121. Palladium-104
  122. Palladium-105
  123. Palladium-106
  124. Palladium-108
  125. Palladium-110 (BB)
  126. Silver-107
  127. Silver-109
  128. Cadmium-106 (EE)
  129. Cadmium-108 (EE)
  130. Cadmium-110
  131. Cadmium-111
  132. Cadmium-112
  133. Cadmium-114 (BB)
  134. Indium-113
  135. Tin-112 (EE)
  136. Tin-114
  137. Tin-115
  138. Tin-116
  139. Tin-117
  140. Tin-118
  141. Tin-119
  142. Tin-120
  143. Tin-122 (BB)
  144. Tin-124 (BB)
  145. Antimony-121
  146. Antimony-123
  147. Tellurium-120 (EE)
  148. Tellurium-122
  149. Tellurium-123 (E)
  150. Tellurium-124
  151. Tellurium-125
  152. Tellurium-126
  153. Iodine-127
  154. Xenon-124 (EE)
  155. Xenon-126 (EE)
  156. Xenon-128
  157. Xenon-129
  158. Xenon-130
  159. Xenon-131
  160. Xenon-132
  161. Xenon-134 (BB)
  162. Xenon-136 (BB)
  163. Caesium-133
  164. Barium-130 (EE)
  165. Barium-132 (EE)
  166. Barium-134
  167. Barium-135
  168. Barium-136
  169. Barium-137
  170. Barium-138
  171. Lanthanum-139
  172. Cerium-136 (EE)
  173. Cerium-138 (EE)
  174. Cerium-140
  175. Cerium-142 (A, BB)
  176. Praseodymium-141
  177. Neodymium-142
  178. Neodymium-143 (A)
  179. Neodymium-145 (A)
  180. Neodymium-146 (A, BB)
  181. Neodymium-148 (A, BB)
    Promethium - No stable isotopes
  182. Samarium-144 (EE)
  183. Samarium-149 (A)
  184. Samarium-150 (A)
  185. Samarium-152 (A)
  186. Samarium-154 (BB)
  187. Europium-153 (A)
  188. Gadolinium-154 (A)
  189. Gadolinium-155 (A)
  190. Gadolinium-156
  191. Gadolinium-157
  192. Gadolinium-158
  193. Gadolinium-160 (BB)
  194. Terbium-159
  195. Dysprosium-156 (A, EE)
  196. Dysprosium-158 (A, EE)
  197. Dysprosium-160 (A)
  198. Dysprosium-161 (A)
  199. Dysprosium-162 (A)
  200. Dysprosium-163
  201. Dysprosium-164
  202. Holmium-165 (A)
  203. Erbium-162 (A, EE)
  204. Erbium-164 (A, EE)
  205. Erbium-166 (A)
  206. Erbium-167 (A)
  207. Erbium-168 (A)
  208. Erbium-170 (A, BB)
  209. Thulium-169 (A)
  210. Ytterbium-168 (A, EE)
  211. Ytterbium-170 (A)
  212. Ytterbium-171 (A)
  213. Ytterbium-172 (A)
  214. Ytterbium-173 (A)
  215. Ytterbium-174 (A)
  216. Ytterbium-176 (A, BB)
  217. Lutetium-175 (A)
  218. Hafnium-176 (A)
  219. Hafnium-177 (A)
  220. Hafnium-178 (A)
  221. Hafnium-179 (A)
  222. Hafnium-180 (A)
  223. Tantalum-180m (A, B, E, IT)
  224. Tantalum-181 (A)
  225. Tungsten-182 (A)
  226. Tungsten-183 (A)
  227. Tungsten-184 (A)
  228. Tungsten-186 (A, BB)
  229. Rhenium-185 (A)
  230. Osmium-184 (A, EE)
  231. Osmium-187 (A)
  232. Osmium-188 (A)
  233. Osmium-189 (A)
  234. Osmium-190 (A)
  235. Osmium-192 (A, BB)
  236. Iridium-191 (A)
  237. Iridium-193 (A)
  238. Platinum-192 (A)
  239. Platinum-194 (A)
  240. Platinum-195 (A)
  241. Platinum-196 (A)
  242. Platinum-198 (A, BB)
  243. Gold-197 (A)
  244. Mercury-196 (A, EE)
  245. Mercury-198 (A)
  246. Mercury-199 (A)
  247. Mercury-200 (A)
  248. Mercury-201 (A)
  249. Mercury-202 (A)
  250. Mercury-204 (BB)
  251. Thallium-203 (A)
  252. Thallium-205 (A)
  253. Lead-204 (A)
  254. Lead-206 (A)
  255. Lead-207 (A)
  256. Lead-208 (A)

Abbreviations:
A for alpha decay, B for beta decay, BB for double beta decay, E for electron capture, EE for double electron capture, IT for isomeric transition

See also

References

  1. ^ Sonzogni, Alejandro. "Interactive Chart of Nuclides". National Nuclear Data Center: Brook haven National Laboratory. http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/chart/. Retrieved 2008-06-06. 
  2. ^ "WWW Table of Radioactive Isotopes". http://nucleardata.nuclear.lu.se/nucleardata/toi/listnuc.asp?sql=&HlifeMin=1e30&tMinStr=1e30+s&HlifeMax=1e40&tMaxStr=1e+40+s. 
  3. ^ AME2003 Atomic Mass Evaluation from the National Nuclear Data Center

External links


Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive (they have not been observed to decay, though a few of them may be theoretically unstable with exceedingly long half-lives). By this definition, there are 256 known stable isotopes of the 80 elements which have one or more stable isotopes. A list of these is given at the end of this article. About two thirds of the elements have more than one stable isotope. One element (tin) has ten stable isotopes.

Different isotopes of the same element (whether stable or unstable) have nearly the same chemical characteristics and therefore behave almost identically in biology (a notable exception is the isotopes of hydrogen—see heavy water). The mass differences, due to a difference in the number of neutrons, will result in partial separation of the light isotopes from the heavy isotopes during chemical reactions and during physical processes such as diffusion and vaporization. This process is called (isotope fractionation). For example, the difference in mass between the two stable isotopes of hydrogen, 1H (1 proton, no neutron, also known as protium) and 2H (1 proton, 1 neutron, also known as deuterium) is almost 100%. Therefore, a significant fractionation will occur.

Commonly analysed stable isotopes include oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and sulfur. These isotope systems have been under investigation for many years in order to study processes of isotope fractionation in natural systems because they are relatively simple to measure. Recent advances in mass spectrometry (i.e. multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) now enable the measurement of heavier stable isotopes, such as iron, copper, zinc, molybdenum, etc.

Stable isotopes have been used in botanical and plant biological investigations for many years, and more and more ecological and biological studies are finding stable isotopes (mostly carbon, nitrogen and oxygen) to be extremely useful. Other workers have used oxygen isotopes to reconstruct historical atmospheric temperatures, making them important tools for climate research.

Most naturally occurring isotopes are stable; however, a few tens of them are radioactive with very long half-lives. If the half-life of a nuclide is comparable to or greater than the Earth's age (4.5 billion years), a significant amount will have survived since the formation of the Solar System (it will be primordial), and will contribute in that way to the natural isotopic composition of a chemical element. The shortest half-lives of easily detectable primordially present radioisotopes are around 700 million years (e.g., 235U), with a lower present limit on detection of primordial isotopes of 80 million years (e.g., 244Pu). Many radioisotopes are known in nature with still shorter half-lives, but they are made freshly by decay processes or ongoing energetic reactions, such as those produced by present bombardment of Earth by cosmic rays.

Many isotopes that are presumed to be stable (i.e. no radioactivity has been observed for them) are predicted to be radioactive with extremely long half-lives (sometimes as high as 1018 years or more). If the predicted half-life falls into an experimentally accessible range, such isotopes have a chance to move from the list of stable nuclides to the radioactive category, once their activity is observed. Good examples are bismuth-209 and tungsten-180 which were formerly classed as stable, but have been recently (2003) found to be alpha-active.

Most stable isotopes in the earth are believed to have been formed in processes of nucleosynthesis, either in the 'Big Bang', or in generations of stars that preceded the formation of the solar system. However, some stable isotopes also show abundance variations in the earth as a result of decay from long-lived radioactive nuclides. These decay-products are termed radiogenic isotopes, in order to distinguish them from the much larger group of 'non-radiogenic' isotopes. They play an important role in radiometric dating and isotope geochemistry.

Contents

Research areas

The Island of Stability may reveal a number of stable atoms that are heavier (and with more protons) than lead.

Stable isotope fractionation

There are three types of isotope fractionation:

List of stable isotopes

There are 80 known elements which have at least one stable isotope. As of January 2009, there were 256 known stable isotopes (isotopes which have never been observed to decay). Of these elements, only one (tin) has 10 stable isotopes, and one (xenon) has nine stable isotopes. No elements have exactly eight stable isotopes, but five elements have seven stable isotopes, eight have six stable isotopes, nine have five stable isotopes, nine have four stable isotopes, five have three stable isotopes, 16 have two stable isotopes, and 26 have only a single stable isotope.[1] Thus, there are presently 256 stable nuclides known (counting Ta-180m as stable, since its decay has not been observed), and the mean number of stable isotopes for elements which have at least one such isotope, is 256/80 = 3.2.

Every element from hydrogen to lead has at least one stable isotope with the exceptions of technetium and promethium; elements with more than 82 protons only have radioactive isotopes, although they can still occur naturally because their half-lives are more than about 2% of the time since the supernova nucleosynthesis of the elements from which our solar system was made. An extreme case of this is plutonium-244, which is still detectable from primordial reservoirs, even though it has a half-life of only 80 million years. In a few cases, elements with shorter half-lives than plutonium-244 are naturally observed on Earth as they are produced by cosmic rays (e.g., carbon-14), or because (like radium and polonium they occur in a decay chain of radioactive isotopes (primarily uranium and thorium, with long-enough half-lifes to be abundant primorially.

It is expected that continuous improvement of experimental sensitivity will allow discovery of very mild radioactivity (instability) of some isotopes that are considered stable today. For example, it wasn't until 2003 that bismuth-209 was shown to be radioactive [2]. Many "stable" nuclides are possibly "meta-stable" in as much as they may be calculated to have an energy release [3] upon several possible kinds of radioactive decays. These include:

The positivity of energy release in these processes means that they are allowed kinematically (they do not violate the conservation of energy) and, thus, in principle, can occur. They are not observed due to strong but not absolute suppression, by spin-parity selection rules (for beta decays and isomeric transitions) or by the thickness of the potential barrier (for alpha and cluster decays and spontaneous fission). In the list below, the predicted (but not observed) modes of radioactive decay are noted as A for alpha decay, B for beta decay, BB for double beta decay, E for electron capture, EE for double electron capture, IT for isomeric transition. Because of the curve of binding energy, all nuclides beyond Z = 28 (nickel) have less than nickel-62's maximal binding energy per nucleon, and are thus theoretically unstable with regard to spontaneous fission.

All stable isotopes are the ground states of nuclei, with the exception of tantalum-180m, which is the nuclear isomer or excited level (the ground state of this nucleus is radioactive with a very short half-life of 8 hours); but the decay of the excited nuclear isomer is extremely strongly forbidden by spin-parity selection rules, and has never been observed and is thus included in the list. It has been reported experimentally by direct observation that the half-life of 180mTa to gamma decay must be more than 1015 years. Other possible modes of 180mTa decay (beta decay, electron capture and alpha decay) have also never been observed.

  1. Hydrogen-1
  2. Hydrogen-2
  3. Helium-3
  4. Helium-4
  5. Lithium-6
  6. Lithium-7
  7. Beryllium-9
  8. Boron-10
  9. Boron-11
  10. Carbon-12
  11. Carbon-13
  12. Nitrogen-14
  13. Nitrogen-15
  14. Oxygen-16
  15. Oxygen-17
  16. Oxygen-18
  17. Fluorine-19
  18. Neon-20
  19. Neon-21
  20. Neon-22
  21. Sodium-23
  22. Magnesium-24
  23. Magnesium-25
  24. Magnesium-26
  25. Aluminium-27
  26. Silicon-28
  27. Silicon-29
  28. Silicon-30
  29. Phosphorus-31
  30. Sulfur-32
  31. Sulfur-33
  32. Sulfur-34
  33. Sulfur-36
  34. Chlorine-35
  35. Chlorine-37
  36. Argon-36 (EE)
  37. Argon-38
  38. Argon-40
  39. Potassium-39
  40. Potassium-41
  41. Calcium-40 (EE)
  42. Calcium-42
  43. Calcium-43
  44. Calcium-44
  45. Calcium-46 (BB)
  46. Scandium-45
  47. Titanium-46
  48. Titanium-47
  49. Titanium-48
  50. Titanium-49
  51. Titanium-50
  52. Vanadium-51
  53. Chromium-50 (EE)
  54. Chromium-52
  55. Chromium-53
  56. Chromium-54
  57. Manganese-55
  58. Iron-54 (EE)
  59. Iron-56
  60. Iron-57
  61. Iron-58
  62. Cobalt-59
  63. Nickel-58 (EE)
  64. Nickel-60
  65. Nickel-61
  66. Nickel-62
  67. Nickel-64
  68. Copper-63
  69. Copper-65
  70. Zinc-64 (EE)
  71. Zinc-66
  72. Zinc-67
  73. Zinc-68
  74. Zinc-70 (BB)
  75. Gallium-69
  76. Gallium-71
  77. Germanium-70
  78. Germanium-72
  79. Germanium-73
  80. Germanium-74
  81. Arsenic-75
  82. Selenium-74 (EE)
  83. Selenium-76
  84. Selenium-77
  85. Selenium-78
  86. Selenium-80 (BB)
  87. Bromine-79
  88. Bromine-81
  89. Krypton-78 (EE)
  90. Krypton-80
  91. Krypton-82
  92. Krypton-83
  93. Krypton-84
  94. Krypton-86 (BB)
  95. Rubidium-85
  96. Strontium-84 (EE)
  97. Strontium-86
  98. Strontium-87
  99. Strontium-88
  100. Yttrium-89
  101. Zirconium-90
  102. Zirconium-91
  103. Zirconium-92
  104. Zirconium-94 (BB)
  105. Niobium-93
  106. Molybdenum-92 (EE)
  107. Molybdenum-94
  108. Molybdenum-95
  109. Molybdenum-96
  110. Molybdenum-97
  111. Molybdenum-98 (BB)
    Technetium - No stable isotopes
  112. Ruthenium-96 (EE)
  113. Ruthenium-98
  114. Ruthenium-99
  115. Ruthenium-100
  116. Ruthenium-101
  117. Ruthenium-102
  118. Ruthenium-104 (BB)
  119. Rhodium-103
  120. Palladium-102 (EE)
  121. Palladium-104
  122. Palladium-105
  123. Palladium-106
  124. Palladium-108
  125. Palladium-110 (BB)
  126. Silver-107
  127. Silver-109
  128. Cadmium-106 (EE)
  129. Cadmium-108 (EE)
  130. Cadmium-110
  131. Cadmium-111
  132. Cadmium-112
  133. Cadmium-114 (BB)
  134. Indium-113
  135. Tin-112 (EE)
  136. Tin-114
  137. Tin-115
  138. Tin-116
  139. Tin-117
  140. Tin-118
  141. Tin-119
  142. Tin-120
  143. Tin-122 (BB)
  144. Tin-124 (BB)
  145. Antimony-121
  146. Antimony-123
  147. Tellurium-120 (EE)
  148. Tellurium-122
  149. Tellurium-123 (E)
  150. Tellurium-124
  151. Tellurium-125
  152. Tellurium-126
  153. Iodine-127
  154. Xenon-124 (EE)
  155. Xenon-126 (EE)
  156. Xenon-128
  157. Xenon-129
  158. Xenon-130
  159. Xenon-131
  160. Xenon-132
  161. Xenon-134 (BB)
  162. Xenon-136 (BB)
  163. Caesium-133
  164. Barium-130 (EE)
  165. Barium-132 (EE)
  166. Barium-134
  167. Barium-135
  168. Barium-136
  169. Barium-137
  170. Barium-138
  171. Lanthanum-139
  172. Cerium-136 (EE)
  173. Cerium-138 (EE)
  174. Cerium-140
  175. Cerium-142 (A, BB)
  176. Praseodymium-141
  177. Neodymium-142
  178. Neodymium-143 (A)
  179. Neodymium-145 (A)
  180. Neodymium-146 (A, BB)
  181. Neodymium-148 (A, BB)
    Promethium - No stable isotopes
  182. Samarium-144 (EE)
  183. Samarium-149 (A)
  184. Samarium-150 (A)
  185. Samarium-152 (A)
  186. Samarium-154 (BB)
  187. Europium-153 (A)
  188. Gadolinium-154 (A)
  189. Gadolinium-155 (A)
  190. Gadolinium-156
  191. Gadolinium-157
  192. Gadolinium-158
  193. Gadolinium-160 (BB)
  194. Terbium-159
  195. Dysprosium-156 (A, EE)
  196. Dysprosium-158 (A, EE)
  197. Dysprosium-160 (A)
  198. Dysprosium-161 (A)
  199. Dysprosium-162 (A)
  200. Dysprosium-163
  201. Dysprosium-164
  202. Holmium-165 (A)
  203. Erbium-162 (A, EE)
  204. Erbium-164 (A, EE)
  205. Erbium-166 (A)
  206. Erbium-167 (A)
  207. Erbium-168 (A)
  208. Erbium-170 (A, BB)
  209. Thulium-169 (A)
  210. Ytterbium-168 (A, EE)
  211. Ytterbium-170 (A)
  212. Ytterbium-171 (A)
  213. Ytterbium-172 (A)
  214. Ytterbium-173 (A)
  215. Ytterbium-174 (A)
  216. Ytterbium-176 (A, BB)
  217. Lutetium-175 (A)
  218. Hafnium-176 (A)
  219. Hafnium-177 (A)
  220. Hafnium-178 (A)
  221. Hafnium-179 (A)
  222. Hafnium-180 (A)
  223. Tantalum-180m (A, B, E, IT)
  224. Tantalum-181 (A)
  225. Tungsten-182 (A)
  226. Tungsten-183 (A)
  227. Tungsten-184 (A)
  228. Tungsten-186 (A, BB)
  229. Rhenium-185 (A)
  230. Osmium-184 (A, EE)
  231. Osmium-187 (A)
  232. Osmium-188 (A)
  233. Osmium-189 (A)
  234. Osmium-190 (A)
  235. Osmium-192 (A, BB)
  236. Iridium-191 (A)
  237. Iridium-193 (A)
  238. Platinum-192 (A)
  239. Platinum-194 (A)
  240. Platinum-195 (A)
  241. Platinum-196 (A)
  242. Platinum-198 (A, BB)
  243. Gold-197 (A)
  244. Mercury-196 (A, EE)
  245. Mercury-198 (A)
  246. Mercury-199 (A)
  247. Mercury-200 (A)
  248. Mercury-201 (A)
  249. Mercury-202 (A)
  250. Mercury-204 (BB)
  251. Thallium-203 (A)
  252. Thallium-205 (A)
  253. Lead-204 (A)
  254. Lead-206 (A)
  255. Lead-207 (A)
  256. Lead-208 (A)

See also

References

  1. ^ Sonzogni, Alejandro. "Interactive Chart of Nuclides". National Nuclear Data Center: Brook haven National Laboratory. http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/chart/. Retrieved on 2008-06-06. 
  2. ^ "WWW Table of Radioactive Isotopes". http://nucleardata.nuclear.lu.se/nucleardata/toi/listnuc.asp?sql=&HlifeMin=1e30&tMinStr=1e30+s&HlifeMax=1e40&tMaxStr=1e+40+s. 
  3. ^ AME2003 Atomic Mass Evaluation from the National Nuclear Data Center

External links


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