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Stachybotrys
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Phylum: Ascomycota
Class: Sordariomycetes
Order: Hypocreales
Genus: Stachybotrys
Species

S. chartarum
S. cylindrospora

Stachybotrys is a genus of molds, or asexually-reproducing, filamentous fungi. Closely related to the genus Memnoniella,[1][2] most Stachybotrys species inhabit materials rich in cellulose.

The most infamous species, S. chartarum (also known as S. atra) is known as "black mold" or "toxic black mold," and is frequently associated with poor indoor air quality that arises after fungal growth on water-damaged building materials.[3] It is known to produce trichothecene mycotoxins including satratoxins.

Contents

Pathogenicity

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Symptoms of Stachybotrys exposure in humans

Exposure to the mycotoxins present in Stachybotrys chartarum or Stachybotrys atra can have a wide range of effects. Depending on the length of exposure and volume of spores inhaled or ingested, symptoms can manifest as chronic fatigue or headaches, fever, irritation to the eyes, mucous membranes of the mouth, nose and throat, sneezing, rashes, and chronic coughing. In severe cases of exposure or cases exacerbated by allergic reaction, symptoms can be extreme including nausea, vomiting, and bleeding in the lungs and nose.[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ Haugland, RA, Vesper SJ, Harmon SM (2001). "Phylogenetic relationships of Memnoniella and Stachybotrys species and evaluation of morphological features for Memnoniella species identification". Mycologia 93: 54–65. doi:10.2307/3761605. 
  2. ^ Castlebury L, Rossman A, Sung G, Hyten A, Spatafora J (2004). "Multigene phylogeny reveals new lineage for Stachybotrys chartarum, the indoor air fungus". Mycol Res 108 (Pt 8): 864–72. doi:10.1017/S0953756204000607. PMID 15449591. 
  3. ^ Fog Nielsen K (2003). "Mycotoxin production by indoor molds". Fungal Genet Biol 39 (2): 103–17. doi:10.1016/S1087-1845(03)00026-4. PMID 12781669. 
  4. ^ Richard F. Progovitz. Black Mold: Your Health and Your Home.. p. 97. http://theforagerpress.com/bookstore/blackmold/blackmold.htm. 

Further reading

  • Black Mold: Your Health and Your Home (2003) ISBN 0974394394

External links


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Fungi
Division (Phylum): Anamorphic fungi (Deuteromycota)
Morphological group (≈Classis): Hyphomycetes
Ordo: Hyphomycetales
Familia: Dematiaceae
Genus: Stachybotrys
Species: S. albipes - S. aurantia - S. bambusicola - S. bisbyi - S. breviuscula - S. cannae - S. chartarum - S. chlorohalonata - S. cordylines - S. dichroa - S. echinata - S. eucylindrospora - S. freycinetiae - S. globosa - S. guttulispora - S. havanensis - S. kampalensis - S. kapiti - S. klebahnii - S. longispora - S. lunzinensis - S. mangiferae - S. microspora - S. nephrodes - S. nephrospora - S. nilagirica - S. oenanthes - S. pallescens - S. palmae - S. palmijunci - S. parvispora - S. proliferata - S. queenslandica - S. ramosa - S. renispora - S. renisporoides - S. reniverrucosa - S. ruwenzoriensis - S. sansevieriae -S. sinuatophora - S. sphaerospora - S. stilboidea - S. subsimplex - S. suthepensis - S. terrestris - S. theobromae - S. thermotolerans - S. variabilis - S. verrucispora - S. virgata - S. waitakere - S. xanthosomae - S. yunnanensis - S. zeae - S. zuckii
[list of species after Pinruan et al. (2004), Li (2007), Kong et al. (2007), Wang & Zhang (2009), Jiang & Zhang (2009)]

Name

Stachybotrys

References

  • Jiang, Y.-L.; Zhang, T.-Y. 2009: Notes on soil dematiaceous hyphomycetes from Sichuan Province, China. Mycosystema, 28: 644-647.
  • Kong, J.-H.; Zhang, T.-Y.; Zhang, W. 2007: Notes on soil dematiaceous hyphomycetes from Hexi Corridor, Gansu Province. Mycosystema, 26:
  • Li, D.-W. 2007: Stachybotrys eucylindrospora, sp. nov. resulting from a re-examination of Stachybotrys cylindrospora. Mycologia, 99: 332-339. doi: 10.3852/mycologia.99.2.332
  • Pinruan, U.; McKenzie, E.H.C.; Jones, E.B.G.; Hyde, K.D. 2004: Two new species of Stachybotrys, and a key to the genus. Fungal diversity, 17: 145-157. PDF
  • Wang, H.-F.; Kong, J.-H.; Wu, Y.-M.; Zhang, T.-Y. 2009: Notes on soil dematiaceous hyphomycetes from the Qaidam Basin, Qinghai Province, China I. Mycosystema, 28: 20-24. PDF

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