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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Staffordshire within England
EnglandStaffordshire.png
Geography
Status Ceremonial & (smaller) Non-metropolitan county
Origin Historic
Region West Midlands
Area
- Total
- Admin. council
- Admin. area
Ranked 18th
2,713 km2 (1,047 sq mi)
Ranked 18th
2,620 km2 (1,012 sq mi)
Admin HQ Stafford
ISO 3166-2 GB-STS
ONS code 41
NUTS 3 UKG24
Demography
Population
- Total (2008 est.)
- Density
- Admin. council
- Admin. pop.
Ranked 16th
1,069,000
394 /km2 (1,020/sq mi)
Ranked 8th
816,700
Ethnicity 97.0% White
1.7% S.Asian
Politics

Staffordshire County Council
http://www.staffordshire.gov.uk
Executive  
Members of Parliament
Districts
Staffordshire Ceremonial Numbered.png
  1. Tamworth
  2. Lichfield
  3. Cannock Chase
  4. South Staffordshire
  5. Stafford
  6. Newcastle-under-Lyme
  7. Staffordshire Moorlands
  8. East Staffordshire
  9. Stoke-on-Trent (Unitary)

Staffordshire (pronounced /ˈstæfərdʃər/ or /ˈstæfərdʃɪər/; abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands region of England. Part of the National Forest lies within its borders. It adjoins the ceremonial counties of Cheshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Warwickshire, West Midlands, Worcestershire, and Shropshire.

The largest city in Staffordshire is Stoke-on-Trent, which is administered separately from the rest of the county as an independent unitary authority. Lichfield also has city status, although this is a considerably smaller cathedral city. Major towns include Stafford (the county town), Burton upon Trent, Cannock, Newcastle-under-Lyme and Tamworth. Wolverhampton and Walsall were also in Staffordshire until local government reorganisation in 1974, but are now within the West Midlands county.

Apart from Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire is divided into the districts of Cannock Chase, East Staffordshire, Lichfield, Newcastle-under-Lyme, South Staffordshire, Stafford, Staffordshire Moorlands, and Tamworth.

Contents

History

Historically, Staffordshire was divided into the five hundreds of Cuttlestone, Offlow, Pirehill, Seisdon, and Totmonslow.

The historic boundaries of Staffordshire cover much of what is now the metropolitan county of West Midlands. An administrative county of Staffordshire was set up in 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888 covering the county except the county boroughs of Wolverhampton, Walsall, and West Bromwich in the south (the area known as the Black Country), and Hanley in the north. The Act also saw the towns of Tamworth (partly in Warwickshire) and Burton upon Trent (partly in Derbyshire) united entirely in Staffordshire.

In 1553 Queen Mary made Lichfield a county separate from the rest of Staffordshire. It remained so until 1888.

Handsworth and Perry Barr became part of the county borough of Birmingham in the early 20th century, and thus associated with Warwickshire. Burton, in the east of the county, became a county borough in 1901, and was followed by Smethwick, another Black Country town in 1907. In 1910 the six towns of the Staffordshire Potteries, including Hanley, became the single county borough of Stoke-on-Trent.

The Staffordshire Hoard, discovered in a field near Lichfield in July 2009, is perhaps the most important collection of Anglo-Saxon objects found in England

A major reorganisation in the Black Country in 1966, under the recommendation of the Local Government Commission for England led to the creation of an area of contiguous county boroughs. The County Borough of Warley was formed by the merger of the county borough of Smethwick and municipal borough of Rowley Regis with the Worcestershire borough of Oldbury: the resulting county borough was associated with Worcestershire. Meanwhile, the county borough of Dudley, historically a detached part of Worcestershire, expanded and became associated with Staffordshire instead. This reorganisation led to the administrative county of Staffordshire having a thin protusion passing between the county boroughs (to the east) and Shropshire, to the west, to form a short border with Worcestershire.

Under the Local Government Act 1972, on April 1, 1974 the county boroughs of the Black Country and the Aldridge-Brownhills Urban District of Staffordshire became, along with Birmingham, Solihull, and Coventry and other districts, a new metropolitan county of West Midlands. County boroughs were abolished, with Stoke becoming a non-metropolitan district in Staffordshire, and Burton forming an unparished area in the district of East Staffordshire. On April 1, 1997, under a recommendation of the Banham Commission, Stoke-on-Trent became a unitary authority independent of Staffordshire once more.

In July 2009, the largest hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold ever found in Britain was discovered in a field near Lichfield. The artefacts, known as The Staffordshire Hoard have tentatively been dated to the 7th or 8th centuries, placing the origin of the items in the time of the Kingdom of Mercia.

Economy

Stafford town centre

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of the non-metropolitan county of Staffordshire at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional Gross Value Added[1] Agriculture[2] Industry[3] Services[4]
1995 6,447 209 2,349 3,889
2000 8,621 150 2,986 5,485
2003 10,169 169 3,164 6,835
  1. ^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
  2. ^ includes hunting and forestry
  3. ^ includes energy and construction
  4. ^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured

Some National and Internationally known Companies have their base in Staffordshire.They include The Britannia Building Society which is based in Leek. JCB are based in Rocester near Uttoxeter.The Theme park Alton Towers is in the Staffordshire Moorlands and several of the worlds largest Pottery Manufacturers are based in Stoke On Trent.

Education

Staffordshire has a completely comprehensive system with eight independent schools. Most secondary schools are from 11–16 or 18, but two in Staffordshire Moorlands and South Staffordshire are from 13–18. Resources are shared where appropriate, as per the example of Kingsmead Technology College, Blake High School and Norton Canes High School combining their sixth forms to create a "Sixth Form Consortium", which can offer a greater selection of subjects than each school could individually.

Two universities are located in the county. Keele University is located in Newcastle-under-Lyme. Staffordshire University has two campuses; one located in Stoke-on-Trent, the other in Stafford.

Geography

In the north and in the south the county is hilly, with wild moorlands in the far north and Cannock Chase an area of natural beauty in the south. In the middle regions the landscape is low and undulating. Throughout the entire county there are vast and important coalfields. In the southern part there are also rich iron ore deposits. The largest river is the Trent. The soil is chiefly clay and agriculture was not highly developed until the mechanisation of farms.

Staffordshire is home to the highest village in Britain, Flash. The village in the Staffordshire Moorlands stands at 463 m (1518 ft) above sea level. This record was confirmed in 2007 by the Ordnance Survey after Wanlockhead in Scotland also claimed the record. The BBC's The One Show investigated the case in a bid to settle the argument and Flash was confirmed as the highest.

Government

Staffordshire County Council is the top-tier local authority for the non-metropolitan county.

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Latest Council Election results

Staffordshire County Council election, 2009
Party Seats Gains Losses Net Gain/Loss Seats % Votes % Votes +/-
  Labour 3 -29 46315
  Conservative 49 +22 109699
  Liberal Democrat 4 +2
  UKIP 4 +4

Boundary changes

Towns and villages

See the list of places in Staffordshire and the List of civil parishes in Staffordshire

Dogs

A type of bull terrier called the Staffordshire Bull Terrier was bred for hunting purposes in this county. They are known affectionately as "Staffs", "Staffies", and "Nanny-dogs". Staffies should not be confused with the considerably larger American Staffordshire Terrier, American Pit Bull Terrier, and (English) Bull Terrier.

Transport

Canals

Staffordshire has an extensive network of canals including the Birmingham and Fazeley Canal, Caldon Canal, Coventry Canal, Shropshire Union Canal, Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal and Trent and Mersey Canal.

Railways

See Rail transport in Staffordshire

Roads

The county has relatively good links to the national roads network. Several major roads intersect the county, making it a popular location for commuters working in Birmingham.

The M42 has a junction in Tamworth at the south-east of the county, and heads south-west towards Birmingham. The M6 runs north through the county and junctions 10A-16 are in the county. The M6 Toll, the UK's first toll motorway, runs through the county with junctions in Weeford near Lichfield, Cannock and joins the M6 heading north towards Stafford.

The A5 and A34 run through the county. The former has been significantly widened to a dual carriageway at several sections, although much of it remains single carriageway.

Mermaid's Pool

Mermaid's Pool is a legend linked to a pool located in the mountainous ridges of The Roaches in Staffordshire, England. According to legend, it's said to share something of a mysterious link with the Atlantic ocean, yet be poisonous to animals and fish. Legend has it, too, that the mermaid appears but once a year on Easter Eve at midnight, and anyone who sees her is either given the gift of immortality, or drawn into the depths of the pool to face their doom.

Places of interest

Gallery

See also

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Staffordshire [1] (abbreviated Staffs) is a land-locked county in the West Midlands region of England, part of the United Kingdom.

Part of the National Forest lies within its borders. It adjoins the ceremonial counties of Cheshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Warwickshire, West Midlands, Worcestershire and Shropshire.

Map of Staffordshire
Map of Staffordshire

Get around

by bus, taxi or train Bus services in North Staffordshire are provided by First PMT and for the rest of Staffordshire, Arriva provides most local transport along with other smaller companies.

Main services in North Staffordshire

Hanley - Stafford First PMT 101 Hanley - Crewe, Cheshire First PMT 20

Stay safe

As with the rest of the UK, in any emergency call 999 or 112 (from a land-line if you can) and ask for Ambulance, Fire or Police when connected.

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

STAFFORDSHIRE, a midland county of England, bounded N.E. by Derbyshire, E. by that county and Leicestershire, S.E. by Warwickshire, S. by Worcestershire, S.W. by Shropshire and N.W. by Cheshire. The area is 1171.2 sq. m. The county includes the valley of the Trent from its source to the, point at which it becomes navigable, Burton-upon-Trent. It rises in the extreme north of the county, and follows a southerly course, turning eastward and finally north-eastward through the centre of the county. Its tributaries on the left bank follow a course roughly parallel with it; the chief are the Blythe and the Dove, which receives the Churnet from the west, and forms the county boundary with Derbyshire. The country between Trent, Churnet and Dove is undulating and beautiful; the hills rise to some 1800 ft. on the Derbyshire border in Axe Edge near Buxton, and continue by Mow Cop or Congleton Edge along the Cheshire border to the coal-bearing hills above the Potteries district. Dovedale, the name applied to a portion of the upper valley of the Dove (q.v.), attracts many visitors on account of its beauty, and is in favour with anglers for its trout-fishing. South of the Trent, about the middle of the county, an elevated area is known as Cannock Chase, formerly a royal preserve, now a wealthy coalfield, and the high ground, generally exceeding 500 ft., continues south to surround the great manufacturing district of south Staffordshire (the Black Country), and to merge into the Clent and Lickey Hills of Worcestershire. A small area in the north-west drains to the Weaver, and so to the Mersey, and from the west and south-west the Severn receives some small feeders and itself touches the county in the extreme south-west. The only considerable sheet of water is Aqualate Mere, in the grounds of the mansion of that name near Newport in Shropshire.

Table of contents

Geology

The Pennine folding gently plicates the northern of two Carboniferous tracts interrupting the Midland Triassic plateau in Staffordshire, but affects the unconformable Trias less. It isolates the Pottery and smaller coalfields mainly in synclines, but elevates the western margin of the former anticlinally. A prolongation arches the South Staffordshire Coal Measures, with minor saddles disclosing Silurian inliers, intermediate formations being absent there. Faults depressing the Trias bound the southern coalfield on both sides, the northern Carboniferous westward. At Walsall Upper Llandovery Sandstone with Stricklandinia lens and Barr (Woolhope) Limestone (Illaenus barriensis) underlie Wenlock Shales, succeeded, as at Wren's Nest and Dudley, by Wenlock Limestone in two beds, honeycombed with old lime-workings and famous for trilobites. At Sedgley there follow Lower Ludlow Shales, Sedgley (Aymestry) Limestone (Pentamerus knighti) and some Upper Ludlow Shale. Carboniferous Limestone, with gentlysloping hills and deep valleys, enters the northern region on the east. It contains brachiopods and corals of the Dibunophyllum zone, with lead and copper, once worked at Ecton. Marine Pendleside (Yoredale) Shales, with thin limestones and higher sandstones, ascend around a central syncline and the northern margins of the coalfields into the Millstone Grit, whose four grits in massive escarpments, only the "First" and "Third" persisting westward, alternate with shales. The Pottery Coalfield, the centre of pottery manufacture, though local clays now furnish only coarse ware and the "saggars" in which pottery is baked, includes 8000 ft. of Coal Measures, chiefly shales, clays and sandstones, diminishing southward. The Lower and Middle Measures (5000 ft.) contain the principal coals, about forty, with comparatively barren strata (1000 ft.) preceding the Winpenny, Bullhurst, Cockshead, Bambury, Ten-foot, and higher coals associated with "clayband" ironstones. The neighbouring Cheadle Coalfield comprises the lower 2000 ft., with the Crabtree, Woodhead and Dilhorne coals; two other little coalfields comprise only the lowest strata. The South Staffordshire coalfield has 500-1000 ft. of equivalent measures, with the Bottom, Fireclay, New Mine, Heathen, the composite Tenyard and other coals, besides ironstones to which the Black Country originally owed its hardware industry. Plants (Lepidodendron, Neuropteris heterophylla), fresh-water shells (Carbonicola acuta, C. robusta) and fishes are characteristic fossils; but the roof of the North Staffordshire Crabtree Coal (Lower Measures) and several higher bands yield marine goniatites, &c. Shales, pottery-clays and "blackband" ironstones with thin Spirorbis-limestones, Entomostraca and Anthracomya phillipsi (Blackband Series), succeed in the Pottery Coalfield. Then follow red brick-clays with ashy grits (Etruria Marls); white sandstones with Pecopteris arborescens (Newcastleunder-Lyme Series); red sandstones and clays with Spirorbis-lime- stones (Keele Series); paralleled in South Staffordshire respectively by Red Coal Measure Clays, Halesowen Sandstone, and beds like the Keele Series. Around this the Triassic sequence ascends outwards through Bunter (Pebble-Beds between Mottled Sandstones), Keuper Sandstone and Waterstones into Keuper Marl, which, containing gypsum and brine-springs, covers the central plateau, the sandstones emerging marginally and axially. The Pebble-Beds rise in Cannock Chase, and fringe the northern coalfields. Rhaetic outliers on Needwood Forest contain Axinus cloacinus. The Rowley and other doleritic sills and dikes invade the southern, one dike the Pottery Coalfield and the Trias.

Glacial drift partly conceals the rocks. Irish Sea ice, entering on the west, left boulder-clay with stratified sands, and mingled with local material, Lake District and Scotch erratics, and shells swept from the sea-bed. It threw down a gravelly moraine before the marginal hills of the Pottery Coalfield, and concentrated countless boulders between Rugeley and Enville. Barred northward by this ice, the Arenig glacier carried Welsh erratics across South Staffordshire to Birmingham. North Sea ice with Cretaceous and Jurassic debris reached east Staffordshire.

Agriculture

Nearly four-fifths of the total area of the county is under cultivation, and of this more than two-thirds is in permanent pasture, cattle being largely kept, and especially cows for the supply of milk to the towns. Like most of the midland counties, Staffordshire is well wooded. The acreage under corn crops is steadily diminishing, and wheat, which formerly was the principal corn crop, is now superseded in this respect by oats, which occupies over one-half of the corn acreage, little more being under wheat than under barley. Turnips are grown on about half the acreage under green crops.

Manufactures

The manufactures of Staffordshire are varied and important. Out of the three great coalfields in the north, south and centre (Cannock Chase), the two first have wholly distinct dependent industries. The southern industrial district is commonly known as the Black Country (q.v.); it is the principal seat in England of iron and steel manufacture in all its branches. It covers an area, between Birmingham and Wolverhampton, resembling one great town, and includes such famous centres as Walsall, Wednesbury, Dudley (in Staffordshire) and West Bromwich. The northern industrial district is called the Potteries (q.v.). Cheadle, east of the Potteries, is the centre of a smaller coalfield. Burtonupon-Trent is famous for its breweries. Chemical works are found in the Black Country. brick and tile works in the Black Country and at Tunstall, glassworks at Tutbury; there are also a considerable textile industry, as at Newcastle-under-Lyme, paper-mills in that town and at Tamworth, and manufactures of boots and shoes at Stafford and Stone.

Communications

The main line of the London & North-Western railway runs from south-east to north-west by Tamworth, Lichfield (Trent Valley), Rugeley and Stafford. This company and the Great Western serve the towns of the Black Country by many branches from Birmingham, and jointly work the Stafford-Shrewsbury line. The London & North-Western has branches from Trent Valley to Burton-upon-Trent, and from Rugeley through the Cannock Chase coalfields. The North Staffordshire railway runs from Stafford and from Burton-upon-Trent northward through the Potteries, with a line from Uttoxeter through Leek to Macclesfield. The Manifold Valley light railway serves part of the Dovedale district. The west-and-north line of the Midland railway (Bristol-Derby) crosses the south-eastern part of the county from Birmingham by Tamworth and Burton, with a branch to Wolverhampton. The Great Northern, with a branch from its main line at Grantham, serves Uttoxeter, Burton and Stafford. A considerable amount of coaltransport takes place along canals, the Black Country especially being served by numerous branches. The principal canals are - the Grand Trunk, which follows the Trent over the greater part of its course within the county, the Coventry, Birmingham and Fazeley, Daw End and Essington canals, connecting the Grand Trunk with Warwickshire, the Black Country and Cannock Chase; the Liverpool and Birmingham junction; the Staffordshire and Worcestershire, running from the Severn at Stourport by Wolverhampton and Penkridge to the Grand Junction near Stafford, and the Caldon canal running eastward from the Potteries into the Churnet Valley.

Population and Administration

The area of the ancient county is 749,602 acres, with a population in 1891 of 1,083,424; and in 1901 of 1,234,506. The area of the administrative county is 744,984 acres. Staffordshire contains five hundreds, each having two divisions. The municipal boroughs are: in the southern industrial district, Smethwick (pop. 54,539), Walsall (86,430), Wednesbury (26,554), West Bromwich (65,1 75), Wolverhampton (94,187); in the northern industrial district, Newcastle-under-Lyme (19,914), and the several formerly separate boroughs amalgamated under the "Potteries Federation" Scheme (1908) under the name of Stokeon-Trent (q.v.); elsewhere, Burton-upon-Trent (50,386), Lichfield (7902), Stafford (20,895), Tamworth (7271). Burton, Hanley, Smethwick, Walsall, West Bromwich and Wolver hampton are county boroughs; Lichfield is a city, and Stafford is the county town. The urban districts are - in the southern industrial district, Amblecote (3218), Bilston (24,034), Brierley Hill (12,042), Coseley (22,219), Darlaston (15;395), Handsworth (52,921), Heath Town or Wednesfield Heath (9441), Perry Bar (2348),(2348), Quarry Bank (6912), Rowley Regis (34,670), Sedgley (1 5,95 1), Short Heath (3531), Tettenhall (5337), Tipton (30,543), Wednesfield (4883), Willenhall (18,515); in the northern industrial district, Audley (13,683), Biddulph (6247), Fenton (22,742), Kidsgrove (4552), Smallthorne (6263), Tunstall (1 9,49 2), Wolstanton (2 4,975); elsewhere, Brownhills (15,252),. Cannock (23,974), Leek (15484), Rugeley (4447), Stone (5680), Uttoxeter. (5133). Among other towns may be mentioned. Abbots Bromley (1318), Brewood (2535), Cheadle (5186) and Eccleshall (3799). The county is in the Oxford circuit, and assizes are held at Stafford. It has one court of quarter sessions, and is divided into 23 petty sessional divisions. The boroughs of Hanley, Lichfield, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Walsall, West Bromwich and Wolverhampton have separate commissions of the peace and courts of quarter sessions, and those of Burslem, Burton, Longton, Stafford, Stoke-upon-Trent, Smethwick, Tamworth and Wednesbury have separate commissions of the peace only. The total number of civil parishes is 277. The county is almost wholly in the diocese of Lichfield, but has small parts in those of Worcester, Hereford, Southwell and Chester; it contains 348 ecclesiastical parishes or districts, wholly or in part. Staffordshire is divided into seven parliamentary divisions each returning one member - Burton, Handsworth, Kingswinford, Leek, Lichfield, NorthWest and West. The parliamentary borough of Wolverhampton returns a member for each of three divisions, and the boroughs of Hanley, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Stafford, Stoke-uponTrent, Walsall, Wednesbury and West Bromwich each return one member.

History

The district which is now Staffordshire was invaded in the 6th century by a tribe of Angles who settled about Tamworth, afterwards famous as a residence of the Mercian kings, and later made their way beyond Cannock Chase, through the passages afforded by the Sow valley in the north and Watling Street in the south. The district was frequently overrun by the Danes, who in 910 were defeated at Tettenhall, and again at Wednesfield, and it was after Edward the Elder had finally expelled the Northmen from Mercia that the land of the south Mercians was formed into a shire around the fortified burgh which he had made in 914 at Stafford. The county is first mentioned by name in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 10r6 when it was harried by Canute. The resistance which Staffordshire opposed to the Conqueror was punished by ruthless harrying and confiscation, and the Domesday Survey supplies evidence of the depopulated and impoverished condition of the county, which at this period. contained but 64 mills, whereas Dorset, a smaller county, contained 272. No Englishman was allowed to retain estates of any importance after the Conquest, and the chief lay proprietors at the time of the survey were Earl Roger of Montgomery; Earl Hugh of Chester; Henry de Ferrers, who held Burton and Tutbury castles; Robert de Stafford; William FitzAnsculf, afterwards created first Baron Dudley; Richard Forester; Rainald Bailgiol; Ralph Fitz Hubert and Nigel de Stafford. The Ferrers and Staffords long continued to play a leading part in Staffordshire history, and Turstin, who held. Drayton under William Fitz Ansculf, was the ancestor of the Bassets of Drayton. At the time of the survey Burton was the only monastery in Staffordshire, but foundations of canons existed at Stafford, Wolverhampton, Tettenhall, Lichfield,.

Missing image
Staffordshire-1.jpg

Staffordshire Penkridge and Tamworth, while others at Hanbury, Stone, Strensall and Trentham had been either destroyed or absorbed before the Conquest. The five hundreds of Staffordshire have existed since the Domesday Survey, and the boundaries have remained practically unchanged. Edingale, however, was then included under Derbyshire, and Tirley under Shropshire, while Cheswardine, Chipnall and part of Bobbington, now in Shropshire, were assessed under Staffordshire. The hundreds of Offlow and Totmonslow had their names from sepulchral monuments of Saxon commanders. The shire court for Staffordshire was held at Stafford, and the assizes at Wolverhampton, Stafford and Lichfield, until by act of parliament of 1558 the assizes and sessions were fixed at Stafford, where they are still held.

In the 13th century Staffordshire formed the archdeaconry of Stafford, including the deaneries of Stafford, Newcastle, Alton and Leek, Tamworth and Tutbury, Lapley and Creigull. In 1535 the deanery of Newcastle was combined with that of Stone, the deaneries remaining otherwise unaltered until 1866, when they were increased to twenty. The archdeaconry of Stoke-on-Trent was formed in 1878, and in 1896 the deaneries were brought to their present number; the archdeaconry of Stafford comprising Handsworth, Himley, Lichfield, Penkridge, Rugeley, Stafford, Tamworth, Trysull, Tutbury, Walsall, Wednesbury, West Bromwich and Wolverhampton; the archdeaconry of Stoke-on-Trent comprising Alstonfield, Cheadle, Eccleshall, Hanley, Leek, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Stoke-onTrent, Trentham and Uttoxeter.

In the wars of the reign of Henry III. most of the great families of Staffordshire, including the Bassets and the Ferrers, supported Simon de Montfort, and in 1263 Prince Edward ravaged all the lands of Earl Robert Ferrers in this county and destroyed Tutbury Castle. During the Wars of the Roses, Eccleshall was for a time the headquarters of Queen Margaret, and in 1459 the Lancastrians were defeated at Blore Heath. In the Civil War of the 17th century Staffordshire supported the parliamentary cause and was placed under Lord Brooke. Tamworth, Lichfield and Stafford, however, were garrisoned for Charles, and Lichfield Cathedral withstood a siege in 1643, in which year the Royalists were victorious at Hopton Heath, but lost their leader, the earl of Northampton. In 1745 the Young Pretender advanced as far as Leek in this county.

A large proportion of Staffordshire in Norman times was waste and uncultivated ground, but the moorlands of the north afforded excellent pasturage for sheep, and in the 14th century Wolverhampton was a staple town for wool. In the 13th century mines of coal and iron are mentioned at Walsall, and ironstone was procured at Sedgley and Eccleshall. In the r 5th century both coal and iron were extensively worked. Thus in the 17th century the north of the county yielded coal, lead, copper, marble and millstones, while the rich meadows maintained great dairies; the woodlands of the south supplied timber, salt, black marble and alabaster; the clothing trade flourished about Tamworth, Burton, and Newcastle-under-Lyme; and hemp and flax were grown all over the county. The potteries are of remote origin, but were improved in the 17th century by two brothers, the Elers, from Amsterdam, who introduced the method of salt glazing, and in the 18th century they were rendered famous by the achievements of Josiah Wedgwood.

Staffordshire was represented by two members in the parliament of 1290, and in 1295 the borough of Stafford also returned two members. Lichfield was represented by two members in 1304, and Newcastle-under-Lyme in 1355. Tamworth returned two members in 1562. Under the Reform Act of 1832 the county returned four members in four divisions, and the boroughs of Stoke-on-Trent and Wolverhampton were represented by two members each, and Walsall by one member. Under the act of 1868 the county returned six members in three divisions and Wednesbury returned one member.

Antiquities

Early British remains exist in various parts of the county; and a large number of barrows have been opened in which human bones, urns, fibulae, stone hammers, armlets, pins, pottery and other articles have been found. In the neighbourhood of Wetton, near Dovedale, on the site called Borough Holes, no fewer than twenty-three barrows were opened, and British ornaments have been found in Needwood Forest, the district between the lower Dove and the angle of the Trent to the south. Several Roman camps also remain, as at Knave's Castle on Watling Street, near Brownhills. The most noteworthy churches in the county are found in the large towns, and are described under their respective headings. Such are the beautiful cathedral of Lichfield, and the churches of Eccleshall, Leek, Penkridge St Mary's at Stafford, Tamworth, Tutbury, and St Peter's at Wolverhampton. Checkley, 4 m. south of Cheadle, shows good Norman and Early English details, and there are carved stones of pre-Norman date in the churchyard. Armitage, south-east of Rugeley, has a church showing good Norman work. Brewood church, 4 m. south-west of Penkridge, is Early English. This village gives name to an ancient forest. Audley church, north-west of Newcastleunder-Lyme, is a good example of Early Decorated work. Remains of ecclesiastical foundations are generally slight, but those of the Cistercian abbey of Croxden, north-west of Uttoxeter, are fine Early English, and at Ranton, west of Stafford, the Perpendicular tower and other portions of an Augustinian foundation remain. Among medieval domestic remains may be mentioned the castles of Stafford, Tamworth and Tutbury, with that of Chartley, north-east of Stafford, which dates from the 13th century. Here is also a timbered hall, in the park of which a breed of wild cattle is maintained. Beaudesert, south of Rugeley, is a fine Elizabethan mansion in a beautiful undulating demesne. In the south-west, near Stourbridge, are Enville, a Tudor mansion with grounds laid out by the poet Shenstone, and Stourton Castle, embodying portions of the r 5th century, where Reginald, Cardinal Pole, was born in 1500. Among numerous modern seats may be named Ingestre, Ilam Hall, Alton Towers, Shugborough, Patteshull, Keele Hall, and Trentham.

See Robert Plot, Natural History of Staffordshire (Oxford, 1686); S. Erdeswick, Survey of Staffordshire (London, 1717; 4th ed., by T. Harwood, London, 1844); Stebbing Shaw, History and Antiquities of Staffordshire, &c., vol. i., ii., pt. i. (London, 1798-1801); William Pitt, Topographical History of Staffordshire (Newcastle-under-Lyme, 1817); Simeon Shaw, History of the Staffordshire Potteries (Hanley, 1829); Robert Garner, Natural History of the County of Stafford (London, 1844-1860); William Salt, Archaeological Society, Collections for a History of Staffordshire (1880), vol. i.; Victoria County History; Staffordshire.


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

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Proper noun

Singular
Staffordshire

Plural
-

Staffordshire

  1. An inland county of England bordered by Shropshire, Cheshire, Derbyshire, Warwickshire and Worcestershire.

Genealogy

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Staffordshire
File:EnglandStaffordshire.png
Geography
Status Ceremonial & (smaller) Non-metropolitan county

<tr><th>Origin</th><td>Historic</td></tr>

Region West Midlands
Area
- Total
- Admin. council
- Admin. area
Ranked 18th
2,713 km² (1,047.5 sq mi)
Ranked 18th
2,620 km² (1,011.6 sq mi)

<tr><th>Admin HQ</th><td class="label">Stafford</td></tr><tr><th>ISO 3166-2</th><td>GB-STS</td></tr>

ONS code 41
NUTS 3 UKG24
Demographics
Population
- Total (2006 est.)
- Density
- Admin. council
- Admin. pop.
Ranked 14th Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
1,062,500
391/km² (1,012.7/sq mi)
Ranked 8th Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
816,700
Ethnicity 97.0% White
1.7% S.Asian
Politics
File:Arms-staffs.jpg
Staffordshire County Council
http://www.staffordshire.gov.uk

<tr><th>Executive</th><td>Labour </td></tr>

Members of Parliament
Districts
File:Staffordshire Ceremonial Numbered.png
  1. Tamworth
  2. Lichfield
  3. Cannock Chase
  4. South Staffordshire
  5. Stafford
  6. Newcastle-under-Lyme
  7. Staffordshire Moorlands
  8. East Staffordshire
  9. Stoke-on-Trent (Unitary)

Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands region of England. The county town is Stafford. Part of the National Forest lies within its borders. It adjoins the ceremonial counties of Cheshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Warwickshire, West Midlands, Worcestershire, and Shropshire.

The largest city in ceremonial Staffordshire is Stoke-on-Trent. Lichfield also has city status, though is considerably smaller. Wolverhampton and Walsall used to be in Staffordshire but are now within the West Midlands. Major towns include Burton upon Trent, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Cannock, Tamworth, and Stafford itself.

Staffordshire is divided into a number of districts. These are Cannock Chase, East Staffordshire, Lichfield, Newcastle-under-Lyme, South Staffordshire, the Borough of Stafford, Staffordshire Moorlands, and Tamworth. Stoke-on-Trent is administered as an independent unitary authority.

Contents

History

Main article: History of Staffordshire

Historically, Staffordshire was divided into the five hundreds of Cuttlestone, Offlow, Pirehill, Seisdon, and Totmonslow.

The historic boundaries of Staffordshire cover much of what is now the metropolitan county of West Midlands. An administrative county of Staffordshire was set up in 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888 covering the county except the county boroughs of Wolverhampton, Walsall, and West Bromwich in the south (the area known as the Black Country), and Hanley in the north. The Act also saw the towns of Tamworth (partly in Warwickshire) and Burton upon Trent (partly in Derbyshire) united entirely in Staffordshire. File:Stafford town centre.jpg Handsworth and Perry Barr became part of the county borough of Birmingham in the early 20th century, and thus associated with Warwickshire. Burton, in the east of the county, became a county borough in 1901, and was followed by Smethwick, another Black Country town in 1907. In 1910 the six towns of the Staffordshire Potteries, including Hanley, became the single county borough of Stoke-on-Trent.

A major reorganisation in the Black Country in 1966, under the recommendation of the Local Government Commission for England led to the creation of an area of contiguous county boroughs. The County Borough of Warley was formed by the merger of the county borough of Smethwick and municipal borough of Rowley Regis with the Worcestershire borough of Oldbury : the resulting county borough was associated with Worcestershire. Meanwhile, the county borough of Dudley, historically a detached part of Worcestershire, expanded and became associated with Staffordshire instead. This reorganisation led to the administrative county of Staffordshire having a thin protusion passing between the county boroughs (to the east) and Shropshire, to the west, to form a short border with Worcestershire.

Under the Local Government Act 1972, on April 1, 1974 the county boroughs of the Black Country and the Staffordshire urban district of Aldridge-Brownhills became, along with Birmingham, Solihull, and Coventry and other districts, a new metropolitan county of West Midlands. County boroughs were abolished, with Stoke becoming a non-metropolitan district in Staffordshire, and Burton forming an unparished area in the district of East Staffordshire. On April 1, 1997, under a recommendation of the Banham Commission, Stoke-on-Trent became a unitary authority independent of Staffordshire once more.

Economy

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of the non-metropolitan county of Staffordshire at current basic prices published (pp.240-253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional Gross Value Added[1] Agriculture[2] Industry[3] Services[4]
1995 6,447 209 2,349 3,889
2000 8,621 150 2,986 5,485
2003 10,169 169 3,164 6,835
  1. ^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
  2. ^ includes hunting and forestry
  3. ^ includes energy and construction
  4. ^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured

The Britannia Building Society is based in Leek. JCB are based in Rocester near Uttoxeter. Alton Towers is nearby. Alstom has a factory in Stafford, with some (power transmission) being sold in 2003 to Areva.

Education

Staffordshire has a completely comprehensive system with eight independent schools. Most secondary schools are from 11-16 or 16, but two in Staffordshire Moorlands and South Staffordshire are from 13-18. The percentage of pupils gaining five good GCSEs (A-C) including Maths and English in England is 45.8%. For Staffordshire it is 42.8%. In general, the rural parts of Staffordshire perform reasonably well, with the more urban areas performing quite badly. The calculation of Tamworth's GCSE results includes a school (the Rawlett High School) a few metres just over the boundary in the Lichfield district. If it wasn't for the inclusion of that school, Tamworth's results would be one of the worst districts in England. The best performing schools at GCSE are the Clayton Hall Business and Language College in Clayton, Newcastle-under-Lyme and the John Taylor High School in Barton-under-Needwood. East Staffordshire and Newcastle-under-Lyme have a large variation in their GCSE results, with schools either doing very well or badly. At A-level, Staffordshire does not have many high-performing schools (compared to nearby counties), although there are two that do - with the King Edward VI School in Lichfield (the best overall school in Staffordshire) doing very well, followed by the Moorlands Sixth Form Centre (linked to three nearby schools) in Cheadle. The John Taylor High School also does reasonably well. Nearby Stoke on Trent has a selective school that does well at A level.

GCSE results by council district (%)

  • Lichfield 51.2
  • Staffordshire Moorlands 49.7
  • East Staffordshire 48.5
  • Stafford 46.1
  • South Staffordshire 44.6
  • Newcastle-under-Lyme 43.7
  • Cannock Chase 33.4
  • (City of Stoke on Trent) 33.3
  • Tamworth 32.7

Two major universities are located in the county. Keele University is located in Newcastle-under-Lyme. It is a research-intensive university with particular strengths in health and law. Staffordshire University is located in Stoke-on-Trent and in Stafford. It has strengths in Aerospace & Aeronautics.

Geography

In the north and in the south the county is hilly, with wild moorlands in the far north and Cannock Chase an area of natural beauty in the south. In the middle regions the surface is low and undulating. Throughout the entire county there are vast and important coal fields. In the southern part there are also rich iron ore deposits. The largest river is the Trent. The soil is chiefly clay and agriculture was not highly developed until the mechanisation of farms.

Staffordshire is also home to the highest village in Britain, Flash. The village in the Staffordshire Moorlands stands at 463 m (1518ft) above sea level. This record was confirmed in 2007 by the Ordnance Survey after Wanlockhead in Scotland also claimed the record. The BBC's 'The One Show' investigated the case in a bid to settle the argument and Flash turned out to be the highest.

Government

Staffordshire County Council is the local authority for the county.

Boundary changes

Towns and villages

See the list of places in Staffordshire and the List of civil parishes in Staffordshire

Dogs

A type of bull terrier called the Staffordshire Bull Terrier was bred for hunting purposes in this county. They are known affectionately as "Staffs", "Staffies", and "Nanny-dogs". Staffies should not be confused with the considerably larger American Staffordshire Terrier, American Pit Bull Terrier, and (English) Bull Terrier.

Transport

Canals

Staffordshire has an extensive network of canals including the Birmingham and Fazeley Canal, Caldon Canal, Coventry Canal, Shropshire Union Canal and Trent and Mersey Canal.

Railways

See Rail transport in Staffordshire

Roads

The county has relatively good links to the national roads network. Several major roads intersect the county, making it a popular location for commuters working in Birmingham.

The M42 has a junction in Tamworth at the south-east of the county, and heads south-west towards Birmingham. The M6 runs north through the county and junctions 10A-16 are in the county. The M6 Toll, the UK's first toll motorway, runs through the county with junctions in Weeford near Lichfield, Cannock and joins the M6 heading north towards Stafford.

The A5 and A34 run through the county. The former has been significantly widened to a dual carriageway at several sections, although much of it remains single carriageway.

Places of interest



Key
Image:AP_Icon.PNG Abbey/Priory/Cathedral
Accessible open space Accessible open space
Amusement/Theme Park
Image:CL_icon.PNG Castle
Country Park Country Park
Image:EH icon.png English Heritage
Image:FC icon.png Forestry Commission
Heritage railway Heritage railway
Historic house Historic House
Museum (free)
Museum
Museums (free/not free)
National Trust National Trust
Zoo

See also

External links

Template:County



This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Staffordshire. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.

This article uses material from the "Staffordshire" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English


Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a county in the West Midlands region of England. The county town is Stafford. Part of the National Forest lies within its borders. It adjoins the counties of Cheshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Warwickshire, West Midlands, Worcestershire and Shropshire.

The largest city in ceremonial Staffordshire is Stoke-on-Trent.

Places of interest

Key
NT Owned by the National Trust
EH Owned by English Heritage
FC Owned by the Forestry Commission
A Country Park
An Accessible open space
Museum (free)
File:Museum icon (red).png Museum (charges entry fee)
Heritage railway Heritage railway
Historic House
  • Alton Towers
  • Ancient High House
  • Belvide Reservoir
  • Biddulph Grange
  • Blithfield Hall
  • Blithfield Reservoir
  • Brindley Water Mill
  • Broad Eye Windmill
  • Cannock Chase
  • Chasewater Railway
  • Cheddleton Flint Mill
  • Churnet Valley Railway
  • Croxden Abbey
  • Dovecliff Hall
  • Downs Banks
  • Drayton Manor Theme Park
  • Eccleshall Castle
  • Festival Park
  • Ford Green Hall
  • Foxfield Steam Railway
  • Heart of England Way
  • Ilam Park
  • Izaak Walton Cottage Museum
  • Leek and Manifold Valley Light Railway
  • Lichfield Cathedral
  • Madeley Old Hall
  • Moseley Old Hall
  • Moseley Railway Trust
  • Mow Cop Castle
  • National Memorial Arboretum
  • RSPB Coombes Valley
  • Rudyard Lake Steam Railway
  • Sandon Hall
  • Shugborough Hall
  • Stafford Castle
  • Staffordshire Way
  • Tamworth Castle
  • Trentham Gardens
  • Tutbury Castle
  • Victoria Park
  • Weston Park
  • Whitmore Hall

Other websites


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