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Staphylococcus aureus
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Kingdom: Eubacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli
Order: Bacillales
Family: Staphylococcaceae
Genus: Staphylococcus
Species: S. aureus
Binomial name
Staphylococcus aureus
Rosenbach 1884
.Staphylococcus aureus (pronounced /ˌstæfɨlɵˈkɒkəs ˈɔri.əs/, literally the "golden cluster seed" or "the seed gold" and also known as golden staph and Oro staphira) is a facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive coccus and is the most common cause of staph infections.^ Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacterium that often causes severe pneumonia in.
  • Staphylococcus Aureus - a comprehensive view - Wellsphere 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.wellsphere.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive spherical coccus that grows in a loose, irregular cluster resembling clusters of grapes.
  • Staphylococcus aureus - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Lowy FD. Staphylococcus aureus infections.
  • Staphylococcus Aureus Infection: eMedicine Pediatrics: General Medicine 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Staphylococcus aureus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.antimicrobe.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureusin First Nations communities in Canada 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.cps.ca [Source type: Academic]

.It is a spherical bacterium, frequently part of the skin flora found in the nose and on skin.^ It is a spherical bacterium, frequently found in the nose and skin of a person.

^ Staphylococcus that produces a golden pigment with some color variations and is commonly found on the skin or nose of healthy people.
  • Staphylococcus Aureus / Effective Against / Mister Sterile / Swine Flu Prevention Virus Bacteria Germ Fungi Sanitiser Protection 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.mistersterile.com [Source type: General]

^ Staphylococcus aureus is an extremely common bacterium which colonises human skin and mucosal surfaces, particular in the nose.
  • MicrobiologyBytes » Blog Archive » MRSA: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.microbiologybytes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.About 20% of the population are long-term carriers of S. aureus.^ About 20% of the population are long-term carriers of S. aureus .

^ S. aureus lives as the part of the normal skin flora in the nose or on the skin in 20-30% of healthy people (staph carriers), ( 1 ).
  • What is Staphylococcus aureus | Current Health Articles 2009 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.healthhype.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Staphylococcus Aureus | Current Health Articles 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.healthhype.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Staphylococcus aureus, often called Staph aureus or S. aureus, is a bacterium that is normally carried in the nose of about 30% of the general human population.
  • MRSA: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - VeterinaryPartner.com - a VIN company! 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.veterinarypartner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .S. aureus can cause a range of illnesses from minor skin infections, such as pimples, impetigo (may also be caused by Streptococcus pyogenes), boils (furuncles), cellulitis folliculitis, carbuncles, scalded skin syndrome and abscesses, to life-threatening diseases such as pneumonia, meningitis, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, toxic shock syndrome (TSS), bacteremia and sepsis.^ Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus ) is a common pathogen that can cause a range of diseases from mild skin infections to life-threatening sepsis in humans.
  • PLoS Pathogens: A Structural Model of the Staphylococcus aureus ClfA–Fibrinogen Interaction Opens New Avenues for the Design of Anti-Staphylococcal Therapeutics 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.plospathogens.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This toxin is responsible for the bacteria to cause skin infections and severe pneumonia.
  • Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) - a knol by Gary A. Noskin, MD 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some relatively minor skin infections, such as folliculitis, impetigo and cellulitis, can progress to life threatening diseases like sepsis, endocardatis, osteomylitis and pneumonia [1] .
  • PLoS Pathogens: β-Neurexin Is a Ligand for the Staphylococcus aureus MSCRAMM SdrC 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.plospathogens.org [Source type: Academic]

.Its incidence is from skin, soft tissue, respiratory, bone, joint, endovascular to wound infections.^ There have also been reports of an increased incidence of bloodstream, skin, and soft-tissue infections, as well as respiratory tract infections.
  • NEJM -- Staphylococcus aureus Infections 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC content.nejm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Management of individuals with skin and soft tissue infections - download form .
  • Staphylococcus aureus in the community - Information for clinicians Factsheet - NSW Department of Health 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.health.nsw.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Invasive staph infections are different from skin and soft tissue infections.
  • 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.aap.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is still one of the five most common causes of nosocomial infections, often causing postsurgical wound infections.^ In addition, S. aureus is the most common cause of nosocomial infections.
  • Rapid Diagnostics for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus a... : Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They are a common cause of pneumonia, surgical wound infections, and bloodstream infections.
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.netwellness.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Staph bacteria are one of the most common causes of skin infections in the United States.
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.netwellness.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Abbreviated to S. aureus or Staph aureus in medical literature, S. aureus should not be confused with the similarly named and similarly dangerous (and also medically relevant) species of the genus Streptococcus.^ It is abbreviated to S. aureus or sometimes referred to as Staph aureus in medical literature, and should not be confused with the somewhat similar named streptococci which are also medically important.
  • Staphylococcus aureus at AllExperts 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ KEYWORDS: Staphylococcus Aureus micro virus bacteria protist microbe disease hospital staph medical .
  • 3d staphylococcus aureus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.turbosquid.com [Source type: General]

^ S. aureus is considered one of the most dangerous microbes on earth and thousands of Americans die every year from staph infections they contacted while in the hospital.

.S. aureus was discovered in Aberdeen, Scotland in 1880 by the surgeon Sir Alexander Ogston in pus from surgical abscesses.^ This organism was first identified in 1880 by a surgeon, Alexander Ogston, who noted that the majority of abscesses he studied which were inflamed and warm to touch were caused by the same organism.

^ Instead the Scottish surgeon Alexander Ogston described the nature of Staphylococci.
  • The Genesis of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - Answers in Genesis 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Staphylococcus pyogenes aureus is identified as the cause of wound infection by the Scottish surgeon Sir Alexander Ogston, who named it for the grape-like clusters (in Greek, staphyle ) he observed under the microscope (the first name given to S. aureus ).
  • The Genesis of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - Answers in Genesis 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

[2] .Each year some 500,000 patients in American hospitals contract a staphylococcal infection.^ Each year some 500,000 patients in American hospitals contract a staphylococcal infection.

^ Patient Surveys for Staphylococcal infection .
  • Staphylococcal infection Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ MRSA causes some 94,000 invasive infections in the U.S. each year, resulting in almost 19,000 deaths—more than those caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)—said a study published this week in JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association .
  • Hospitals and Superbugs: Go in Sick... Get Sicker: Scientific American 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.scientificamerican.com [Source type: News]

[3]

Contents

Microbiology

Gram stain of S. aureus.
.S. aureus is a facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive coccus, which appears as grape-like clusters when viewed through a microscope and has large, round, golden-yellow colonies, often with hemolysis, when grown on blood agar plates.^ Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive spherical coccus that grows in a loose, irregular cluster resembling clusters of grapes.
  • Staphylococcus aureus - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Staphylococcus aureus appears as a Gram-positive coccus, in grape-like clusters when viewed through a microscope and as large, round, golden-yellow colonies, often with beta-haemolysis when grown on blood agar plates.
  • MRSA | Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When viewed microscopically, staphylococci appear in clumps, like bunches of grapes.
  • The Classification and Identification of Bacteria of Medical Importance 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.bmb.leeds.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .The golden appearance is the etymological root of the bacteria's name; aureus means "golden" in Latin.^ The golden appearance is the etymological root of the bacteria's name: aureus means "gold" in Latin .
  • Staphylococcus aureus at AllExperts 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Latin "aureus" means 'golden-coloured' in reference to its naked eye colony appearance.
  • Staphylococcus aureus - Ganfyd 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.ganfyd.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The bacteria had a yellowish hue, which is how it gets the name "aureus," golden in Latin.
  • Staphylococcus aureus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.S. aureus is catalase positive (meaning that it can produce the enzyme "catalase") and able to convert hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to water and oxygen, which makes the catalase test useful to distinguish staphylococci from enterococci and streptococci.^ The catalase test is important in distinguishing streptococci (catalase-negative) from staphylococci, which are vigorous catalase-producers.

^ Researchers use this test to distinguish between Staphylococcus aureus from S. epidermidis .
  • Staphylococcus aureus - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ S. aureus is catalase positive and thus able to convert hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) to water and oxygen, which makes the catalase test useful to distinguish staphylococci from enterococci and streptococci.
  • Staphylococcus aureus at AllExperts 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

.A small percentage of S. aureus can be differentiated from most other staphylococci by the coagulase test: S. aureus is primarily coagulase-positive (meaning that it can produce "coagulase", a protein product, which is an enzyme) that causes clot formation while most other Staphylococcus species are coagulase-negative.^ Coagulase-negative staphylococci are resistant to drying, but Staphylococcus aureus is less so.
  • The Classification and Identification of Bacteria of Medical Importance 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.bmb.leeds.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coagulase is an enzyme that causes plasma to clot, and is elaborated by Staphylococcus aureus but not by the coagulase-negative staphylococci such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus.
  • The Classification and Identification of Bacteria of Medical Importance 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.bmb.leeds.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of staph infections.

[4] .However, while the majority of S. aureus are coagulase-positive, some may be atypical in that they do not produce coagulase (the most common organism in patients with nosocomial bacteremia is coagulase-negative staphylococcus[5]).^ Risk of endocarditis among patients with prosthetic valves and Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.
  • Complications of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Coagulase-negative staphylococci are resistant to drying, but Staphylococcus aureus is less so.
  • The Classification and Identification of Bacteria of Medical Importance 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.bmb.leeds.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, S. aureus is the most common cause of nosocomial infections.
  • Rapid Diagnostics for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus a... : Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Incorrect identification of an isolate can impact implementation of effective treatment and/or control measures.^ Suggests that treatment of carriage be limited to health care workers epidemiologically linked to hospital outbreaks, patients in long-term care facilities where infection control measures such as isolation were not feasible, and outbreak control in some circumstances.
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureusin First Nations communities in Canada 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.cps.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ To review evidence regarding the effectiveness of control measures in reducing transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals.
  • Questions about Staphylococcus Aureus Infection - Ask.com 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

^ The key to MRSA control is the prompt treatment with effective antibacterial drugs.
  • The Genesis of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - Answers in Genesis 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

[6]
fffff == Role in disease ==
.Strains are responsible for food poisoning through the production of an enterotoxin and pathogenicity is also associated with coagulase positivity.^ Coagulase-positive S. aureus are among the most severe pathogenic strains.
  • The Genesis of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - Answers in Genesis 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ CHARACTERISTICS: Gram positive cocci, usually in clusters; coagulase positive; non-spore forming; non-motile; many strains produce exotoxins including staphylococcal enterotoxins A,B,C,D,E, toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1) and exfoliative toxins A, and B .
  • Staphylococcus aureus - Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.phac-aspc.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Among them are staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs), which cause staphylococcal food poisoning, and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1).
  • Toxigenicity in Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphyloc 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.la-press.com [Source type: Academic]

.S. aureus may occur as a commensal on human skin; it also occurs in the nose frequently (in about a third of the population)[7] and throat less commonly.^ About 25% of the population has Staphylococcus Aureus, a bacterium that lives on the skin and in the nose.
  • Ross Memorial Hospital - Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Fact Sheet 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.rmh.org [Source type: General]

^ MSSA lives on the skin of humans as a commensal.
  • Nasal decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus with mupirocin: strengths, weaknesses and future prospects -- Coates et al. 64 (1): 9 -- Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC jac.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus lives on the skin and in the nose of about a third of healthy people.
  • PLoS Medicine: Geographic Distribution of Staphylococcus aureus Causing Invasive Infections in Europe: A Molecular-Epidemiological Analysis 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

.The occurrence of S. aureus under these circumstances does not always indicate infection and therefore does not always require treatment (indeed, treatment may be ineffective and re-colonisation may occur).^ As many as one-third of these infections may be caused by S. aureus.

^ In fact, nasal colonization may be necessary for infection to occur.

^ Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Infections .
  • What is Staphylococcus aureus | Current Health Articles 2009 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.healthhype.com [Source type: Academic]

.It can survive on domesticated animals such as dogs, cats and horses, and can cause bumblefoot in chickens.^ It can survive on domesticated animals such as dogs, cats and horses, but has never been found on food animals such as poultry or swine.
  • Staphylococcus aureus at AllExperts 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ MRSA has been found in a variety of animals, including horses, cattle, dogs, cats and swine.
  • SUNfiltered : Fresh culture daily. » resistant staphylococcus aureus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.sundancechannel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, once colonized or infected, dogs and cats can pass the bacterium on to other animals and people.
  • MRSA: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - VeterinaryPartner.com - a VIN company! 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.veterinarypartner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It can survive for some hours on dry environmental surfaces, but the importance of the environment in spread of S. aureus is currently debated[8].^ A: "through human-to-human contact, although recently some vets have discovered that the infection can be spread through pets, with environmental contamination thought to play a relatively unimportant part."
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (mrsa) - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In healthcare environments, MRSA can survive on surfaces and fabrics, including privacy curtains or garments worn by care providers.
  • Bing Health Article - Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These results indicate that S. aureus has the ability to spread on soft agar surfaces.
  • Colony Spreading in Staphylococcus aureus -- Kaito and Sekimizu 189 (6): 2553 -- The Journal of Bacteriology 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC jb.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.It can host phages, such as the Panton-Valentine leukocidin, that increase its virulence.^ In many areas, CA-MRSA strains have acquired the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene, which confers virulence and has been associated with complicated skin, soft tissue and musculoskeletal infections, and necrotizing pneumonia.
  • Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Implications for the care of children 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.cps.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ In the community-acquired MRSA, we have seen that the predominant clone is the USA 300, which contains a Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene that produces a toxin that leads to tissue necrosis.
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in Head and Neck Infections 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.bcm.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Many of these strains have a toxin called the Panton-Valentine leucocidin (usually referred to as 'PVL') which may contribute to their increased ability to cause infections.
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.netdoctor.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.S. aureus can infect other tissues when barriers have been breached (e.g., skin or mucosal lining).^ Staphylococcus aureus is an extremely common bacterium which colonises human skin and mucosal surfaces, particular in the nose.
  • MicrobiologyBytes » Blog Archive » MRSA: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.microbiologybytes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over 80% of culture-confirmed S. aureus infections during this period were MRSA, 84% of MRSA infections involved skin or soft tissue, but more serious or invasive disease was rare.
  • Research: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA | CDC AIP 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ S. aureus most commonly causes a localized skin infection, although it can also infect the eye, nose, throat, urethra, vagina, and gastrointestinal tract.

.This leads to furuncles (boils) and carbuncles (a collection of furuncles).^ This leads to furuncle s (boils) and carbuncle s (a collection of furuncles).
  • Staphylococcus aureus at AllExperts 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Large painful boils (furuncle or carbuncle) .
  • MRSA Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Infections of the Skin - a knol by Bryan Cho MD, PhD 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Abscesses (boils or furuncles) are warm, painful collections of pus just below the skin.
  • Staphylococcus aureus Infections: Bacterial Infections: Merck Manual Home Edition 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Staphylococcus aureus Infections: Bacterial Infections: Merck Manual Home Edition 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In infants S. aureus infection can cause a severe disease Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS).^ This toxin is responsible for the bacteria to cause skin infections and severe pneumonia.
  • Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) - a knol by Gary A. Noskin, MD 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Staphylococcal infections are usually caused by the organism Staphylococcus aureus .
  • Staphylococcal Infections: eMedicine Infectious Diseases 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sites of infection and diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus .

[9]
.S. aureus alv infections can be spread through contact with pus from an infected wound, skin-to-skin contact with an infected person by producing hyaluronidase that destroy tissues, and contact with objects such as towels, sheets, clothing, or athletic equipment used by an infected person.^ Spread may also occur through indirect contact by touching objects (such as towels, sheets, wound dressings, clothes, workout areas, sports equipment) contaminated by the infected skin of a person with MRSA. Just as S. aureus can be carried on the skin or in the nose without causing any disease, MRSA can be carried in this way also.
  • Staph Infection (Staphylococcus Aureus) Symptoms, Causes and Treatment on MedicineNet.com 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Avoid sharing personal items such as towels, sheets, razors, clothing and athletic equipment.
  • Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) | Healia Health Blog 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC blog.healia.com [Source type: General]

^ Contact with wounds and boils infected with Staphylococcus aureus can spread the infection.
  • Staphylococcus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.drlera.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Staphylococcus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.tjclarkminerals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Deeply penetrating S. aureus infections can be severe.^ Deeply situated S. aureus infections can be very severe.
  • Staphylococcus aureus at AllExperts 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Various virulence factors are responsible for the symptoms and severity of infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus.
  • Toxigenicity in Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphyloc 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.la-press.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Background Staphylococcus aureus causes severe life-threatening infections and has become increasingly common, particularly methicillin-resistant strains.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Abstract: Adjunctive Use of Rifampin for the Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Infections: A Systematic Review of the Literature, April 28, 2008, Perlroth et al. 168 (8): 805 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

.Prosthetic joints put a person at particular risk for septic arthritis, and staphylococcal endocarditis (infection of the heart valves) and pneumonia, which may be rapidly spread.^ Risk of endocarditis among patients with prosthetic valves and Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.
  • Complications of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Prosthetic joints put a person at particular risk for septic arthritis , and staphylococcal endocarditis (infection of the heart valves) and pneumonia may be rapidly fatal.
  • Staphylococcus aureus at AllExperts 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This may result in pneumonia , bone and joint infection, and infection of the heart valves.
  • Staphylococcus Aureus Infection: eMedicine Pediatrics: General Medicine 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

Atopic dermatitis

.S. aureus is extremely prevalent in atopic dermatitis patients, who are less resistant to it than other people.^ Prevalence of genes encoding extracellular virulence factors among meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the University Hospital, Olomouc, Czech Republic J. Med.
  • Genomic Variability of Staphylococcus aureus and the Other Coagulase-Positive Staphylococcus Species Estimated by Macrorestriction Analysis Using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis -- PANTUCEK et al. 46 (1): 216 -- International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC ijs.sgmjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus aureus is resistant to Methicillin, it is called Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, or MRSA. A MRSA infection can be treated with other antibiotics, such as Vancomycin.
  • Saint Raphael's - What are Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA?, MRSA Precautions 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.srhs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria lives on the skin, nose, the lower intestine, and may cause an infection and resist antibiotics (people may carry the bacteria without having symptoms).
  • MRSA outbreak at hospital - The North Bay Nugget - Ontario, CA 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.nugget.ca [Source type: General]

It often causes complications. .The disease is most likely found in fertile active places including, the armpits, hair and scalp.^ HI CPAC of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has recommended that patients with multidrug resistant organisms, including MRSA, be placed in Contact Precautions ( Table 5 ).

^ Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of staph infections and is responsible for various diseases including: mild skin infections (impetigo, folliculitis, etc.

^ They are most frequently found on the face, neck, buttocks, armpits, and inner thighs, where small hairs can often be irritated.
  • Staph Infections 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.kidshealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Staph Infections 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The large pimples that appear in those areas may cause the worst of the infection if popped.^ Staph bacteria, including MRSA, can cause skin infections that may look like a pimple or boil and can be red, swollen and painful or have pus or other drainage.
  • MRSA - Staphylococcus aureus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.ecolab.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These infections may be mild (eg pimples or boils) or serious (eg infection of the bloodstream, bones or joints).
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.netdoctor.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Many of these strains have a toxin called the Panton-Valentine leucocidin (usually referred to as 'PVL') which may contribute to their increased ability to cause infections.
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.netdoctor.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.This can lead to Scalded skin syndrome.^ Farrell AM. Staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome.
  • Staphylococcus Aureus Infection: eMedicine Pediatrics: General Medicine 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A rare but well-described disorder in neonates and young children is staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (Ritter disease).
  • Staphylococcus Aureus Infection: eMedicine Pediatrics: General Medicine 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This toxin causes the scalded skin syndrome in neonates, which results in widespread blistering and loss of the epidermis.

.A severe form of this is Ritter's disease seen in neonates.^ A rare but well-described disorder in neonates and young children is staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (Ritter disease).
  • Staphylococcus Aureus Infection: eMedicine Pediatrics: General Medicine 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Streptococci are by far the most common cause of erysipelas, although S. aureus may also be involved in the more severe, blistering form of the disease.
  • Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Caused by Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - The Body 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: Academic]
  • San Francisco AIDS Foundation: Skin and Soft Tissue Infections by Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.sfaf.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Caused by Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - The Body 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: Academic]

Toxic shock syndrome and S. aureus food poisoning

.Some strains of S. aureus, which produce the exotoxin TSST-1, are the causative agents of toxic shock syndrome.^ Certain strains of S. aureus are also the causative agent for Toxic Shock Syndrome .
  • Staphylococcus aureus at AllExperts 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When expressed systemically, enterotoxins can also cause toxic shock syndrome.

^ Toxic Shock Syndrome symptomatology is demonstrated .

.Some strains of S. aureus also produce an enterotoxin that is the causative agent of S. aureus gastroenteritis.^ Certain strains of S. aureus are also the causative agent for Toxic Shock Syndrome .
  • Staphylococcus aureus at AllExperts 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Staphylococcal food poisoning is caused by the ingestion of a heat-stable enterotoxin produced in the food by some strains of S. aureus .
  • Staphylococcus aureus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.safefood.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some S. aureus strains are able to produce staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) and are the causative agents of staphylococcal food poisonings.
  • JCDR - Staphylococcus aureus, Food poisoning, Enterotoxins 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.jcdr.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Staphylococcus aureus and food poisoning 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.funpecrp.com.br [Source type: Academic]

The gastroenteritis is self-limiting with the person getting better in 8–24 hours. .Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.^ The most common symptoms are nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, and prostration.

^ Symptoms included nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps.

^ Nausea/vomiting, anorexia, discoloration of body fluids, abdominal pain; hepatotoxicity (rare) .
  • Community-acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection: Introduction and History of Staphylococcus aureus Infection 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

Mastitis in cows

.S. aureus is one of the causal agents of mastitis in dairy cows.^ S. aureus is one of the causal agents of mastitis in dairy cow s.
  • Staphylococcus aureus at AllExperts 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cures were only 34% when 89 cows in 10 Dutch herds were treated for subclinical S. aureus mastitis (Sol et al., 1997).

^ Prevalence of capsular serotypes among Staphylococcus aureus isolates from cows with mastitis in the United States.
  • Capsule-Negative Staphylococcus aureus Induces Chronic Experimental Mastitis in Mice -- Tuchscherr et al. 73 (12): 7932 -- Infection and Immunity 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC iai.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

Its large capsule protects the organism from attack by the cow's immunological defenses.[10]

Virulence factors

Toxins

.Depending on the strain, S. aureus is capable of secreting several toxins, which can be categorized into three groups.^ MRSA is by definition a strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is resistant to a large group of antibiotics called the beta-lactams, which include the penicillins and the cephalosporins.
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (mrsa) - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some strains are capable of producing a highly heat-stable protein toxin that causes illness in humans.
  • Staphylococcus aureus News, Research - Page 2 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: News]
  • Staphylococcus aureus News, Research 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: News]
  • Staphylococcus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.drlera.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Staphylococcus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.tjclarkminerals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Staphylococcal infection Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It should be noted that the three isogenic S. aureus strains are equally susceptible to killing by gentamicin.
  • Capsule-Negative Staphylococcus aureus Induces Chronic Experimental Mastitis in Mice -- Tuchscherr et al. 73 (12): 7932 -- Infection and Immunity 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC iai.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.Many of these toxins are associated with specific diseases.^ Many of these strains have a toxin called the Panton-Valentine leucocidin (usually referred to as 'PVL') which may contribute to their increased ability to cause infections.
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.netdoctor.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Many of these virulence factors interact with and manipulate specific molecular targets in the host.
  • PLoS Pathogens: β-Neurexin Is a Ligand for the Staphylococcus aureus MSCRAMM SdrC 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.plospathogens.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Among the predominant bacteria involved in these diseases, Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of gastroenteritis resulting from the consumption of a food in which enterotoxigenic staphylococci have grown and produced toxins.
  • JCDR - Staphylococcus aureus, Food poisoning, Enterotoxins 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.jcdr.net [Source type: Academic]

Pyrogenic toxin superantigens
(PTSAgs) have superantigen activities that induce .toxic shock syndrome (TSS).^ Toxic Shock Syndrome symptomatology is demonstrated .

^ Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) was diagnosed .

^ Toxic shock syndrome.
  • Staphylococcus Aureus Infection: eMedicine Pediatrics: General Medicine 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.This group includes the toxin TSST-1, which causes TSS associated with tampon use.^ Among them are staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs), which cause staphylococcal food poisoning, and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1).
  • Toxigenicity in Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphyloc 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.la-press.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Management includes removal of the focus of S. aureus (e.g., abscess drainage or tampon removal) and use of a beta-lactamase-resistant antistaphylococcal antibiotic in combination with clindamycin, which has the potential of reducing toxin production.
  • Management of Staphylococcus aureus Infections - December 15, 2005 -- American Family Physician 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, TSS from tampons can be easily avoided by correctly using tampons (read instructions and warning labels listed with tampon products).

.The staphylococcal enterotoxins, which cause a form of food poisoning, are included in this group.^ Statutorily notifiable if causes food poisoning.
  • Staphylococcus aureus - Ganfyd 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.ganfyd.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Staphylococcal food poisoning is due to the absorption of staphylococcal enterotoxins preformed in the food.
  • Staphylococcus aureus and food poisoning 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.funpecrp.com.br [Source type: Academic]

^ S. aureus enterotoxins may cause food poisoning.
  • What is Staphylococcus aureus | Current Health Articles 2009 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.healthhype.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Staphylococcus Aureus | Current Health Articles 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.healthhype.com [Source type: Academic]

Exfoliative toxins
EF toxins are implicated in the disease staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome .(SSSS), which occurs most commonly in infants and young children.^ Impetigo is most commonly seen in young children and is most commonly caused by streptococci.
  • Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Caused by Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - The Body 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: Academic]
  • San Francisco AIDS Foundation: Skin and Soft Tissue Infections by Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.sfaf.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Caused by Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - The Body 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Brodie Abscess A Brodie abscess is a localized form of subacute osteomyelitis that occurs most often in the long bones of the lower extremities of young adults.
  • Orthopedic Surgeons Blog - Information, Comments, Reviews // BlogCatalog 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.blogcatalog.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The liver is the most commonly involved organ when a visceral abscess occurs.
  • Pyogenic Liver Abscess Secondary to Staphylococcus aureus Infection Without Primary Source of Infection 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.newyorkmedicaljournal.org [Source type: Academic]

.It also may occur as epidemics in hospital nurseries.^ Bullous impetigo may also occur in endemic and epidemic patterns.
  • Staphylococcus Aureus Infection: eMedicine Pediatrics: General Medicine 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

The protease activity of the exfoliative toxins causes peeling of the skin observed with SSSS.
Other toxins
Staphylococcal toxins that act on cell membranes include alpha-toxin, beta-toxin, delta-toxin, and several bicomponent toxins. .The bicomponent toxin Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is associated with severe necrotizing pneumonia in children.^ Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin causes necrotizing pneumonia.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Reemergence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the genomics era 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]
  • PLoS Pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Is a Very Potent Cytotoxic Factor for Human Neutrophils 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.plospathogens.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Identification of staphylococcal Panton-Valentine leukocidin as a potent dermonecrotic toxin.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Reemergence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the genomics era 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The US Center for Disease Control details criteria for distinguishing hospital acquired and community acquired MRSA infections - community acquired strains are typically SCCmec type IV, which are sensitive to most non-beta lactam antibiotics, but on the other hand is associated with Panton Valentine Leucocidin (PVL, a cytotoxin associated with necrotizing disease).
  • Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - Ganfyd 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.ganfyd.org [Source type: Academic]

.The genes encoding the components of PVL are encoded on a bacteriophage found in community-associated MRSA strains.^ Community-associated MRSA .
  • Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) - a knol by Gary A. Noskin, MD 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One isolate was found to be MRSA strain .

^ Community-associated MRSA information for clinicians.
  • Community-acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection: Introduction and History of Staphylococcus aureus Infection 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

Protein A

.Protein A is a protein that is anchored to staphylococcal peptidoglycan pentaglycine bridges by the transpeptidase Sortase A.[11] Protein A is an IgG-binding protein which binds to the Fc region of an antibody.^ IgG molecules by their Fc region.

^ The ELISA assays revealed significantly elevated levels of IgG antibodies to peptidoglycan (PG) in 18 of 25 (72%) patients with deep infection and 15 of 25 (60%) patients with superficial staphylococcal infection.
  • A comparative analysis of antibody repertoire against Staphylococcus aureus antigens in Patients with Deep-Seated versus Superficial staphylococcal Infections 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.medsci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Verbrugh HA, Verhoef J, Wilkinson BJ, Peterson PK. Biology and clinical significance of peptidoglycan antibody response in staphylococcal infections .
  • A comparative analysis of antibody repertoire against Staphylococcus aureus antigens in Patients with Deep-Seated versus Superficial staphylococcal Infections 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.medsci.org [Source type: Academic]

.In fact, studies involving mutation of genes coding for Protein A resulted in a lowered virulence of S. aureus as measured by survival in blood, and this has led to speculation that Protein A contributed virulence requires binding of antibody Fc regions.^ This gene codes for Penicillin Binding Protein --- a mutation in the gene prevents penicillin from effectively binding foreign particles.

^ The ability of S.aureus to acquire genes coding for the toxic shock syndrome only adds more concern.
  • VR-Staphylococcus aureus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.md.ucl.ac.be [Source type: Academic]

^ Furthermore, convergent evolution could occur as a result of the high mutability of the repeat region of the spa gene used in spa typing [26] , [33] .
  • PLoS Medicine: Geographic Distribution of Staphylococcus aureus Causing Invasive Infections in Europe: A Molecular-Epidemiological Analysis 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

[12] .Protein A in various recombinant forms has been used for decades to bind and purify a wide range of antibodies by immunoaffinity chromatography.^ (A) SDS-PAGE of the affinity chromatography purified recombinant enzymes and (B) corresponding western blot analysis using a monoclonal anti-Strep antibody at a dilution of 1:5,000 according to material and methods .
  • PLoS ONE: The Vitamin B1 Metabolism of Staphylococcus aureus Is Controlled at Enzymatic and Transcriptional Levels 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The expressed polypeptides were purified by affinity chromatography and the purity of the recombinant enzymes was assessed by SDS-PAGE and western blotting - using a monoclonal anti-Strep antibody ( Fig.
  • PLoS ONE: The Vitamin B1 Metabolism of Staphylococcus aureus Is Controlled at Enzymatic and Transcriptional Levels 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The preparations of highly purified staphylococcal and recombinant protein A stimulate humoral immune response and the processes of phagocytosis and do not show mitogenic activity with respect to T cells .

.Transpeptidases such as the sortases which are responsible for anchoring factors like Protein A to the staphylococcal peptidoglycan are being studied in hopes of developing new antibiotics to target MRSA infections.^ MRSA infection is likely community-acquired.
  • Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (CA-MRSA) - MicrobeWiki 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC biowiki.kenyon.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Risk factors for the development of MRSA infection: .
  • Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) - a knol by Gary A. Noskin, MD 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Staphylococcal infections , children , MRSA .
  • Staph Infection (Staphylococcus Aureus) Symptoms, Causes and Treatment on MedicineNet.com 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]

Role of pigment in virulence

.Some strains of S. aureus are capable of producing staphyloxanthin - a carotenoid pigment that acts as a virulence factor.^ Virulence Factors of Staphylococcus aureus .
  • What is Staphylococcus aureus | Current Health Articles 2009 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.healthhype.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some strains are capable of producing a highly heat-stable protein toxin that causes illness in humans.
  • Staphylococcus aureus News, Research - Page 2 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: News]
  • Staphylococcus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.tjclarkminerals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Staphylococcal infection Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Various virulence factors are responsible for the symptoms and severity of infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus.
  • Toxigenicity in Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphyloc 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.la-press.com [Source type: Academic]

.Its has an antioxidant action that helps the microbe to evade killing with reactive oxygen used by the host immune system.^ Thus, an evaluation of the immune system in these individuals is seldom useful.
  • Staphylococcus Aureus Infection: eMedicine Pediatrics: General Medicine 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Staphyloxanthin helps this pathogen evade host destruction by reactive oxygen (from hydrogen peroxide) sequestered within the host’s neutrophils (Talaro 2008).
  • The Genesis of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - Answers in Genesis 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Because some stains of S. aureus are able to evade and disable the immune system, they can cause significant damage by entering the bloodstream and heart, thus making them lethal.
  • The Genesis of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - Answers in Genesis 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

It is thought that staphyloxanthin is responsible for S. aureus' characteristic golden colour.[14] .When comparing a normal strain of S. aureus with a strain modified to lack the yellow coloration, the pigmented strain was more likely to survive dousing with an oxidizing chemical such as hydrogen peroxide than the mutant strain was.^ S. aureus is a catalase-positive microbe, meaning that it produces the enzyme catalase, lending it the ability to convert hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) to water and oxygen.
  • Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (CA-MRSA) - MicrobeWiki 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC biowiki.kenyon.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Staphylococcus Aureus (named staphyle , Greek for grapes, and aureus for its yellow color under a microscope) is a group of bacteria known for colonizing human skin and nasal passages.
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus: A Moving Target 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.massagetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1884, Rosenbach described the two pigmented colony types of staphylococci and proposed the appropriate nomenclature: Staphylococcus aureus (yellow) and Staphylococcus albus (white).
  • Staphylococcus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.tjclarkinc.com [Source type: Academic]
  • What Is Staphylococcus Aureus? 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.bionewsonline.com [Source type: Academic]
  • JCDR - Staphylococcus aureus, Food poisoning, Enterotoxins 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.jcdr.net [Source type: Academic]

.Colonies of the two strains were also exposed to human neutrophils.^ S. aureus strains COL, USA200, USA300, and USA400 during phagocytosis by human neutrophils ( 73 ).
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Reemergence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the genomics era 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Staphylococcus aureus strains lacking D-alanine modifications of teichoic acids are highly susceptible to human neutrophil killing and are virulence attenuated in mice.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Reemergence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the genomics era 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Compared with representative health care–associated MRSA strains, CA-MRSA strains have substantially enhanced ability to evade killing by human neutrophils ( 73 ).
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Reemergence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the genomics era 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

The mutant colonies quickly succumbed while many of the pigmented colonies survived. Wounds on mice were swiped with the two strains. The pigmented strains created lingering abscesses. Wounds with the unpigmented strains healed quickly.
.These tests suggest that the yellow pigment may be key to the ability of S. aureus to survive immune system attacks.^ In 1884, Rosenbach described the two pigmented colony types of staphylococci and proposed the appropriate nomenclature: Staphylococcus aureus (yellow) and Staphylococcus albus (white).
  • Staphylococcus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.tjclarkinc.com [Source type: Academic]
  • What Is Staphylococcus Aureus? 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.bionewsonline.com [Source type: Academic]
  • JCDR - Staphylococcus aureus, Food poisoning, Enterotoxins 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.jcdr.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The pigments produced by staphylococci are the basis of the names given to the various strains—those with colors ranging from orange to yellow are designated S. aureus ; white strains are known as S. albus.
  • staphylococcus Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about staphylococcus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Consistent with these early studies, most S. aureus strains we have tested cause eventual neutrophil lysis after phagocytosis, albeit with marked variance among strains (ref.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Reemergence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the genomics era 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

.Drugs designed to inhibit the bacterium's production of the staphyloxanthin may weaken it and renew its susceptibility to antibiotics.^ Clindamycin is a suitable alternative for susceptible S. aureus as it has been shown to inhibit glycocalyx production by the bacterium while achieving relatively high bone concentrations ( 362 ).

^ Studies are needed to determine the ability of various drugs to inhibit the protective PLA2 reaction, the susceptibility of various ocular bacterial pathogens to the PLA2 activity, and the susceptibility of these ocular pathogens to ocular anesthetics.
  • Phospholipase A2 in Rabbit Tears: A Host Defense against Staphylococcus aureus -- Moreau et al. 42 (10): 2347 -- Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.iovs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ All patients in this report were initially treated with a cephalosporin antibiotic; the delayed use of antibiotics to which MRSA were susceptible may have contributed to the fatal outcomes.

[15] .In fact, because of similarities in the pathways for biosynthesis of staphyloxanthin and human cholesterol, a drug developed in the context of cholesterol-lowering therapy was shown to block S. aureus pigmentation and disease progression in a mouse infection model.^ Some relatively minor skin infections, such as folliculitis, impetigo and cellulitis, can progress to life threatening diseases like sepsis, endocardatis, osteomylitis and pneumonia [1] .
  • PLoS Pathogens: β-Neurexin Is a Ligand for the Staphylococcus aureus MSCRAMM SdrC 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.plospathogens.org [Source type: Academic]

^ MRSA, however, can be difficult to treat and can progress to life-threatening blood or bone infections because there are fewer effective antibiotics available for treatment.
  • Staph Infection (Staphylococcus Aureus) Symptoms, Causes and Treatment on MedicineNet.com 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pathogenic bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus , is responsible for a wide spectrum of human and animal diseases, ranging from benign skin infections to severe diseases, such as arthritis, osteomyelitis, endocarditis and fatal sepsis [1] .
  • PLoS ONE: The Vitamin B1 Metabolism of Staphylococcus aureus Is Controlled at Enzymatic and Transcriptional Levels 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

[16]

Diagnosis

Typical gram-positive cocci, in clusters, from a sputum sample Gram stain.
.Depending upon the type of infection present, an appropriate specimen is obtained accordingly and sent to the laboratory for definitive identification by using biochemical or enzyme-based tests.^ The history obtained usually depends on the type of infection the organism causes.
  • Staphylococcal Infections: eMedicine Infectious Diseases 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Which antibiotic is used depends on the severity of the infection and the results of susceptibility testing.
  • Staphylococcus aureus Infections: Bacterial Infections: Merck Manual Home Edition 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Staphylococcus aureus Infections: Bacterial Infections: Merck Manual Home Edition 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any condition that may potentially exist in conjunction (or as a result of) a MRSA infection, such as pneumonia, osteomyelitis, or septic arthritis, is also regarded as potentially resulting from CA-MRSA. If a physician suspects that an infection is the result of S. aureus then a culture will be taken to obtain a definite identification (a blood, urine or drainage sample may be taken depending on the type of infection).
  • Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (CA-MRSA) - MicrobeWiki 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC biowiki.kenyon.edu [Source type: Academic]

.A Gram stain is first performed to guide the way, which should show typical gram-positive bacteria, cocci, in clusters.^ Gram-positive, cluster-forming coccus .

^ Gram stain of the fluid showed Gram Positive cocci in clusters and the culture grew methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus .
  • Pyogenic Liver Abscess Secondary to Staphylococcus aureus Infection Without Primary Source of Infection 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.newyorkmedicaljournal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ S. aureus was identified based on Gram's stain morphology, colony characteristics and positive catalase and coagulase tests.
  • Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in community-acquired primary pyoderma Patil R, Baveja S, Nataraj G, Khopkar U - Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.ijdvl.com [Source type: Academic]

.Secondly, culture the organism in mannitol salt agar, which is a selective medium with 7–9% NaCl that allows S. aureus to grow producing yellow-colored colonies as a result of mannitol fermentation and subsequent drop in the medium's pH.^ Positive colonies were those that fermented mannitol and turned the agar yellow.
  • PLoS ONE: Staphylococcus aureus in the Community: Colonization Versus Infection 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The specimens were inoculated on 5% sheep blood agar; MacConkey's agar; and mannitol salt agar, which was used as a selective medium for S. aureus .
  • Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in community-acquired primary pyoderma Patil R, Baveja S, Nataraj G, Khopkar U - Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.ijdvl.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Identification was based on growth and fermentation on mannitol salt agar.
  • Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Staphylococcus aureus and Characterization of MRSA in Southwestern Nigeria | WOUNDS 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.woundsresearch.com [Source type: Academic]

.Furthermore, for differentiation on the species level, catalase (positive for all Staphylococcus species), coagulase (fibrin clot formation, positive for S. aureus), DNAse (zone of clearance on nutrient agar), lipase (a yellow color and rancid odor smell), and phosphatase (a pink color) tests are all done.^ A known coagulase-positive strain of Staphylococcus aureus clotted all of the plasma preparations within 1 h .

^ The coagulase (an enzyme that induces clot formation) test distinguishes most strains of S. aureus from other Staphylococcus species (7).
  • Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (CA-MRSA) - MicrobeWiki 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC biowiki.kenyon.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Staphylococcus aureus is coagulase-positive.

.For staphylococcal food poisoning, phage typing can be performed to determine if the staphylococci recovered from the food to determine the source of infection.^ Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning more types...» Read more about Types of Staphylococcal infection .
  • Staphylococcal infection Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Phage-type was determined .

^ Death from staphylococcal food poisoning is rare, although such cases have occurred among the elderly, in infants, and ill persons.

Rapid Diagnosis and Typing

.Diagnostic microbiology laboratories and reference laboratories are key for identifying outbreaks and new strains of S. aureus.^ Coagulase is a traditional marker for identifying S aureus in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

^ Diagnostic microbiology laboratories and reference laboratories are key for identifying outbreaks of MRSA. New rapid techniques for the identification and characterization of MRSA have been developed.
  • Bing Health Article - Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, in 1961, British scientists identified the first strains of S. aureus bacteria that resisted methicillin.
  • MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus) Infection 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC bacteria.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

.Recent genetic advances have enabled reliable and rapid techniques for the identification and characterization of clinical isolates of S. aureus in real-time.^ The recent emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus , which is resistant to a broad range of antibiotics, is the source of serious clinical problems.
  • Colony Spreading in Staphylococcus aureus -- Kaito and Sekimizu 189 (6): 2553 -- The Journal of Bacteriology 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC jb.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Comparison of two standardisation methods in real-time quantitative RT-PCR to follow Staphylococcus aureus genes expression during in vitro growth.
  • Penindasan Terpilih Gen-Gen Staphylococcus aureus Rintang Metisilin yang dirawat dengan Ekstrak Metanol melastoma Malabathricum - Malaysian Abstracting and Indexing System 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC myais.fsktm.um.edu.my [Source type: Academic]

^ These techniques include Real-time PCR and Quantitative PCR and are increasingly being employed in clinical laboratories for the rapid detection and identification of MRSA strains.
  • Bing Health Article - Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

.These tools support infection control strategies to limit bacterial spread and ensure the appropriate use of antibiotics.^ Use antibiotics appropriately.
  • Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) | Healia Health Blog 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC blog.healia.com [Source type: General]

^ Prevention and infection-control strategies .
  • Bing Health Article - Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) infection is resistant to most antibiotics and is linked in part to routine use of antibiotics as growth promoters in meat production.
  • Rushville Republican - Health forum on food safety, meat production Jan. 19 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.rushvillerepublican.com [Source type: News]

.These techniques include Real-time PCR and Quantitative PCR and are increasingly being employed in clinical laboratories.^ These techniques include Real-time PCR and Quantitative PCR and are increasingly being employed in clinical laboratories for the rapid detection and identification of MRSA strains.
  • Bing Health Article - Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Comparison of two standardisation methods in real-time quantitative RT-PCR to follow Staphylococcus aureus genes expression during in vitro growth.
  • Penindasan Terpilih Gen-Gen Staphylococcus aureus Rintang Metisilin yang dirawat dengan Ekstrak Metanol melastoma Malabathricum - Malaysian Abstracting and Indexing System 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC myais.fsktm.um.edu.my [Source type: Academic]

^ Evaluation of the IDI-MRSA assay on the SmartCycler real-time PCR platform for rapid detection of MRSA from screening specimens.
  • Rapid Diagnostics for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus a... : Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

[17][18]

Treatment and antibiotic resistance

The article, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, contains related information on this topic
.The treatment of choice for S. aureus infection is penicillin; but in most countries, penicillin-resistance is extremely common and first-line therapy is most commonly a penicillinase-resistant penicillin (for example, oxacillin or flucloxacillin).^ In addition, S. aureus is the most common cause of nosocomial infections.
  • Rapid Diagnostics for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus a... : Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC adisonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Furuncles are most commonly caused by S. aureus.
  • Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Caused by Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - The Body 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: Academic]
  • San Francisco AIDS Foundation: Skin and Soft Tissue Infections by Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.sfaf.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Caused by Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - The Body 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Infections .
  • What is Staphylococcus aureus | Current Health Articles 2009 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.healthhype.com [Source type: Academic]

.Combination therapy with gentamicin may be used to treat serious infections like endocarditis,[19][20] but its use is controversial because of the high risk of damage to the kidneys.^ Oral clindamycin may be used in minor soft tissue infections in outpatients.
  • MRSA Infection Disease Drug Resistant Injury 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.yourlawyer.com [Source type: News]

^ Because these infections are commonly associated with prosthetic devices, the most serious complication is the need to remove the involved prosthesis, although prosthetic valve endocarditis may lead to death.
  • Staphylococcal Infections: eMedicine Infectious Diseases 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In most cases infection remains localized, although occasionally it spreads to other organs like the liver, kidney, lungs, heart and prostate, and lymph nodes may occur.
  • Red grain botryomycosis due to Staphylococcus aureus - A novel case report Katkar V, Mohammad F, Raut S, Amir R - Indian J Med Microbiol 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.ijmm.org [Source type: Academic]

[21] .The duration of treatment depends on the site of infection and on severity.^ Treatment depends on the site and severity of the infection.
  • SCDHEC: Acute Disease Epidemiology - Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ( MRSA) 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.scdhec.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Staph-Infection-Resources.com This site does not provide medical or any other health care advice, diagnosis or treatment.
  • Bing Health Article - Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other agents used over the years for the treatment of serious MRSA infections might also be considered, depending on their availability, such as fosfomycin ( 321 ).

.Antibiotic alvz resistance in S. aureus was almost unknown when penicillin was first introduced in 1943; indeed, the original petri dish on which Alexander Fleming of Imperial College London observed the antibacterial activity of the penicillium mould was growing a culture of S. aureus.^ The origins of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus trace back to 1941 when penicillin was first introduced.

^ Indeed, by 1946 penicillin resistance in S. aureus was observed in many patients around the world.
  • The Genesis of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - Answers in Genesis 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Growing antibiotic resistance: Beginning of the end?
  • MRSA Infections, Staph Infection Prevention 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.staphaseptic.com [Source type: News]

.By 1950, 40% of hospital S. aureus isolates were penicillin resistant; and by 1960, this had risen to 80%.^ MRSA is by definition a strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is resistant to a large group of antibiotics called the beta-lactams, which include the penicillins and the cephalosporins.
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (mrsa) - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the United States of America (USA) and some European countries, MRSA accounts for 10 to 40% of all S aureus isolates (1, 2).
  • West Indian Medical Journal - In vitro activity of sodium-benzoate against isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC caribbean.scielo.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Most strains of Staphylococcus aureus are now resistant to penicillin and many MRSA strains are resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, aminoglycoside and quinolones (11, 12).
  • West Indian Medical Journal - In vitro activity of sodium-benzoate against isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC caribbean.scielo.org [Source type: Academic]

[22]
.Researchers from Italy have identified a bacteriophage active against Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant strains, in mice and possibly humans.^ Universal surveillance for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in 3 affiliated hospitals.
  • Staphylococcal Infections: eMedicine Infectious Diseases 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ) .

^ MRSA is the acronym for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

[23]

Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance

.Staphylococcal resistance to penicillin is mediated by penicillinase (a form of β-lactamase) production: an enzyme which breaks down the β-lactam ring of the penicillin molecule.^ The organism had developed the ability to break the β-lactam ring by producing a β-lactamase referred to as penicillinase.
  • Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Perspectives on Measures Needed for Control — Ann Intern Med 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These strains produced penicillinases, enzymes that can break down and deactivate penicillin.

^ Beta-lactamase (also known as penicillinase) is an enzyme that cleaves the beta-lactam ring and inactivates the antibiotic.
  • How To Choose Antibiotics For Staph Aureus Infections | Podiatry Today 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.podiatrytoday.com [Source type: Academic]

.Penicillinase-resistant penicillins such as methicillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin and flucloxacillin are able to resist degradation by staphylococcal penicillinase.^ Is it difficult to detect oxacillin/methicillin resistance?

^ Agents classified as penicillinase-resistant penicillins include methicillin and nafcillin, and the isoxazoyl penicillins oxacillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, and flucloxacillin.

^ S. aureus that is resistant to the synthetic penicillins (methicillin, oxacillin, nafcillin) is referred to as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA).

.Resistance to methicillin is mediated via the mec operon, part of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec).^ The staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ) types were determined by a multiplex PCR strategy.
  • Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Staphylococcus aureus and Characterization of MRSA in Southwestern Nigeria | WOUNDS 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.woundsresearch.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec) analysis of MRSA. Methods Mol.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Reemergence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the genomics era 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Isolates identified as methicillin-resistant by PCR were further analyzed for their specific Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette (SCC) mec type using the multiplex PCR assay and validated using the ccr gene complex primers as previously described [12] , [13] .
  • PLoS ONE: Staphylococcus aureus in the Community: Colonization Versus Infection 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.Resistance is conferred by the mecA gene, which codes for an altered penicillin-binding protein (PBP2a or PBP2') that has a lower affinity for binding β-lactams (penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems).^ Methicillin resistance is usually conferred by the chromosomal mecA gene, which encodes an altered penicillin-binding protein (PBP-2A) that causes resistance to all beta-lactam antibiotics, including cephalosporins.

^ Encoded by the mec A gene, PBP2a has low binding affinity for beta-lactam antibiotics.
  • How To Choose Antibiotics For Staph Aureus Infections | Podiatry Today 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.podiatrytoday.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methicillin resistance is associated with penicillin binding protein 2a (PBP2a).
  • How To Choose Antibiotics For Staph Aureus Infections | Podiatry Today 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.podiatrytoday.com [Source type: Academic]

.This allows for resistance to all β-lactam antibiotics and obviates their clinical use during MRSA infections.^ Not all infections require oral antibiotics.
  • SCDHEC: Acute Disease Epidemiology - Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ( MRSA) 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.scdhec.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, by definition, MRSA is resistant to all currently available beta-lactam antibiotics.
  • How To Choose Antibiotics For Staph Aureus Infections | Podiatry Today 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.podiatrytoday.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Which oral antibiotics can be used for CA-MRSA? .
  • Community-acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection: Introduction and History of Staphylococcus aureus Infection 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

As such the glycopeptide, vancomycin, is often deployed against MRSA.
Aminoglycosides such as kanamycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, etc. were once effective against .Staphylococcal infections until the organism evolved mechanisms to destroy the aminoglycosides action, which occurs via protonated amine and/or hydroxyl interactions with the ribosomal RNA of the bacterial 30S Ribosome[24] There are three main mechanisms of aminoglycoside resistance mechanisms which are currently and widely accepted: Aminoglycoside modifying enzymes, Ribosomal mutations, and active efflux of the drug out of the bacteria.^ In recent times, clindamycin has become an excellent drug for some Staphylococcal infections, particularly skin and soft tissue infections and as an alternative in penicillin-allergic patients.
  • Inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus: A study from North India Gupta V, Datta P, Rani H, Chander J - J Postgrad Med 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.jpgmonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Spread of invasive Spanish Staphylococcus aureus spa -type t067 associated with a high prevalence of the aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme gene ant (4′)-Ia and the efflux pump genes msr A/ msr B. J Antimicrob Chemother 63: 21–31.
  • PLoS Medicine: Geographic Distribution of Staphylococcus aureus Causing Invasive Infections in Europe: A Molecular-Epidemiological Analysis 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Drug Intell Clin Pharm, 1985 Apr, 19(4), 309 - 15 A comparative study of gentamicin and netilmicin in the treatment of gram-negative infections; LeFrock JL et al.; Netilmicin is active in vitro against a wide variety of gram-negative bacteria, including certain gentamicin-resistant isolates, and Staphylococcus aureus .

.Aminoglycoside modifying enzymes are enzymes that inactivate the aminoglycoside by covalently attaching either a phosphate, nucleotide, or acetyl moiety to either the amine and/or alcohol functionality of the antibiotic; thus rendering the antibiotic through sterics or lack of charge, ineffective in ribosomal binding affinity.^ Encoded by the mec A gene, PBP2a has low binding affinity for beta-lactam antibiotics.
  • How To Choose Antibiotics For Staph Aureus Infections | Podiatry Today 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.podiatrytoday.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Binding of group A streptogramin (dalfopristin) to the ribosome causes a conformational change that increases the binding affinity for group B streptogramin (quinupristin).
  • Newer Antistaphylococcal Agents: In-Vitro Studies and Emerging Trends in Staphylococcus aureus Resistance | WOUNDS 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.woundsresearch.com [Source type: Academic]

^ MRSA with its new PBP2 disrupts the drug’s action and renders the antibiotic ineffective.
  • The Genesis of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - Answers in Genesis 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

.In Staphylococcus Aureus the best characterized aminoglycoside modifying enzyme is ANT(4')IA Aminoglycoside adenylyltransferase 4' IA.^ The best characterized and most potent membrane-damaging toxinof S aureus is a -toxin.

^ Laboratory characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Canadian hospitals: Results of 5 years of National Surveillance, 1995-1999.
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureusin First Nations communities in Canada 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.cps.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Characterization of a protective monoclonal antibody recognizing Staphylococcus aureus MSCRAMM protein clumping factor A. Infect Immun 71: 6864–6870.
  • PLoS Pathogens: A Structural Model of the Staphylococcus aureus ClfA–Fibrinogen Interaction Opens New Avenues for the Design of Anti-Staphylococcal Therapeutics 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.plospathogens.org [Source type: Academic]

This enzyme has been solved by X-Ray Crystallography[25] The enzyme is able to attach an adenyl moiety to the 4' hydroxyl group of many aminoglycosides including kamamycin and gentamicin.
.Glycopeptide resistance is mediated by acquisition of the vanA gene.^ The resistance to macrolide can arise by efflux mechanism, classically mediated by msr A gene.
  • Inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus: A study from North India Gupta V, Datta P, Rani H, Chander J - J Postgrad Med 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.jpgmonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The resistance to macrolide can be mediated by msr A gene coding for efflux mechanism or via erm gene encoding for enzymes that confer inducible or constitutive resistance to macrolide, lincosamide and Type B streptogramin.
  • Inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus: A study from North India Gupta V, Datta P, Rani H, Chander J - J Postgrad Med 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.jpgmonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dissemination of resistance was mediated by horizontal transfer of the mecA gene and related regulatory sequences [ 6 ].
  • Epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in adults 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC uptodateonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.The vanA gene originates from the enterococci and codes for an enzyme that produces an alternative peptidoglycan to which vancomycin will not bind.^ It appears that over a few thousand years, corrupted genes were added that coded for toxins, virulence enzymes, and a decreased body defense by the human host (phagocytosis inhibited.
  • The Genesis of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - Answers in Genesis 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Laboratory tests have shown that resistance, coded in the VanA, VanB and VanC genes, can be transferred from Enterococci to Staphylococcus and other gram positive bacteria.

^ The resistance to macrolide can be mediated by msr A gene coding for efflux mechanism or via erm gene encoding for enzymes that confer inducible or constitutive resistance to macrolide, lincosamide and Type B streptogramin.
  • Inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus: A study from North India Gupta V, Datta P, Rani H, Chander J - J Postgrad Med 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.jpgmonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Today, S. aureus has become resistant to many commonly used antibiotics.^ Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is resistant to commonly used antibiotics such as methicillin.
  • Staphylococcus aureus - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In some cases, the bacteria are resistant to the commonly used antibiotics.
  • Staphylococcus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.drlera.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Staphylococcus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.tjclarkminerals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many useful antibiotics in this class.
  • How To Choose Antibiotics For Staph Aureus Infections | Podiatry Today 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.podiatrytoday.com [Source type: Academic]

.In the UK, only 2% of all S. aureus isolates are sensitive to penicillin with a similar picture in the rest of the world, due to a penicillinase (a form of β-lactamase).^ All isolates were sensitive to penicillin .
  • Community-acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection: Introduction and History of Staphylococcus aureus Infection 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All samples in our study yielded monomicrobial flora, with S. aureus isolated from 81.4% of patients and Strepto.
  • Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in community-acquired primary pyoderma Patil R, Baveja S, Nataraj G, Khopkar U - Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.ijdvl.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The majority of strains of S aureus produce beta-lactamase, capable of inactivating beta-lactam antibiotics including penicillin and ampicillin.
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureusin First Nations communities in Canada 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.cps.ca [Source type: Academic]

.The β-lactamase-resistant penicillins (methicillin, oxacillin, cloxacillin and flucloxacillin) were developed to treat penicillin-resistant S. aureus and are still used as first-line treatment.^ Is it difficult to detect oxacillin/methicillin resistance?

^ MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ) .

^ Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) .
  • Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) - a knol by Gary A. Noskin, MD 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

.Methicillin was the first antibiotic in this class to be used (it was introduced in 1959), but only two years later, the first case of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was reported in England.^ MRSA is the acronym for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

^ The origins of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus trace back to 1941 when penicillin was first introduced.

^ MRSA Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus superbug staph infection .
  • Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) | Healia Health Blog 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC blog.healia.com [Source type: General]

[26]
.Despite this, MRSA generally remained an uncommon finding even in hospital settings until the 1990s when there was an explosion in MRSA prevalence in hospitals where it is now endemic.^ Now they are prevalent in community settings, too.
  • SCDHEC: Acute Disease Epidemiology - Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ( MRSA) 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.scdhec.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until recently, MRSA outbreaks were confined to hospital settings.
  • AFSCME - Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) in Institutional Settings 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.afscme.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is particularly important in settings where MRSA is prevalent.

[27]
.MRSA infections in both the hospital and community setting are commonly treated with non-β-lactam antibiotics such as clindamycin (a lincosamine) and co-trimoxazole (also commonly known as trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole).^ Invasive infections are usually treated with antibiotics.
  • PLoS Medicine: Geographic Distribution of Staphylococcus aureus Causing Invasive Infections in Europe: A Molecular-Epidemiological Analysis 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ How are MRSA infections treated?

^ MRSA infection is likely community-acquired.
  • Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (CA-MRSA) - MicrobeWiki 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC biowiki.kenyon.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Resistance to these antibiotics has also led to the use of new, broad-spectrum anti-Gram positive antibiotics such as linezolid because of its availability as an oral drug.^ These organisms are Gram-positive.
  • Staphylococcus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.tjclarkminerals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Staphylococcal infection Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The recent emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus , which is resistant to a broad range of antibiotics, is the source of serious clinical problems.
  • Colony Spreading in Staphylococcus aureus -- Kaito and Sekimizu 189 (6): 2553 -- The Journal of Bacteriology 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC jb.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Although this document addresses MRSA and its perceived and real problems, the control measures also are applicable to other antibiotic-resistant bacterial such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

.First-line treatment for serious invasive infections due to MRSA is currently glycopeptide antibiotics (vancomycin and teicoplanin).^ Invasive infections are usually treated with antibiotics.
  • PLoS Medicine: Geographic Distribution of Staphylococcus aureus Causing Invasive Infections in Europe: A Molecular-Epidemiological Analysis 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment of MRSA infection with vancomycin can be complicated, due to its inconvenient route of administration.
  • Bing Health Article - Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vancomycin and teicoplanin are glycopeptide antibiotics used to treat MRSA infections.
  • Bing Health Article - Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

.There are number of problems with these antibiotics, mainly centred around the need for intravenous administration (there is no oral preparation available), toxicity and the need to monitor drug levels regularly by means of blood tests.^ There are no antibiotics in this category.
  • How To Choose Antibiotics For Staph Aureus Infections | Podiatry Today 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.podiatrytoday.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It’s not surprising that there are no antibiotics in this class.
  • How To Choose Antibiotics For Staph Aureus Infections | Podiatry Today 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.podiatrytoday.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Given the limitations of traditional treatment, there is a need to explore alternative therapeutic strategies, including drugs that interfere with proinflammatory signal transduction pathways.
  • Transcriptional Regulation of IL-8 by Staphylococcus aureus in Human Conjunctival Cells Involves Activation of AP-1 -- Venza et al. 48 (1): 270 -- Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.iovs.org [Source type: Academic]

.There are also concerns that glycopeptide antibiotics do not penetrate very well into infected tissues (this is a particular concern with infections of the brain and meninges and in endocarditis).^ Complications of MRSA in the blood (bacteremia) include sepsis as well as infections of heart valves (endocarditis), joints (septic arthritis), bones (osteomyelitis), and brain (meningitis).
  • Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) - a knol by Gary A. Noskin, MD 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Established or chronic infection comprises a nidus of infected dead bone or scar tissue and an ischemic soft tissue envelope.
  • Orthopedic Surgeons Blog - Information, Comments, Reviews // BlogCatalog 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.blogcatalog.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare infection of the deep subcutaneous tissues that can spread beneath the skin very rapidly from the initial site of infection.
  • Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Caused by Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - The Body 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: Academic]
  • San Francisco AIDS Foundation: Skin and Soft Tissue Infections by Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.sfaf.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Caused by Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - The Body 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: Academic]

.Glycopeptides must not be used to treat methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) as outcomes are inferior.^ Attempts to eradicate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from a long-term-care facility with the use of mupirocin ointment.
  • PLoS ONE: The Vitamin B1 Metabolism of Staphylococcus aureus Is Controlled at Enzymatic and Transcriptional Levels 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinical failures of appropriately-treated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Reemergence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the genomics era 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Keywords: antimicrobials , infection control , MRSA , nosocomial , surgical Nasal decolonization of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is currently used in some countries for specific patient groups.
  • Nasal decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus with mupirocin: strengths, weaknesses and future prospects -- Coates et al. 64 (1): 9 -- Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC jac.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[28]
.Because of the high level of resistance to penicillins, and because of the potential for MRSA to develop resistance to vancomycin, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have published guidelinesfor the appropriate use of vancomycin.^ Guidelines for the control and prevention of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in healthcare facilities.
  • Nasal decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus with mupirocin: strengths, weaknesses and future prospects -- Coates et al. 64 (1): 9 -- Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC jac.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ MRSA is by definition a strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is resistant to a large group of antibiotics called the beta-lactams, which include the penicillins and the cephalosporins.
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (mrsa) - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vancomycin (Vancocin) should only be used for the treatment of MSSA in patients allergic to penicillins because of overuse and development of resistant organisms, and because clearance of bacteremia may be slow.
  • Management of Staphylococcus aureus Infections - December 15, 2005 -- American Family Physician 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

.In situations where the incidence of MRSA infections is known to be high, the attending physician may choose to use a glycopeptide antibiotic until the identity of the infecting organism is known.^ If MRSA is cultured from the infection sites, a glycopeptide should be used.

^ The information on this site is not to be used for diagnosing or treating any health concerns you may have - please contact your physician or health care professional for all your medical needs.
  • Staphylococcal infection Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If you have a skin infection that requires treatment, ask your doctor if you should be tested for MRSA. Doctors may prescribe drugs that aren't effective against antibiotic-resistant staph, which delays treatment and creates more resistant germs.
  • Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) | Healia Health Blog 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC blog.healia.com [Source type: General]

.When the infection is confirmed to be due to a methicillin-susceptible strain of S. aureus, then treatment can be changed to flucloxacillin or even penicillin as appropriate.^ S. aureus strains were methicillin resistant.
  • Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in community-acquired primary pyoderma Patil R, Baveja S, Nataraj G, Khopkar U - Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.ijdvl.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These infections are often due to methicillin-resistant S aureus [MRSA].
  • Staphylococcal Infections: eMedicine Infectious Diseases 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Clindamycin treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in children.
  • Treatment of Invasive, Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections: Abstract and Introduction 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC mp.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) is a strain of S. aureus that has become resistant to the glycopeptides.^ Precautions for Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus .

^ VISA (vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus) and VRSA (vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ).
  • Inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus: A study from North India Gupta V, Datta P, Rani H, Chander J - J Postgrad Med 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.jpgmonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Strains of Staphylococcus, S. aureus particularly, were becoming resistant to penicillin.

The first case of vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) was reported in Japan in 1996;[29] but the first case of S. aureus truly resistant to glycopeptide antibiotics was only reported in 2002.[30] Three cases of VRSA infection have been reported in the United States as of 2005.[31]

Infection control

.Spread of S. aureus (including MRSA) is through human-to-human contact, although recently some vets have discovered that the infection can be spread through pets, with environmental contamination thought to play a relatively unimportant part.^ MRSA is spread from person-to-person by direct contact.

^ Some relatively minor skin infections, such as folliculitis, impetigo and cellulitis, can progress to life threatening diseases like sepsis, endocardatis, osteomylitis and pneumonia [1] .
  • PLoS Pathogens: β-Neurexin Is a Ligand for the Staphylococcus aureus MSCRAMM SdrC 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.plospathogens.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In recent times, clindamycin has become an excellent drug for some Staphylococcal infections, particularly skin and soft tissue infections and as an alternative in penicillin-allergic patients.
  • Inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus: A study from North India Gupta V, Datta P, Rani H, Chander J - J Postgrad Med 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.jpgmonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Emphasis on basic hand washing techniques are therefore effective in preventing the transmission of S. aureus.^ Therefore, hand washing and wound care remain the best means of preventing Staph infections.
  • SCDHEC: Acute Disease Epidemiology - Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ( MRSA) 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.scdhec.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A monitor could be placed at the door to prevent unauthorized access and to enforce hand washing and barrier precautions [39] .
  • Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Perspectives on Measures Needed for Control — Ann Intern Med 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Washing with medicated soaps has been shown to remove S. aureus from the hands (31-35).

.The use of disposable aprons and gloves by staff reduces skin-to-skin contact and therefore further reduces the risk of transmission.^ Therefore, use of antibiotics therapy must be carried out with good skin hydration to restore skin barrier function and effective anti-inflammatory therapy to reduce overall skin inflammation and Staph.
  • ISPUB - Staphylococcus Aureus As A Causative Agent Of Atopic Dermatitis/ Eczema Syndrome (ADES ) And Its Therapeutic Implications 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ See also: Cross infection It is possible to reduce the risk of MRSA infections and transmission.
  • Staphylococcus aureus - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Disposable gloves should be worn if contact with body fluids is expected and hands should be washed after removing gloves .
  • MRSA Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Infections of the Skin - a knol by Bryan Cho MD, PhD 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

.Please refer to the article on infection control for further details.^ Discovery and history 2 Clinical presentation and concerns 3 At Risk Populations 3.1 Inmates in Prisons 4 Prevention and infection-control strategies 5 Strains 6 Laboratory diagnosis 7 See also 8 References 8.1 Further reading .
  • Bing Health Article - Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Article Reference: How To Choose Antibiotics For Staph Aureus Infections Beta-lactamase susceptible penicillins amoxicillin ampicillin piperacillin ticarcillin .
  • How To Choose Antibiotics For Staph Aureus Infections | Podiatry Today 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.podiatrytoday.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Article Reference: How To Choose Antibiotics For Staph Aureus Infections I am very pleased to introduce the latest article, “How To Choose Antibiotics For Staph Aureus Infections,” in our CE series.
  • How To Choose Antibiotics For Staph Aureus Infections | Podiatry Today 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.podiatrytoday.com [Source type: Academic]

.Recently, there have been myriad reported cases of S. aureus in hospitals across America.^ In 1995, Wenzel and Perl found that 11% to 32% of the general population are carriers of Staphylococcus aureus and that there is a prevalence of 25% in hospital personnel.
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in Head and Neck Infections 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.bcm.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, there are reports of S. aureus with MICs of 1–4 µg/ml that, when subjected to stepwise passage through increasing concentrations of vancomycin, yield subpopulations with increased MICs to vancomycin (usually at least 8 µg/ml).
  • Treatment of Invasive, Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections: Abstract and Introduction 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC mp.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lidwell and Brock (1973) report that airborne dispersal of S. aureus in human hospitals does occur.
  • Staph aureus Epidemiology 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.nmconline.org [Source type: Academic]

.The pathogen has had facilitated transportation in medical facilities mainly because of insufficient healthcare worker hygiene.^ In 2002, the CDC published a set of guidelines for hand hygiene (hand washing) in hospitals and other healthcare facilities [10].
  • Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) - a knol by Gary A. Noskin, MD 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

.S. aureus is an incredibly hardy bacterium, as was shown in a study where it survived on a piece of polyester for just under three months,[32] polyester being the main material used in hospital privacy curtains.^ Also shown, are the recombinant proteins used in this study.
  • PLoS Pathogens: β-Neurexin Is a Ligand for the Staphylococcus aureus MSCRAMM SdrC 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.plospathogens.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Clindamycin is a suitable alternative for susceptible S. aureus as it has been shown to inhibit glycocalyx production by the bacterium while achieving relatively high bone concentrations ( 362 ).

^ Long-term mupirocin treatment Studies looking at the long-term efficacy of mupirocin that have focused on nasal decolonization of S. aureus , including MRSA, have shown that initial clearance over several weeks is effective but that recolonization after 3 months is high.
  • Nasal decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus with mupirocin: strengths, weaknesses and future prospects -- Coates et al. 64 (1): 9 -- Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC jac.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.The bacterium is able to transport itself on the hands of healthcare workers who, for instance, get the bacteria from a seemingly healthy patient carrying a "benign" or commensal strain of the pathogen and then pass it on to the next patient being cared for.^ Careful hand washing by personnel between patients is considered the single most important infection control measure.

^ Second, all patients who had been incarcerated reported that their first outbreak of skin infections started after being sent to prison.
  • It's Not a Spider Bite, It's Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus -- Dominguez 17 (3): 220 -- The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.jabfm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The third group, those who never carry strains, is in the minority.
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infection 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.nursingcenter.com [Source type: Academic]

.Introduction of the bacterium into the bloodstream can lead to various complications including, but not limited to, endocarditis, meningitis, and, if it is widespread, sepsis - toxins infecting the entire body.^ Complications of MRSA in the blood (bacteremia) include sepsis as well as infections of heart valves (endocarditis), joints (septic arthritis), bones (osteomyelitis), and brain (meningitis).
  • Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) - a knol by Gary A. Noskin, MD 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ S. aureus bacteremias are particularly problematic because of the high incidence of associated complicated infections, including infective endocarditis.
  • Management of Staphylococcus aureus Infections - December 15, 2005 -- American Family Physician 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ S. aureus bacteremia may lead to several complications including infective endocarditis, sepsis, or metastatic foci of infection.
  • Management of Staphylococcus aureus Infections - December 15, 2005 -- American Family Physician 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

.Because of these infections in hospitals, as of February 14, 2008, all California medical facilities must now report S. aureus infections that are checked into the hospitals, in the hope of starting a trend to aid disease trackers and pathologists in their search for a cure.^ Bill requires hospitals to report infections 05/30/2008 .
  • MRSA Infections, Staph Infection Prevention 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.staphaseptic.com [Source type: News]

^ In 2008, Ontario hospitals began public reporting incidences of MRSA, however, the reporting is specific only to MRSA in the blood stream.
  • MRSA outbreak at hospital - The North Bay Nugget - Ontario, CA 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.nugget.ca [Source type: General]

^ MARSA was implicated in half of all hospital-acquired infections due to S .

.April 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Alcohol has proven to be an effective topical sanitizer against MRSA. Quaternary ammonium can be used in conjunction with alcohol to increase the duration of the sanitizing action.^ Alcohol has been proven to be an effective surface sanitizer against MRSA. Quaternary ammonium can be used in conjunction with alcohol to extend the longevity of the sanitizing action.
  • Bing Health Article - Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Washing hands regularly, use an alcohol based hand rub, have good housekeeping skills by using disinfectants such as quaternary ammonium compounds, skin wounds should be covered with dressings to avoid exposure or isolating the infected.
  • Staphylococcus aureus - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Originally promoted as a primary antistaphylococcal agent, including a topical formulation for superficial skin infections, it is now most often used for MRSA infections ( 439 ).

.The prevention of nosocomial infections involve routine and terminal cleaning.^ The prevention of nosocomial infections involves routine and terminal cleaning .
  • Bing Health Article - Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Routine hygiene and cleaning practices found via the links above are effective in preventing and controlling CA-MRSA outbreaks.
  • SCDHEC: Acute Disease Epidemiology - Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ( MRSA) 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.scdhec.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If my child uses athletic facilities (such as the weight room) or is involved in athletics, what additional measures can be taken to prevent and control MRSA infections within the athletic setting?
  • SCDHEC: Acute Disease Epidemiology - Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ( MRSA) 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.scdhec.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nonflammable alcohol vapor in CO2 NAV-CO2 systems have an advantage as they do not attack metals or plastics used in medical environments, and do not contribute to antibacterial resistance.^ Non-flammable Alcohol Vapor in Carbon Dioxide systems (NAV-CO2) do not corrode metals or plastics used in medical environments and do not contribute to antibacterial resistance.
  • Bing Health Article - Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.bing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibacterial susceptibility of a vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain isolated at the Hershey Medical Center.
  • Treatment of Invasive, Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections: Abstract and Introduction 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC mp.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The aim of these guidelines is to curb the development of antibacterial-resistant infections before they have evolved total resistance to all currently approved antibacterials.

.An important and previously unrecognized means of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus colonization and transmission is during sexual contact.^ Guidelines on the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the community.

^ Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing healthcare-associated infections.
  • Epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in adults 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC uptodateonline.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Reemergence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the genomics era 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) .
  • Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) - a knol by Gary A. Noskin, MD 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

[33]
.Staff or patients who are found to carry resistant strains of S. aureus may be required to undergo "eradication therapy" which may include antiseptic washes and shampoos (such as chlorhexidine) and application of topical antibiotic ointments (such as mupirocin or neomycin) to the anterior nares of the nose.^ S. aureus (methicillin susceptible or resistant) in the anterior nares.

^ Mupirocin-resistant, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in Canadian hospitals.
  • Nasal decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus with mupirocin: strengths, weaknesses and future prospects -- Coates et al. 64 (1): 9 -- Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC jac.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is resistant to commonly used antibiotics such as methicillin.
  • Staphylococcus aureus - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.The nonprotein amino acid L-homoarginine is a growth inhibitor of Staphylococcus aureus as well as Candida albicans.^ Effect of a commercial starter culture on growth of Staphylococcus aureus and thermonuclease and enterotoxins (C 1 and C 2 ) production in broth cultures.
  • Staphylococcus aureus and food poisoning 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC www.funpecrp.com.br [Source type: Academic]

^ Key role of teichoic acid net charge in Staphylococcus aureus colonization of artificial surfaces.
  • Colony Spreading in Staphylococcus aureus -- Kaito and Sekimizu 189 (6): 2553 -- The Journal of Bacteriology 16 January 2010 8:08 UTC jb.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment of membranes with Staphylococcus aureus V-8 protease released a fragment (Fr2) of N-CAM that contained most of the sialic acid; this fragment had an Mr of 108,000 after neuraminidase treatment .

It is assumed to be an antimetabolite of arginine.
.In March 2007, the BBC reported that a vaporizer spraying some essential oils (including tea tree oil[34]) into the atmosphere reduced airborne bacterial counts by 90% and kept MRSA infections at bay and may hold promise in MRSA infection control.^ Phage Therapy May Control Staph Infections In Humans Including MRSA 08/22/2007 .
  • MRSA Infections, Staph Infection Prevention 16 September 2009 12:39 UTC www.staphaseptic.com [Source type: News]

^ HI CPAC of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has recommended that patients with multidrug resistant organisms, including MRSA, be placed in Contact Precautions ( Table 5 ).

^ Clinicians should consider MRSA as a potential pathogen in severe pediatric pneumonia or sepsis syndromes in areas where community MRSA infections have been reported.

[35] '''

External links

  • Staph Infection Pictures - Pictures of Staph Infections, MRSA, and the associated skin diseases caused by these infections.

References

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  34. ^ [1]
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Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Staphylococcus aureus

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Superregnum: Bacteria
Regnum: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Classis: Bacilli
Ordo: Bacillales
Familia: Staphylococcaceae
Genus: Staphylococcus
Species: Staphylococcus aureus

Name

Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach, 1884

Vernacular names

Català: Estafilococ Daurat
Dansk: Gule stafylokokker
English: Golden staph
Français: Staphylocoque doré
Italiano: Stafilococco aureo
日本語: 黄色ブドウ球菌
Polski: Gronkowiec złocisty
中文: 金黃色葡萄球菌

Simple English

Staphylococcus aureus
File:Staphylococcus aureus, 50,000x, USDA, ARS,
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Kingdom: Eubacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli
Order: Bacillales
Family: Staphylococcaceae
Genus: Staphylococcus
Species: S. aureus
Binomial name
Staphylococcus aureus
Rosenbach 1884

Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of staph infections. It is a spherical bacterium, frequently living on the skin or in the nose of a person. Approximately 20–30% of the general population are "staph carriers".[1] Staphylococcus aureus can cause a range of illnesses from minor skin infections to life-threatening diseases.

Footnotes

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  1. Heyman, D. Control of Communicable Diseases Manual (2004) 18th Edition. Washington DC: American Public Health Association.



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 12, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Staphylococcus aureus, which are similar to those in the above article.








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