Starch: Wikis

  
  

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Starch
Identifiers
CAS number 9005-25-8 Yes check.svgY
EC-number 232-679-6
RTECS number GM5090000
Properties
Molecular formula (C6H10O5)n
Appearance white powder
Density 1.5 g/cm3
Melting point
decomp.
Solubility in water none
Hazards
MSDS ICSC 1553
EU Index not listed
Autoignition
temperature
410 °C
 Yes check.svgY (what is this?)  (verify)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references
Structure of the amylose molecule.
Structure of the amylopectin molecule.
Granules of wheat starch, stained with iodine, photographed through a light microscope.
.Starch or amylum is a carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined together by glycosidic bonds.^ Starch molecules are glucose polymers linked together with special bonds.
  • Starch Test Kit 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.miniscience.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Starches are carbohydrates in which 300 to 1000 glucose units join together.

^ Topics of Interest Starch or amylum is a polysaccharide carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined together by glycosidic bonds.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.This polysaccharide is produced by all green plants as an energy store.^ Starch is produced by all green plants as an energy store.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Plants store glucose as the polysaccharide starch.
  • Starch - ChemWiki 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC chemwiki.ucdavis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plants use this energy to produce food.

.It is the most important carbohydrate in the human diet and is contained in such staple foods as potatoes, wheat, maize (corn), rice, and cassava.^ The most prominent sources of starch consumed by people all over the world are contained in rice, wheat, maize, potatoes and cassava.

^ Starch is very most important carbohydrate in human diet and is contained in many staple foods.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Starch as food: Starch is the most important carbohydrate in the human diet and is contained in many staple foods.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.Pure starch is a white, tasteless and odorless powder that is insoluble in cold water or alcohol.^ It is a white powder that is tasteless and odourless.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A white odourless tasteless powder.
  • Starch_Martindales_24th 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.herbdatanz.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Mix 1/2 cup Pure Corn Starch with 1 cup cold water.
  • Hodgson Mill - Corn Starch Tricks 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.hodgsonmill.com [Source type: General]

.It consists of two types of molecules: the linear and helical amylose and the branched amylopectin.^ It consists of two types of molecules: linear and helix amylose and branched amylopectin.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The simplest form of starch is the linear polymer amylose; amylopectin is the branched form.
  • starch (chemical compound) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It consists of two types of molecules: the linear and helical amylose and the branched amylopectin.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.Depending on the plant, starch generally contains 20 to 25% amylose and 75 to 80% amylopectin.^ Depending on the plant, starch generally contains 20 to 25% amylose and 75 to 80% amylopectin.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Most plants contain about 20-25% amylose.

^ Based on the type of plant, starch usually encloses 20 per cent to 25 per cent amylose and about 75 per cent to 80 per cent amylopectin.

[1] .Glycogen, the glucose store of animals, is a more branched version of amylopectin.^ Glycogen, glucose store of animals, is a more branched version of amylopectin.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Animals store excess glucose by polymerizing it to form glycogen .
  • Carbohydrates 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It may be noted here that glycogen, the glucose stored by animals, is also a more branched variety of amylopectin.

.Starch is processed to produce many of the sugars in processed foods.^ When starch is heated, the starch granules in the food will swell during a process called gelatinization.
  • Resistant Starch: Don’t Resist Its Effects! :: Diabetes Self-Management 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.diabetesselfmanagement.com [Source type: General]

^ Progress Toward A Healthier Form Of Starch For Processed Foods (June 6, 2007) — Scientists in Indiana are reporting progress toward development of low glycemic and slowly digestible starch, a form of starch that would be less apt to cause the spike in blood sugar -- and perhaps ...
  • Unlocking The Secrets Of Slowly Digestible Starch 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: News]

^ Food starches are typically used as thickeners and stabilizers in foods such as puddings, custards, soups, sauces, gravies, pie fillings, and salad dressings, but have many other uses.
  • Starch: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Reference]

.When dissolved in warm water, it can be used as a thickening, stiffening or gluing agent, giving wheatpaste.^ Starch can be used as a thickening, stiffening or gluing agent when dissolved in warm water, giving wheatpaste.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It is used as a thickening agent and a stabilizer.
  • Agrana - Important information about Starch 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.agrana.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Agrana - Knowledge Base Starch 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.agrana.at [Source type: Reference]

^ When starch is dissolved in warm water it produces a wheat paste and this can be used for various purposes, including a thickening, stiffening or adhesive agent.

Contents

Name

.The word "starch" is derived from Middle English sterchen, meaning to stiffen.^ The word is derived from Middle English sterchen , meaning to stiffen, which is appropriate since it can be used as a thickening agent when dissolved in water and heated.
  • Starch: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Reference]

^ Name: The word "starch" is derived from Middle English sterchen , meaning to stiffen.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Etymology :Middle English sterchen, probably from Old English stercan to stiffen; akin to Old English stearc stiff; more at STARK. Pronunciation :'stärch.
  • starch ingilizce Türkçe sözlük starch nedir? starch tanımı etimolojisi starch okunuşu starch sözlük anlamı starch çevirisi en tr el de fr pt es it 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.seslisozluk.com [Source type: Reference]

."Amylum" is Latin for starch, from the Greek "amulon" which means "not ground at a mill". The root amyl is used in biochemistry for several compounds related to starch.^ The root amyl is used in biochemistry for several compounds related to starch.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Thailand now uses about 50 percent of its annual cassava root production, of around 18 million tonnes, to extract some two million tonnes of starch.
  • Spotlight: Cassava starch 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Measures of damaged starch by solubility in alkaline solution, susceptibility to enzymes, or change in size or shape using microscopy, relate to extent of processing and nutritional potential.
  • 4-1-Perspectives of Starch Functionality and Methods of Analysis in Food Systems 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.msstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

History

.Wheat starch paste was used by Egyptians to stiffen cloth and during weaving linen and possibly to glue papyrus.^ The wheat starch was initially prepared and used by the ancient Egyptians to stiffen cloth as well as while weaving linen and also probably to paste papyrus.

^ History: Wheat starch paste was used by Egyptians to stiffen cloth and during weaving linen and possibly to glue papyrus.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Later, the style changed a little and during the 19th century and early part of the 20th century, it became fashionable to use laundry starch to stiffen the collars and sleeves of the shirts worn by men as well as the ruffles of the girls petticoats as cleaned clothes were being ironed by this time.

[2] .Romans used it also in cosmetic creams, to powder the hair and to thicken sauces.^ Romans used it also in cosmetic creams, to powder the hair and to thicken sauces.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Romans used it also in cosmetic creams, to powder hair and to thicken sauces.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Starch is also used for thickening sauces in cooking.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.Persians and Indians used it to make dishes similar to gothumai wheat halva.^ Persians and Indians used it to make dishes similar to gothumai wheat halva.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In Persia and India, people used starch to prepare cuisines comparable to the gothumai wheat halva.

.In China, with the invention of paper, rice starch was used as a surface treatment of the paper.^ Starch is used in paper manufacturing to increase the strength of paper and is also used in the surface sizing of paper.
  • starch (chemical compound) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In China, with the invention of paper, rice starch was used as a surface treatment of the paper.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ With the invention of paper, the Chinese used rice starch to remedy the plane of the paper.

Energy store of plants

.In photosynthesis, plants use light energy to produce glucose from carbon dioxide.^ Plants use it as a food in the photosynthesis process.
  • NREL: Biomass Research - Glossary of Biomass Terms 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.nrel.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In photosynthesis , plants use light energy to produce glucose from carbon dioxide.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Plants use it to keep energy.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.The glucose is stored mainly in the form of starch granules, in plastids such as chloroplasts and especially amyloplasts.^ The glucose is stored mainly in the form of starch granules, in plastids such as chloroplasts and especially amyloplasts.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The starch granule is held within the plastid.
  • Learning, Food Resource [http://food.oregonstate.edu/], Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC food.oregonstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plants usually store this glucose or their energy as starch granules in plastids like chloroplasts and particularly amyloplasts.

.Toward the end of the growing season, starch accumulates in twigs of trees near the buds.^ Toward end of growing season, starch accumulates in twigs of trees near buds.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Toward the end of the growing season, starch accumulates in twigs of trees near the buds.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The ADP-glucose is then used a substrate by starch synthase enzymes, which add glucose units to the end of a growing polymer chain to build up a starch molecule (releasing the ADP in the process).
  • Starch synthesis and its manipulation 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.andrewgray.com [Source type: Academic]

.Fruit, seeds, rhizomes, and tubers store starch to prepare for the next growing season.^ In addition, the fruits, seeds , rhizomes and also the tubers stock up the starch for use to prepare for the subsequent growing season.

^ Fruit, seeds, rhizomes, and tubers store starch to prepare for the next growing season.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Commercial starch is obtained by crushing or grinding starch-containing tubers or seeds and then mixing the pulp with water; the resulting paste is freed of its remaining impurities and then dried.
  • starch (chemical compound) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Glucose is soluble in water, hydrophilic, binds much water and then takes up much space; glucose in the form of starch, on the other hand, is not soluble and can be stored much more compactly.^ Starch becomes soluble in water when heated.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Glucose is soluble in water, hydrophilic, binds much water and then takes up much space; glucose in form of starch, on other hand, is not soluble and can be stored much more compactly.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, when glucose is in the form of starch, it is not soluble in water or alcohol and can be stored in a much more condensed manner.

.Since starch is a reserve sugar for the plant, glucose molecules are bound in starch by the easily hydrolyzed alpha bonds.^ A molecule of starch is composed of many sugar molecules bound together.
  • Starch 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.kashrut.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As starch is considered to be preserved sugar or energy for the plants, glucose molecules bind to starch through easily hydrolyzed alpha bonds.

^ Starch molecules are glucose polymers linked together with special bonds.
  • Starch Test Kit 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.miniscience.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The same type of bond can also be seen in the animal reserve polysaccharide glycogen.^ A similar binding also occurs in the animal reserve polysaccharide glycogen.

^ The same type of bond can also be seen in the animal reserve polysaccharide glycogen.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ See other pages about: Polysaccharide Carbohydrate Glucose Glycosidic bond Plant Helix Amylose Amylopectin Glycogen Wheatpaste .
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is in contrast to many structural polysaccharides such as chitin, cellulose and peptidoglycan, which are bound by beta-ties and are much more resistant to hydrolysis.^ This is in contrast to many structural polysaccharides like chitin, cellulose and peptidoglycan, which are bound by beta-ties and are much more resistant to hydrolysis.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is in contrast to many structural polysaccharides such as chitin, cellulose and peptidoglycan, which are bound by beta-ties and are much more resistant to hydrolysis.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Such bonds are, however, in disparity with a lot of structural polysaccharides, such as cellulose, chitin and peptidoglycan that are attached by means of beta-bonds and are comparatively more resilient to hydrolysis or chemical decomposition by reaction with water.

Biosynthesis

.Plants produce starch by first converting glucose 1-phosphate to ADP-glucose using the enzyme glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase.^ The use of enzymes in processing starch.
  • The use of enzymes in starch hydrolysis 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.lsbu.ac.uk [Source type: Reference]

^ Plants store glucose as the polysaccharide starch.
  • Starch - ChemWiki 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC chemwiki.ucdavis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of enzymes in starch hydrolysis .
  • The use of enzymes in starch hydrolysis 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.lsbu.ac.uk [Source type: Reference]

.This step requires energy in the form of ATP.^ This step requires energy in form of Adenosine triphosphate.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This step requires energy in the form of ATP. The enzyme starch synthase then adds the ADP-glucose via a 1,4-alpha glycosidic bond to a growing chain of glucose residues, liberating ADP and creating amylose.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The expression "artificial heating" refers to any heating step requiring an external provision of energy, e.g.
  • Process for Starch Modification - Patent application - starch thinning and etherification process is provided comprising the steps of mixing a starch substrate with a 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.The enzyme starch synthase then adds the ADP-glucose via a 1,4-alpha glycosidic bond to a growing chain of glucose residues, liberating ADP and creating amylose.^ This step requires energy in the form of ATP. The enzyme starch synthase then adds the ADP-glucose via a 1,4-alpha glycosidic bond to a growing chain of glucose residues, liberating ADP and creating amylose.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Starch branching enzyme introduces 1,6-alpha glycosidic bonds between these chains, creating the branched amylopectin.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Branches in the chain are introduced by starch branching enzymes (SBEs), which hydrolyse 1,4-glycosidic bonds, and in their place, create 1,6 bonds with other glucose units.
  • Starch synthesis and its manipulation 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.andrewgray.com [Source type: Academic]

.Starch branching enzyme introduces 1,6-alpha glycosidic bonds between these chains, creating the branched amylopectin.^ The starch debranching enzyme isoamylase removes some of these branches.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Starch branching enzyme introduces 1,6-alpha glycosidic bonds between these chains, creating the branched amylopectin.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Branches in the chain are introduced by starch branching enzymes (SBEs), which hydrolyse 1,4-glycosidic bonds, and in their place, create 1,6 bonds with other glucose units.
  • Starch synthesis and its manipulation 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.andrewgray.com [Source type: Academic]

.The starch debranching enzyme isoamylase removes some of these branches.^ The starch debranching enzyme isoamylase removes some of these branches.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ However, these starch gels are unstable and upon cooling re-form crystals that are resistant to hydrolysis by amylases (digestive enzymes).

^ "Enzymatic properties and regulation of ZPU1, the maize pullulanase-type starch debranching enzyme."
  • MetaCyc starch degradation 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC biocyc.org [Source type: Academic]

.Several isoforms of these enzymes exist, leading to a highly complex synthesis process.^ Several isoforms of these enzymes exist, leading to a highly complex synthesis process.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Several enzymes have been identified that can influence the amount or type of starch that a plant produces, and these may provide useful targets for future bioengineering.
  • Starch synthesis and its manipulation 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.andrewgray.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the degree of "cook" is highly dependent on the amount of moisture, pressure, and heat actually obtained during each of these processes.
  • Starch Digestibility 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.farme.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
.While amylose was traditionally thought to be completely unbranched, it is now known that some of its molecules contain a few branch points.^ Starch exhibits considerable differences in properties due to the presence of straight chain (Amylose) and branched chain (Amylopectin) molecules in varying proportions.
  • ARASCO > Glucose and Starch FAQ's 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.arasco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amylose is essentially a linear polymer in which glucose molecules are bound through alpha 1-4 bonds while amylopectin is a branched polymer containing both alpha 1-4 and 1-6 linkages.
  • Process for Starch Modification - Patent application - starch thinning and etherification process is provided comprising the steps of mixing a starch substrate with a 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It consists of two types of molecules: the linear and helical amylose and the branched amylopectin.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

[4]
.Glycogen and amylopectin have the same structure, but the former has about one branch point per ten 1,4-alpha bonds, compared to about one branch point per thirty 1,4-alpha bonds in amylopectin.^ Glycogen and amylopectin have same structure, but former has about one branch point per ten 1,4-alpha bonds, compared to about one branch point per thirty 1,4-alpha bonds in amylopectin.Berg, Tymozko, Stryer, ''Biochemistry'', 5h ed.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amylose is essentially a linear polymer in which glucose molecules are bound through alpha 1-4 bonds while amylopectin is a branched polymer containing both alpha 1-4 and 1-6 linkages.
  • Process for Starch Modification - Patent application - starch thinning and etherification process is provided comprising the steps of mixing a starch substrate with a 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Although in absolute mass only about one 1/4 of starch granules in plants consist of amylose, there are about 150 times more amylose molecules than amylopectin molecules.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .Another difference is that glycogen is synthesised from UDP-glucose while starch is synthesised from ADP-glucose.^ Another difference is that glycogen is synthesised from Uridine diphosphate glucose At the same time starch is synthesised from ADP-glucose.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Animal starch is another name for glycogen.
  • starch ingilizce Türkçe sözlük starch nedir? starch tanımı etimolojisi starch okunuşu starch sözlük anlamı starch çevirisi en tr el de fr pt es it 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.seslisozluk.com [Source type: Reference]

^ H 2 O + 4 H + The individual steps of the conversion of glucose into pyruvate are (in brief): A glucose molecule from the hydrolysation of starch or glycogen is phosphorylated using one ATP molecule to give glucose-6-phosphate.
  • Starch in Biological Definition 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.bio-medicine.org [Source type: Academic]

Properties

Structure

.Starch molecules arrange themselves in the plant in semi-crystalline granules.^ Eventually the starch molecules will be mostly crystalline.

^ Starch granules can be isolated from plants.
  • Agro-polymers and Thermoplastic starch 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.biodeg.net [Source type: Academic]

^ In plants starch is organised in 1-140 m granules.
  • International Starch: Starch and Glucose Glossary 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.starch.dk [Source type: Academic]

.Each plant species has a unique starch granular size: rice starch is relatively small (about 2μm) while potato starches have larger granules (up to 100μm).^ Potato starch and modification plant .
  • Elomatic Starch and Potato Technology References 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.elomatic.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Starch granules can be isolated from plants.
  • Agro-polymers and Thermoplastic starch 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.biodeg.net [Source type: Academic]

^ In plants starch is organised in 1-140 m granules.
  • International Starch: Starch and Glucose Glossary 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.starch.dk [Source type: Academic]

.Although in absolute mass only about one quarter of the starch granules in plants consist of amylose, there are about 150 times more amylose molecules than amylopectin molecules.^ Although in absolute mass only about one quarter of the starch granules in plants consist of amylose, there are about 150 times more amylose molecules than amylopectin molecules.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Starch granules can be isolated from plants.
  • Agro-polymers and Thermoplastic starch 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.biodeg.net [Source type: Academic]

^ There are two types of starch molecules amylose and amylopectin.
  • Learning, Food Resource [http://food.oregonstate.edu/], Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC food.oregonstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Amylose is a much smaller molecule than amylopectin.^ Amylose is a much smaller molecule than amylopectin.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Amylose and amylopectin are inherently incompatible molecules.

^ Although in absolute mass only about one quarter of the starch granules in plants consist of amylose, there are about 150 times more amylose molecules than amylopectin molecules.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.Starch becomes soluble in water when heated.^ Starch becomes soluble in water when heated.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A typical feature of starch is that it becomes soluble in water when heated.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dextrin is prepared from starch by baking it at 200-250 C until the material becomes completely soluble in cool water.
  • MFA Boston: Material Record 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC cameo.mfa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The granules swell and burst, the semi-crystalline structure is lost and the smaller amylose molecules start leaching out of the granule, forming a network that holds water and increasing the mixture's viscosity.^ As they absorb water, they swell, lose crystallinity and leach amylose.
  • Starch 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.lsbu.ac.uk [Source type: Reference]
  • Starch 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www1.lsbu.ac.uk [Source type: Reference]

^ Starch molecules arrange themselves in the plant in semi-crystalline granules.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The granules swell and burst, the semi-crystalline structure is lost and the smaller amylose molecules start leaching out of the granule, forming a network that holds water and increasing the mixture's viscosity.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.This process is called starch gelatinization.^ This process is called starch gelatinization.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Increased or decreased crystallinity of starch granules can result from annealing depending upon processing parameters before, during and after the gelatinization step (Kuntson, 1990).
  • 4-1-Perspectives of Starch Functionality and Methods of Analysis in Food Systems 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.msstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Hence, dynamic measurement of gelatinized starch viscosities yields process information about product stability (and clarity).
  • 4-1-Perspectives of Starch Functionality and Methods of Analysis in Food Systems 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.msstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

.During cooking the starch becomes a paste and increases further in viscosity.^ In order to increase the digestibility, starch is cooked.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ During cooking the starch becomes a paste and increases further in viscosity.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In order to increase digestibility, starch is cooked.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During cooling or prolonged storage of the paste, the semi-crystalline structure partially recovers and the starch paste thickens, expelling water.^ During cooling or prolonged storage of paste, semi-crystalline structure partially recovers and starch paste thickens.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During cooling or prolonged storage of the paste, the semi-crystalline structure partially recovers and the starch paste thickens, expelling water.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A modified starch is a starch that has been chemically modified, allowing starch for example to function properly under conditions of high heat and/or shear, frequently encountered during processing, or conditions during storage, like cooling.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is mainly caused by the retrogradation of the amylose.^ This is mainly caused by retrogradation (starch) of amylose.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is mainly caused by the retrogradation of the amylose.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ As a general rule starches that contain more amylose (the linear fraction of starch) produce more RS after retrogradation than those with mainly amylopectin content (the crystalline fraction of starch).

.This process is responsible for the hardening of bread or staling, and for the water layer on top of a starch gel (syneresis).^ The starch gel shrinks and a water layer forms on the surface.

^ This process is responsible for the hardening of bread or staling, and for the water layer on top of a starch gel (syneresis).
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This process is also responsible for staling, hardening of bread and water layer on top of a starch gel (syneresis (chemistry)).
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some cultivated plant varieties have pure amylopectin starch without amylose, known as waxy starches.^ Some cultivated plant varieties have pure amylopectin starch without amylose, known as waxy starches.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The two starch polymers are amylose and amylopectin.

^ Although in absolute mass only about one quarter of the starch granules in plants consist of amylose, there are about 150 times more amylose molecules than amylopectin molecules.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.The most used is waxy maize, others are glutinous rice, waxy potato starch.^ It used potato starch.
  • Help!!! Cake needs potato starch, can I substitute something? - Home Cooking - Chowhound 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC chowhound.chow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We use potato and corn starch interchangeably.
  • Help!!! Cake needs potato starch, can I substitute something? - Home Cooking - Chowhound 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC chowhound.chow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each plant species has a unique starch granular size: rice starch is relatively small (about 2μm) At the same time potato starches have larger granules (up to 100μm).
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Waxy starches have less retrogradation, resulting in a more stable paste.^ Waxy starches have less retrogradation, viscosity of paste will be more stable.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Commercial starch is obtained by crushing or grinding starch-containing tubers or seeds and then mixing the pulp with water; the resulting paste is freed of its remaining impurities and then dried.
  • starch (chemical compound) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A gradual starch digestion results in a more or less continuous availability of glucose.
  • In Vitro Starch Digestion Correlates Well with Rate and Extent of Starch Digestion in Broiler Chickens -- Weurding et al. 131 (9): 2336 -- Journal of Nutrition 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

.High amylose starch, amylomaize, is cultivated for the use of its gel strength.^ Also high amylose starch, amylomaize, is cultivated for use of its gel strength.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amylose forms useful gels and films.
  • Starch 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.lsbu.ac.uk [Source type: Reference]
  • Starch 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www1.lsbu.ac.uk [Source type: Reference]

^ Large quantities of starch are also used in the textile industry as warp sizing, which imparts strength to the thread during weaving.
  • starch (chemical compound) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

Hydrolysis

.The enzymes that break down or hydrolyze starch into the constituent sugars are known as amylases.^ A family of enzymes that break down cellulose into glucose molecules.
  • NREL: Biomass Research - Glossary of Biomass Terms 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.nrel.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrolysis: The enzymes that break down or hydrolyze starch into the constituent sugars are known as amylases .
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When starch breaks down into sugar, it stays in the bloodstream, but eventually stored as fat.
  • Starch Ban Phase 2 Optimized Starch Neutralizer 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC katsvitaminherbs.com [Source type: Academic]

.Alpha-amylases are found in plants and in animals.^ Alpha-amylases are found in plants and in animals.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It has been found that animals, both wild herbivores and livestock, are sometimes strangely attracted to a plant that has been sprayed, even though it is not one of their natural foods.
  • KitchenAid Conversations - What is this stuff? 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC forum.kitchenaid.com [Source type: General]

.Human saliva is rich in amylase, and the pancreas also secretes the enzyme.^ But for our experiment we will use human saliva as a source of amylase enzyme.
  • Starch Test Kit 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.miniscience.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Human saliva is rich in amylase, and pancreas also secretes enzyme.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Human saliva is rich in amylase, and the pancreas also secretes the enzyme.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.Individuals from populations with a high-starch diet tend to have more amylase genes than those with low-starch diets; chimpanzees have very few amylase genes.^ Individuals from populations with a high-starch diet tend to have more amylase genes than those with low-starch diets; chimpanzees have very few amylase genes.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ So I am trying low starch diet.
  • IBS Low Starch Diet 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.everydiet.org [Source type: General]

^ Although in absolute mass only about one 1/4 of starch granules in plants consist of amylose, there are about 150 times more amylose molecules than amylopectin molecules.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is possible that turning to a high-starch diet was a significant event in human evolution.^ It is possible that turning to a high-starch diet was a significant event in human evolution.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ How important is starch in the human diet?
  • starch Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about starch 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Individuals from populations with a high-starch diet tend to have more amylase genes than those with low-starch diets; chimpanzees have very few amylase genes.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

[6]
.Beta-amylase cuts starch into maltose units.^ Beta-amylase cuts starch into maltose units.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Beta-amylase cuts starch in maltose units.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When required, starch is broken down, in the presence of certain enzymes and water, into its constituent monomer glucose units, which diffuse from the cell to nourish the plant tissues.
  • starch (chemical compound) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.This process is important in the digestion of starch and is also used in brewing, where the amylase from the skin of the seed grains is responsible for converting starch to maltose (Malting, Mashing).^ This process is important for digestion of starch and also used in brewing, where amylase from skin of seed grains is responsible for converting starch to maltose (Malting, Mashing).
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Starch is digested by means of the enzyme amylase.
  • starch Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about starch 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This process is important in the digestion of starch and is also used in brewing, where the amylase from the skin of the seed grains is responsible for converting starch to maltose (Malting, Mashing).
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

Dextrinization

.If starch is subjected to dry heat, it breaks down to form pyrodextrins, in a process known as dextrinization.^ A/ Enzymes will break down cooked starch.
  • National Starch Food Innovation » 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC eu.foodinnovation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dextrinization: If starch is subjected to dry heat, it breaks down to form pyrodextrins, in a process known as dextrinization.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The dry raw starch, if heated, would undergo dextrinization.
  • Learning, Food Resource [http://food.oregonstate.edu/], Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC food.oregonstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pyrodextrins are brown in color.^ Pyrodextrins are brown in color.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.This process is partially responsible for the browning of toasted bread.^ This process is partially responsible for the browning of toasted bread.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This process is responsible for the hardening of bread or staling, and for the water layer on top of a starch gel (syneresis).
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

Chemical tests

.Iodine solution is used to test for starch; a dark blue color indicates the presence of starch.^ The Iodine test is used to test for the presence of Starch.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Iodine solution is used to test for starch; a darkblue color indicates presence of starch.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Testing Food for starch presence .
  • Starch Test Kit 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.miniscience.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The details of this reaction are not yet fully known, but it is thought that the iodine (I3 and I5 ions) fit inside the coils of amylose, the charge transfers between the iodine and the starch, and the energy level spacings in the resulting complex correspond to the absorption spectrum in the visible light region.^ (I 3 − and I 5 − ions) fits inside coils of amylose, charge transfers between iodine and starch, and energy level spacings in resulting complex correspond to absorption spectrum in visible light region.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under microscope, starch grains stained with iodine illuminated from behind with polarized light show a distinctive Maltese cross effect (also known as extinction cross and birefringence).
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is made by adding 4 grams of soluble starch to 1 litre of heated water; solution is cooled before use (starch-iodine complex becomes unstable at temperatures above 35 °C).
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The strength of the resulting blue color depends on the amount of amylose present.^ Generally speaking, with "native starches" the greater the amount of amylopectin the more viscous the starch paste, whereas, the greater the amount of amylose the firmer the gel (greater the gel strength).
  • Learning, Food Resource [http://food.oregonstate.edu/], Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC food.oregonstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Waxy starches with little or no amylose present will color red.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Waxy starches with little or no amylose present will color red.^ Waxy starches with little or no amylose present will color red.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No Caffeine, corn, gluten, milk or egg derivatives, salt, sodium, soy, starch, sugar, wheat or yeast; No artificial colorings, flavorings or preservatives.
  • Starch Ban Phase 2 Optimized Starch Neutralizer 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC katsvitaminherbs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the starch or starch derivatives are based on corn starch, wheat starch, potato starch, tapioca starch, manioca starch, pea starch, rice starch, amaranth starch, rye starch, barley starch and their natural and transgenic waxy forms and natural and transgenic high-amylose forms, respectively.
  • Thickener for Paint Systems - Patent application - Starch and starch derivatives are combined together with at least one high-viscosity cellulose as a thickener in 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

Starch, 800x magnified, under polarized light.
.Starch indicator solution consisting of water, starch and iodine is often used in redox titrations: in the presence of an oxidizing agent the solution turns blue, in the presence of reducing agent the blue color disappears because triiodide (I3) ions break up into three iodide ions, disassembling the starch-iodine complex.^ If starch is present, the substance will turn blue-black in the area where the iodine solution touches it.
  • Starch Test Kit 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.miniscience.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iodine solution — iodine dissolved in an aqueous solution of potassium iodide — reacts with starch producing a blue black color.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Iodine test is used to test for the presence of Starch.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.A 0.3% w/w solution is the standard concentration for a starch indicator.^ A 0.3% Percentage solution solution is standard concentration for a starch indicator.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Baume (concentration) of the NaOH is increased in the increments indicated as the starch granules become "conditioned" by the crosslinking.
  • Enlarged granule starch stilt material for microencapsulated coatings - Patent 4139505 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Iodine solution is used to test for starch; a darkblue color indicates presence of starch.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is made by adding 3 grams of soluble starch to 1 litre of heated water; the solution is cooled before use (starch-iodine complex becomes unstable at temperatures above 35°C).^ Retrogradation occurs when starch is heated in water above its gelatinization temperature and then cooled.

^ In Using - Do not cook or heat the solution.
  • Modified Starch,Oxidized Starch,Cold Water Soluble Starch,Thin Boiling Starch,India 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.indiamart.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Starch becomes soluble in water when heated.
  • Starch K-12 Experiments & Background Information 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: Reference]

.Microscopy of starch granules - Each species of plant has a unique shape of starch granules in granular size, shape and crystallisation pattern.^ Starch granules can be isolated from plants.
  • Agro-polymers and Thermoplastic starch 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.biodeg.net [Source type: Academic]

^ In plants starch is organised in 1-140 m granules.
  • International Starch: Starch and Glucose Glossary 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.starch.dk [Source type: Academic]

^ The starch crystals are melted in these foods, but only some of the gelatinized starch is leached or dispersed from the gelatinized granules (Fisher and Thompson, 1997).
  • 4-1-Perspectives of Starch Functionality and Methods of Analysis in Food Systems 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.msstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Under the microscope, starch grains stained with iodine illuminated from behind with polarized light show a distinctive Maltese cross effect (also known as extinction cross and birefringence).^ Polarization: An interference figure (or "Maltese cross") is seen when starch grains are examined under the polarization microscope.

^ Under microscope, starch grains stained with iodine illuminated from behind with polarized light show a distinctive Maltese cross effect (also known as extinction cross and birefringence).
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The loss of birefringence evidenced by the loss of the polarization cross is observed with polarized light.
  • Enlarged granule starch stilt material for microencapsulated coatings - Patent 4139505 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

Starch as food

.Starch is the most important carbohydrate in the human diet and is contained in many staple foods.^ Starch is very most important carbohydrate in human diet and is contained in many staple foods.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What foods contain starch?
  • Starch Test Kit 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.miniscience.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How important is starch in the human diet?
  • starch Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about starch 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The major sources of starch intake worldwide are rice, wheat, maize (corn), potatoes and cassava.^ Some plant examples with high starch content are corn, potato, rice, sorghum, wheat, and cassava.
  • Starch Test Kit 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.miniscience.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Part 2 examines the sources of starch, from wheat and potato to rice, corn and tropical supplies.

^ Also offering potato starch powder, tapioca starch powder, rice starch powder and wheat starch powder.
  • Maize Starch - Maize Starch Manufacturers,Maize Starch Suppliers & Exporters 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC dir.indiamart.com [Source type: News]

.Widely used prepared foods containing starch are bread, pancakes, cereals, noodles, pasta, porridge and tortilla.^ What foods contain starch?
  • Starch Test Kit 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.miniscience.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Widely used prepared foods containing starch are bread, pancakes, cereals, noodles, pasta, porridge and tortilla.Anne-Charlotte Eliasson (2004).
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Method for preparing dehydrated starch containing food products .
  • Starch snack foods - Google Patent Search 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

[7]
.Depending on the local climate other starch sources are used for food, such as arrowroot, arracacha, buckwheat, barley, oat, millet, rye, banana, breadfruit, canna, colacasia, katakuri, kudzu, malanga, oca, polynesian arrowroot, sago, sorghum, sweet potato, taro, water chestnut and yams.^ It used potato starch.
  • Help!!! Cake needs potato starch, can I substitute something? - Home Cooking - Chowhound 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC chowhound.chow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Depending on local climate other starch sources are used for food, like arrowroot, arracacha, buckwheat, barley, oat, millet, rye, banana, breadfruit, canna (plant), colacasia, katakuri, kudzu, malanga, oca, polynesian arrowroot, sago, sorghum, sweet potato, taro, water chestnut and yam (vegetable).
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Potato Starch We supply potato starch, using for food industry.
  • Starch, Starch Trade, Trade Offer, Business Offers, Trade Leads 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.made-in-china.com [Source type: News]

.Chestnuts and edible beans, such as favas, lentils, mung bean and peas, are also rich in starch.^ After longer incubation times, common bean starch digestion became more like that of pea starch.
  • In Vitro Starch Digestion Correlates Well with Rate and Extent of Starch Digestion in Broiler Chickens -- Weurding et al. 131 (9): 2336 -- Journal of Nutrition 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Starch digestion coefficients of common beans, peas, horsebeans and potato starch in both in vivo and in vitro experiments were calculated from digestion coefficients of the total diet and corn (10) .
  • In Vitro Starch Digestion Correlates Well with Rate and Extent of Starch Digestion in Broiler Chickens -- Weurding et al. 131 (9): 2336 -- Journal of Nutrition 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In vivo common bean starch digestion, however, was much lower than pea and horsebean starch digestion.
  • In Vitro Starch Digestion Correlates Well with Rate and Extent of Starch Digestion in Broiler Chickens -- Weurding et al. 131 (9): 2336 -- Journal of Nutrition 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

.Digestive enzymes have problems digesting crystalline structures.^ Digestive enzymes have problems digesting crystalline structures.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Raw starch will digest poorly in the duodenum and small intestine, while bacterial degradation will take place mainly in the colon.^ Raw starch will digest poorly in duodenum and small intestine, At the same time bacterial degradation will take place mainly in colon (anatomy).
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Resistant starch is starch that escapes digestion in small intestine of healthy individuals.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term resistant starch refers to any starch that resists digestion and absorption in the small intestine.
  • KitchenAid Conversations - What is this stuff? 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC forum.kitchenaid.com [Source type: General]

.Resistant starch is starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine of healthy individuals.^ Resistant starch is starch that escapes digestion in small intestine of healthy individuals.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term resistant starch refers to any starch that resists digestion and absorption in the small intestine.
  • KitchenAid Conversations - What is this stuff? 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC forum.kitchenaid.com [Source type: General]

^ It is predominantly amylopectin ( 75%), can be fully digested in the small intestine, and contains only small amounts of RS. Potato starch, in contrast to cornstarch, is predominantly a crystalline amylose and is slowly hydrated and digested in the small intestine.
  • Estimates of Starch Digestion in the Rat Small Intestine Differ from Those Obtained Using In Vitro Time-Sensitive Starch Fractionation Assays -- Bauer et al. 133 (7): 2256 -- Journal of Nutrition 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

.In order to increase the digestibility, starch is cooked.^ In order to increase digestibility, starch is cooked.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This led to an increased percentage of the intestinal contents being composed of potato starch, as exemplified by the lack of digestion of the starch fraction in this diet.
  • Estimates of Starch Digestion in the Rat Small Intestine Differ from Those Obtained Using In Vitro Time-Sensitive Starch Fractionation Assays -- Bauer et al. 133 (7): 2256 -- Journal of Nutrition 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Preliminary data suggested that in vitro starch digestion follows first-order kinetics and in vitro starch digestion rate was estimated using the following equation: .
  • In Vitro Starch Digestion Correlates Well with Rate and Extent of Starch Digestion in Broiler Chickens -- Weurding et al. 131 (9): 2336 -- Journal of Nutrition 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

.Hence, before humans started using fire, eating grains was not a very useful way to get energy.^ Hence, before humans started using fire, eating grains was not a very useful way to get energy.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It can be very useful in whole-grain recipes.
  • KitchenAid Conversations - What is this stuff? 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC forum.kitchenaid.com [Source type: General]

^ The starch could be a safer way of storing energy than using methanol, a current leading option for such small fuel-cell systems.
  • Technology Review: Running Cars on Hydrogen Made from Starch 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

Starch industry

.The starch industry extracts and refines starches from seeds, roots and tubers, by wet grinding, washing, sieving and drying.^ SSP Food Processing Equipments Deals in manufacture and supply of industrial maize starches, tapioca root starches, cassava starches, rice starches, potatoes starches and wheat starches.
  • Maize Starch - Maize Starch Manufacturers,Maize Starch Suppliers & Exporters 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC dir.indiamart.com [Source type: News]

^ X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that cereals give an A pattern; legumes, roots, and tuber starches give a B patterns; andC patterns occur as a between the two.
  • Learning, Food Resource [http://food.oregonstate.edu/], Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC food.oregonstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To date several categories of RS are identified: RS1 - Physically inaccessible starch due to the presence of intact cell walls in grains, seeds or tubers.
  • Its Time To Gain Knowledge On Resistant Starch 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.criticalbench.com [Source type: Academic]

.Today, the main commercial refined starches are cornstarch, tapioca, wheat and potato starch.^ Also offering potato starch powder, tapioca starch powder, rice starch powder and wheat starch powder.
  • Maize Starch - Maize Starch Manufacturers,Maize Starch Suppliers & Exporters 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC dir.indiamart.com [Source type: News]

^ Penford Food Ingredients (PFI) offers a complete line of cost-effective starch, dextrose and dextrin ingredients based on corn, potato and tapioca starches.
  • Manufacturers of Potato Starch 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.potatopro.com [Source type: General]

^ SSP Food Processing Equipments Deals in manufacture and supply of industrial maize starches, tapioca root starches, cassava starches, rice starches, potatoes starches and wheat starches.
  • Maize Starch - Maize Starch Manufacturers,Maize Starch Suppliers & Exporters 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC dir.indiamart.com [Source type: News]

To a lesser extent, sources include rice, sweet potato, sago and mung bean. .Historically, Florida arrowroot was also commercialized.^ Historically, Florida arrowroot was also commercialized.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Still starch is extracted from more than 50 types of plants.^ These different proportions of the two types of starch within the starch grains of the plant give each starch its characteristic properties in cooking and gel formation.
  • Learning, Food Resource [http://food.oregonstate.edu/], Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC food.oregonstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Feedstuffs differ in more aspects than simply starch characteristics.
  • In Vitro Starch Digestion Correlates Well with Rate and Extent of Starch Digestion in Broiler Chickens -- Weurding et al. 131 (9): 2336 -- Journal of Nutrition 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Figure 1 A and B shows that more rapidly digestible starch sources than slowly digestible sources were used in the experiment.
  • In Vitro Starch Digestion Correlates Well with Rate and Extent of Starch Digestion in Broiler Chickens -- Weurding et al. 131 (9): 2336 -- Journal of Nutrition 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

.Untreated starch requires heat to thicken or gelatinize.^ If gelatinization has occurred correctly and IF the starch is the correct type and concentration, upon removal from heat a three dimensional structure may form.
  • Learning, Food Resource [http://food.oregonstate.edu/], Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC food.oregonstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heating must then be stopped to prevent gelatinization of the starch so that it can handled and transported more easily.
  • Process for Starch Modification - Patent application - starch thinning and etherification process is provided comprising the steps of mixing a starch substrate with a 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Starches from roots, such as potato, typically require less heat to start the swelling process than do starches from grains, such as corn.

.When a starch is pre-cooked, it can then be used to thicken instantly in cold water.^ When a starch is pre-cooked, it can then be used to thicken instantly in cold water.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Starch is also used as printing thickener.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is made by adding 4 grams of soluble starch to 1 litre of heated water; solution is cooled before use (starch-iodine complex becomes unstable at temperatures above 35 °C).
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is referred to as a pregelatinized starch.

Starch sugars

.Starch can be hydrolyzed into simpler carbohydrates by acids, various enzymes, or a combination of the two.^ Starch can be hydrolyzed into simpler carbohydrates by acids, various enzymes, or a combination of two.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ KEY WORDS: • starch • digestion • in vivo • in vitro Starch is classified nutritionally into two main groups: digestible starch (DS) and resistant starch (RS) ( 1 – 5 ).
  • Estimates of Starch Digestion in the Rat Small Intestine Differ from Those Obtained Using In Vitro Time-Sensitive Starch Fractionation Assays -- Bauer et al. 133 (7): 2256 -- Journal of Nutrition 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Waxy starches are carbohydrates derived from various sources such as rice, barley, and corn (i.e.
  • Bodybuilding.com - The Myth Of Waxy Maize Starch... And The Truth Behind It All! - David Barr 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.bodybuilding.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The resulting fragments are known as dextrins. .The extent of conversion is typically quantified by dextrose equivalent (DE), which is roughly the fraction of the glycosidic bonds in starch that have been broken.^ (DE), which is roughly fraction of glycosidic bonds in starch that have been broken.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DE. Dextrose Equivalent expresses the number of aldehyde groups - reducing ends - relative to pure glucose of same concentration .
  • International Starch: Starch and Glucose Glossary 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.starch.dk [Source type: Academic]

^ Digestion rate of the digestible starch fraction and the enzymatically resistant starch fraction will affect the extent of starch digestion.
  • In Vitro Starch Digestion Correlates Well with Rate and Extent of Starch Digestion in Broiler Chickens -- Weurding et al. 131 (9): 2336 -- Journal of Nutrition 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

.These starch sugars are by far the most common starch based food ingredient and are used as sweetener in many drinks and foods.^ But by far very most well known starch based food ingredient are starch sugars (see below) used as sweetener in many drinks and foods.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sugar alcohols, like maltitol, erythritol, sorbitol, mannitol, hydrogenated starch hydrolysate are sweeteners made by reducing sugars.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most often used one is acid-thinned starch or enzymatically jet-cooked starch due to its high retro gradation and gel formation characteristics, which are enhanced by the presence of sugars.
  • Modified Starch,Oxidized Starch,Cold Water Soluble Starch,Thin Boiling Starch,India 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.indiamart.com [Source type: Reference]

They include:
.
  • Maltodextrin, a lightly hydrolyzed (DE 10–20) starch product used as a bland-tasting filler and thickener.
  • Various glucose syrup / corn syrups (DE 30–70), viscous solutions used as sweeteners and thickeners in many kinds of processed foods.
  • Dextrose (DE 100), commercial glucose, prepared by the complete hydrolysis of starch.
  • High fructose syrup, made by treating dextrose solutions with the enzyme glucose isomerase, until a substantial fraction of the glucose has been converted to fructose.^ Products Offered: Manufacturer and bulk supplier of glucose syrup, corn starch, high maltose powder and maltodextrins.
    • Starch - Starch Manufacturers, Suppliers & Wholesale Starch 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.teonline.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Processing cassava for industrial and food uses.
    • SILEWP 2003-001 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.sil.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Products Offered: Wholesaler of corn starch.
    • Starch - Starch Manufacturers, Suppliers & Wholesale Starch 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.teonline.com [Source type: News]

    .In the United States, high fructose corn syrup is the principal sweetener used in sweetened beverages because fructose has better handling characteristics, such as microbiological stability, and more consistent sweetness/flavor.^ High fructose corn syrup has same sweetness as sugar.
    • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In United States, high fructose corn syrup is principal sweetener used in sweetened beverages because fructose has better handling characteristics, like microbiological stability, and more consistent sweetness/flavor.
    • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ As directly manufacturer, are supplying you corn starch, modified starch, corn syrup, liquid glucose, high maltose syrup, maltodextrin, dextrose ...
    • Starch, Starch Trade, Trade Offer, Business Offers, Trade Leads 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.made-in-china.com [Source type: News]

    High fructose corn syrup has the same sweetness as sugar.
  • Sugar alcohols, such as maltitol, erythritol, sorbitol, mannitol and hydrogenated starch hydrolysate, are sweeteners made by reducing sugars.

Modified starches

.A modified food starch is a starch that has been chemically modified to allow the starch to function properly under conditions frequently encountered during processing or storage, such as high heat, high shear, low pH, freeze/thaw and cooling.^ A modified starch is a starch that has been chemically modified, allowing starch for example to function properly under conditions of high heat and/or shear, frequently encountered during processing, or conditions during storage, like cooling.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Starch in food: Structure, function and applications .

^ Such starches are referred to as "modified."

The modified starches are E coded according to the International Numbering System for Food Additives (INS):[8]
  • 1401 Acid-treated starch
  • 1402 Alkaline-treated starch
  • 1403 Bleached starch
  • 1404 Oxidized starch
  • 1405 Starches, enzyme-treated
  • 1410 Monostarch phosphate
  • 1412 Distarch phosphate
  • 1413 Phosphated distarch phosphate
  • 1414 Acetylated distarch phosphate
  • 1420 Starch acetate
  • 1422 Acetylated distarch adipate
  • 1440 Hydroxypropyl starch
  • 1442 Hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate
  • 1443 Hydroxypropyl distarch glycerol
  • 1450 Starch sodium octenyl succinate
  • 1451 Acetylated oxidized starch
.INS 1401, 1402, 1403 and 1405 are in the EU food ingredients without an E-number.^ E number according to Codex Alimentarius for Food Additives (INS) : .
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Typical modified starches for technical applications are cationic starches, hydroxyethyl starch and carboxymethylated starches.^ Starch ether Modified starch with ether groupings like hydroxypropyl-starch, cationic starch and carboxymethyl starch .
  • International Starch: Starch and Glucose Glossary 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.starch.dk [Source type: Academic]

^ AKV Langholt operates a Joint Venture with Cargill for the production of modified potato starch for non food applications.
  • Manufacturers of Potato Starch 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.potatopro.com [Source type: General]

^ Starch derivatives are able to fulfill various functions in technical applications.
  • Thickener for Paint Systems - Patent application - Starch and starch derivatives are combined together with at least one high-viscosity cellulose as a thickener in 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

Use as food additive

.As an additive for food processing, food starches are typically used as thickeners and stabilizers in foods such as puddings, custards, soups, sauces, gravies, pie fillings, and salad dressings, and to make noodles and pastas.^ Plants use it as a food in the photosynthesis process.
  • NREL: Biomass Research - Glossary of Biomass Terms 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.nrel.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Starch is also used as printing thickener.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I've successfully used xanthan gum and guar gum to thicken foods such as gravy or soups.
  • KitchenAid Conversations - What is this stuff? 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC forum.kitchenaid.com [Source type: General]

.Gummed sweets such as jelly beans and wine gums are not manufactured using a mold in the conventional sense.^ Gummed sweets like jelly beans and wine gums are not manufactured using a mold in conventional sense.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A positive mold is then pressed into starch leaving an impression of 1000 or so jelly beans.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Naturally occurring gums such as gum arabic are widely used in the food industry to provide emulsifying, stabilizing and encapsulating properties," says Luallen.

.A tray is filled with native starch and leveled.^ A tray is filled with native starch and leveled.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A positive mold is then pressed into the starch leaving an impression of 1000 or so jelly beans.^ A positive mold is then pressed into starch leaving an impression of 1000 or so jelly beans.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By cationic modification of starches, those derivatives are summarized, where a positive charge is introduced into the starch by substitution.
  • Thickener for Paint Systems - Patent application - Starch and starch derivatives are combined together with at least one high-viscosity cellulose as a thickener in 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Gummed sweets like jelly beans and wine gums are not manufactured using a mold in conventional sense.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The jelly mix is then poured into the impressions and put into a stove to set.^ A positive mold is then pressed into starch leaving an impression of 1000 or so jelly beans.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This method greatly reduces the number of molds that must be manufactured.
.Starch is also used as an excipient, a binder in medications to aid the formation of tablets.^ Starch is used as an excipient, a binder in medications to aid formation of tablets.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Starch is also used in paper coating as one of binders for coating formulation a mixture of pigments, binders and thickeners.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Starch and starch derivatives may additionally be used as binders in single paints, which, by definition, are paints containing no synthetic binders.
  • Thickener for Paint Systems - Patent application - Starch and starch derivatives are combined together with at least one high-viscosity cellulose as a thickener in 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

Industrial applications

Starch adhesive.
.Papermaking is the largest non-food application for starches globally, consuming millions of metric tons annually.^ '''Papermaking''' is largest non-food application for starches globally, consuming millions of metric tons annually.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Starch in food: Structure, function and applications .

^ '''Corrugated board adhesives''' are next largest application of non-food starches globally.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a typical sheet of copy paper for instance, the starch content may be as high as 8%.^ In a typical sheet of copy paper for instance, starch content may be as high as 8%.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some plant examples with high starch content are corn, potato, rice, sorghum, wheat, and cassava.
  • Starch Test Kit 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.miniscience.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Starch syrup high in maltose, typically 45-50% in ordinary conversion syrup and 65-80% in high maltose syrup.
  • International Starch: Starch and Glucose Glossary 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.starch.dk [Source type: Academic]

.Both chemically modified and unmodified starches are used in papermaking.^ Another term for chemically modified starch e.g.
  • International Starch: Starch and Glucose Glossary 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.starch.dk [Source type: Academic]

^ In a preferred manner, these starches are modified for the combined use according to the invention, with high-viscosity celluloses as thickeners in dispersion paints.
  • Thickener for Paint Systems - Patent application - Starch and starch derivatives are combined together with at least one high-viscosity cellulose as a thickener in 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Granular cationic starch ether used in papermaking due to its affinity to cellulose fibres and thereby reducing BOD. .
  • International Starch: Starch and Glucose Glossary 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.starch.dk [Source type: Academic]

.In the wet part of the papermaking process, generally called the “wet-end”, the starches used are cationic and have a positive charge bound to the starch polymer.^ In wet part of papermaking process, generally called “wet-end”, starches used are cationic and have a positive charge bound to starch polymer.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This process is called starch gelatinization.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main characteristic of waxy starches is that they generally contain a large amount of highly branched starch called amylopectin.
  • Bodybuilding.com - The Myth Of Waxy Maize Starch... And The Truth Behind It All! - David Barr 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.bodybuilding.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These starch derivatives associate with the anionic or negatively charged paper fibers / cellulose and inorganic fillers.^ These starch derivatives associate with anionic or negatively charged paper fibers / cellulose and inorganic fillers.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Starch(es) and starch derivatives are combined together with at least one high-viscosity cellulose as a thickener in dispersion binder-based color systems.
  • Thickener for Paint Systems - Patent application - Starch and starch derivatives are combined together with at least one high-viscosity cellulose as a thickener in 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In a preferred manner, these starches are modified for the combined use according to the invention, with high-viscosity celluloses as thickeners in dispersion paints.
  • Thickener for Paint Systems - Patent application - Starch and starch derivatives are combined together with at least one high-viscosity cellulose as a thickener in 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Cationic starches together with other retention and internal sizing agent help to give the necessary strength properties to the paper web to be formed in the papermaking process (wet strength), and to provide strength to the final paper sheet (dry strength).^ Cationic starches together with other retention and internal sizing agent help to give necessary strength properties to paper web to be formed in papermaking process (wet strength), and to provide strength to final paper sheet (dry strength).
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In dry end of papermaking process paper web is rewetted with a starch based solution.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Increased internal strength properties & retention of fillers & fines.
  • Modified Starch,Oxidized Starch,Cold Water Soluble Starch,Thin Boiling Starch,India 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.indiamart.com [Source type: Reference]

.In the dry end of the papermaking process the paper web is rewetted with a starch based solution.^ A cationic wet end starch used in paper & Paper Board Manufacturing to increase its internal strength properties as well as retention of fillers & fines.
  • Thailand Origin of Native & Modified Tapioca Starch for Food Paper Textile Pharmaceutical and more Industries. 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.wadudcorp.com [Source type: Reference]

^ About 0.36% POCl 3 based on the weight of the dry starch is required.
  • Enlarged granule starch stilt material for microencapsulated coatings - Patent 4139505 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Approximately 1.8% by weight NaOH (dry solids) is required, based on the dry weight of the starch.
  • Enlarged granule starch stilt material for microencapsulated coatings - Patent 4139505 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.The process is called surface sizing.^ Paper Tapioca starch will be used in three stages of production process; Beater Sizing or Wet-end, Surfacing Sizing or Size-press and Surface Coating.
  • Modified Starch,Oxidized Starch,Cold Water Soluble Starch,Thin Boiling Starch,India 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.indiamart.com [Source type: Reference]

.Starches used have been chemically, or enzymatically depolymerized at the paper mill or by the starch industry (oxidized starch).^ Starches used have been chemically, or enzymatically depolymerized at paper mill or by starch industry (oxidized starch).
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ '''Printing industry''' - in printing industry food grade starch is used in manufacture of anti-set-off spray powder used to separate printed sheets of paper to avoid wet ink being set-off (printing).
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A cationic wet end starch used in paper & Paper Board Manufacturing to increase its internal strength properties as well as retention of fillers & fines.
  • Thailand Origin of Native & Modified Tapioca Starch for Food Paper Textile Pharmaceutical and more Industries. 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.wadudcorp.com [Source type: Reference]

.The size - starch solutions are applied to the paper web by means of various mechanical presses (size press).^ Chinese paper documents of about 312 A.D. were coated with a starch sizing to provide resistance to ink penetration.

^ Paper Tapioca starch will be used in three stages of production process; Beater Sizing or Wet-end, Surfacing Sizing or Size-press and Surface Coating.
  • Modified Starch,Oxidized Starch,Cold Water Soluble Starch,Thin Boiling Starch,India 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.indiamart.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It contains the iodine solution as well as samples of starch and starch paper.
  • Starch Test Kit 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.miniscience.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Together with surface sizing agent the surface starches impart additional strength to the paper web and additionally provide water hold out or “size” for superior printing properties.^ Together with surface sizing agent surface starches impart additional strength to paper web and additionally provide water hold out or “size” for superior printing properties.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cationic starches together with other retention and internal sizing agent help to give necessary strength properties to paper web to be formed in papermaking process (wet strength), and to provide strength to final paper sheet (dry strength).
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The addition of sugar to a typical starch dispersion will serve to decrease starch paste viscosity and gel strength because the sugar will compete for water and it won't be available for gelatinization.
  • Learning, Food Resource [http://food.oregonstate.edu/], Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC food.oregonstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Starch is also used in paper coating as one of the binders for the coating formulation a mixture of pigments, binders and thickeners.^ Starch is also used in paper coating as one of binders for coating formulation a mixture of pigments, binders and thickeners.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Starch is also used as printing thickener.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Corn Starch is used as an adhesive in pigmented coating for paper and paper board.
  • Modified Starch,Oxidized Starch,Cold Water Soluble Starch,Thin Boiling Starch,India 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.indiamart.com [Source type: Reference]

.Coated paper has improved smoothness, hardness, whiteness and gloss and thus improves printing characteristics.^ Coated paper has improved smoothness, hardness, whiteness and gloss and thus improves printing characteristics.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The purpose of size press application is to improve appearance and erasibility ink penetration and form a hard firm surface for writing or printing, to produce surface fiber picking, and to prepare the sheet for subsequent coating.
  • Modified Starch,Oxidized Starch,Cold Water Soluble Starch,Thin Boiling Starch,India 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.indiamart.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It help in improving wax pick, gloss smoothness of paper by forming strong and flexible film on fiber.
  • Modified Starch,Oxidized Starch,Cold Water Soluble Starch,Thin Boiling Starch,India 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.indiamart.com [Source type: Reference]

.Corrugated board adhesives are the next largest application of non-food starches globally.^ '''Papermaking''' is largest non-food application for starches globally, consuming millions of metric tons annually.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ '''Corrugated board adhesives''' are next largest application of non-food starches globally.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It presents different industrial applications in fields such as food, paper, textile and adhesive.
  • Agro-polymers and Thermoplastic starch 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.biodeg.net [Source type: Academic]

.Starch glues are mostly based on unmodified native starches, plus some additive such as borax and caustic soda.^ Starch glues are mostly based on unmodified native starches plus some additive like borax and caustic soda.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Starch derivatives as yellow dextrins can be modified by addition of some chemical forms to be a hard glue for paper work, some of those forms are Borax, Soda Ash, which mixed with starch solution at 50-70 °C to gain a very good adhesive, Sodium Silicate can be added to reinforce this formula.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Resistant starches are found naturally in some foods, such as lentils, potatoes that have been cooked and then cooled, and in grain products such as pastas, breads and cereals.
  • KitchenAid Conversations - What is this stuff? 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC forum.kitchenaid.com [Source type: General]

.Part of the starch is gelatinized to carry the slurry of uncooked starches and prevent sedimentation.^ Part of starch is gelatinized to carrier slurry of uncooked starches and prevent sedimentation.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is then dried under high heat, which causes rest of uncooked starch in glue to swell/gelatinize.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This opaque glue is called a SteinHall adhesive.^ This opaque glue is called a SteinHall adhesives.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The glue is applied on tips of the fluting. The fluted paper is pressed to paper called liner. .This is then dried under high heat, which causes the rest of the uncooked starch in glue to swell/gelatinize.^ This is then dried under high heat, which causes rest of uncooked starch in glue to swell/gelatinize.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We obtain starch gelatinisation with the combination of water (high content) and heat.
  • Agro-polymers and Thermoplastic starch 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.biodeg.net [Source type: Academic]

^ A modified starch is a starch that has been chemically modified, allowing starch for example to function properly under conditions of high heat and/or shear, frequently encountered during processing, or conditions during storage, like cooling.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This gelatinizing makes the glue a fast and strong adhesive for corrugated board production.^ This gelatinizing makes glue a fast and strong for corrugated board production.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These glues are used in the production of corrugated fiberboard (sometimes called corrugated cardboard), and generally contain a mixture of chemically modified and unmodified starches that have been partially gelatinized to form an opaque paste.
  • Starch: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Reference]

^ '''Corrugated board adhesives''' are next largest application of non-food starches globally.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another large non-food starch application is in the construction industry, where starch is used in the gypsum wall board manufacturing process.^ Starch in food 2 Non-food applications 3 Use as a mold 4 Tests 5 Starch derivatives 6 References 7 See also .
  • Starch: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Reference]

^ Another large non-food starch application is in construction industry where starch is used in gypsum wall board manufacturing process.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Processing cassava for industrial and food uses.
  • SILEWP 2003-001 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.sil.org [Source type: Academic]

.Chemically modified or unmodified starches are added to the stucco containing primarily gypsum.^ Chemically modified or unmodified starches are added to stucco containing primarily gypsum.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chemically modified or unmodified starches are added to the rock mud containing primarily gypsum .
  • Starch: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Reference]

^ Both chemically modified and unmodified starches are used in papermaking.
  • Starch: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Reference]

.Top and bottom heavyweight sheets of paper are applied to the formulation, and the process is allowed to heat and cure to form the eventual rigid wall board.^ Top and bottom heavyweight sheets of paper are applied to the mud formulation and the process is allowed to heat and cure to form the eventual rigid wall board.
  • Starch: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Reference]

^ Top and bottom heavyweight sheets of paper are applied to formulation and process is allowed to heat and cure to form eventual rigid wall board.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The increased resistance to heat preserves the intact granule structure of the starch particles, even when used in copy paper coating processes which employ elevated temperatures.
  • Enlarged granule starch stilt material for microencapsulated coatings - Patent 4139505 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.The starches act as a glue for the cured gypsum rock with the paper covering, and also provide rigidity to the board.^ The starches act as a glue for the cured gypsum rock with the paper covering and also provide rigidity to the board.
  • Starch: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Reference]

^ Top and bottom heavyweight sheets of paper are applied to formulation and process is allowed to heat and cure to form eventual rigid wall board.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Top and bottom heavyweight sheets of paper are applied to the mud formulation and the process is allowed to heat and cure to form the eventual rigid wall board.
  • Starch: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Reference]

.Starch is used in the manufacture of various adhesives or glues[9] for book-binding, wallpaper adhesives, paper sack production, tube winding, gummed paper, envelop adhesives, school glues and bottle labeling.^ Hydrogen production - Starch can be used to produce Hydrogen .
  • Starch: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Reference]

^ Corn Starch is used as an adhesive in pigmented coating for paper and paper board.
  • Modified Starch,Oxidized Starch,Cold Water Soluble Starch,Thin Boiling Starch,India 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.indiamart.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Starch is also used in the manufacture of glues [3] for book-binding.
  • Starch: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Reference]

.Starch derivatives, such as yellow dextrins, can be modified by addition of some chemicals to form a hard glue for paper work; some of those forms use borax or soda ash, which are mixed with the starch solution at 50-70 °C to create a very good adhesive.^ "The starch slurry can also be modified by chemical and/or enzyme addition," she says.

^ Starch derivatives as yellow dextrins can be modified by addition of some chemical forms to be a hard glue for paper work, some of those forms are Borax, Soda Ash, which mixed with starch solution at 50-70 °C to gain a very good adhesive, Sodium Silicate can be added to reinforce this formula.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Starch solution is used to test for iodine .
  • Starch: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Reference]

.Sodium silicate can be added to reinforce these formulae.^ Starch derivatives as yellow dextrins can be modified by addition of some chemical forms to be a hard glue for paper work, some of those forms are Borax, Soda Ash, which mixed with starch solution at 50-70 °C to gain a very good adhesive, Sodium Silicate can be added to reinforce this formula.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Clothing starch or laundry starch is a liquid that is prepared by mixing a vegetable starch in water (earlier preparations also had to be boiled), and is used in the laundering of clothes.^ Starch was widely used in Europe in 16th and 17th centuries to stiffen wide collars and Ruff (clothing) of fine linen which surrounded necks of well-to-do.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is made by adding 4 grams of soluble starch to 1 litre of heated water; solution is cooled before use (starch-iodine complex becomes unstable at temperatures above 35 °C).
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mix 1 cup PEAL Starch and cup flour with 2 cups of water until you get a consistency like thick glue.
  • Peal Starch - Shirt Starching, Starching Jeans, Biodegradable Laundry Detergent, Non-Aerosol Starch, Starching Uniforms, Laundry Starch, Liquid Starch, Spray Starch, Powder Starch, Liquid Laundry, Laundry Supplies, Starching Clothes, Irioning Starch, Heavy Starch, Linen Starch, Laundry Products 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.pealstarch.com [Source type: General]

.Starch was widely used in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries to stiffen the wide collars and ruffs of fine linen which surrounded the necks of the well-to-do.^ Starch was widely used in Europe in 16th and 17th centuries to stiffen wide collars and Ruff (clothing) of fine linen which surrounded necks of well-to-do.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During 19th century and early 20th century, it was stylish to stiffen collars and sleeves of men's shirts and ruffles of girls' petticoats by applying starch to them as clean clothes were being ironing.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the basis of the results of this experiment we conclude that an in vitro procedure can be used to predict both jejunal and ileal starch digestion as well as starch digestion rate.
  • In Vitro Starch Digestion Correlates Well with Rate and Extent of Starch Digestion in Broiler Chickens -- Weurding et al. 131 (9): 2336 -- Journal of Nutrition 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

.During the 19th century and early 20th century, it was stylish to stiffen the collars and sleeves of men's shirts and the ruffles of girls' petticoats by applying starch to them as the clean clothes were being ironed.^ During 19th century and early 20th century, it was stylish to stiffen collars and sleeves of men's shirts and ruffles of girls' petticoats by applying starch to them as clean clothes were being ironing.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the 19th century and early 20th century, it was stylish to stiffen the collars and sleeves of men's shirts and the ruffles of girls' petticoats by applying starch to them as the clean clothes were being ironed.
  • Starch: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Reference]

^ Starch was widely used in Europe in 16th and 17th centuries to stiffen wide collars and Ruff (clothing) of fine linen which surrounded necks of well-to-do.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Aside from the smooth, crisp edges it gave to clothing, it served practical purposes as well.^ Aside from smooth, crisp edges it gave to clothing, it served practical purposes as well.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dirt and sweat from a person's neck and wrists would stick to the starch rather than to the fibers of the clothing, and would easily wash away along with the starch.^ Dirt and sweat from a person's neck and wrists would stick to the starch rather than fibers of the clothing, and would easily wash away along with the starch.
  • Starch: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Reference]

^ Resistant starch is not only higher in fiber than flour, but it is also lower in calories.
  • KitchenAid Conversations - What is this stuff? 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC forum.kitchenaid.com [Source type: General]

^ It’s obvious that the person writing this article has no understanding of the difference between starch, soluble fiber, and insoluble fiber.
  • IBS Low Starch Diet 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.everydiet.org [Source type: General]

.After each laundering, the starch would be reapplied.^ After each laundering, starch would be reapplied.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Today, the product is sold in aerosol cans for home use.^ Today product is sold in Aerosol spray for home use.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Starch is also used to make some packing peanuts, and some drop ceiling tiles.^ Starch is also used to make some packing peanuts, and some dropped ceiling tiles.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this method, a Kofler electrically heated microscope stage is used to heat a drop of an 0.1-0.2% suspension of the starch on a microscope slide.
  • Enlarged granule starch stilt material for microencapsulated coatings - Patent 4139505 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If no significance was observed for the second set of maximums and, thus, no second plateau of starch disappearance was observed, that term was dropped and the following equation was used: .
  • Estimates of Starch Digestion in the Rat Small Intestine Differ from Those Obtained Using In Vitro Time-Sensitive Starch Fractionation Assays -- Bauer et al. 133 (7): 2256 -- Journal of Nutrition 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

.Textile chemicals from starch are used to reduce breaking of yarns during weaving; the warp yarns are sized, especially for cotton.^ Starch is one of main agents used for cotton sizing.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Starches used have been chemically, or enzymatically depolymerized at paper mill or by starch industry (oxidized starch).
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Measures of damaged starch by solubility in alkaline solution, susceptibility to enzymes, or change in size or shape using microscopy, relate to extent of processing and nutritional potential.
  • 4-1-Perspectives of Starch Functionality and Methods of Analysis in Food Systems 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.msstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Starch is also used as textile printing thickener.^ Starch is also used as printing thickener.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a preferred manner, these starches are modified for the combined use according to the invention, with high-viscosity celluloses as thickeners in dispersion paints.
  • Thickener for Paint Systems - Patent application - Starch and starch derivatives are combined together with at least one high-viscosity cellulose as a thickener in 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When a starch is pre-cooked, it can then be used to thicken instantly in cold water.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the printing industry, food grade starch[10] is used in the manufacture of anti-set-off spray powder used to separate printed sheets of paper to avoid wet ink being set off.^ '''Printing industry''' - in printing industry food grade starch is used in manufacture of anti-set-off spray powder used to separate printed sheets of paper to avoid wet ink being set-off (printing).
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Processing cassava for industrial and food uses.
  • SILEWP 2003-001 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.sil.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Starch is also used as printing thickener.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Starch is used to produce various bioplastics, synthetic polymers that are biodegradable.^ See also, biodegradable polymers or bioplastics .
  • Agro-polymers and Thermoplastic starch 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.biodeg.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Starch and starch derivatives may additionally be used as binders in single paints, which, by definition, are paints containing no synthetic binders.
  • Thickener for Paint Systems - Patent application - Starch and starch derivatives are combined together with at least one high-viscosity cellulose as a thickener in 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Plants produce starch by first converting glucose 1-phosphate to Adenosine diphosphate-glucose using enzyme glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An example is polylactic acid.^ An example is polylactic acid.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For body powder, powdered corn starch is used as a substitute for talcum powder, and similarly in other health and beauty products.^ '''Body powder''' - Powdered corn starch is used as a substitute for talcum powder in many health and beauty products.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Starch: Its sources, production and uses.
  • SILEWP 2003-001 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.sil.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Can I still use corn starch as a substitute when it is this large a quantity?
  • Help!!! Cake needs potato starch, can I substitute something? - Home Cooking - Chowhound 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC chowhound.chow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In oil exploration, starch is used to adjust the viscosity of drilling fluid, which is used to lubricate the drill head and suspend the grinding residue in petroleum extraction.^ '''Oil exploration''' - starch is used to adjust viscosity of drilling fluid which is used to lubricate drill head in (mineral) oil extraction.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a preferred manner, these starches are modified for the combined use according to the invention, with high-viscosity celluloses as thickeners in dispersion paints.
  • Thickener for Paint Systems - Patent application - Starch and starch derivatives are combined together with at least one high-viscosity cellulose as a thickener in 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Any petroleum-based substance composed of a complex blend of hydrocarbons derived from crude oil, including motor fuel, jet oil, lubricants, petroleum solvents, and used oil.
  • NREL: Biomass Research - Glossary of Biomass Terms 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.nrel.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Glucose from starch can be further fermented to biofuel ethanol.^ Bioethanol (Ethyl alcohol, ethanol, etanol, alcohol) is made by yeast fermentation of starch or starch crops.
  • International Starch: Starch and Glucose Glossary 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.starch.dk [Source type: Academic]

^ '''Biofuel''' - Glucose from starch can be further fermented to ethanol.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hydrogen production can use starch as the raw material, using enzymes.^ Starch: Its sources, production and uses.
  • SILEWP 2003-001 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.sil.org [Source type: Academic]

^ '''Body powder''' - Powdered corn starch is used as a substitute for talcum powder in many health and beauty products.
  • Starch - Home - oo.vg 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC starch.oo.vg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, because the product is cold-water-soluble, it is unsuitable for use as a stilt material.
  • Enlarged granule starch stilt material for microencapsulated coatings - Patent 4139505 20 January 2010 21:27 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

[11]

See also

References

  1. ^ Brown, W. H.; Poon, T. (2005), Introduction to organic chemistry (3rd ed.), Wiley, ISBN 0-471-44451-0 .
  2. ^ Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (Pliny), Book XIII, Chapter 26, The paste used in preparation of paper
  3. ^ Smith, A M (2001). "The biosynthesis of starch granules". Biomacromolecules 2 (2): 335–41. PMID 11749190. 
  4. ^ David R. Lineback, "Starch", in AccessScience@McGraw-Hill.
  5. ^ Stryer, Lubert; Berg, Jeremy Mark; Tymoczko, John L. (2002). "Section 11.2.2". Biochemistry (5th ed.). San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-3051-0. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=stryer.section.1517#1522. 
  6. ^ PZ Myers, Amylase and human evolution, December 11, 2008.
  7. ^ Anne-Charlotte Eliasson (2004). Starch in food: Structure, function and applications. Woodhead Publishing. ISBN 9780849325557.
  8. ^ Modified Starches. CODEX ALIMENTARIUS published in FNP 52 Add 9 (2001)
  9. ^ "Starch based glue". - ICI. http://www.nationalstarch.com/NationalStarch/About+Us/Our+Businesses. 
  10. ^ "Spray Powder". Russell-Webb. http://www.russell-webb.com/anti_set_off_powder/soluble_anti-set-off-powder.html. Retrieved 2007-07-05. 
  11. ^ Zhang YH, Evans BR, Mielenz JR, Hopkins RC, Adams MW (2007). "High-yield hydrogen production from starch and water by a synthetic enzymatic pathway". PLoS ONE 2 (5): e456. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000456. PMID 17520015. PMC 1866174. http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchArticle.action?articleURI=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0000456. 

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

(There is currently no text in this page)


Simple English

Starch is a complicated carbohydrate. Pasta, potatoes, and other starchy foods are made out of carbohydrates. It is made of lots of sugars. Plants use it to keep energy.

Contents

Starch in our lives

Starch in food

Some good food sources of starch are cereals, breads, potatoes, grains, peas, and beans. Starch is also used for thickening sauces in cooking. It is a white powder that is tasteless and odourless. It can also be used for thickening cold foods when they are pre-cooked.

Laundry starch

There are also different kinds of starch like Laundry Starch which is a gives clothing a smooth and crisp feel. Sweat and dirt from a person’s wrist and neck would stick to the starch on the clothes, and not on the fibers of the clothes and would wash away along with the starch. Then, after each laundry load, the starch would be used again.

Other facts

Starch glues are used in wood, cotton, and bonding of paper. Animals and humans have amylase, so they can digest starch. Starch was used in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries to stiffen the collars and ruffs of the fine linen which surrounded the neck. Starch also requires heat to thicken. The actual temperature depends on the type of starch.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 30, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Starch, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message