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楚國
State of Chu
Kingdom

 

~1030 BC–223 BC
 

Capital Dānyáng (丹陽) from ~1030-~680 BCE
Yĭng (郢) from ~680-278 BCE
Chén (陳/陈) from 278-241 BCE
Shòuchūn (寿春) from 241-224 BCE
Religion Chinese folk religion, ancestor worship, Daoism
Government Monarchy, Feudalism
 - – Hereditary viscounts, dukes and later kings of the Mi-Xiong(芈熊) clan
Chancellor
 - – Various prime ministers
History
 - Foundation by Xiong Yi during King Cheng of Zhou's reign ~1030 BC
 - Defeated by Qin during King Ying Zheng of Qin's reign 223 BC
Currency Chinese coin, gold coins

Chǔ () was a kingdom in what is now central and southern China during the Spring and Autumn period (722-481 BC) and Warring States Period (481-221 BC). Its ruling house had the surname Mi (), and clan name Xiong (), and originally was of the noble rank of zi, roughly comparable to a viscount.

It was originally known as Jing () and then as Jingchu (). At the height of its power, the Chu kingdom occupied vast areas of land, including the present-day provinces of Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing, Henan, Anhui and parts of Jiangsu and Jiangxi. The Chu capital was at Ying (), around modern-day Jingzhou, which is located in what is today Hubei province.

Contents

History

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Founding

The land of Jing (modern Hubei Province) was inhabited by the native Chu people. The early Chu state was ruled by an aristocracy with close affinity to the Zhou kings, with its capital at Danyang (丹陽). In the early Western Zhou period, the territory was transferred by authority of the King Cheng of Zhou (1042-1021 BC) of Western Zhou to Xiong Yi. King Zhao of Zhou led six armies to pacify the Chu lands south of the Han River, but was ambushed and killed. The six armies were wiped out. At the time, Zhou had 14 armies. By defeating and killing the Zhou king, Chu had set the limits of Zhou expansion in the south and cemented its own autonomy and independence much earlier than the other states. The Chu rulers were the first to designate themselves as kings in the eighth century BCE during the transition to Eastern Zhou and Zhou's loss of central power.

Chu during the Spring and Autumn period

In its early years, Chu was a successful expansionist and militaristic state. Chu developed a reputation for coercing and absorbing its allies. Chu grew from a small, dependent state into a large kingdom worthy of contention, even attaining the traditional title of one of "The Five Overlord States of the Spring and Autumn Period" (春秋五霸). Chu first consolidated its power by absorbing the lesser states within its immediate vicinity in Hubei; then, it expanded into the north towards the North China Plain. The threat from Chu resulted in multiple northern alliances under the leadership of the State of Jin against Chu and its allies; these alliances successfully kept Chu in check, with its first major victory at the Battle of Chengpu. During Chu Wenwang's reign (689-677 BC), the Chu capital transferred to Ying (郢), near Jingzhou in modern Hubei Province.

At the beginning of the sixth century BCE, the State of Wu grew in power with the support of the State of Jin to counter Chu. Wu defeated the State of Qi, invaded Chu and occupied the capital of Ying, forcing the Chu King to flee to his ally, the State of Sui in northern Hubei. Prominent historian Li Xueqin links the State of Sui to the State of Zeng. At this time, the State of Yue also grew in power with the support of Chu to counter Wu's dominance in the east. However, Yue was subjugated by King Fuchai of Wu until he released the hostage King Goujian of Yue who took revenge and conquered the State of Wu. The State of Yue was one of the strongest states of the late Spring and Autumn.

Chu during the Warring States period

The kingdom's power continued even after the end of the Spring and Autumn period in 481 BC. Chu overran Cai to the north in 447 BC. However, by the end of the 5th century BC, the Chu government had become very corrupt and inefficient with much of the state's treasury to pay for a large official retinue. Many officials had no meaningful task except taking money. Thus, Chu's large army was of low quality due to the corrupt and cumbersome bureaucracy.

In the late 390s BC, King Dao of Chu (楚悼王) made Wu Qi his prime minister. Wu Qi's reforms began in 389 BCE to transform Chu into an efficient and powerful state, lowering the salaries of officials and removing useless ones. He also enacted building codes to make the capital, Ying seem less barbaric. Despite Wu Qi's massive unpopularity with the Chu government (except the King), his reforms made Chu very powerful until the late 4th century BC, when Zhao and Qin were ascendant. Chu's powerful army annexed Chen state, defeating the states of Wei and Yue. However, Wu Qi was assassinated by the Chu officials at the funeral of King Dao in 381 BC.

During the late Warring States Period, Chu was increasingly pressured by Qin to its west, especially after Qin enacted and preserved the legalistic reforms of Shang Yang. Chu's size and power made it the key state in alliances against Qin. As Qin expanded into Chu territory, Chu was forced to expand southwards and eastwards, absorbing local cultural influences along the way. In 333 BC, Chu and Qi partitioned and annexed the coastal state of Yue.

By the late Warring States period (about the late 4th century BC), however, Chu's prominent status had fallen into decay. As a result of several invasions headed by Zhao and Qin, Chu was eventually subjugated by Qin.

According to the Zhan Guo Ce, a debate between School of Diplomacy strategist Zhang Yi and the Qin general Sima Cuo on unifying China led to two conclusions. Zhang Yi believed conquering the State of Han and seizing the Mandate of Heaven from the figurehead resident Zhou king would be wise. Sima Cuo considered Chu as its main rival in the struggle to unite the Warring States. Sima Cuo decided it was essential to control the fertile Sichuan Basin to increase agricultural output and most importantly, to control the upper reaches of the Yangzi River that led to the Chu heartland.

Sima Cuo, according to the Zhan Guo Ce, remarked, "得蜀则得楚。楚亡则天下并。"

To obtain Shu is to obtain Chu. Once Chu is eliminated, the country will be united.

King Huiwen of Qin decided to support Sima Cuo. In 316 BC, the Qin army conquered the Shu (state) and Ba (state) and successively expanded to the east in the following decades. In 278 BC, Qin general Bai Qi conquered Yingdu. Following the fall of Yingdu, the Chu government moved to various locations in the east until settling in Shouchun (in today's Anhui province) in 241 BC.

At this critical moment when Chu was nearing annihilation, Qin set its strategic aims to Central China, especially the powerful Zhao (state). After a massive two year struggle, Bai Qi lured out, surrounded, isolated, forced the surrender of and massacred the main Zhao force of 400,000 men at Changping. After 260 BC, all major obstacles to Qin dominance ended and it was a matter of time until China's unification.

Qin's conquest of Chu 225-223 BC

Bronze bells from the Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng, dated 433 BC, State of Chu.

In 225 BC, only three kingdoms (states) remained independent: Chu, Yan and Qi. Chu had recovered significantly enough to mount serious resistance after their disastrous defeats to Qin in 278 BC and losing their centuries-old capital of Ying (Jingzhou). Despite its territorial size, resources and manpower, Chu's fatal flaw was its largely corrupt government that mostly overturned the legalistic-style reforms of Wu Qi 150 years ago, when Wu Qi transformed Chu into the most powerful state with an area of almost half of all the states combined. Ironically, Wu Qi was from the same state (Wei) as Shang Yang, whose legalistic reforms turned Qin into an invincible war machine at this stage.

The King of Qin, Ying Zheng, decided to finally defeat the remnants of the Chu state located in Huaiyang. According to Shiji, Ying Zheng had first asked his great general Wang Jian how many men he needed, but Wang Jian requested 600,000 men. Li Xing, ancestor to Han Dynasty general Li Guang, said 200,000 men would suffice. The first invasion was a disaster when 200,000 Qin troops were defeated by a counterattack and ambush of 500,000 Chu troops under Xiang Yan, who is related to Xiang Yu. Xiang Yan lured the Qin troops into a trap by allowing them a few initial victories. During the counterattack, Chu troops burned two large Qin camps. The Qin generals were Li Xing and Meng Wu, father of Meng Tian. Wang Jian was recalled and finally accepted to lead the second invasion force, requesting and receiving a force of 600,000 men. Wang Jian even asked for a lake, house and land for his descendants, responding to the Qin king's laughter that his extra requests will eventually pale once the empire is secured. The general continued to request luxury items and other commodities during the campaign. Wang Jian said to his dumbfounded officers that only by requesting more from the king, will the king have confidence in his general.

In 224 BC, the famed conqueror of the state of Zhao, Wang Jian, was recalled to lead a second invasion with 600,000 men. Chu's morale increased after their success in defeating a powerful Qin army the previous year. The Chu forces were confident to resist a siege. However, Wang Jian decided to dissipate Chu's morale by appearing inactive in his fortifications but secretly training his troops to fight in Chu territory. After a year, Chu decided to disband due to inaction. Wang Jian then invaded and overran Huaiyang and the remaining Chu forces. Chu was finally conquered in 223 BC. During their peak sizes, both armies of Chu and Qin combined numbered over 1,000,000 troops, more than the massive battle of Changping between Qin and Zhao 35 years before. The excavated personal letters of two Qin regular soldiers, Hei Fu {黑夫} and Jin {惊}, tell of a protracted campaign in Huaiyang under general Wang Jian. Both soldiers wrote letters requesting supplies (clothing) and money from home to sustain the long waiting campaign.

Chu under Qin rule and the Western Han period

The Chu realm at its most powerful was vast with many ethnicities and various customs. Despite their diversity, the Chu people were united by a common respect for nature, the supernatural, their heritage and loyalty to their ruling house and nobility, epitomized by the famed Chu statesman-poet Qu Yuan and the Chu Ci. The Chu populace in areas conquered by Qin openly ignored the stringent Qin laws and governance, which was recorded in the excavated bamboo slips of a Qin administrator in Hubei, Xi{喜}. Chu was one of the last states to fall, only 11 years before the death of Qin Shi Huang, and its people aspired of overthrowing the painful yoke of Qin rule and reestablishing the Chu state.

There was a famous saying that "Even if Chu has only three clans (or "families") left, it will still eventually destroy Qin." (楚雖三戶, 亡秦必楚).[1] Historians believed that the "three clans" referred to the three biggest clans in Chu; Qu, Jing and Zhao (屈、景、昭). Hence, the quote was commonly interpreted as: "The people of Chu hate Qin so much such that even if there are only three clans left in Chu, their hatred is powerful enough to destroy Qin." (楚人怨秦, 雖三戶足以亡秦也。)[2]

After Qin Shi Huang's very short reign, peasants, soldiers and relatives of nobles and the ruling house of Chu quickly organized into violent insurrections against the repressive Qin governance, initializing the anti-Qin rebellion that spread to the rest of China. The people of Chu, whose culture was a naturalistic and Taoist one, were resentful of the forced labor under Qin, and folk poems recorded the mournful sadness of the Chu families of men who worked in the frigid north to construct the Great Wall of China.

The Daze Village Uprising against the Qin Dynasty erupted in 209 BC, under the leadership of a peasant leader from the former Chu state, Chen Sheng, who proclaimed himself "King of Zhangchu" (King of Rising Chu). The uprising was crushed by Qin forces but other rebellions started as well. One of the rebel leaders, Jing Ju, a native of Chu, proclaimed himself king of Chu. Jing Ju was defeated by Xiang Liang's rebel force and Xiang installed Mi Xin, a descendant of the Chu royal family, on the throne of Chu, with the title of "King Huai II of Chu". In 206 BC, after the fall of the Qin Dynasty, Xiang Yu, nephew of Xiang Liang, proclaimed himself "Hegemon-King of Western Chu" and promoted King Huai II to the more honorific title of "Emperor Yi of Chu", but he had the emperor assassinated later. Xiang Yu engaged Liu Bang, another prominent rebel leader native to Chu, in a long power struggle for supremacy over China, known as the Chu-Han Contention. The conflict ended with victory for Liu Bang, who proceeded to found the Han Dynasty, while Xiang Yu committed suicide after his defeat.

The Chu people and customs were major influences in the new era of the Western Han Dynasty. Liu Bang immediately initialized the Taoist Wu wei governance, made peace with the Xiongnu through Heqin intermarriages, quickly rewarding his allies and giving them pseudo-fiefdoms, and allowing the population to rest from centuries of warfare. Eventually, by the time of Emperor Wu of Han, Chu folk culture in everyday lifestyles and Chu aesthetics were gradually amalgamated with state-sponsored Confucian ideals and Qin-styled centralized governance to create a distinct and unified "Chinese" culture, visible during the Eastern Han Dynasty.

Culture

Based on archaeological finds, Chu's culture was initially quite similar to that of other Zhou states. Later on, Chu culture absorbed indigenous elements as the state expanded to the south and east, developing a distinct culture from the traditional Northern Zhou states.

Early Chu burial offerings consisted primarily of bronze vessels in the Zhou style. Later Chu burials, especially during the Warring States Period, featured distinct Chu burial objects, such as colorful lacquerware, iron and silk, accompanied by a reduction in bronze vessel offerings.

A common Chu motif was the vivid depiction of wildlife, mystical animals and natural imagery, such as snakes, mystical dragons, phoenixes, tigers and free-flowing clouds and serpent-like beings. Some archaeologists speculate that Chu may have had cultural connections to the vanished Shang dynasty, since many motifs used by Chu appeared earlier at Shang sites, such as motifs depicting serpent-tailed gods.

In terms of philosophy, the Chu culture and government strongly supported Daoism and native shaman folk beliefs supplemented with some Confucian ideals. The naturalistic and flowing art, the Chu Ci, historical records (Shiji), excavated bamboo documents (Guodian bamboo slips) and other artifacts reveal heavy Daoist and native folk influence in Chu culture. The disposition to a spiritual, often pleasurable and decadent lifestyle and the confidence in the size of the Chu realm led to the inefficiency and eventual destruction of the Chu state to the ruthless legalist state of Qin. Even though the Qin realm lacked the vast natural resources and waterways of Chu, the Qin government maximized its output and created a system of ruthless efficiency under the minister Shang Yang, installing a meritocracy focused solely on agricultural and military might.

Later Chu culture was known for its affinity for employing shamanistic rituals. Chu was also known for its distinct music; archaeological evidence shows that Chu music was annotated differently from Zhou music; Chu music also showed an inclination for using different performance ensembles, as well as unique instruments; In Chu, the se was preferred over the qin, while both instruments were equally preferred in the northern Zhou states.

Chu came into frequent contact with other peoples in the south, most notably the Ba, Yue and the Hundred Yue. Numerous burials and burial objects in the Ba and Yue styles were discovered throughout the territory of Chu, co-existing with Chu-style burials and burial objects.

The early rulers of the Han Dynasty romanticized the culture of Chu, sparking a renewed interest in Chu cultural elements such as the Chu Ci. Evidence of heavy Chu cultural influence during the early years of Han Dynasty appears in Mawangdui. After the Han dynasty, Chu developed an undeserved reputation for being a barbarian state; Confucian scholars considered Chu culture with distaste, criticizing the "lewd" music and shamanistic rituals associated with Chu culture.

Chu artisanship shows a mastery of form and color, especially the lacquer woodworks. Red and black pigmented lacquer were most used. Silk-weaving also attained a high level of craftsmanship, creating lightweight robes with flowing designs. These examples were preserved in waterlogged tombs (this preserved lacquerware, which is vulnerable to peel off in dry conditions) and coal/white clay sealed tombs (this preserved everything extremely well, since fine white clay is extremely tight-packed). Mawangdui is the prefect example of well-sealed tomb.

Chu used the difficult to read script called "Birds and Worms (鸟虫文)" style, which was borrowed by the Wu and Yue states. It has an intricate design that embellishes the characters with motifs of animals, snakes, birds and insects. This is another representation of the Chu reverence of the natural world and its liveliness. Chu produced broad bronze swords that were similar to Wuyue swords, but not as intricate.

Chu was in the region of many rivers, so it created an efficient riverine boat transport system augmented by wagons. These are detailed in bronze tallies with gold inlay regarding trade regulations around the capital, Ying.

Rulers

  1. Xiong Zao (楚熊蚤), assisted King Wen of Zhou, surname: Mi 芈 (or Nai 嬭, Qian 芊, Xiong 熊, Yan 酓)
  2. Xiong Li (楚熊麗), son of Xiong Zao
  3. Xiong Kuang (楚熊狂), ruled in the reign of King Cheng of Zhou: son of Xiong Li
  4. Xiong Yi (楚熊繹), ruled in the reign of King Cheng of Zhou, son of Xiong Kuang
  5. Xiong Yi (楚熊艾), son of Xiong Yi
  6. Xiong Tan (楚熊黵)
  7. Xiong Sheng (楚熊勝)- this may be the Xiang Cheng referenced in Chinese legend, who lived at some point during the Zhou Dynasty
  8. Xiong Shang (楚熊煬) (or Xiong Yang 熊楊), son of Xiong Sheng
  9. Xiong Qu (楚熊渠), son of Xiong Shang
  10. Xiong Zhi (楚熊摯), born as Xiong Zhihong 熊摯紅, second son of Xiong Qu
  11. Xiong Yan (楚熊延), ruled ? - 848 BC: third brother of Xiong Zhi, usurped brother
  12. Xiong Yong (楚熊勇), ruled 848 BC - 838 BC: son of Xiong Yan
  13. Xiong Yan (楚熊嚴), ruled 837 BC - 828 BC: brother of Xiong Yong
  14. Xiong Shuang (楚熊霜), ruled 827 BC- 822 BC: son of Xiong Yan
  15. Xiong Xun (楚熊徇 (or 熊狥), ruled 821 BC - 800 BC: third brother of Xiong Shuang
  16. Xiong E (楚熊鄂) (or 熊咢), ruled 799 BC - 791 BC: son of Xiong Xun
  17. Ruo Ao (楚若敖) (Mi Xiong Yi 芈熊儀), ruled 790 BC - 764 BC: son of Xiong E
  18. Xiao Ao (楚霄敖) (Mi Xiong Kan 芈熊坎), ruled 763 BC - 758 BC: son of Ruo Ao
  19. King Li of Chu (楚厲王) {Fen Mao 楚蚡冒} (Mi Xiongxuan 芈熊眴 or Xiongxun 熊[日+旬]) ruled 757 BC - 741 BC: brother of Xiao Ao. Either he or his son was murdered by his younger brother, the later King Wu
  20. King Wu of Chu (楚武王) (Mi Xiongtong 芈熊通), 740 BC - 690 BC: brother of King Li
  21. King Wen of Chu (楚文王) (Mi Xiongzi 芈熊貲), ruled 689 BC - 677 BC: son of King Wu. He moved the Chu capital to Ying
  22. Du Ao, Ruler of Chu (楚堵敖) (Mi Xiongjian 芈熊艱), ruled 676 BC - 672 BC: son of King Wen. He was murdered by his younger brother, the later King Cheng
  23. King Cheng of Chu 楚成王 (Mi Jun 芈頵), ruled 671 BC - 626 BC: brother of Du Ao. He invaded Central China and lost to the State of Jin at the Battle of Chengpu. He was murdered by his heir and eldest son, the later King Mu
  24. King Mu of Chu 楚穆王 (Mi Shangchen 芈商臣) ruled 625 BC - 614 BC: son of King Cheng
  25. King Zhuang of Chu (楚莊王) and Jing (荆莊王) (Mi Lü 芈旅) ruled 613 BC - 591 BC: son of King Mu. He reformed the state and defeated the powerful State of Jin at the Battle of Bi.
  26. King Gong of Chu (楚共王) (Mi Shen 芈審) ruled 590 BC - 560 BC: son of King Zhuang
  27. King Kang of Chu (楚康王) (Mi Zhao 芈招) ruled 559 BC - 545 BC: son of King Gong
  28. Jia Ao (楚郟敖) (Mi Jun 芈麇) ruled 544 BC - 541 BC: son of King Kang. He and his sons were murdered by his uncle, the later King Ling
  29. King Ling of Chu (楚靈王) (Mi Qian 芈虔) ruled 540 BC - 529 BC: uncle of Jia Ao. He was overthrown by his younger brothers and committed suicide in despair
  30. King Bi of Chu (楚王比) (Mi Bi 羋比) ruled 529 BC - 529 BC: brother of King Ling. He was cheated into committing suicide by his younger brother the later King Ping, who said that King Ling was back (in fact King Ling had already died)
  31. King Ping of Chu 楚平王 (Mi Xiongju 芈熊居) ruled 528 BC - 516 BC: brother of King Bi
  32. King Zhao of Chu (楚昭王) (Mi Xiongzhen 芈熊軫) ruled 515 BC - 489 BC: son of King Ping. The State of Wu captured Ying. For a time, the State of Sui (Zeng) protected King Zhao.
  33. King Hui of Chu (楚惠王) (Mi Xiongzhang 芈熊章) ruled 488 BC - 432 BC: son of King Zhao. He conquered the State of Cai and the State of Chen. The year before he died, Marquis Yi of Zeng died, so he made a commemorative bell and attended the Marquis's funeral at Suizhou.
  34. King Jian of Chu (楚簡王) (Mi Xiong Zhong 芈熊中) ruled 431 BC - 408 BC: son of King Hui
  35. King Sheng of Chu (楚聲王) (Mi Xiong Dang 芈熊當) ruled 407 BC - 402 BC: son of King Jian
  36. King Dao of Chu (楚悼王) (Mi Xiong Yi 芈熊疑) ruled 401 BC - 381 BC: son of King Sheng. He made Wu Qi prime minister and reformed the Chu government and army.
  37. King Su of Chu (楚肅王) (Mi Xiong Zang 芈熊臧) ruled 380 BC - 370 BC: son of King Dao
  38. King Xuan of Chu (楚宣王) (Mi Xiong Liangfu 芈熊良夫) ruled 369 BC - 340 BC: brother of King Su
  39. King Wei of Chu (楚威王) (Mi Xiong Shang 芈熊商) ruled 339 BC - 329 BC: son of King Xuan. He partitioned the State of Yue with State of Qi.
  40. King Huai of Chu the First (楚懷王) (Mi Xiong Guai 芈熊槐) ruled 328-299: son of King Wei. He lost to the Qin armies at the Battle of Danyang after Qin's invasion of Sichuan. Later, he was tricked and held hostage until his death by Qin.
  41. King Qingxiang of Chu (楚頃襄王) (Mi Xiong Heng 芈熊橫) ruled 298 BC - 263 BC: son of King Huai. As a prince, one of his elderly tutors was buried at the site of the Guodian Chu Slips in Hubei. The Chu capital of Ying was captured and sacked by Qin.
  42. King Kaolie of Chu (楚考烈王) (Mi Xiong Wan 芈熊完) ruled 262 BC - 238 BC: son of King Qingxiang. He made Shouchun the Chu capital.
  43. King You of Chu (楚幽王) (Mi Yu 芈煜) ruled 237 BC - 228 BC: son of King Kaolie or illegitimate son of Lord Chunshen (春申君)
  44. King Ai of Chu (楚哀王) (Mi Xiong You 芈熊猶 or Mi Hao 芈郝) ruled 228 BC - 228 BC: brother of King You. He was killed by the later King Fuchu
  45. King Fuchu of Chu (楚王負芻) (芈熊負芻 Mi Xiong Fuchu) ruled 227 BC - 223 BC: brother of King Ai. He was captured by Qin troops and deposed
  46. Lord Chang Ping of Chu (昌平君) ruled 223 BC - 223 BC (Chu annexed to Qin): brother of King Fuchu. He was killed in the battles against Qin troops

Pretenders

  • Chen Sheng (陳勝) as King Yin of Chu (楚隠王) ruled 210 BC - 209 BC
  • Jing Ju (景駒) as King Jia of Chu 楚假王 (Jia for fake) ruled 209 BC - 209 BC
  • Mi Xiongxin (芈熊心) as Emperor Yi of Chu (楚義帝) (originally King Huai II 楚後懷王) ruled 209 BC - 206 BC: grandson or great-grandson of King Huai I of Chu
  • Xiang Yu (项羽) as Hegemonial King of Western Chu (西楚霸王) ruled 206 BC - 202 BC

Famous people

  • Famed poet Qu Yuan hailed from Chu. A government minister and a patriot, he had advocated uniting with the other states to combat the rising hegemon Qin, yet to no avail; he was banished by the king of Chu. According to tradition, such was his grief upon learning of the Qin invasion, he committed suicide in the Miluo River. The Duanwu Festival honors his death for his country.
  • Warrior King Xiang Yu, also known as "Overlord of Western Chu"; he destroyed every single Qin army and also was rival to Han Dynasty founder Liu Bang. He was fearsome in the battlefield but his arrogance lead to his downfall.
  • Han Dynasty founder Liu Bang. He was born in Pei County, in modern Xuzhou, which is in northern Jiangsu. An intelligent statesman and ruler, he defeated the military genius Xiang Yu through his ability to attract and command talented generals and allies. After the formation of Western Han Dynasty, a blossoming of interest in Chu culture arose under Liu Bang's patronage.

See also

References

  1. ^ Sima, Qian. Records of the Grand Historian (史記), Biography of Xiang Yu (項羽本紀).
  2. ^ [1] (Chinese)
  • Defining Chu: Image And Reality In Ancient China, Edited by Constance A. Cook and John S. Major, ISBN 0-8248-2905-0
  • So, Jenny F., Music in the Age of Confucius, ISBN 0-295-97953-4

Further reading

  • Cook, Constance. Death in Ancient China: The Tale of One Man's Journey. Leiden: Brill, 2006 ISBN 90-04-15312-8

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