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State of Qi


1046 BC–221 BC

Capital Linzi
Religion Chinese folk religion, ancestor worship, Legalism
Government Monarchy, Feudalism
 - 685 BCE–645 BCE Guan Zhong
 - Established 1046 BC
 - Defeated by Qin 221 BC
Currency Chinese coin

Qi (齊/齐; pinyin: Qí; W.-G.: Ch'i) was a powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States in ancient China. Its capital was Linzi, which is part of the present city of Zibo in Shandong Province.

Qi was founded around 1046 B.C. as one of the many states of the Zhou Dynasty. The first ruler appointed for Qi is Jiang Shang, the most powerful official during that time. The Jiang family ruled Qi for several centuries before it was replaced by the Tian family in 384 BC. In 221 BC, Qi was the last state of pre-Imperial China to be conquered by the State of Qin, the final obstacle which allowed the Qin Dynasty to consolidate the first centralized and imperial empire over China.


Rulers of Qi

House of Jiang (姜)

  • Jiang Shang, Duke Tai of Qi
  • Lüji, Duke Ding of Qi
  • Duke Yi of Qi
  • Cimu, Duke Gui of Qi
  • Duke Ai of Qi
  • Jing, Duke Hu of Qi
  • Shan, Duke Xian of Qi
  • Shou, Duke Wu of Qi
  • Wuji, Duke Li of Qi
  • Chi, Duke Wen of Qi
  • Shuo, Duke Cheng of Qi
  • Shu, Duke Zhuang of Qi
  • Lufu, Duke Xi of Qi
  • Zhu'er, Duke Xiang of Qi, son of Duke Xi, murdered by Lian Cheng and Guan Zhifu
  • Wuzhi, younger cousin brother of Duke Xiang, created by Lian Cheng and Guan Zhifu but soon killed by Yong Ling
  • Xiaobai, Duke Huan of Qi, younger brother of Duke Xiang
  • Wukui (Wugui), eldest son of Duke Huan, soon hanged
  • Zhao, Duke Xiao of Qi, younger brother of Wukui and heir of Duke Huan
  • Pan, Duke Zhao of Qi, younger brother of Duke Xiao, it was said that his supporters murdered son of Duke Xiao
  • She, son of Duke Zhao, soon murdered by his uncle Shangren
  • Shangren, Duke Yi of Qi, murdered by two ministers and his heir was deposed
  • Yuan, Duke Hui of Qi, elder brother of Duke Yi
  • Wuye, Duke Qin of Qi, son of Duke Hui
  • Huan, Duke Ling of Qi, who made his son Ya who was born by his favorite concubine his heir instead of his eldest son, Guang, despite the tradition of selecting heirs. When he was ill, Guang returned and killed Ya with help of Cui Zhu and Qing Feng. He died upon hearing the fact
  • Guang, Duke Zhuang of Qi, had a liaison with wife of Cui Zhu and so was murdered by soldiers instructed by Cuizhu and some other ministers and generals
  • Chujiu, Duke Jing of Qi, younger brother of Duke Zhuang
  • Tu, Yan Ruzi, youngest and favorite son as well as heir to Duke Jing, soon deposed by ministers led by Chen/Tian Qi in behalf of his eldest brother Yangsheng and killed
  • Yangsheng, Duke Dao of Qi, poisoned by Bao Xi out of advice of Chen/Tian Heng
  • Ren, Duke Jian of Qi, son of Duke Dao, killed by House of Chen/Tian
  • Ao, Duke Ping of Qi, younger brother of Duke Jian
  • Ji, Duke Xuan of Qi
  • Dai, Duke Kang of Qi

House of Tian(田)


Subjects of House of Jiang

  • Tian Wan, Jing Zhong of Tian
  • Tian Min
  • Xuwu, Viscount Wen of Tian
  • Wuyu, Viscount Huan of Tian
  • Kai, Viscount Wu of Tian
  • Qi, Viscount Xi of Tian
  • Chang, Viscount Chang of Tian
  • Pan, Viscount Xiang of Tian
  • Bai, Viscount Zhuang of Tian
  • Viscount Dao of Tian
  • He, Duke Tai of Tian, recognized as Duke of Qi by King of Zhou

Replaced House of Jiang

  • He, Duke Tai of Tian
  • Wu, Duke Huan of Qi
  • Yinqi, King Wei of Qi
  • Pijiang, King Xuan of Qi (319 BC–300 BC)
  • Di, King Min of Qi, "Emperor of the East" (300 BC–283 BC)
  • Fazhang, King Xiang of Qi
  • Jian, King of Qi


  • "The Cambridge history of ancient China": from the origins of civilization to 221 B.C./ ed. by Michael Loewe. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006. ISBN: 978-0-521-47030-8 ; 0-521-47030-7
  • "The birth of China": a study of the formative period of Chinese civilization/ by Herrlee Glessner Creel. New York, NY: Ungar Publ., 1979. ISBN: 0-8044-6093-0; 0-8044-1205-7

See also


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