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Sòng (宋國) was a state during the Eastern Zhou Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC). Its capital was Shangqiu (商丘). In 701 BC, a political marriage between Lady Yong of Song (宋雍氏) and Duke Zhuang of Zheng (as well as the capture of Zhai Zhong (祭仲), a leading warrior) empowered Song to manipulate the management of Zheng.

Origin

When the Zhou Dynasty defeated Shang Dynasty, the latter was converted to a vassal state of Zhou and their core territory was renamed from Shang to Song.

History

In 651 BC, Duke Huan of Song (宋桓公) died, leaving the district to be ruled by Duke Xiang of Song (宋襄公) who reigned from 651 to 637 BC. He was considered an Overlord by some, but was unable to maintain that role. He eventually fell to the troops of Chu.

In 355 BC, Dai Ticheng(戴剔成), a descendant of Duke Dai of Song who used to serve as a minister of Duke Pi of Song (also referred as Duke Huan of Song (latter) or Marquis Huan of Song) managed to replace his lord and take the throne. In 317 BC, Dai Yan, a younger brother of Ticheng took the throne and declared himself to be King Kang of Song, with Ticheng murdered or exiled. The king was ambitious and had succeeded in beating troops from Chu, Wei and Qi and annexing Teng at first, but the kingdom was finally annexed by Qi in 286 BC, while troops from Chu and Wei served in behalf of Qi. Qin, which had been an ally of Song, gave up saving the kingdom for strategic and diplomatic sakes after being convinced by Su Dai from Wei, and what Su Dai said later turned out all right and Qin got a benefit from the downfall of its ally.

Mozi references this state in the chapter "Obvious Existence of Ghosts", in which he mentions a number of "Spring and Autumn Annals", including the Zhou, Yan, and Qi as well. The "Spring and Autumn Annal of Song" has not survived.

Rulers of Song 宋

  1. Weizi Qi, Ruler of Song 宋微子啟 (brother of King Zhou 紂 of Shang)
  2. Weizhong, Ruler of Song 宋微仲 (personal name Zi Yan 子衍)
  3. Zi Ji, Duke of Song 宋公(子)稽
  4. Song Dinggong 宋丁公 (Zi Shen 子申)
  5. Song Mingong (1) 宋湣公 (Zi Gong 子共)
  6. Song Shanggong 宋煬公 (Zi Xi 子熙)
  7. Song Ligong 宋厲公 (Zi Fusi 子鮒祀)
  8. Song Xigong 宋釐公 (or 僖公, Zi Ju 子舉), 859-831
  9. Song Huigong 宋惠公 (Zi Jian 子覵), 830-800
  10. Song Aigong 宋哀公, 799
  11. Song Daigong 宋戴公, 799-766
  12. Song Wugong 宋武公 (Zi Sikong 子司空), 765-748
  13. Song Xuangong 宋宣公 (Zi Li 子力), 747-729
  14. Song Mugong 宋穆公 (Zi He 子和), 728-720
  15. Song Shanggong 宋殤公 (Zi Yuyi 子與夷), 719-711
  16. Song Zhuanggong 宋莊公 (Zi Feng 子馮), 710-692
  17. Song Mingong 宋閔公 (Zi Jie 子捷), 691-682
  18. Song Huangong 宋桓公 (Zi Yuyue 子御說), 681-651
  19. Song Xianggong 宋襄公 (Zi Zifu 子茲父), 650-637
  20. Song Chenggong 宋成公 (Zi Wangcheng 子王臣), 636-620
  21. Song Zhaogong (1) 宋昭公 (Zi Chujiu 子杵臼), 619-611
  22. Song Wengong 宋文公 (Zi Bao 子鮑), 610-589
  23. Song Gonggong 宋共公 (Zi Xia 子瑕), 588-576
  24. Song Pinggong 宋平公 (Zi Cheng 子成), 575-532
  25. Song Yuangong 宋元公 (Zi Zuo 子佐), 531-517
  26. Song Jinggong 宋景公 (Zi Touman 子頭曼), 516-451
  27. Song Zhaogong (2) 宋昭公 (Zi De 子得), 450-404
  28. Song Daogong 宋悼公 (Zi Gouyao 子購繇), 403-396
  29. Song Xiugong 宋休公 (Zi Tian 子田), 395-373
  30. Song Bigong 宋辟公 (Zi Bibing 子辟兵), 372-370
  31. Zi Ticheng, Lord of Song 宋君(子)剔成, 369-329
  32. Zi Yan, Lord of Song 宋君(子)偃, Song Kangwang 宋康王, 328-286
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